WorldWideScience

Sample records for randomly selected questionnaires

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  4. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  5. How to Select a Questionnaire with a Good Methodological Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Ortiz, Fernanda Ruffo; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, several instruments have been used to evaluate the impact of oral health problems on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of individuals. However, some instruments lack thorough methodological validation or present conceptual differences that hinder comparisons with instruments. Thus, it can be difficult to clinicians and researchers to select a questionnaire that accurately reflect what are really meaningful to individuals. This short communication aimed to discuss the importance of use an appropriate checklist to select an instrument with a good methodological quality. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was developed to provide tools for evidence-based instrument selection. The COSMIN checklist comprises ten boxes that evaluate whether a study meets the standard for good methodological quality and two additional boxes to meet studies that use the Item Response Theory method and general requirements for results generalization, resulting in four steps to be followed. In this way, it is required at least some expertise in psychometrics or clinimetrics to a wide-ranging use of this checklist. The COSMIN applications include its use to ensure the standardization of cross-cultural adaptations and safer comparisons between measurement studies and evaluation of methodological quality of systematic reviews of measurement properties. Also, it can be used by students when training about measurement properties and by editors and reviewers when revising manuscripts on this topic. The popularization of COSMIN checklist is therefore necessary to improve the selection and evaluation of health measurement instruments.

  6. Selection of nursing teaching strategies in mainland China: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HouXiu; Liu, MengJie; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, JingCi

    2016-04-01

    In nursing education, the traditional lecture and direct demonstration teaching method cannot cultivate the various skills that nursing students need. How to choose a more scientific and rational teaching method is a common concern for nursing educators worldwide. To investigate the basis for selecting teaching methods among nursing teachers in mainland China, the factors affecting the selection of different teaching methods, and the application of different teaching methods in theoretical and skill-based nursing courses. Questionnaire survey. Seventy one nursing colleges from 28 provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China. Following the principle of voluntary informed consent, 262 nursing teachers were randomly selected through a nursing education network platform and a conference platform. The questionnaire contents included the basis for and the factors influencing the selection of nursing teaching methods, the participants' common teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the surveyed nursing teachers. The questionnaires were distributed through the network or conference platform, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The surveyed nursing teachers selected teaching methods mainly based on the characteristics of the teaching content, the characteristics of the students, and their previous teaching experiences. The factors affecting the selection of teaching methods mainly included large class sizes, limited class time, and limited examination formats. The surveyed nursing teachers primarily used lectures to teach theory courses and the direct demonstration method to teach skills courses, and the application frequencies of these two teaching methods were significantly higher than those of other teaching methods (P=0.000). More attention should be paid to the selection of nursing teaching methods. Every teacher should strategically choose teaching methods before each lesson, and nursing education training focused on selecting

  7. Internet versus mailed questionnaires: a randomized comparison (2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leece, Pam; Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Schemitsch, Emil H; Tornetta, Paul; Devereaux, P J; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2004-09-24

    Low response rates among surgeons can threaten the validity of surveys. Internet technologies may reduce the time, effort, and financial resources needed to conduct surveys. We investigated whether using Web-based technology could increase the response rates to an international survey. We solicited opinions from the 442 surgeon-members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association regarding the treatment of femoral neck fractures. We developed a self-administered questionnaire after conducting a literature review, focus groups, and key informant interviews, for which we used sampling to redundancy techniques. We administered an Internet version of the questionnaire on a Web site, as well as a paper version, which looked similar to the Internet version and which had identical content. Only those in our sample could access the Web site. We alternately assigned the participants to receive the survey by mail (n=221) or an email invitation to participate on the Internet (n=221). Non-respondents in the mail arm received up to three additional copies of the survey, while non-respondents in the Internet arm received up to three additional requests, including a final mailed copy. All participants in the Internet arm had an opportunity to request an emailed Portable Document Format (PDF) version. The Internet arm demonstrated a lower response rate (99/221, 45%) than the mail questionnaire arm (129/221, 58%) (absolute difference 13%, 95% confidence interval 4%-22%, P<0.01). Our Internet-based survey to surgeons resulted in a significantly lower response rate than a traditional mailed survey. Researchers should not assume that the widespread availability and potential ease of Internet-based surveys will translate into higher response rates.

  8. The validation of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire in selected organisations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna H. Buitendach

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the construct equivalence of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, and to investigate the manifestation of job satisfaction at selected organisations in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design with a random sample (N = 474 was used. The MSQ and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results confirmed a two-factor model of job satisfaction, consisting of extrinsic job satisfaction and intrinsic job satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations conf rmed the construct equivalence of scales for the black and white groups. The results obtained from comparing job satisfaction levels of various demographic groups showed that practically significant differences existed between the job satisfaction of different age and race groups.

  9. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  11. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  12. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  13. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  14. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  15. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  16. Development and Validation of the Motivations for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS Questionnaire in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    Full Text Available Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies.A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The scale consisted of 12 items, 5 measuring intrinsic dimensions of motivations and 7 measuring extrinsic dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validity, reliability and data quality checks were conducted on a sample of 636 medical students from six medical colleges of three North Indian states.The MSMS questionnaire consisted of 3 factors (subscales and 8 items. The three principal factors that emerged after EFA were the scientific factor (e.g. research opportunities and the ability to use new cutting edge technologies, the societal factor (e.g. job security and the humanitarian factor (e.g. desire to help others. The CFA conducted showed goodness-of-fit indices supporting the 3-factor model.The three extracted factors cut across the traditional dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and uncover a novel three-faceted motivation construct based on scientific factors, societal expectations and humanitarian needs. This validated instrument can be used to evaluate the motivational factors of medical students to choose medical study in India and similar settings and constitutes a powerful tool for policymakers to design measures able to increase selection of medical curricula.

  17. History of Medicine student selected components at UK medical schools: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil H; Brown, Andrew K

    2011-10-01

    To determine the current status of History of Medicine student selected components (SSC) at UK medical schools. This includes the frequency, methods of delivery, assessment, and evaluation of such courses. An 18-item questionnaire was created, piloted, and then sent electronically in January 2010 to participants pertaining to their History of Medicine SSC provision as of 1 January 2010. Initial non-responders were re-sent the questionnaire in February 2010. All UK medical schools. The History of Medicine SSC lead or overall SSC lead at each UK medical school were contacted to ascertain their History of Medicine SSC provision. Percentages of History of Medicine SSCs for each objective characteristic were obtained as well as general descriptive data. Fifteen of the 32 medical schools in the UK offer a History of Medicine SSC. Eleven medical schools (offering a total of 12 SSCs) completed the questionnaire (response rate 73.3%). Eight different teaching methods are used within the SSCs. Medical professionals most frequently deliver the teaching, which most frequently covers the 20th and 21st centuries. Four assessment methods are used among the SSCs, the most common being a group presentation. Questionnaires are the most frequent method of evaluation. There are several factors limiting the provision of some current SSCs, most commonly a lack of staff, teaching facilities, and available time within the curriculum. History of Medicine is being delivered more frequently in UK medical schools than when previously researched 40 years ago. However, the subject is still offered in a minority of the medical schools. This study offers useful information to consider for the development of current and potential new History of Medicine SSCs.

  18. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  19. Comparing three short questionnaires to detect psychosocial dysfunction among primary school children : a randomized method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, A.G.; Crone, M.R.; Hoekstra, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Good questionnaires are essential to support the early identification of children with psychosocial dysfunction in community based settings. Our aim was to assess which of three short questionnaires was most suitable for this identification among school-aged children Methods: A

  20. Comparing administration of questionnaires via the internet to pen-and-paper in patients with heart failure: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Thorpe, Kevin; Ross, Heather; Micevski, Vaska; Marquez, Christine; Straus, Sharon E

    2009-02-06

    The use of the Internet to administer questionnaires has many potential advantages over the use of pen-and-paper administration. Yet it is important to validate Internet administration, as most questionnaires were initially developed and validated for pen-and-paper delivery. While some have been validated for use over the Internet, these questionnaires have predominately been used amongst the healthy general population. To date, information is lacking on the validity of questionnaires administered over the Internet in patients with chronic diseases such as heart failure. To determine the validity of three heart failure questionnaires administered over the Internet compared to pen-and-paper administration in patients with heart failure. We conducted a prospective randomized study using test-retest design comparing administration via the Internet to pen-and-paper administration for three heart failure questionnaires provided to patients recruited from a heart failure clinic in Toronto, Ontario, Canada: the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), and the Self-Care Heart Failure Index (SCHFI). Of the 58 subjects enrolled, 34 completed all three questionnaires. The mean difference and confidence intervals for the summary scores of the KCCQ, MLHFQ, and SCHFI were 1.2 (CI -1.5 to 4.0, scale from 0 to 100), 4.0 (CI -1.98 to 10.04, scale from 0 to 105), and 10.1 (CI 1.18 to 19.07, scale from 66.7 to 300), respectively. Internet administration of the KCCQ appears to be equivalent to pen-and-paper administration. For the MLHFQ and SCHFI, we were unable to demonstrate equivalence. Further research is necessary to determine if the administration methods are equivalent for these instruments.

  1. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  2. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  3. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  5. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  6. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  7. Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Robin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison Methods Participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (http://ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00655941. 20 female participants, mean age 67 (SD 7, completed KOOS, VAS pain, function and patient global, SF-36, Physical Activity Scale, painDETECT, and the ADL Taxonomy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI, median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs were calculated for all questionnaires. Results ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. Conclusion The computerized questionnaires gave comparable results to answers given on paper. Patient characteristics did not influence results and implementation was feasible.

  8. Increasing follow-up questionnaire response rates in a randomized controlled trial of telehealth for depression: three embedded controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Salisbury, Chris; Horspool, Kimberley; Foster, Alexis; Garner, Katy; Montgomery, Alan A

    2016-02-24

    Attrition is problematic in trials, and may be exacerbated in longer studies, telehealth trials and participants with depression - three features of The Healthlines Study. Advance notification, including a photograph and using action-oriented email subject lines might increase response rates, but require further investigation. We examined the effectiveness of these interventions in three embedded Healthlines studies. Based in different trial sites, participants with depression were alternately allocated to be pre-called or not ahead of the 8-month follow-up questionnaire (Study 1), randomized to receive a research team photograph or not with their 12-month questionnaire (Study 2), and randomized to receive an action-oriented ('ACTION REQUIRED') or standard ('Questionnaire reminder') 12-month email reminder (Study 3). Participants could complete online or postal questionnaires, and received up to five questionnaire reminders. The primary outcome was completion of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Secondary outcome measures were the number of reminders and time to questionnaire completion. Of a total of 609 Healthlines depression participants, 190, 251 and 231 participants were included in Studies 1-3 (intervention: 95, 126 and 115), respectively. Outcome completion was ≥90 % across studies, with no differences between trial arms (Study 1: OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.07-2.10; Study 2: OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.26-2.66; Study 3: OR 0.53 95 % CI 0.19-1.49). Pre-called participants were less likely to require a reminder (48.4 % vs 62.1 %, OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.21-0.78), required fewer reminders (adjusted difference in means -0.67, 95 % CI -1.13 to -0.20), and completed follow-up quicker (median 8 vs 15 days, HR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.00-1.82) than control subjects. There were no significant between-group differences in Studies 2 or 3. Eventual response rates in this trial were high, with no further improvement from these interventions. While the photograph and email interventions were

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Validation of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire in the context of personnel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Zaal, JN; Piekstra, J

    The present data provide support for the reliability of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire among a sample of job applicants (n = 264). Factor analysis confirmed five factors: Cultural Empathy, Open-Mindedness, Social Initiative, Flexibility, and Emotional Stability. Moreover the data

  11. Validation of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire in the Context of Personnel Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen I.; Zaal, Jac N.; Piekstra, Jantien

    The present data provide support for the reliability of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire among a sample of job applicants (n = 264). Factor analysis confirmed five factors: Cultural Empathy, Open-Mindedness, Social Initiative, Flexibility, and Emotional Stability. Moreover, the data

  12. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Diagnostic Support for Selected Paediatric Pulmonary Diseases Using Answer-Pattern Recognition in Questionnaires Based on Combined Data Mining Applications--A Monocentric Observational Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Katrin Rother

    Full Text Available Clinical symptoms in children with pulmonary diseases are frequently non-specific. Rare diseases such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, cystic fibrosis (CF or protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB can be easily missed at the general practitioner (GP.To develop and test a questionnaire-based and data mining-supported tool providing diagnostic support for selected pulmonary diseases.First, interviews with parents of affected children were conducted and analysed. These parental observations during the pre-diagnostic time formed the basis for a new questionnaire addressing the parents' view on the disease. Secondly, parents with a sick child (e.g. PCD, PBB answered the questionnaire and a data base was set up. Finally, a computer program consisting of eight different classifiers (support vector machine (SVM, artificial neural network (ANN, fuzzy rule-based, random forest, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, naive Bayes and nearest neighbour and an ensemble classifier was developed and trained to categorise any given new questionnaire and suggest a diagnosis. For estimating the diagnostic accuracy, we applied ten-fold stratified cross validation.All questionnaires of patients suffering from CF, asthma (AS, PCD, acute bronchitis (AB and the healthy control group were correctly diagnosed by the fusion algorithm. For the pneumonia (PM group 19/21 (90.5% and for the PBB group 17/18 (94.4% correct diagnoses could be reached. The program detected the correct diagnoses with an overall sensitivity of 98.8%. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses confirmed the accuracy of this diagnostic tool. Case studies highlighted the applicability of the tool in the daily work of a GP.For children with symptoms of pulmonary diseases a questionnaire-based diagnostic support tool using data mining techniques exhibited good results in arriving at diagnostic suggestions. In the hands of a doctor, this tool could be of value in arousing awareness for

  14. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  15. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  16. Optimising the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Souverein, O.W.; Veer, van 't P.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Design Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear

  17. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  18. Evaluation of the Usability of Selected Questionnaires Assessing Physical Activity in the Prophylaxis of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczelewska, Ewa; Czeczelewski, Jan; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Saczuk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The main health problem of the Polish population is posed by cardiovascular diseases (CDVD), coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Respectively higher physical activity linked with energy expenditure of at least 1000 kcal/week may significantly reduce the risk of CAD development. The protective effect of exercise applies not only to persons from high-risk groups and with diagnosed chronic diseases that increase the risk of the incidence of atherosclerosis and its complications, but also to healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (SDPAR) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in research on the correlation between physical activity and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. A screening survey, conducted in 2012, included students (n = 340) of the Division of the Academy of Physical Education in Biała Podlaska, aged 18-29 years. Total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were analyzed, and arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured. The physical activity of the students was estimated using IPAQ and SDPAR questionnaires. The effect of physical activity on the biochemical blood markers, arterial blood pressure and heart rate was analyzed in groups differing in weekly energy expenditure (WEE). Along with increasing WEE values, calculated with IPAQ and SDPAR questionnaires, tangible descending tendencies were observed in cholesterol concentration in both genders. Significant differences were demonstrated in mean values of the resting heart rate between terciles of women ranked according to the increasing WEE values calculated using IPAQ (p physical activity; however the SDPAR seems to be a more useful tool in CDVD prevention screening.

  19. Randomized trial within a trial of yellow 'post-it notes' did not improve questionnaire response rates among participants in a trial of treatments for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Helen E; Becque, Taeko; Buckley, Hannah; MacPherson, Hugh; Bailey, Mathew; Torgerson, David J

    2015-04-01

    Attrition is a threat to the validity of randomized trials. Few randomized studies have been conducted within randomized trials to test methods of reducing attrition. To test whether using yellow post-it notes on follow-up questionnaires in the ATLAS treatment trial for neck pain reduces attrition. Nested trial within a trial. ATLAS participants were randomized to have their 6-month follow-up questionnaire have a 3' yellow post-it note with a handwritten message encouraging return of questionnaire. 499 participants were independently randomized using simple allocation to receive the post-it notes or not. Two hundred fifteen of the 256 (84.0%) participants in the intervention group returned their questionnaire compared with 205 of the 243 (84.4%) in the control group. There was no difference in time to response. Yellow post-it notes do not enhance questionnaire return rates for participants in a randomized trial of neck pain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Application of the BPCQ questionnaire to assess pain management in selected types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam

    2016-12-23

    Pain is one of the most prevalent unpleasant sensation in people that may significantly lower the quality of life. More than a half of cancer patients suffer from various forms of pain, which becomes more frequent and intense as disease progresses. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of pain control in patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. The analysis also covered the effect of socio-economic factors on pain management in patients with the above types of cancer. The study included 902 patients treated at the Outpatient's Department of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center - Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in 2013. The patients consisted of those diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal or prostate carcinoma. The Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique was applied. A questionnaire interview included demographic-type questions (socio-economic variables) and the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ) test which measures the power of factors influencing pain control in patients. It was demonstrated that regarding beliefs in the source of pain control, patients attributed the highest importance to the power of doctors (mean value = 16.60) and the lowest to chance events (mean = 15.82). The internal factors are regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. With regards to the locus of pain control, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. With regards to the source of pain management, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. The external factors were regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. The major socio-economic variables differentiating the way in which pain control is perceived are education and net income-per-household-member. The results of analyses of individual groups of patients revealled strong correlations between

  1. Increasing response rates to follow-up questionnaires in health intervention research: Randomized controlled trial of a gift card prize incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Bayer, Jordana K

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims Achieving a high response rate to follow-up questionnaires in randomized controlled trials of interventions is important for study validity. Few studies have tested the value of incentives in increasing response rates to online questionnaires in clinical trials of health interventions. This study evaluated the effect of a gift card prize-draw incentive on response rates to follow-up questionnaires within a trial of an online health intervention. Method The study was embedded in a host randomized controlled trial of an online parenting program for child anxiety. A total of 433 participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: (1) being informed that they would enter a gift card prize-draw if they completed the final study questionnaire (24-week follow-up) and (2) not informed about the prize-draw. All participants had a 1 in 20 chance of winning an AUD50 gift card after they completed the online questionnaire. Results The odds of the informed group completing the follow-up questionnaire were significantly higher than the uninformed group, (79.6% vs 68.5%, odds ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.79). This response rate increase of 11.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.8-19.1) occurred in both intervention and control groups in the host randomized controlled trial. The incentive was also effective in increasing questionnaire commencement (84.6% vs 75.9%, odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.84) and reducing the delay in completing the questionnaire (19.9 vs 22.6 days, hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.67). Conclusion This study adds to evidence for the effectiveness of incentives to increase response rates to follow-up questionnaires in health intervention trials.

  2. Evaluation of a questionnaire to assess selected infectious diseases and their risk factors : findings of a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Claudia; Akmatov, Manas K; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Günther, Kathrin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Michels, Karin B; Fricke, Julia; Greiser, Karin H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pessler, Frank; Nieters, Alexandra; Krause, Gérard

    2014-11-01

    The risk to die from an infectious disease in Germany has been continuously decreasing over the last century. Since infections are, however, not only causes of death but risk factors for diseases like cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to monitor and analyze their prevalence and frequency, especially in consideration of the increased life expectancy. To gain more knowledge about infectious diseases as risk factors and their implications on the condition and change of the immune status, the German National Cohort (GNC), a population-based prospective cohort study, will recruit 200,000 subjects between 2014 and 2017. In Pretest 1, a feasibility study for the GNC, we evaluated a self-administered and self-report questionnaire on infectious diseases and on the use of health care facilities (hereinafter called "ID Screen") for feasibility and validity. From August-November 2011, 435 participants between the ages of 20-69 completed the ID Screen. All subjects had been recruited via a random sample from the local residents' registration offices by 4 of the 18 participating study centers. The questionnaire encompasses 77 variables in six sections assessing items such as 12-month prevalence of infections, cumulative prevalence of infectious diseases, visit of health care facilities and vaccination. The feasibility was amongst others evaluated by assessing the completeness and comprehensiveness of the questionnaire. To assess the questionnaires ability to measure "immune status" and "susceptibility to infections", multivariate analysis was used. The overall practicability was good and most items were well understood, demonstrated by  5 % of missing values. However, direct comparison of the items 12-month prevalence and lifetime prevalence of nephritis/pyelitis showed poor agreement and thereby poor understanding by 80 % of the participants, illustrating the necessity for a clear, lay person appropriate description of rare diseases to increase

  3. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  4. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  5. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  6. A randomized trial found online questionnaires supplemented by postal reminders generated a cost-effective and generalizable sample but don't forget the reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loban, Amanda; Mandefield, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the response rates, data completeness, and representativeness of survey data produced by online and postal surveys. A randomized trial nested within a cohort study in Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Participants were randomized to receive either an electronic (online) survey questionnaire with paper reminder (N = 2,982) or paper questionnaire with electronic reminder (N = 2,855). Response rates were similar for electronic contact and postal contacts (50.9% vs. 49.7%, difference = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval: -1.3% to 3.8%). The characteristics of those responding to the two groups were similar. Participants nevertheless demonstrated an overwhelming preference for postal questionnaires, with the majority responding by post in both groups. Online survey questionnaire systems need to be supplemented with a postal reminder to achieve acceptable uptake, but doing so provides a similar response rate and case mix when compared to postal questionnaires alone. For large surveys, online survey systems may be cost saving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Numbering questionnaires had no impact on the response rate and only a slight influence on the response content of a patient safety culture survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundig, François; Staines, Anthony; Kinge, Thompson; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-11-01

    In self-completed surveys, anonymous questionnaires are sometimes numbered so as to avoid sending reminders to initial nonrespondents. This number may be perceived as a threat to confidentiality by some respondents, which may reduce the response rate, or cause social desirability bias. In this study, we evaluated whether using nonnumbered vs. numbered questionnaires influenced the response rate and the response content. During a patient safety culture survey, we randomized participants into two groups: one received an anonymous nonnumbered questionnaire and the other a numbered questionnaire. We compared the survey response rates and distributions of the responses for the 42-questionnaire items across the two groups. Response rates were similar in the two groups (nonnumbered, 75.2%; numbered, 72.8%; difference, 2.4%; P=0.28). Five of the 42 questions had statistically significant differences in distributions, but these differences were small. Unexpectedly, in all five instances, the patient safety culture ratings were more favorable in the nonnumbered group. Numbering of mailed questionnaires had no impact on the response rate. Numbering influenced significantly the response content of several items, but these differences were small and ran against the hypothesis of social desirability bias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet-administered Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaires Compared With Pen and Paper in an Adolescent Scoliosis Population: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitikman, Michael; Mulpuri, Kishore; Reilly, Christopher W

    2017-03-01

    Modern technology puts into question the effectiveness of using pen and paper as a means of collecting information from web-enabled patients. This study aimed to validate and test the reliability of using the Internet as a method of administering health-related quality of life questionnaires in a pediatric spine population. A prospective randomized crossover study was conducted. Patients aged 11 to 18 with idiopathic scoliosis were invited to participate, and informed consent was obtained from a scoliosis outpatient clinic setting. Participants were randomized to one of 4 groups determining the method of questionnaire administration [Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI)]. Both questionnaires were completed at 2 separate timepoints and 2 weeks apart to prevent recall bias. Groups included: Paper/Paper, Paper/Internet, Internet/Paper, and Internet/Internet. Paired-samples t tests were used to determine the test-retest reliability of each group. Analysis was stratified for surveys returned within or outside of the allotted 4-week timeframe following enrollment. Of the 96 participants who completed and returned both sets of questionnaires, 26 were allocated to the Paper/Paper group (27%), 20 to the Paper/Internet group (21%), 26 to the Internet/Paper group (27%), and 24 to the Internet/Internet group (25%). The second iteration of questionnaires was returned on time by 69 of the participants (71.2%). Of the late questionnaires, 18 (67%) were paper forms. Overall, no differences were observed between Internet-administered compared with pen and paper-administered questionnaires (P=0.206). No differences were observed within any group individually for either the SRS-30 or PODCI questionnaire. In addition, no significant differences were observed within groups for surveys returned within or outside of the 4-week timeframe. Eighty-four percent of the participants who completed both paper and Internet versions of

  9. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  10. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Shatenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women, recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years. Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female, distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05 except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01, ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables. Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  11. The efficacy of a standardized questionnaire in facilitating personalized communication about problems encountered in cancer genetic counseling: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Kluijt, Irma; Sidharta, Grace N; Hahn, Daniela Ee; Ausems, Margreet Gem; Bleiker, Eveline Ma

    2014-01-15

    Individuals with a personal or family history of cancer, can opt for genetic counseling and DNA-testing. Approximately 25% of these individuals experience clinically relevant levels of psychosocial distress, depression and/or anxiety after counseling. These problems are frequently left undetected by genetic counselors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a cancer genetics-specific screening questionnaire for psychosocial problems, the 'Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire' together with the Distress Thermometer, in: (1) facilitating personalized counselor-counselee communication; (2) increasing counselors' awareness of their counselees' psychosocial problems; and (3) facilitating the management of psychosocial problems during and after genetic counseling. This multicenter, randomized controlled trial will include 264 individuals undergoing cancer genetic counseling in two family cancer clinics in the Netherlands. Participants will be randomized to either: (1) an intervention group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, the results of which are made available to the genetic counselor prior to the counseling session; or (2) a control group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, but without feedback being given to the genetic counselor. The genetic counseling sessions will be audiotaped for content analysis. Additionally, study participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, three weeks after the initial counseling session, and four months after a telephone follow-up counseling session. The genetic counselors will be asked to complete questionnaires at the start of and at completion of the study, as well as a checklist directly after each counseling session. The questionnaires/checklists of the study include items on communication during genetic counseling, counselor awareness of their clients' psychosocial problems, the (perceived) need for professional psychosocial support, cancer worries, general

  12. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  13. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  14. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  15. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  16. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  17. The Discrimination of Fully Randomized and Partially Randomized Responding from Nonrandomized Responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Dale; Korcuska, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the detection of various rates of noncontent responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition (R. Cattell, H. Eber, & M. Tatsuoka, 1970). The study used a sample of 237 adult volunteers. New scales were developed and tested. (Contains 3 tables.)

  18. Comparing Inpatient Satisfaction Collected via a Web-Based Questionnaire Self-Completion and Through a Telephone Interview: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sarah F; Lapidus, Nathanael; Cosnes, Jacques; Tiret, Emmanuel; Fonquernie, Laurent; Cabane, Jean; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Surgers, Laure; Beaussier, Marc; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2017-08-23

    Assessing the satisfaction of patients about the health care they have received is relatively common nowadays. In France, the satisfaction questionnaire, I-Satis, is deployed in each institution admitting inpatients. Internet self-completion and telephone interview are the two modes of administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction that have never been compared in a multicenter randomized experiment involving a substantial number of patients. The objective of this study was to compare two modes of survey administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction: Internet self-completion and telephone interview. In the multicenter SENTIPAT (acronym for the concept of sentinel patients, ie, patients who would voluntarily report their health evolution on a dedicated website) randomized controlled trial, patients who were discharged from the hospital to home and had an Internet connection at home were enrolled between February 2013 and September 2014. They were randomized to either self-complete a set of questionnaires using a dedicated website or to provide answers to the same questionnaires administered during a telephone interview. As recommended by French authorities, the analysis of I-Satis satisfaction questionnaire involved all inpatients with a length of stay (LOS), including at least two nights. Participation rates, questionnaire consistency (measured using Cronbach alpha coefficient), and satisfaction scores were compared in the two groups. A total of 1680 eligible patients were randomized to the Internet group (n=840) or the telephone group (n=840). The analysis of I-Satis concerned 392 and 389 patients fulfilling the minimum LOS required in the Internet and telephone group, respectively. There were 39.3% (154/392) and 88.4% (344/389) responders in the Internet and telephone group, respectively (PCronbach alpha estimate=.89; 95% CI 0.86-0.91) than in the telephone group (Cronbach alpha estimate=.84; 95% CI 0.79-0.87). The mean global satisfaction score was

  19. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  20. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  1. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  2. End-Users' Voice in EHR Selection: Development of a Usability Questionnaire for Demonstrations in Procurement (DPUQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllinen, Mari; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, Tinja; Nieminen, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a questionnaire for evaluating usability during EHR system procurement (DPUQ). Established usability questionnaires can be used to gather user feedback after using the systems. However, during procurement, experimenting with real system use is practical only with a limited number of system candidates. There is a need for less resource-demanding usability evaluation in the early stages of procurement in cases with several vendors. DPUQ has been designed for usability evaluation by end-users during special scenario-based vendor demonstrations. The questionnaire includes three sets of questions to be used during and after the vendor demonstration. DPUQ delivers specific usability scores and can be used to compare system candidates in procurement complementing other evaluation methods.

  3. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  4. Validation of selected temperament and personality questionnaires for diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving. A Polish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczak, Anna; Tarnowski, Adam

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at validating psychological questionnaires evaluating temperamental and personality features. It discusses their usefulness in diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving and working as professional drivers. Three psychological questionnaires were validated: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised and Short Scale (EPQ-R (S)) and the Impulsiveness Questionnaire (IVE). Three groups of drivers (n=246) aged 19-75 participated in the study. Group I (professional drivers; n=96) and Group II (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) had never been involved in road crashes, whereas Group III (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) were offenders involved in fatal injury road crashes. Criterion-related validity, Cronbach's alpha and Guttman split-half reliability coefficient were in assessing the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. There were some significant differences between Groups II and III for most traits. However, contrary to expectations, higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration and lower Endurance as well as higher Neuroticism, Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness were determined for Group II than for Group III. Additionally, the temperament and personality profile of Group II turned out to be less fitted to the profile of safe drivers than that of Group III, whose profile was actually similar to that of Group I. This seems to result from a high tendency for a positive self-presentation among Group I and Group III (a significantly higher result on the Lie scale in comparison with Group II). The results suggest that if psychological tests are to decide on whether a person may be a professional driver or may drive vehicles, the three questionnaires (FCB-TI, EPQ-R(S) and IVE) do not provide a valid diagnosis of professional drivers' aptitude because of drivers' high tendency for positive self-presentation. However, they can be used in job

  5. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Katrin U.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen. This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools.Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires.Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales.Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  6. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  7. Voiding patterns in men evaluated by a questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P; Nielsen, K K; Bauer, T

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire on obstructive and irritative voiding symptoms was sent to 572 men aged between 20 and 79 years, selected at random from the National Register; 337 questionnaires were completed. None of the responders had consulted a doctor because of voiding symptoms. There was a significant...

  8. Validity of Self Completed Health Questionnaire among Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective of this study is to determine the degree of validity of self completed health questionnaire among oral surgery patient at the Capitol Dental when compared with a structured oral interview. A prospective random selection method was applied using a standardized questionnaire. The cohorts are patients attending ...

  9. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  10. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  11. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  12. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  13. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  14. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-08-04

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, "NuAge" (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  16. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  17. Assessing the causes for the dentistry selection as a job by Iranian dental students: A Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamissi, J; Bairami, P; Hamissi, Z

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research is to discover the causes for the dentistry selection as a profession by senior dental scholars in Iran. Materials & Methods: Surveys are distributed between the first-year to the sixth-year senior dental scholars at the Scholl of Dentistry in Medical Sciences Qazvin University in Iran. The survey presented in a lecture hall at the terminal of the secondary term in the 2011-2012 academic years. The survey included 30 parts, and the pupils asked to measure the significance of any part for choosing dentistry as a profession, on a 10-points scale. In addition, T-test and ANOVA utilized for the data analysis. Results: The answering ratio in the research is 55% (out of 100%) of the pupils delivered. Ninety-six students (93.2%) selected it as an initial selection. Dentistry as a job which is “insurer of financial independence” was gained a most rate via 82.5% of the pupils raised and a comparable amount of the students (75.7%), assigned a highest rate to the parameter “I love to enhance many money”. Dentistry as a “science-based job” was also given a score by 80.6% of the pupils. Conclusion: There are no variations in the motivation between men and women students. It obtained that “insurer of financial independence” and “I love to enhance many money” are critical action parameters in the dental pupils population. PMID:28316683

  18. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  19. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  20. The impact of self-interviews on response patterns for sensitive topics: a randomized trial of electronic delivery methods for a sexual behaviour questionnaire in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.

  1. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  2. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  3. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  4. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  5. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  7. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  8. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  10. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheleau Carissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.

  11. Psychometric performance and responsiveness of the functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire and sleep apnea quality of life instrument in a randomized trial: the HomePAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E; Rosen, Carol L; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K

    2014-12-01

    Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) specific for sleep disorders have had limited psychometric evaluation in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We investigated the psychometric properties of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Instrument (SAQLI). We evaluated the FOSQ and SAQLI construct and criterion validity, determined a minimally important difference, and assessed for associations of responsiveness to baseline subject characteristics and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in a RCT population. Secondary analysis of data collected in a multisite RCT of home versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (HomePAP trial). Individuals enrolled in the HomePAP trial (n = 335). N/A. The FOSQ and SAQLI subscores demonstrated high reliability and criterion validity, correlating with Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Survey domains. Correlations were weaker with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both the FOSQ and SAQLI scores improved after 3 mo with CPAP therapy. Averaging 4 h or more of CPAP use was associated with an increase in the FOSQ beyond the minimally important difference. Baseline depressive symptoms and sleepiness predicted FOSQ and SAQLI responsiveness; demographic, objective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and sleep habits were not predictive in linear regression. The FOSQ and SAQLI are responsive to CPAP intervention, with the FOSQ being more sensitive to differences in CPAP adherence than the SAQLI. These instruments provide unique information about health outcomes beyond that provided by changes in physiological measures of OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index). Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  13. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  14. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  15. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  16. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  17. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  19. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  1. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  2. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  3. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  4. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  6. COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) for selecting at-risk patients for spirometry: a cross-sectional study in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Anthony J; Hasan, Iqbal; Crockett, Alan J; van Schayck, Onno C P; Zwar, Nicholas A

    2014-07-10

    Using the COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) as a selection tool for spirometry could potentially improve the efficiency and accuracy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis in at-risk patients. To identify an optimal single cut point for the CDQ that divides primary care patients into low or high likelihood of COPD, with the latter group undergoing spirometry. Former or current smokers aged 40-85 years with no prior COPD diagnosis were invited to a case-finding appointment with the practice nurse at various general practices in Sydney, Australia. The CDQ was collected and pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed. Cases with complete CDQ data and spirometry meeting quality standards were analysed (1,054 out of 1,631 patients). CDQ cut points were selected from a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area under the ROC curve was 0.713. A cut point of 19.5 had the optimal combination of sensitivity (63%) and specificity (70%) with two-thirds below this cut point. A cut point of 14.5 corresponded to a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 35% and negative predictive value of 96%, and 31% of patients below this cut point. The CDQ can be used to select patients at risk of COPD for spirometry using one cut point. We consider two possible cut points. The 19.5 cut point excludes a higher proportion of patients from undergoing spirometry with the trade-off of more false negatives. The 14.5 cut point has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value, includes more potential COPD cases but has a higher rate of false positives.

  7. Could Selectively Skipping of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire among a Series of Self-Report Scales in a Study Be a Coping Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Volkan GÜLÜM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depending on an observation in which some of the subjects’ nonrandom irresponsiveness to repetitive thinking questionnaire items among fully answered others in a study of current researchers, the aims of the present study were to test that whether the ignorance of repetitive thinking items is a stress coping strategy or not, to compare people who ignore the repetitive thinking items (IRT with people who have high repetitive thinking (HRT and low repetitive thinking (LRT in context of attachment patterns, sychopathological symptoms and cognitive flexibility.Method: 432 (278 women and 154 men college students were selected from a larger research project sample pool which had funded by TÜBİTAK. Participants were divided into three groups according to their repetitive thinking conditions (ignorance, high and low score. All participants have completed the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised Inventory, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory.Results: To test our hypothesis series of ANOVA, MANOVA and discriminant analysis were conducted. According the variance analysis, the IRT group had more psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety than the LRT group and less than the HRT group. The IRT group had more cognitive flexibility than the HRT group and less than the LRT group. According to discriminant analysis, the LRT and IRT groups had been distinguished the HRT group in the context of psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety; the LRT and HRT groups had been distinguished the IRT group in the context of cognitive flexibility-control dimension.Conclusion: According to the results, the ignorance of the repetitive thinking items may be a defensive mechanism or stress coping strategy.

  8. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  9. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  10. The effect of two lottery-style incentives on response rates to postal questionnaires in a prospective cohort study in preschool children at high risk of asthma: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Lonneke B; van Wonderen, Karina E; Mohrs, Jacob; Bindels, Patrick Je; Puhan, Milo A; Ter Riet, Gerben

    2012-12-18

    In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study's validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research is scarce. To study the impact of two strategies to enhance completeness and efficiency in observational cohort studies with follow-up durations of around 2 years. METHOD AND INTERVENTION: In a factorial design, 771 children between 2 and 5 years old and their parents participating in a prospective cohort study were randomized to three intervention groups and a control group. Three types of lotteries were run: (i) daytrip tickets for the whole family to a popular amusement park if they returned all postal questionnaires, (ii) €12.50-worth gift vouchers for sending back the questionnaire on time after each questionnaire round and (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). Primary outcome was the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires without any reminder. Secondary outcomes were '100% returned with or without reminder', 'probability of 100% non-response', 'probability of withdrawal', 'proportion of returned questionnaires' and 'overall number of reminders sent'. After testing for interaction between the two lottery interventions, the two trials were analysed separately. We calculated risk differences (RD) and numbers needed to "treat" and their 95% confidence intervals. Daytrip nor voucher intervention had an effect on the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires (RD -0.01; 95% CI-0.07 - 0.06) and (RD 0.02; 95% CI-0.50 - 0.08), respectively. No effects were found on the secondary outcomes. Our findings do not support the idea that lottery-style incentives lead to more complete response to postal questionnaires in observational cohort studies with repeated data collection and follow-up durations of around 2 years.

  11. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  12. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  13. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  16. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  17. External validation of the SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaire in Italian and Brazilian populations to select patients with colorectal endometriosis for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Zacharopoulou, Chrysoula; Montanari, Giulia; Seracchioli, Renato; Abrão, Mauricio S; Bassi, Marco A; Ballester, Marcos; Daraï, Emile

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the external validity of the validated French model of the quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL) SF-36 in predicting improvement after colorectal resection for endometriosis. Italian and Brazilian cohort studies (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Tertiary referral university hospital in Brazil and expert center in endometriosis in Italy. Patients with colorectal endometriosis from an Italian population (n = 63) and a Brazilian population (n = 151). Laparoscopic colorectal resection for treatment of endometriosis. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations of the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF-36 were performed. Substantial improvement in PCS and MCS was observed after colorectal resection in both populations. In the Brazilian population, the receiver operating curve (ROC) (area under the curve [AUC]) was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.89) for MCS and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.83) for PCS, demonstrating good discrimination performance. The mean difference between the predicted and calibrated probabilities was 19.6% for MCS and 32.8% for PCS. In the Italian population, the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.52-0.78) for PCS and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.78) for MCS. The model demonstrated poor discrimination and calibration performance for PCS (p SF-36, our results underline the limits of this tool in selection of patients for colorectal resection due to underestimation of predicted quality of life, possibly because of variations in epidemiologic characteristics of the populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  19. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  20. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  1. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  2. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  3. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  4. Identification of potential participant scientists and development of procedures for a national inventory of selected biological monitoring programs: a mail questionnaire survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H.T.; Goff, F.G.; Ross, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Procedural details of how the National Biological Monitoring Inventory was conducted are described. Results of a nationwide telephone campaign to identify principal investigators and also of a nationwide questionnaire mailing to the investigators identified are presented. On the basis of percentage of questionnaire returns (nearly 50 percent), the Inventory was judged to be successful. The communication procedures, guidelines, and formats developed may be useful to others engaged in this type of research.

  5. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  6. Comparing Patients' Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Berengere; Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-06-24

    Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients' health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients' opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Our primary objective was to compare patients' opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients' impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (PInternet requires patients' active participation and those planning surveys in the domain explored in this study should anticipate a lower

  7. Analysis of Inhaled Corticosteroid Selection in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Using a Questionnaire Survey—Effects of Age, Gender, and Disease Severity—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuma Ota

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study indicates that ICS selection is reasonably adapted to each patient's background at least in the surveyed area. We need to elucidate the characteristics of ICS selection further in the future as new ICS and devices are developed.

  8. Prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: A questionnaire evaluating the knowledge of the selected 11 evidence-based guidelines by Polish nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedunska, Karina; Dyk, Danuta

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the questionnaire testing nurses' knowledge about the maintenance of a central venous catheter (CVC) and assessed it with regard to age, work experience, type of ward, frequency of trainings, and postgraduate education. There were 1,180 questionnaires (N = 784; 66.4% of the total sample) distributed in several regions of Poland for a period of 7 months. The difficulty level for each question ranged from 0.22-0.88. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Selective Impairment of Living Things and Musical Instruments on a Verbal "Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire" in a Case of Apperceptive Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…

  11. The effect of two lottery-style incentives on response rates to postal questionnaires in a prospective cohort study in preschool children at high risk of asthma: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study’s validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research is scarce. Objectives To study the impact of two strategies to enhance completeness and efficiency in observational cohort studies with follow-up durations of around 2 years. Method and intervention In a factorial design, 771 children between 2 and 5 years old and their parents participating in a prospective cohort study were randomized to three intervention groups and a control group. Three types of lotteries were run: (i) daytrip tickets for the whole family to a popular amusement park if they returned all postal questionnaires, (ii) €12.50-worth gift vouchers for sending back the questionnaire on time after each questionnaire round and (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires without any reminder. Secondary outcomes were ‘100% returned with or without reminder’, ‘probability of 100% non-response’, ‘probability of withdrawal’, ‘proportion of returned questionnaires’ and ‘overall number of reminders sent’. Statistical analysis After testing for interaction between the two lottery interventions, the two trials were analysed separately. We calculated risk differences (RD) and numbers needed to “treat” and their 95% confidence intervals. Results Daytrip nor voucher intervention had an effect on the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires (RD −0.01; 95% CI-0.07 – 0.06) and (RD 0.02; 95% CI-0.50 – 0.08), respectively. No effects were found on the secondary outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the idea that lottery-style incentives lead to more complete response to postal questionnaires in observational cohort studies

  12. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  13. Developing new VO2max prediction models from maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables using support vector machines combined with feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Fatih; Akay, Mehmet Fatih; George, James

    2016-12-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an essential part of health and physical fitness, and refers to the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual can attain during exhaustive exercise. In this study, for the first time in the literature, we combine the triple of maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables to propose new VO2max prediction models using Support Vector Machines (SVM's) combined with the Relief-F feature selector to predict and reveal the distinct predictors of VO2max. For comparison purposes, hybrid models based on double combinations of maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables have also been developed. By utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, the performance of the models has been calculated using multiple correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results show that the best values of R and RMSE, with 0.94 and 2.92mLkg-1min-1 respectively, have been obtained by combining the triple of relevantly identified maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables. Compared with the results of the rest of hybrid models in this study and the other prediction models in literature, the reported values of R and RMSE have been found to be considerably more accurate. The predictor variables gender, age, maximal heart rate (MX-HR), submaximal ending speed (SM-ES) of the treadmill and Perceived Functional Ability (Q-PFA) questionnaire have been found to be the most relevant variables in predicting VO2max. The results have also been compared with that of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Tree Boost (TB), and it is seen that SVM significantly outperforms other regression methods for prediction of VO2max. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  15. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  16. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  17. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  18. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  19. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  20. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  1. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  2. The provision of information and informed decision-making on prenatal screening for Down syndrome: a questionnaire- and register-based survey in a non-selected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Marleen; Wildschut, Hajo; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Peters, Ingrid; Steegers, Eric; de Koning, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Evaluating the information provision procedure about prenatal screening for Down syndrome, using informed decision-making as a quality-indicator. Questionnaire- and register-based surveys. Midwives associated with 59 midwifery practices completed process data for 6435 pregnancies. Pregnant women (n=510) completed questionnaires on informed decision-making. Midwives offered information to 98.5% of women; 62.6% of them wished to receive information, of these, 81.9% actually received information. Decision-relevant knowledge was adequate in 89.0% of responding women. Knowledge about Down syndrome was less adequate than knowledge about the screening program. Participants in the screening program had higher knowledge scores on Down syndrome and on the screening program than non-participants. Of the women who intended to participate (35.8%), 3.1% had inadequate knowledge. A total of 75.5% of women made an informed decision; 94.3% of women participating in the screening program, and 64.9% of women not participating. This quality assurance study showed high levels of informed decision-making and a relatively low participation rate in the national screening program for Down syndrome in the Netherlands. Knowledge of the Down syndrome condition needs to be improved. This evaluation may serve as a pilot study for quality monitoring studies at a national level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Patients’ Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients’ health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients’ opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Objective Our primary objective was to compare patients’ opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. Methods We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients’ impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Results Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (Pdischarge logistics organization, P=.12 for preplanned posthospital continuity

  4. The Effect Dry Cupping Therapy at Acupoint BL23 on the Intensity of Postpartum Low Back Pain in Primiparous Women Based on Two Types of Questionnaires, 2012; A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Azizi, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2014-04-01

    Continuous low back pain is associated with the symptoms of the pregnancy period. In spite of the improvement of low back pain within 6 months after the delivery, some women may develop chronic problems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy at BL23 point on the intensity of low back pain in primiparous women.  In the present randomized clinical trial, 100 samples were randomly allocated to either the cupping therapy or the control group (each containing 50 subjects). Cupping therapy was performed for 15-20 minutes every day up to 4 consecutive times. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and short-form McGill pain questionnaire were completed by the two groups before the intervention and immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after that. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. According to VAS, the mean intensity of low back pain in the cupping therapy group decreased from 7.8±2.7 before the intervention to 3.7±1.8, 2.5±1.7, and 1.4±1.4 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. Besides, these measures were respectively obtained as 31.8±10.8, 9.0±6.7, 7.5±6.6, and 3.6±4.1 in the short-form McGill pain questionnaire. According to repeated measures ANOVA, a significant difference was observed among the various stages of follow-up (P=0.01). The study results showed cupping therapy to be effective in sedation of pain. Thus, it can be used as an effective treatment for reducing the low back pain. 2013072611944N3.

  5. The Effect Dry Cupping Therapy at Acupoint BL23 on the Intensity of Postpartum Low Back Pain in Primiparous Women Based on Two Types of Questionnaires, 2012; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Azizi, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous low back pain is associated with the symptoms of the pregnancy period. In spite of the improvement of low back pain within 6 months after the delivery, some women may develop chronic problems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy at BL23 point on the intensity of low back pain in primiparous women.  Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 100 samples were randomly allocated to either the cupping therapy or the control group (each containing 50 subjects). Cupping therapy was performed for 15-20 minutes every day up to 4 consecutive times. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and short-form McGill pain questionnaire were completed by the two groups before the intervention and immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after that. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: According to VAS, the mean intensity of low back pain in the cupping therapy group decreased from 7.8±2.7 before the intervention to 3.7±1.8, 2.5±1.7, and 1.4±1.4 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. Besides, these measures were respectively obtained as 31.8±10.8, 9.0±6.7, 7.5±6.6, and 3.6±4.1 in the short-form McGill pain questionnaire. According to repeated measures ANOVA, a significant difference was observed among the various stages of follow-up (P=0.01). Conclusion: The study results showed cupping therapy to be effective in sedation of pain. Thus, it can be used as an effective treatment for reducing the low back pain. Trial Registration Number: 2013072611944N3 PMID:25349852

  6. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  9. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  10. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  11. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  12. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  13. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  14. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  15. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  16. The Stability and Reliability of a Modified Work Components Study Questionnaire in the Educational Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskel, Cecil; Heller, Leonard E.

    The investigation attempted to establish the factorial validity and reliability of an industrial selection device based on Herzberg's theory of work motivation related to the school organization. The questionnaire was reworded to reflect an educational work situation; and a random sample of 197 students, 118 administrators, and 432 teachers was…

  17. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  18. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  19. Selective impairment of living things and musical instruments on a verbal 'Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire' in a case of apperceptive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and

  20. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  2. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE: SUGGEST AND WIN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Its time to plan for the 2002-2003 lecture series. From today until April 26 you have the chance to give your contribution to improved planning for next year's Academic Training Lectures Series. At the web site, you will find questionnaires concerning the following different categories: high energy physics, applied physics, science and society and post-graduate student lectures. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee is offering 10 prizes of a self-teach web based training course to people who provide their email address when filling in the questionnaire. The 10 winners will be chosen randomly from the replies received before the closing date.

  3. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  4. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  5. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  6. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  7. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  8. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  9. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  11. Scratch lottery tickets are a poor incentive to respond to mailed questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Storeheier, Andreas H

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that the enclosure of money with a mailed questionnaire increases the response rate significantly. We evaluated scratch lottery tickets as an alternative to cash. Methods 1500 randomly selected Norwegians between the ages of 40 and 65 years were sent a short questionnaire. 250 received one lottery scratch ticket worth 20 Norwegian kroner (approximately 3 US$) together with the questionnaire, 250 received two scratch tickets, and 250 were promised two scratch tickets if they replied within one week. A fourth group of 250 persons received a 50 kroner banknote with the questionnaire. The remaining 500 letters served as controls. Results The overall response rate after 6 weeks was 77%. Logistic regression analysis showed that only the 50 kroner group had a response rate that was statistically significantly higher than the controls (p Lottery scratch tickets are no substitute for cash as an incentive to respond to a questionnaire. PMID:16646970

  12. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  13. Reliability of GMFCS family report questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskaite, Gija; Thorsen, Poul; Uldall, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the reliability of the web-based GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCS-FR) between 8 and 11 years old children, compared with the GMFCS-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R). Method: The GMFCS-FR was translated from the English GMFCS-FR into Danish after the CanChild guidelines;...... Danish children with CP. The tendency for less-ability rating by families is important when performing and comparing results from epidemiological studies based on GMFCS-FR and GMFCS-E&R. [Box: see text].......Purpose: To examine the reliability of the web-based GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCS-FR) between 8 and 11 years old children, compared with the GMFCS-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R). Method: The GMFCS-FR was translated from the English GMFCS-FR into Danish after the CanChild guidelines......; only the order of levels was chosen like in the GMFCS-E&R. Families of 30 children with spastic and dystonic cerebral palsy (age from 8 to 11 years, randomly selected from a cerebral palsy register) answered the GMFCS-FR and were later interviewed by two physiotherapists. Participants and non...

  14. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  15. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  16. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  18. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  19. Development and validation of a questionnaire (the IRA-AGHN) to assess teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Soroa; Nekane Balluerka; Arantxa Gorostiaga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire, called IRA-AGHN, to assess infant and primary school teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The psychometric properties of this questionnaire were examined in a sample of 752 teachers aged between 20 and 64 years (M = 41.57; SD = 9.69). These teachers were employed at 84 randomly selected schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre. The factor validity, internal consistency, temporal ...

  20. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  1. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  2. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  3. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Dry Cupping and Acupressure at Acupuncture Point (BL23) on the Women with Postpartum Low Back Pain (PLBP) Based on Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaires in Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zare, Najaf; Azisi, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture branches on postpartum low back pain severity among the primiparous subjects visiting the selected educational centers affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (each group of 50 people) cases in 2012. Cupping therapy was done every other day in four 15-20 minute sessions a week. Besides, acupressure was applied according to the circular model for 20 minutes. The patients filled out the short form McGill Pain Questionnaires. Then, the data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and repeated measurements and Chi-square tests. Results: In the cupping group, the mean difference of postpartum Low Back Pain intensity reached from 31.8 ± 10.8 before the intervention to 9.0 ± 6.7, 7.5 ± 6.6, and 4.1 ± 3.6 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively and the results of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three follow-up periods (p < 0.05). On the other hand, this measure reached from 31.1 ± 11.0 before the intervention to 22.1 ± 7.3, 16.2±6.0, and 11.7 ± 5.3 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively in the acupressure group. Conclusion: The study results showed that these modalities could sedate the pain. Therefore, they can be applied as efficient treatments for reducing the low back pain.

  5. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  6. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  7. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrés-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a

  9. Wesleyan University Student Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, C. Hess

    This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…

  10. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  11. Selective Cutoff Reporting in Studies of Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Comparison of Conventional and Individual-Patient-Data Meta-Analyses of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Depression Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Levis, Alexander W; Ioannidis, John P A; Shrier, Ian; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Bombardier, Charles H; de Lima Osório, Flavia; Fann, Jesse R; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Lamers, Femke; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Shaaban, Juwita; Stafford, Lesley; van Weert, Henk C P M; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S; Wittkampf, Karin A; Yeung, Albert S; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-05-15

    In studies of diagnostic test accuracy, authors sometimes report results only for a range of cutoff points around data-driven "optimal" cutoffs. We assessed selective cutoff reporting in studies of the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool. We compared conventional meta-analysis of published results only with individual-patient-data meta-analysis of results derived from all cutoff points, using data from 13 of 16 studies published during 2004-2009 that were included in a published conventional meta-analysis. For the "standard" PHQ-9 cutoff of 10, accuracy results had been published by 11 of the studies. For all other relevant cutoffs, 3-6 studies published accuracy results. For all cutoffs examined, specificity estimates in conventional and individual-patient-data meta-analyses were within 1% of each other. Sensitivity estimates were similar for the cutoff of 10 but differed by 5%-15% for other cutoffs. In samples where the PHQ-9 was poorly sensitive at the standard cutoff, authors tended to report results for lower cutoffs that yielded optimal results. When the PHQ-9 was highly sensitive, authors more often reported results for higher cutoffs. Consequently, in the conventional meta-analysis, sensitivity increased as cutoff severity increased across part of the cutoff range-an impossibility if all data are analyzed. In sum, selective reporting by primary study authors of only results from cutoffs that perform well in their study can bias accuracy estimates in meta-analyses of published results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  13. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  14. Questionnaires in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Harkness, Janet; Schoua-Glusberg, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    "Translation of questionnaires is the most frequently chosen route to implementing 'equivalent' instruments in cross-national and cross-lingual survey research. The article presents the framework of current survey translation practice: the various procedures proposed for translation and for assessment of translation products and the respective advantages or disadvantages of each. In doing so, pointers are made to research gaps in questionnaire adaptation and evaluation for cross-cultural work...

  15. Evaluate Stochastikon Magister by Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zhai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the work of articles “Strategies for Teaching a Novel Approach to Handling Uncertainty Scientifically via Internet”, “A Graphical Tool for Visualizing Bernoulli Stochastics” and “Empirical Evaluation of Stochastikon Magister”. In this paper we evaluate the usability and learnability of the virtual classroom – Stochastikon Magister by questionnaire. The result shows that more than 70% of the teacher candidates, who selected Magister E-Learning programme to learn Bernoulli Stochastics, feel satisfactory with both Magister learning environment and Bernoulli Stochastics teaching content. Besides, most of the participants hold positive attitudes toward the possibility of using E-Learning systems as a replacement of classroom teaching for educating other subjects of mathematics and natural science. The response to the questionnaire is identical with another empirical evaluation of Stochastikon Magister.

  16. Association of Selected Psychological Factors to Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jisun; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Tae Woo; Yang, Seo Yon; Sim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate the English version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) into Korean and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PDQ (K-PDQ) in patients suffering chronic disabling musculoskeletal disorders (CDMDs). Methods The English version of the PDQ was translated into Korean. Ten patients with CDMDs were randomly selected for a pilot study to assess the comprehensibility of the pre-final version. One hundred and thirty-nine patients sufferin...

  18. Bias in the prediction of genetic gain due to mass and half-sib selection in random mating populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of gains from selection allows the comparison of breeding methods and selection strategies, although these estimates may be biased. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of such bias in predicting genetic gain. For this, we simulated 10 cycles of a hypothetical breeding program that involved seven traits, three population classes, three experimental conditions and two breeding methods (mass and half-sib selection. Each combination of trait, population, heritability, method and cycle was repeated 10 times. The predicted gains were biased, even when the genetic parameters were estimated without error. Gain from selection in both genders is twice the gain from selection in a single gender only in the absence of dominance. The use of genotypic variance or broad sense heritability in the predictions represented an additional source of bias. Predictions based on additive variance and narrow sense heritability were equivalent, as were predictions based on genotypic variance and broad sense heritability. The predictions based on mass and family selection were suitable for comparing selection strategies, whereas those based on selection within progenies showed the largest bias and lower association with the realized gain.

  19. Expressed sequence tags of randomly selected cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, D; Martin, F

    1995-01-01

    Random sequencing of cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal tissues was carried out to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Database comparisons revealed that 42% of the cDNAs corresponded to previously sequenced genes. These ESTs represent efficient molecular markers to analyze changes in gene expression during the formation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  20. Impact of Selection Bias on Treatment Effect Size Estimates in Randomized Trials of Oral Health Interventions: A Meta-epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, H; Armijo-Olivo, S; Cummings, G G; Amin, M; da Costa, B R; Flores-Mir, C

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to items of selection bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability) in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Using a 2-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity, we quantified the impact of selection bias on the magnitude of ES estimates. We identified 64 meta-analyses, including 540 randomized controlled trials analyzing 137,957 patients. Sequence generation was judged to be adequate (at low risk of bias) in 32% ( n = 173) of trials, and baseline comparability was judged to be adequate in 77.8% of trials. Allocation concealment was unclear in the majority of trials ( n = 458, 84.8%). We identified significantly larger treatment ES estimates in trials that had inadequate/unknown sequence generation (difference in ES = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.25) and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment (difference in ES = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.27). In contrast, baseline imbalance (difference in ES = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.12) was not associated with inflated or underestimated ES. In conclusion, treatment ES estimates were 0.13 and 0.15 larger in trials with inadequate/unknown sequence generation and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment, respectively. Therefore, authors of systematic reviews using oral health randomized controlled trials should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of

  1. WHO quality of life-BREF 26 questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Persian version and compare it with Iranian diabetics quality of life questionnaire in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanlou, Alireza Shahab; Karami, Nader Alishan

    2011-07-01

    There are several tools for the assessment of quality of life (QOL) in diabetes mellitus. In the current research, two standard questionnaires for evaluating of QOL were selected. First one was a questionnaire from the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF 26) and the second one, The Iranian diabetics quality of life (IRDQOL). The first aim of this study was to reliability and validity of the Persian Version of WHOQOL-BREF 26. The second aims compare it with IRDQOL questionnaire in diabetic patients. A random sample of Iranian adult outpatient diabetics (n=387) was selected and they completed the WHOQOL and IRDQOL assessment instruments. In addition HbA1c was measured in these patients by calorimetric method. Data analysis was carried out by the use of T-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient. Data analysis based on Pearson correlations in the two questionnaires showed all subscales and total QOL have highly acceptable test-retest reliability. Comparison of total QOL and similar domains in the two questionnaires showed physical domain score in IRDQOL was lower than in WHOQOL and it was significant (PDiabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INVESTIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This questionnaire will be widely used in various tropical and subtropical regions. It was developed in a modular structure and comprises nine sections : demographic data, screening, confirmation of diagnosis, natural history of the seizure disor- der, past medical history, clinical examination, paraclinical examinations ...

  3. Narcotics Center Questionnaire, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes toward drugs in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 105 items (multiple choice, yes/no, or completion) are concerned with personal and demographic data, "book" knowledge of drugs, "street" knowledge of drugs (drug argot and the like),…

  4. Questionnaire typography and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1975-06-01

    This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.

  5. A Randomized Comparative Study of Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment With or Without Selective Nerve Root Block for Chronic Cervical Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Qian; Xiao, Lizu; Yang, Juan; Xong, Donglin; Li, Disen; Liu, LiPing; Ancha, Sigdha; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a combination of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and cervical nerve root block (CNRB) via a posterior approach was superior to a transforaminal epidural steroid injection through the anterolateral approach for cervical radicular pain in a previous study. This randomized trial was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy between CNRB, PRF, and CNRB + PRF for cervical radicular pain. A prospective and randomized design was used in this study. Sixty-two patients were randomized into three parallel groups: CNRB, PRF, or CNRB + PRF. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain intensity, and global perceived effect (GPE) was scored by the patient on a 7-point scale, ranging from much worse (-3), no change (0), to total improvement (+3). The outcomes were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Side effects and complications were noted. The NRS was significantly reduced in all three groups 1 week after the treatments (P 0.05). No serious complications were observed in any of the patients. Combining CNRB and PRF appeared to be a safe and efficacious technique for cervical radicular pain. The combination therapy yielded better outcomes than either CNRB or PRF alone. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  7. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  8. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  9. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  10. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of Shortwave Diathermy for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and Value of Night Pain for Patient Selection: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Kaysin, Meryem; Akpinar, Pinar; Aktas, Ilknur; Unlü Ozkan, Feyza; Silte Karamanlioglu, Duygu; Cagliyan Hartevioglu, Hulya; Vural, Nazan

    2017-09-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of short wave diathermy (SWD) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 patients (aged 35-65 yrs) were classified into night pain positive (NP[+]) (n = 28) and night pain negative (NP[-]) (n = 29) groups. Both groups were randomly assigned to SWD (NP[+], n = 14; NP[-], n = 14) and sham (NP[+], n = 15; NP[-], n = 14) subgroups. Visual analog scale, Constant-Murley Scale (CS), and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) scores were used for evaluation. There was only a significant difference in pain with activity at 1-mo (mean difference [MD], -1.65; 95% confidence interval, -3.01 to -0.28]) and 2-mo evaluations (MD, -2.1; 95% confidence interval, -3.51 to -0.69) between SWD versus sham groups. In the NP(+) SWD group, the CS pain score was significantly higher than in the NP(+) sham group at all evaluations after treatment. At 1 mo, the NP(-) SWD group showed significantly better pain, strength, total CS, and SDQ scores than the NP(-) sham group. At 2 mos, the pain, range of motion, strength, and total CS and SDQ scores were better in the NP(-) SWD group than in the NP(-) sham group (P diathermy is more effective in subacromial impingement syndrome without NP.

  12. Increased fracture rates in Turner's syndrome: a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Mosekilde, Leif; Brixen, Kim; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2003-07-01

    Reduced bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) have previously been reported in Turner's syndrome, although appropriate GH treatment and early induction of puberty seem to permit normal bone mass accumulation. Furthermore, an increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been reported in a registry study. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the risk of fractures in TS and to explore risk factors, in a historical follow-up survey based on a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was issued to all females with TS (n = 632) in Denmark and to 1888 randomly selected controls (C) matched for age and geographical region. A total of 322 patients (51%) and 1169 controls (62%) returned the questionnaire. TS women were younger than C (30 years, range: 1-73 years vs. 34 years, range 2-82 years, P protective in females above 13 years of age (HR: 0.70, CI 0.54-0.93, P = 0.012). A history of parental fractures increased the risk (HR 1.92, CI 1.62-2.27, P early fractures in TS, especially in those without ovarian function and with a positive family history of fracture and osteoporosis. It thereby emphasizes the need for being vigilant with respect to BMD measurements in these patients.

  13. A pilot study examining the effectiveness of physical therapy as an adjunct to selective nerve root block in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain from disk herniation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Anne; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Zaman, Faisel M; Willick, Stuart E

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic selective nerve root blocks (SNRBs) are a common intervention for patients with sciatica. Patients often are referred to physical therapy after SNRBs, although the effectiveness of this intervention sequence has not been investigated. This study was a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of SNRBs, with or without subsequent physical therapy, in people with low back pain and sciatica. This investigation was a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. The settings were spine specialty and physical therapy clinics. Forty-four participants (64% men; mean age=38.5 years, SD=11.6 years) with low back pain, with clinical and imaging findings consistent with lumbar disk herniation, and scheduled to receive SNRBs participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to receive either 4 weeks of physical therapy (SNRB+PT group) or no physical therapy (SNRB alone [SNRB group]) after the injections. All participants received at least 1 SNRB; 28 participants (64%) received multiple injections. Participants in the SNRB+PT group attended an average of 6.0 physical therapy sessions over an average of 23.9 days. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months with the Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, a numeric pain rating scale, and the Global Rating of Change. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred over time in both groups, with no differences between groups at either follow-up for any outcome. Nine participants (5 in the SNRB group and 4 in the SNRB+PT group) underwent surgery during the follow-up period. The limitations of this study were a relatively short-term follow-up period and a small sample size. A physical therapy intervention after SNRBs did not result in additional reductions in pain and disability or perceived improvements in participants with low back pain and sciatica.

  14. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Aripiprazole Versus Bupropion Augmentation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unresponsive to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Randomized, Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Park, Young-Woo; Lee, Jong-Hun; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Sung, Hyung-Mo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole versus bupropion augmentation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This is the first randomized, prospective, open-label, direct comparison study between aripiprazole and bupropion augmentation. Participants had at least moderately severe depressive symptoms after 4 weeks or more of SSRI treatment. A total of 103 patients were randomized to either aripiprazole (n = 56) or bupropion (n = 47) augmentation for 6 weeks. Concomitant use of psychotropic agents was prohibited. Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment. Overall, both treatments significantly improved depressive symptoms without causing serious adverse events. There were no significant differences in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, and Iowa Fatigue Scale scores, and response rates. However, significant differences in remission rates between the 2 groups were evident at week 6 (55.4% vs 34.0%, respectively; P = 0.031), favoring aripiprazole over bupropion. There were no significant differences in adverse sexual events, extrapyramidal symptoms, or akathisia between the 2 groups. The present study suggests that aripiprazole augmentation is at least comparable to bupropion augmentation in combination with SSRI in terms of efficacy and tolerability in patients with MDD. Both aripiprazole and bupropion could help reduce sexual dysfunction and fatigue in patients with MDD. Aripiprazole and bupropion may offer effective and safe augmentation strategies in patients with MDD who are unresponsive to SSRIs. Double-blinded trials are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  15. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  17. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  19. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  20. Questionnaire survey of proliferative enteropathy on British pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S H; McOrist, S; Green, L E

    1998-06-20

    Risk factors for proliferative enteropathy were investigated by means of a postal questionnaire survey of randomly selected British pig farms. Replies were received from 319 (56 per cent) of the 569 questionnaires posted, representing 1.5 per cent of the total number of pig farms in Britain. Thirty-one per cent of the farms had experienced at least one episode of proliferative enteropathy within the previous three years, usually confirmed by their veterinary surgeon. There was a strong association for the occurrence of proliferative enteropathy in herds of over 500 sows (P proliferative enteropathy, compared with the use of straw bedding or solid floors. The destocking of entire buildings containing pigs two to four months old before the introduction of fresh pigs, was associated with a reduced risk (P < 0.05), but the destocking of selected pens rather than the whole building had no such association. The type of diet, or feeding or watering system and the types of buildings used were not identified as risk factors.

  1. H-DROP: an SVM based helical domain linker predictor trained with features optimized by combining random forest and stepwise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Teppei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Ryotaro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Domain linker prediction is attracting much interest as it can help identifying novel domains suitable for high throughput proteomics analysis. Here, we report H-DROP, an SVM-based Helical Domain linker pRediction using OPtimal features. H-DROP is, to the best of our knowledge, the first predictor for specifically and effectively identifying helical linkers. This was made possible first because a large training dataset became available from IS-Dom, and second because we selected a small number of optimal features from a huge number of potential ones. The training helical linker dataset, which included 261 helical linkers, was constructed by detecting helical residues at the boundary regions of two independent structural domains listed in our previously reported IS-Dom dataset. 45 optimal feature candidates were selected from 3,000 features by random forest, which were further reduced to 26 optimal features by stepwise selection. The prediction sensitivity and precision of H-DROP were 35.2 and 38.8%, respectively. These values were over 10.7% higher than those of control methods including our previously developed DROP, which is a coil linker predictor, and PPRODO, which is trained with un-differentiated domain boundary sequences. Overall, these results indicated that helical linkers can be predicted from sequence information alone by using a strictly curated training data set for helical linkers and carefully selected set of optimal features. H-DROP is available at http://domserv.lab.tuat.ac.jp.

  2. QUESTIONNAIRE 5YR 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    CERN must remain the centre of excellence that it has been for the last sixty years. Therefore, the Organization must continue to be able to attract, motivate and retain the best specialists coming from all the Member States. This is why, every five years, on the occasion of a five-yearly review, our employment conditions are compared with bodies having similar activities.In order to prepare the next five-yearly review, the topics of which will be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has drawn up a questionnaire that gives you the opportunity to tell us what you think about your current employment conditions. You can also indicate how you wish to see them evolve, and to help you we present some proposals for improvement on which you can give your opinion. Above all, do not hesitate, by using the comments’ fields available in the questionnaire, to formulate your own suggestions in all areas of your conditions of employment that are of interest to you. Your replies will hel...

  3. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S

    2011-03-01

    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  5. The suitability of quality-of-life questionnaires for psoriasis research - A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, John; Mombers, Femke M. C.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Bos, Jan D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To critically appraise the suitability of current quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires for psoriasis research. Data Sources: Computerized searches of 5 bibliographic databases. Questionnaire Selection: Predefined criteria were used to identify QOL questionnaires in dermatologic studies.

  6. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  7. Convergent Validity of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS is a multicenter project for assessing the lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. This study reports on the convergent validity of the physical activity questionnaire used in ATLS against an electronic pedometer. Participants were 39 males and 36 females randomly selected from secondary schools, with a mean age of 16.1 ± 1.1 years. ATLS self-reported questionnaire was validated against the electronic pedometer for three consecutive weekdays. Mean steps counts were 6,866 ± 3,854 steps/day with no significant gender difference observed. Questionnaire results showed no significant gender differences in time spent on total or moderate-intensity activities. However, males spent significantly more time than females on vigorous-intensity activity. The correlation of steps counts with total time spent on all activities by the questionnaire was 0.369. Relationship of steps counts was higher with vigorous-intensity (r = 0.338 than with moderate-intensity activity (r = 0.265. Pedometer steps counts showed higher correlations with time spent on walking (r = 0.350 and jogging (r = 0.383 than with the time spent on other activities. Active participants, based on pedometer assessment, were also most active by the questionnaire. It appears that ATLS questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing habitual physical activity among Arab adolescents.

  8. Convergent validity of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS) physical activity questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-09-01

    The Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS) is a multicenter project for assessing the lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. This study reports on the convergent validity of the physical activity questionnaire used in ATLS against an electronic pedometer. Participants were 39 males and 36 females randomly selected from secondary schools, with a mean age of 16.1 ± 1.1 years. ATLS self-reported questionnaire was validated against the electronic pedometer for three consecutive weekdays. Mean steps counts were 6,866 ± 3,854 steps/day with no significant gender difference observed. Questionnaire results showed no significant gender differences in time spent on total or moderate-intensity activities. However, males spent significantly more time than females on vigorous-intensity activity. The correlation of steps counts with total time spent on all activities by the questionnaire was 0.369. Relationship of steps counts was higher with vigorous-intensity (r = 0.338) than with moderate-intensity activity (r = 0.265). Pedometer steps counts showed higher correlations with time spent on walking (r = 0.350) and jogging (r = 0.383) than with the time spent on other activities. Active participants, based on pedometer assessment, were also most active by the questionnaire. It appears that ATLS questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing habitual physical activity among Arab adolescents.

  9. Scratch lottery tickets are a poor incentive to respond to mailed questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsen Vilhjalmur

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that the enclosure of money with a mailed questionnaire increases the response rate significantly. We evaluated scratch lottery tickets as an alternative to cash. Methods 1500 randomly selected Norwegians between the ages of 40 and 65 years were sent a short questionnaire. 250 received one lottery scratch ticket worth 20 Norwegian kroner (approximately 3 US$ together with the questionnaire, 250 received two scratch tickets, and 250 were promised two scratch tickets if they replied within one week. A fourth group of 250 persons received a 50 kroner banknote with the questionnaire. The remaining 500 letters served as controls. Results The overall response rate after 6 weeks was 77%. Logistic regression analysis showed that only the 50 kroner group had a response rate that was statistically significantly higher than the controls (p Conclusion It is possible that the recipients scratched their cards before completing the questionnaire, and that it was a disincentive for the majority that they did not win anything. Lottery scratch tickets are no substitute for cash as an incentive to respond to a questionnaire.

  10. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    infarction or other biomarker positive acute coronary syndrome, non-fatal stroke or CV death analysed using a Cox model with a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of 1.4 for the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: In total, 7297 participants were randomized. During a median 3-year follow-up, fewer subjects than......-years with celecoxib and 1.10 per 100 patient-years with nsNSAIDs (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.33; P = 0.75). Pre-specified non-inferiority was achieved in the ITT analysis. The upper bound of the 95% confidence limit for the absolute increase in OT risk associated with celecoxib treatment was two......NSAIDs. There was no advantage of a strategy of switching prescribed nsNSAIDs to prescribed celecoxib. This study excluded an increased risk of the primary endpoint of more than two events per 1000 patient-years associated with switching to prescribed celecoxib....

  12. Using the questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kazmin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a pilot study of the typically developing preschool children's functionality, their peers with Down syndrome and autism, with a new questionnaire "Functionality-07" (F-07. We have examined 164 children 2,7 - 7,1 years of age (31-95 months: 94 boys and 73 girls, attended educational services, including 11 - with autism, 10 - with Down syndrome. F-07 method has demonstrated high internal coherence: Cronbach alpha = 0.99. Functionality of children with autism and Down syndrome was significantly lower than that of their typically developed peers (p <0,1 E-6. We believe that monitoring of functionality can be used to identify the children requiring special psychological and educational assistance.

  13. Penn State Worry Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Caspersen, Ida Dyhr

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disturbances in childhood. Nonetheless, they often go unrecognized and untreated, which puts the child at risk for developing additional difficulties, such as academic difficulties, depression, and substance abuse. Further knowledge...... and valid assessment tools are essential to identify at-risk children. The present study investigates (i) the factor structure of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C) using a large Danish community sample (N¿=¿933), and (ii) its treatment sensitivity in clinically anxious children (N......¿=¿30) treated with cognitive behavioral therapy. Results from the community sample replicated previous findings supporting the strong psychometric properties of the PSWQ-C, and yielded Danish norms and clinical cut-offs for the measure. Clinically anxious children with a generalized anxiety disorder...

  14. Orthorexia nervosa: validation of a diagnosis questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, L M; Marsili, D; Graziani, M P; Imbriale, M; Cannella, C

    2005-06-01

    To validate a questionnaire for the diagnosis of orhorexia oervosa, an eating disorder defined as "maniacal obsession for healthy food". 525 subjects were enrolled. Then they were randomized into two samples (sample of 404 subjects for the construction of the test for the diagnosis of orthorexia ORTO-15; sample of 121 subjects for the validation of the test). The ORTO-15 questionnaire, validated for the diagnosis of orthorexia, is made-up of 15 multiple-choice items. The test we proposed for the diagnosis of orthorexia (ORTO 15) showed a good predictive capability at a threshold value of 40 (efficacy 73.8%, sensitivity 55.6% and specificity 75.8%) also on verification with a control sample. However, it has a limit in identifying the obsessive disorder. For this reason we maintain that further investigation is necessary and that new questions useful for the evaluation of the obsessive-compulsive behavior should be added to the ORTO-15 questionnaire.

  15. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  16. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  17. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  18. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  19. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  20. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  1. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  2. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  3. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... Abstract. A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in. Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used ...

  4. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  5. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  6. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  7. The effects of Nordic Walking training on selected upper-body muscle groups in female-office workers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Piotr; Pospieszna, Barbara; Choszczewski, Daniel; Michalowski, Lukasz; Wiernicka, Marzena; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Regular Nordic Walking training could improve fitness and reduce tenderness in selected muscle groups in office workers. An assessment of the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking training program on the perceived pain threshold (PPT) and the flexibility of selected upper-body muscle groups in postmenopausal female office workers. 39 office workers were selected at random for the treatment group (NWg, n = 20) and the control group (Cg, n = 19). The persons from the NW group completed a 12-week Nordic Walking training program (3 times a week/1 hour). PPTs measurements in selected muscles and functional tests evaluating upper-body flexibility (Back Scratch - BS) were carried out twice in every participant of the study: before and after the training program. A significant increase in PPT (kg/cm2) was observed in the following muscles in the NW group only: upper trapezius (from 1,32 kg/cm2 to 1,99 kg/cm2), mid trapezius (from 2,92 kg/cm2 to 3,30 kg/cm2), latissimus dorsi (from 1,66 kg/cm2 to 2,21 kg/cm2) and infraspinatus (from 1,63 kg/cm2 to 2,93 kg/cm2). Moreover, a significant improvement in the BS test was noted in the NW group compared with the control group (from -1,16±5,7 cm to 2,18±5,1 cm in the NW group vs from -2,52±6,1 to -2,92±6,2 in the control group). A 12-week Nordic Walking training routine improves shoulder mobility and reduces tenderness in the following muscles: trapezius pars descendens and middle trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi, in female office workers.

  8. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  9. A comparison of the effects of random and selective mass extinctions on erosion of evolutionary history in communities of digital organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yedid

    Full Text Available The effect of mass extinctions on phylogenetic diversity and branching history of clades remains poorly understood in paleobiology. We examined the phylogenies of communities of digital organisms undergoing open-ended evolution as we subjected them to instantaneous "pulse" extinctions, choosing survivors at random, and to prolonged "press" extinctions involving a period of low resource availability. We measured age of the phylogenetic root and tree stemminess, and evaluated how branching history of the phylogenetic trees was affected by the extinction treatments. We found that strong random (pulse and strong selective extinction (press both left clear long-term signatures in root age distribution and tree stemminess, and eroded deep branching history to a greater degree than did weak extinction and control treatments. The widely-used Pybus-Harvey gamma statistic showed a clear short-term response to extinction and recovery, but differences between treatments diminished over time and did not show a long-term signature. The characteristics of post-extinction phylogenies were often affected as much by the recovery interval as by the extinction episode itself.

  10. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  11. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  12. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  13. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  14. Genetic evaluation and selection response for growth in meat-type quail through random regression models using B-spline functions and Legendre polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, L F M; Martins, P G M A; Littiere, T O; Abreu, L R A; Silva, M A; Bonafé, C M

    2017-08-14

    The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age. Residual variances were grouped in four age classes. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using 2 to 4 segments and were modeled by Legendre polynomial with orders of fit ranging from 2 to 4. The model with quadratic B-spline adjustment, using four segments for direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, was the most appropriate and parsimonious to describe the covariance structure of the data. The RRM using Legendre polynomials presented an underestimation of the residual variance. Lesser heritability estimates were observed for multi-trait models in comparison with RRM for the evaluated ages. In general, the genetic correlations between measures of BW from hatching to 35 days of age decreased as the range between the evaluated ages increased. Genetic trend for BW was positive and significant along the selection generations. The genetic response to selection for BW in the evaluated ages presented greater values for RRM compared with multi-trait models. In summary, RRM using B-spline functions with four residual variance classes and segments were the best fit for genetic evaluation of growth traits in meat-type quail. In conclusion, RRM should be considered in genetic evaluation of breeding programs.

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  16. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  17. Questionnaire use among nordic neuropsychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.

    2017-01-01

    The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...

  18. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  19. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  20. Random Group Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics problem solving is highly specific to the problem at hand and to develop the general mind framework to become an effective problem solver requires ingenuity and creativity on top of a solid grounding on theoretical and conceptual knowledge. A blended approach with prototype demo, problem-based learning, and an opinion questionnaire was used during first semester of 2013. Students working in randomly selected teams had to interact with classmates while solving a randomly selected problem. The approach helps improve awareness of what is important to learn in this class while reducing grading load. It also provides a more rewarding contact time for both pupils and instructor.

  1. Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Martínez Rosendo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC. The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. Methods Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico. Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. Results Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1% and negative predictive value (82.2%, the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58 and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16. Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4% and positive predictive value (40.1% as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8 and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39. Conclusion Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher

  2. Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Martínez, Yolanda V; Segovia-Bernal, Yolanda; Reyes-Martínez, Rosendo; Arias-Ulloa, Raul

    2009-01-26

    Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC). The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge) and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes) as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico). Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1%) and negative predictive value (82.2%), the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58) and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16). Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4%) and positive predictive value (40.1%) as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8) and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39). Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher adherence prevalence. Therefore, more research is needed

  3. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Adolescent Meta-cognition Questionnaire Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Khoramdel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role and importance of meta-cognitive beliefs in creating and retaining of anxiety disorders were explained initially in meta-cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to validate the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent version (MCQ-A in normal Iranian people and compare of meta-cognitive beliefs between adolescents with anxiety disorders and normal individuals.Materials and Method: This was a standardized study. First of all, the original version was translated into Persian then administered to 204 (101 boys and 103 girls adolescent aged 13 through 17 years. Theyhave been clustered randomly. They were selected from the schools of Isfahan, together with mood and feelings questionnaire and revised children's manifest anxiety scale. In order to assess reliability, method of internal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficient was used, and also in order to assess validity, convergent validity, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: The results of correlation coefficient of convergent validity showed a relation between total score of (MCQ-A and its components with anxiety and depression except cognitive self-consciousness. Data were indicative of appropriate level of Coranbach’s alpha and split-half reliability coefficients of the MCQ-A and extracted factors. The results of factor analysis by principle components analysis and using varimax rotation showed 5 factors that account for 0.45% of the variance. Conclusion: MCQ-A has satisfactory psychometric properties in Iranian people

  5. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  6. Food consumption of adolescents. A simplified questionnaire for evaluating cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Vera Lucia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a simplified questionnaire for self-evaluation by adolescents of foods associated with the risk of coronary diseases. METHODS: Frequency questionnaires about 80 foods were answered by representative samples of 256 adolescents aged 12 to 19 from Rio de Janeiro as part of the Nutrition and Health Research project. The dependent variable was the serum cholesterol predicting equation as influenced by diet, and the independent variables were the foods. The variables were normalized and, using Pearson's correlation coefficient, those with r>0.10 were selected for the regression model. The model was analyzed for sex, age, random sample, and total calories. Those food products that explained 85% of the cholesterol variation equation were present in the caloric model, and contained trans fatty acids were selected for the questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixty-five food products had a statistically significant correlation (P<0.001 with the dependent variable. The simplified questionnaire included 9 food products present in all tested models: steak or broiled meat, hamburger, full-fat cheese, French fries or potato chips, whole milk, pies or cakes, cookies, sausages, butter or margarine. The limit of the added food points for self-evaluation was 100, and over 120 points was considered excessive. CONCLUSION: The scores given to the food products and the criteria for the evaluation of the consumption limits enabled the adolescents to get to know and to balance their intake.

  7. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  8. Validation and results of a questionnaire for functional bowel disease in out-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skordilis Panagiotis

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to evaluate and validate a bowel disease questionnaire in patients attending an out-patient gastroenterology clinic in Greece. Methods This was a prospective study. Diagnosis was based on detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. The questionnaire was tested on a pilot group of patients. Interviewer-administration technique was used. One-hundred-and-forty consecutive patients attending the out-patient clinic for the first time and fifty healthy controls selected randomly participated in the study. Reliability (kappa statistics and validity of the questionnaire were tested. We used logistic regression models and binary recursive partitioning for assessing distinguishing ability among irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, functional dyspepsia and organic disease patients. Results Mean time for questionnaire completion was 18 min. In test-retest procedure a good agreement was obtained (kappa statistics 0.82. There were 55 patients diagnosed as having IBS, 18 with functional dyspepsia (Rome I criteria, 38 with organic disease. Location of pain was a significant distinguishing factor, patients with functional dyspepsia having no lower abdominal pain (p Conclusions This questionnaire for functional bowel disease is a valid and reliable instrument that can distinguish satisfactorily between organic and functional disease in an out-patient setting.

  9. Assessing the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome according to NCEP ATP III in Germany: feasibility and quality aspects of a two step approach in 1550 randomly selected primary health care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn describes a cluster of metabolic disorders and is considered a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Although a high prevalence is commonly assumed in Germany data about the degree of its occurrence in the population and in subgroups are still missing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn according to the NCEP ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in persons aged ≥18 years attending a general practitioner in Germany. Here we describe in detail the methods used and the feasibility of determining the MetSyn in a primary health care setting. Research design and methods: The German-wide cross-sectional study was performed during two weeks in October 2005. Blood samples were analyzed in a central laboratory. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed, data on smoking, life style, fasting status, socio-demographic characteristics and core information from non-participants collected. Quality control procedures included telephone-monitoring and random on-site visits. In order to achieve a maximal number of fasting blood samples with a minimal need for follow-up appointments a stepwise approach was developed. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated, the Taylor expansion method used to estimate standard errors needed for calculation of confidence intervals for clustered observations. Results: In total, 1511 randomly selected general practices from 397 out of 438 German cities and administrative districts enrolled 35,869 patients (age range: 18-99, women 61.1%. More than 50,000 blood samples were taken. Fasting blood samples were available for 49% of the participants. Of the participating patients 99.3% returned questionnaires to the GP, only 12% were not filled out completely. The overall prevalence of the MetSyn (NCEP/ATP III 2001 was found to be 19.8%, with men showing higher prevalence rates than women (22

  10. Validation of the attitudes toward intellectual disability: ATTID questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, D; Crocker, A G; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R; Caron, J

    2013-03-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire for tapping into the general population's attitudes toward individuals with ID and addresses its psychometric properties. Adopting a multidimensional perspective, the Attitudes Toward Intellectual Disability Questionnaire (ATTID) was developed from a series of previously validated instruments and principles from the Montreal Declaration on Intellectual Disability (2004). The ATTID was administered by phone to 1605 randomly selected adult men and women, stratified by region in the Province of Quebec, Canada. The ATTID yielded a five-factor structure overlapping the tri-partite model of attitudes. The cognitive component was represented by two factors: knowledge of capacity and rights and knowledge of causes of ID. The affective component tapped into two factors: discomfort and sensitivity/compassion. Finally, the behavioural component emerged as a single factor. The ATTID had good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.89 for the five factors and of 0.92 for the overall questionnaire. Test-retest reliability yielded correlations from 0.62 to 0.83 for the five factors. The ATTID can be used to measure attitudes among different populations and allows comparisons over time within the same population as a function of various intervention strategies for de-stigmatising ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Ensemble of random forests One vs. Rest classifiers for MCI and AD prediction using ANOVA cortical and subcortical feature selection and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J; Górriz, J M; Ortiz, A; Martínez-Murcia, F J; Segovia, F; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Castillo-Barnes, D; Illán, I A; Puntonet, C G

    2017-12-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and affects approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very frequently a prodromal phase of AD, and existing studies have suggested that people with MCI tend to progress to AD at a rate of about 10-15% per year. However, the ability of clinicians and machine learning systems to predict AD based on MRI biomarkers at an early stage is still a challenging problem that can have a great impact in improving treatments. The proposed system, developed by the SiPBA-UGR team for this challenge, is based on feature standardization, ANOVA feature selection, partial least squares feature dimension reduction and an ensemble of One vs. Rest random forest classifiers. With the aim of improving its performance when discriminating healthy controls (HC) from MCI, a second binary classification level was introduced that reconsiders the HC and MCI predictions of the first level. The system was trained and evaluated on an ADNI datasets that consist of T1-weighted MRI morphological measurements from HC, stable MCI, converter MCI and AD subjects. The proposed system yields a 56.25% classification score on the test subset which consists of 160 real subjects. The classifier yielded the best performance when compared to: (i) One vs. One (OvO), One vs. Rest (OvR) and error correcting output codes (ECOC) as strategies for reducing the multiclass classification task to multiple binary classification problems, (ii) support vector machines, gradient boosting classifier and random forest as base binary classifiers, and (iii) bagging ensemble learning. A robust method has been proposed for the international challenge on MCI prediction based on MRI data. The system yielded the second best performance during the competition with an accuracy rate of 56.25% when evaluated on the real subjects of the test set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  13. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  14. Radiofrequency catheter selection based on cavotricuspid angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Jamon, Yann; Bisch, Laurence; Isaaz, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) can be performed using either externally cooled-tip RFA catheters or large-tip (8 mm) catheters. However, experimental and clinical studies suggest that the efficacy of both catheters may vary with CTI anatomy and catheters orientation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate: a RFA catheter selection based on CTI angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter together with the risk of an expensive crossover catheter in both groups. Over a period of 16 months, 119 patients were included and randomized. When comparing the angiographic group (n = 56) and the externally cooled-tip RFA catheter group (n = 63), the duration of application time with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4.5-11) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 6-20; P = 0.008) and the duration of X-ray exposure with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4-10) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 5-15; P = 0.025) were significantly lower in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group. Furthermore, the number of catheters crossover was significantly higher in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group I (27% vs 7%; P = 0.007). This study shows that a strategy with a catheter selection based on a CTI angiographic evaluation is superior to an empirical use of an externally cooled-tip catheter during CTI RFA. Thus, angiographic isthmus evaluation predicts the effectiveness of a RFA catheter and the risk of an expensive catheter crossover.

  15. Comparative Evolutionary Histories of the Fungal Chitinase Gene Family Reveal Non-Random Size Expansions and Contractions due to Adaptive Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stenlid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae, and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.

  16. Voiding patterns and prevalence of incontinence in women. A questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P; Bauer, T; Nielsen, K K

    1990-01-01

    A detailed questionnaire on the occurrence of irritative and obstructive voiding symptoms, incontinence and the number of childbirths was sent out to 600 women aged between 20 and 79 years, randomly selected from the National Register; 432 (72%) returned the questionnaire and 414 (69%) were...... with age; 54 (13.6%) voided at least twice per night. About 40% complained of incontinence but this was troublesome in only 6%; 15.3, 13.3 and 11.5% had stress, urge and mixed incontinence respectively. More than 8% wore nappies or sanitary towels every day to protect against urinary leakage. Although...... the tendency to wear nappies or sanitary towels increased with age, the increase was not statistically significant. There was a positive correlation between the occurrence of stress incontinence and childbirth in the group as a whole....

  17. Electronic Bulletin Board Distributed Questionnaires for Exploratory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of electronic bulletin boards, compares it with other possible alternatives, and describes a questionnaire study conducted via Usenet and via traditional mail that investigated self-selection bias. The questionnaire on object-oriented systems is appended. (LRW)

  18. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: their illusive natural history and why subgroup statistics cannot provide normative criteria for clinical decisions or selection criteria for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Roy, D; Weill, A; Guilbert, F; Nguyen, T; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Johnston, S C; Cognard, C; Pierot, L; Meder, J-F; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    There is currently no evidence that treatment of unruptured aneurysms is beneficial. Confronted with the uncertainty, many clinicians are attracted by an individual calculus of risks using numbers extracted from subgroup statistics of observational studies or natural history data. The so-called natural history of unruptured aneurysms refers to a purely man-made ratio of events divided by the number of untreated patients identified by imaging, a ratio heavily influenced by referral patterns and arbitrary clinical decisions. Available studies lacked prespecified hypotheses, exposing all analyses to sampling error and bias, and sample sizes were too small to provide reliable subgroup statistics. Far from being "natural kinds" of aneurysms, subgroups were post-hoc creations. Resulting data-driven statistics can only be exploratory, the error too uncontrollable to serve for clinical decisions. A randomized trial is in order, but selection according to fixed size criteria is ill-advised, given the imprecision of imaging, the influence of other factors such as location, previous history, multiplicity of lesions, risks of treatment, age and the danger of arbitrarily excluding from a long trial a large segment of the population with aneurysms for whom the research question is most pertinent.

  19. Methodological Issues in Questionnaire Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngshin; Son, Youn Jung; Oh, Doonam

    2015-06-01

    The process of designing a questionnaire is complicated. Many questionnaires on nursing phenomena have been developed and used by nursing researchers. The purpose of this paper was to discuss questionnaire design and factors that should be considered when using existing scales. Methodological issues were discussed, such as factors in the design of questions, steps in developing questionnaires, wording and formatting methods for items, and administrations methods. How to use existing scales, how to facilitate cultural adaptation, and how to prevent socially desirable responding were discussed. Moreover, the triangulation method in questionnaire development was introduced. Steps were recommended for designing questions such as appropriately operationalizing key concepts for the target population, clearly formatting response options, generating items and confirming final items through face or content validity, sufficiently piloting the questionnaire using item analysis, demonstrating reliability and validity, finalizing the scale, and training the administrator. Psychometric properties and cultural equivalence should be evaluated prior to administration when using an existing questionnaire and performing cultural adaptation. In the context of well-defined nursing phenomena, logical and systematic methods will contribute to the development of simple and precise questionnaires.

  20. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  1. Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada

    2017-12-08

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic

  2. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  3. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  4. 'How poor are you?' -- a comparison of four questionnaire delivery modes for assessing socio-economic position in rural zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J S Pascoe

    Full Text Available Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting.This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode; a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii ability to afford essential items; and iii food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds.96% (n = 1483 of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode.These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.

  5. 'How poor are you?' -- a comparison of four questionnaire delivery modes for assessing socio-economic position in rural zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Sophie J S; Hargreaves, James R; Langhaug, Lisa F; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. 96% (n = 1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.

  6. Sequence based prediction of DNA-binding proteins based on hybrid feature selection using random forest and Gaussian naïve Bayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangchao Lou

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that

  7. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  8. Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy; Strand, Leif Åge; Borud, Einar Kristian; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold

    2017-09-01

    To adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ). The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015. The questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last 6 months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age = 19.4 years). All participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behaviour, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness and depression. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (P gaming, loss of control and gaming problems) and the first step explained between 1 and 6.1% of the variance in the gaming behaviours. In the second step the four motivational dimensions explained an additional 5.8-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (P Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Second Version of the Taqwa (Piety) Questionnaire in Bahasa Melayu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Hatim, Ahmad; Ardakani, Abolfazl; Ishak, Khafidz; Rashid, Rusdi

    2017-02-10

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire, used for the measurement of behaviour of Drug Dependency Syndrome (DDS), in Malay patients. A sample of 98 males with a psychiatric diagnosis (DSM-IV-R) as the DDS was randomly selected from Kajang Khafidz Polyclinic Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. After receiving their agreement to attend the study, they completed the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire. The reliability was assessed by determining the Cronbach's [Formula: see text] to measure the consistency of related questions for all four dimensions (subscales), including individual, social, cognitional, and emotional Taqwa behaviour. In the next step to evaluate the composite reliability, convergent, and discrimination validity, a measurement model was determined via Conformity Factor Analysis (CFA) based on Partial List Square method (Smart- PLS Ver: 2M3). The reliability of four dimensions of the questionnaire was acceptable ([Formula: see text] correlated to each other. However, according to the CFA method, the items with low loading factor (discrimination validity were satisfied in all conformity factor loading that exceeded 0/05. The psychometric properties of the Taqwa questionnaire are acceptable, and the scale is a good instrument for assessing the Islamic attitude, beliefs, and behaviour of the Bahasa Melayu DDS patients.

  10. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Herman

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for 7 days. Oropharyngeal swabs obtained before, within 48 h post-treatment and at 28-35 days were assessed for proportions of amoxicillin-resistant (ARS; amoxicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L) and -non-susceptible (ANS; MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) streptococci. Alterations in amoxicillin MICs and in penicillin-binding-proteins were also investigated. ITT and PP analyses were conducted. ARS and ANS proportions increased 11- and 2.5-fold, respectively, within 48 h post-amoxicillin treatment compared with placebo [ARS mean increase (MI) 9.46, 95% CI 5.57-13.35; ANS MI 39.87, 95% CI 30.96-48.78; P  0.1588). ARS/ANS were grouped by pbp mutations. Group 1 strains exhibited significantly lower amoxicillin resistance (mean MIC 2.8 mg/L, 95% CI 2.6-3.1) than group 2 (mean MIC 9.3 mg/L, 95% CI 8.1-10.5; P amoxicillin is modest and short-lived, probably due to 'fitness costs' engendered by high-level resistance-conferring mutations. This evidence further supports European guidelines that recommend amoxicillin when an antibiotic is indicated for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  11. Acne RA-1,2, a novel UV-selective face cream for patients with acne: Efficacy and tolerability results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia

    2017-06-01

    General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m(2) ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm(2) ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  13. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Short Form 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Elsous

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a widespread interest in exploring healthcare providers’ attitudes and perceptions about patient safety culture. This study was done to determine the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ in Palestinian hospitals. Methods: This was a methodological study and the SAQ was translated into Arabic using the forward-backward translation technique. Four Ministry of Health hospitals in the Gaza Strip were randomly selected, and proportionate systematic sampling was followed to select the participants. Questionnaires were distributed to 370 physicians and nurses. Face and content validity were tested, and the content validity index was determined using the average approach. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha, split-half reliability, and intercorrelation between the questionnaire scales. Construct validity was assessed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A total of 339 questionnaires were received, giving a response rate of 91.6%. Questionnaire acceptability was good and relevant to the study purpose. Cronbach’s alpha value was 77.7 (74.7–82.2. Goodness of fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory model fit: comparative fit of indices (CFI = 0.797, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.085, and standardized root square residual (SRMR = 0.074. Factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that six factors explained 62.3% of the variance. Conclusions: The Arabic version of SAQ (short form 2006 is valid and reliable, and shows a satisfactory model of fit. This instrument shows promise to be a sound tool to assess the safety culture in Palestinian hospitals.

  14. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  15. Comparison of agomelatine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Lin; Lu, Wan-Chen; Wang, Ying-Yue; Hu, Gwo-Chi; Lu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Wei-Ying; Hsu, Chien-Chi

    2014-07-01

    Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with unique melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) and 1B ( MTNR1B) agonism and serotonergic receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HT-2C) antagonism. Several studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have confirmed the superior efficacy and safety of agomelatine in comparison with established treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This meta-analysis comprehensively shows the efficacy, acceptability, and safety of agomelatine in comparison with SSRIs and SNRIs used as antidepressants in MDD. Comprehensive electronic database searches were performed to identify reports of head-to-head randomized controlled trials that have compared agomelatine with SSRIs or SNRIs in terms of efficacy/effectiveness in treating MDD. Response and remission rates at both acute (6-12 weeks) and follow-up (24 weeks) phases, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale response and remission rates, changes in depression scale scores, improvements in subjective sleep, dropout rates, and side effect rates were extracted and analysed. The meta-analysis included six head-to-head trials involving 1871 patients. In the acute phase, agomelatine had higher response rates (relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.15) compared to SSRIs and SNRIs. In the remission analysis, only acute remission rates (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24) significantly differed. The action of agomelatine was superior on the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire-Quality of Sleep score (mean difference 4.05, 95% CI 0.61-7.49). Discontinuation due to inefficacy did not differ between agomelatine and SSRIs/SNRIs (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42-1.28). Compared to SSRIs and SNRIs, however, agomelatine revealed a lower rate of discontinuation due to side effects (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.57). Agomelatine has significantly higher efficacy and potential acceptability compared to SSRIs and

  16. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  17. A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Pivotal Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of a Selective Cytopheretic Device in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Tumlin

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a highly morbid condition in critically ill patients that is associated with high mortality. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Selective Cytopheretic Device (SCD in the treatment of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU.A randomized, controlled trial of 134 ICU patients with AKI, 69 received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT alone and 65 received SCD therapy.No significant difference in 60-day mortality was observed between the treated (27/69; 39% and control patients (21/59; 36%, with six patients lost to follow up in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. Of the 19 SCD subjects (CRRT+SCD and 31 control subjects (CRRT alone who maintained a post-filter ionized calcium (iCa level in the protocol's recommended range (≤ 0.4 mmol/L for greater or equal to 90% of the therapy time, 60-day mortality was 16% (3/19 in the SCD group compared to 41% (11/27 in the CRRT alone group (p = 0.11. Dialysis dependency showed a borderline statistically significant difference between the SCD treated versus control CRRT alone patients maintained for ≥ 90% of the treatment in the protocol's recommended (r iCa target range of ≤ 0.4 mmol/L with values of, 0% (0/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively (P = 0.10. When the riCa treated and control subgroups were compared for a composite index of 60 day mortality and dialysis dependency, the percentage of SCD treated subjects was 16% versus 58% in the control subjects (p<0.01. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between the treated (45/69; 65% and control groups (40/65; 63%; p = 0·86.SCD therapy may improve mortality and reduce dialysis dependency in a tightly controlled regional hypocalcaemic environment in the perfusion circuit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400893 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01400893.

  18. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of amnioreduction versus selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Shera, David; Lee, Hanmin; Johnson, Mark; D’Alton, Mary; Porter, Flint; Chyu, Jacquelyn; Silver, Richard; Abuhamad, Alfred; Saade, George; Shields, Laurence; Kauffman, David; Stone, Joanne; Albanese, Craig T.; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Ball, Robert H.; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Coleman, Beverly; Farmer, Diana; Feldstein, Vickie; Harrison, Michael R.; Hedrick, Holly; Livingston, Jeffrey; Lorenz, Robert P.; Miller, David A.; Norton, Mary E.; Polzin, William J.; Robinson, Julian N.; Rychik, Jack; Sandberg, Per L.; Seri, Istvan; Simon, Erin; Simpson, Lynn L.; Yedigarova, Larisa; Wilson, R. Douglas; Young, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (SFLP) versus serial amnioreduction (AR) on perinatal mortality in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Study Design 5-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome variable was 30-day postnatal survival of donors and recipients. Results There is no statistically significant difference in 30-day postnatal survival between SFLP or AR treatment for donors at 55% (11/20) vs 55% (11/20) (p=1, OR=1, 95%CI=0.242 to 4.14) or recipients at 30% (6/20) vs 45% (9/20) (p=0.51, OR=1.88, 95%CI=0.44 to 8.64). There is no difference in 30-day survival of one or both twins on a per pregnancy basis between AR at 75% (15/20) and SFLP at 65% (13/20) (p=0.73, OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.34 to 8.09). Overall survival (newborns divided by the number of fetuses treated) is not statistically significant for AR at 60% (24/40) vs SFLP 45% (18/40) (p=0.18, OR=2.01, 95%CI=0.76 to 5.44). There is a statistically significant increase in fetal recipient mortality in the SFLP arm at 70% (14/20) versus the AR arm at 35% (7/20) (p=0.25, OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.19 to 27.6). This is offset by increased recipient neonatal mortality of 30% (6/20) in the AR arm. Echocardiographic abnormality in recipient twin Cardiovascular Profile Score is the most significant predictor of recipient mortality (p=0.055, OR=3.025/point) by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The outcome of the trial does not conclusively determine whether AR or SFLP is a superior treatment modality. TTTS cardiomyopathy appears to be an important factor in recipient survival in TTTS. PMID:17904975

  19. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  20. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reales, Jos? M; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Elo?Sa; Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    .... Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com...

  1. Narcotics Center Questionnaire (Spring 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 115 items (multiple choice, yes/no, agree/disagree, or completion) deal with personal and demographic data, general attitudes, attitudes toward institutions (police, American business, Army, etc.),…

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  3. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2013-01-01

    The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire (OM-6) is the most frequently used instrument to measure health related quality of life in children with otitis media. The main objectives of this study are 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the OM-6 into Danish, and 2) to assess important psychometric...

  4. Mother's lifestyle: development of a questionnaire to assess a determinant of children's health. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bezerra Nobre

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lifestyle includes the personal attitudes or behavioral patterns that result in risks or benefits to the individual's own health or that of others. Children's health is particularly determined by their mother's lifestyle. The objective here was to develop and evaluate the reliability of a questionnaire capable of describing the lifestyles of preschoolers' mothers in terms of their activities, interests, opinions and values. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a public university. METHODS: This study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2011, among 255 mothers of preschoolers living in the southeastern region of the municipality of São Paulo. A proportional stratified random probabilistic sample with two strata was selected: schools were drawn and then the children. Three instruments found in the literature were used to create the lifestyle questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed in eight stages: preliminary pretest, cultural adaptation, second pretest, pilot study, semantic correction and adaptation, third pretest, final research and final retest. Cronbach's alpha and pairwise correlation coefficients were used. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha value in the final version was 0.83 and the pre and post-test pairwise correlation coefficients were greater than 0.5. Factor analysis identified five factors that explained 73.51% of the correlation variance. As a result, seven variables were eliminated from the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire described five lifestyle domains, with good reliability, and can be used in combination with preschoolers' health and nutritional outcomes.

  5. Development and Validation of the Quality-of-Life Adolescent Cleft Questionnaire in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombino, Pasquale; Ruggiero, Federica; Dell’Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Domenico; Bianchi, Alberto; De Simone, Federica; Carnevale, Nina; Brancati, Federica; Iengo, Maurizio; Grassia, Maria Gabriella; Cataldo, Rosanna; Califano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Only a few reports in the literature have described the use of specific instruments for assessing the quality of life in adolescents and young adults with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This condition markedly affects their lifestyle, even after surgical treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a quality-of-life assessment tool specifically designed for such patients with CLP. Our multidisciplinary team created a questionnaire focused on the physical, psychological, and social satisfaction of adolescents and young adults with CLP, which was adapted from 3 dimensions of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of 40 adolescents and young adults (aged 16–24 years) with CLP who had completed treatment protocols and 40 (aged 16–24 years) who were not affected by CLP. The statistical results stated that the questionnaire had good reliability and validity; the Cronbach α coefficient was found to be 0.944. Moreover, factorial analysis confirmed the presence of 3 subscales that were the fundamental components of this questionnaire, which is consistent with the areas theoretically proposed and from which the items were designed and selected. Thus, we validated our novel questionnaire that was administered in the present study and proved its consistency. However, further investigations on a larger population would be useful to confirm these findings. PMID:25010834

  6. [Questionnaire for the mobbing risk: CDL2.0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, R; Cassitto, M G; Campanini, P; Punzi, S; Consonni, D; Rengo, C; Fattorini, E; Foá, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop and validate a questionnaire able to evaluate the risk of mobbing at the workplace. A multiple-choice questionnaire has been developed which contains, among the different items, only one revealing a mobbing situation. The questionnaire has been administered to two groups (group A--243 subjects in a mobbing situation and group B--63 subjects without exposure to mobbing) and the differences in the scores obtained have been analysed. The questionnaire has proved to be valid and reliable. The results show that the presence of five mobbing actions is sufficient to define the workplace situation as potentially at risk for mobbing. The study reveals some limits in the selection of the two samples thus needing some adjustment. However, the questionnaire, also in the present form, can be considered a tool able to detect the mobbing situations.

  7. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    error present when the Oswestry was scored in the same way. Methods ·         For each of 311 fully completed RMDQ23 questionnaires from people seeking primary or secondary care, a sum score was calculated and standardized to a 100-point scale. ·         Using random number generation, questions were...... Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) sum scores when one or more questions have not been answered. However, missing data are common on the RMDQ and the current options are: calculate a sum score regardless of unanswered questions, reject all data containing unanswered questions, or to impute scores. Other...... questionnaires, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) convert their raw score into a standardized score out of 100. An advantage of this method is that it allows missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. For example, if 17 questions had been answered ’yes’ on a RMDQ questionnaire...

  8. Reliability and validity of job content questionnaire for university research laboratory staff in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehzat, F; Huda, B Z; Tajuddin, S H Syed

    2014-03-01

    Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been proven a reliable and valid instrument to assess job stress in many countries and among various occupations. In Malaysia, both English and Malay versions of the JCQ have been administered to automotive workers, schoolteachers, and office workers. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument with research laboratory staff in a university. A cross sectional study was conducted among 258 research laboratory staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Malaysian laboratory staff who have worked for at least one year were randomly selected from nine faculties and institutes in the university that have research laboratory. A self-administered English and Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used. Three major scales of JCQ: decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support were assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of two scales were acceptable, decision latitude and psychological job demands (0.70 and 0.72, respectively), while Cronbach's alpha coefficient for social support (0.86) was good. Exploratory factor analysis showed five factors that correspond closely to the theoretical construct of the questionnaire. The results of this research suggest that the JCQ is reliable and valid for examining psychosocial work situations and job strain among research laboratory staff. Further studies should be done for confirmative results, and further evaluation is needed on the decision authority subscale for this occupation.

  9. Predicting postnatal mental disorder with a screening questionnaire: a prospective cohort study from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, S; Patel, V; Acuda, W

    1998-04-01

    Postnatal mental disorders are common causes of morbidity but are rarely diagnosed or treated in busy primary care clinics in developing countries. To determine whether a brief psychiatric screening questionnaire used in the 8th month of pregnancy can predict postnatal mental disorder. Prospective cohort study. SITE: A peri-urban settlement in Zimbabwe. 500 women in the 8th month of pregnancy identified by traditional birth attendants and primary care clinics. "High risk" cohort consisted of all women who scored 8 or more on the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), an indigenous psychiatric questionnaire (n = 95). Low risk cohort consisted of 105 women randomly selected from the remainder of the sampling frame. Revised Clinical Interview Schedule at six to eight weeks postpartum; scores of 14 or more indicate psychiatric caseness. The prevalence of postnatal mental illness was 16%. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for high risk women becoming cases in the postnatal period were 10.6, 4.8, 23.9, p mental disorder can be used with reasonable accuracy in the 8th month of pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions applied to this high risk group can reduce their postnatal morbidity.

  10. Day 3 embryo selection by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouw, C.G.; Kieslinger, D.C.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Botros, L.L.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Sakkas, D.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    study question: Is the selection of a single Day 3 embryo by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology able to improve live birth rates in IVF, compared with embryo selection by morphology alone? summary answer: The live birth rate

  11. Measuring Computer Literacy Without Questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Simons, Liseth; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS) benefit from understanding the user: a user profile can help select the right way to formulate an argument, selecting the right tone, format and content. Part of such a profile is an adequate representation of the computer literacy of a user. Unfortunately,

  12. Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautron, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test-retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 second...

  14. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  15. A comparison of the standard and the computerized versions of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, the equivalence of paper and pencil assessment versus computer assessment of two self-administered questionnaires was investigated by means of a randomized cross-over design. Therefore, 105 out-patients with diabetes were invited to participate; 76 patients completed both...... the computer and the paper and pencil version of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) in a randomized order, with a mean interval of 7 days. The scales showed high test-retest correlations and the means, dispersions, kurtosis and skewness were found...

  16. Developing the Medication Change Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, C; Symons, L; Britten, N; Bargh, J

    2004-08-01

    People who seek non-pharmaceutical interventions are often motivated by a desire to avoid or reduce orthodox medication. Effectiveness research in these areas needs to measure change in medication as an outcome. We set out to develop a data collection tool that is sensitive to changes in individual drug use over time. A multi-disciplinary team designed, piloted, and revised the Medication Change Questionnaire (MCQ) on two occasions, and used qualitative interviews to understand the patient's perspective and ensure that the final product accurately reflected the medication that patients were taking. Thirty patients in one general practice completed the questionnaire on two occasions and a purposive sample of 14 were interviewed. The design sought to enable patients to record all their ingested medication accurately, both prescription and over-the-counter drugs, over a period of 7 days. It was designed to be administered face-to face on the first occasion, and to be self-completed on subsequent occasions. In considering in detail what medication was taken each day, the interview data fully correlated with the MCQ data in only one of the five people who were interviewed after completing the first draft of the questionnaire, but in eight of the nine people who completed the second draft. Of these eight people all but one had made some change to their medication, either by stopping or starting a drug, varying the dose of a drug or always taking one or more drugs in varying doses. The interviews demonstrated the complex and individual ways that people took their medicines, and the disparity between what was prescribed and what was actually taken. The qualitative data were also useful for reflecting on the potential advantages and disadvantages of other data collection methods, such as single medication questions and pill counts. By involving patients at every level of research, we have developed a questionnaire that enables people to record their medication use

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial of the Oral Selective NR2B Antagonist MK-0657 in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Lobna; DiazGranados, Nancy; Jolkovsky, Libby; Brutsche, Nancy; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Herring, W. Joseph; Potter, William Z.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system may play an increasingly important role in the development of novel therapeutics for major depressive disorder (MDD), particularly agents associated with rapid antidepressant effects. Diverse glutamatergic modulators targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have shown efficacy in MDD, but their associated psychotomimetic effects presently preclude their use in larger samples. This small, randomized, double-blind, placebo-contr...

  18. Methods and analysis of realizing randomized grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Randomization is one of the four basic principles of research design. The meaning of randomization includes two aspects: one is to randomly select samples from the population, which is known as random sampling; the other is to randomly group all the samples, which is called randomized grouping. Randomized grouping can be subdivided into three categories: completely, stratified and dynamically randomized grouping. This article mainly introduces the steps of complete randomization, the definition of dynamic randomization and the realization of random sampling and grouping by SAS software.

  19. Rasch Derived Teachers' Emotions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L K; Mudrey, Renee R; Ahmed, Wondimu

    The purpose of this research was to estimate the reliability of the scores produced from and validity of the inferences drawn from the revised 90-item Teachers' Emotion Questionnaire consisting of three measures: frequency of emotional expressivity, self-efficacy for regulation of emotional expressivity when teaching, and self-efficacy for regulation of context-specific emotional expressivity. A void exists in an instrument assessing teachers' regulation and communication of their emotions. One-hundred seventeen practicing teachers participated in this study at Time 1 and 46 at Time 2. Rasch rating scale analyses indicated sufficient item and person separation and reliability and some support for the construct validity of the inferences drawn from the measures. Test re-test reliability for the person estimates was supported for all three measures over a four-week period: r=.592, pemotional expressivity when teaching measure with the re-appraisal and suppression sub-scales on the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003) was supported at Time 1. Modifications to rating scales and future directions for assessing teachers' emotions based on these results are discussed.

  20. Can quality of life questionnaires be used in diabetics to assess the relation between HbA1c and patients' domain aspects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanlou, Alireza Shahab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Kimmiagar, Masoud; Vafaei, Maryam; Heydarnia, Alireza; Sobhani, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades, quality of life (QOL) has become an important concept in medical researches and treatments. Different meaningful reasons are given for this development. In the current research two standard questionnaires for evaluating of QOL were selected. First one, was a questionnaire from The World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF 26) and the second one, The Iranian Diabetics' Quality of Life (IRDQOL). The goal of this study is to assess the relation between different domains of these questionnaires and HbA1c in diabetics. A random sample of Iranian adult outpatient diabetics (n=76) was selected and they completed the WHOQOL and IRDQOL assessment instruments. In addition HbA1c was measured in these patients by calorimetric method. Comparisons were made between scores of "questionnaires' domains" and "HbA1c". Data analysis was carried out by the use of T-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and non-parametric statistical methods including Spearman correlation coefficient. Data analysis shows Psychological domain score in IRDQOL is lower than in WHOQOL and it is significant (Pdiabetics. Based on the findings in this research, there was obviously almost no difference between the two questionnaires for checking the QOL, but in IRDQOL spiritual domain is a very unreliable domain.

  1. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ... (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life...

  2. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...... with 22 items and a three-factor model with 12 items). RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor model with 21 items (negative well-being, energy and positive well-being). In the subgroups of group B confirmatory factor analyses only accepted the three-factor model with 12 items....... This factor solution was stable across gender, type of diabetes and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items), negative well-being...

  3. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    . This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  4. [Mental Health in the General Hospital: Results of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in Four Hospital Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Delgado-Barrera, Lucía; Aparicio-Turbay, Soraya; Molano, Juan Carlos; Noguera, Efraín

    2012-03-01

    Few individuals have access to mental health services due in part to underdetection. As it is more likely to consult for medical conditions, primary care may be a useful gateway for early detection of mental health problems. Detection of the frequency of mental health problems in four hospital services at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá: Outpatient unit, hospitalization, emergency department, and primary care through a brief detection questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Cross-sectional study of patients seen at the four services who answered a Demographic Data Questionnaire and the PHQ together with information gathered about current medical diagnosis, history of visits, and hospitalizations during the last year. 1094 patients seen at the four hospital services between September 2010 and May 2011 were selected at random. A mental health problem was detected in 36.7% of the total sample. Major depressive disorder (7.3%), alcohol abuse (14.4%), and any anxiety disorder (7.7%) showed the highest prevalence with the emergency department showing the highest frequency of detection. The usefulness of a brief detection questionnaire such as the PHQ in hospital settings is demonstrated and implications in the design of mental health programs in the general hospital are discussed. The need to replicate this study in other settings and to undertake further research is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine does not change rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although widely prescribed, the evidence for the use of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has visceral analgesic properties, leading to

  6. Adjacent, distal, or combination of point-selective effects of acupuncture on temporomandibular joint disorders: A randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Kang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that point-selective effects among adjacent, distal, or a combination of acupoints are hardly associated with pain intensity or palpation index in participants with TMDs. Larger sample size trials are required to overcome the shortcomings of the study.

  7. Friendship Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We model the formation of friendships as repeated cooperation within a set of heterogeneous players. The model builds around three of the most important facts about friendship: friends help each other, there is reciprocity in the relationship and people usually have few friends. In our results we explain how similarity between people affects the friendship selection. We also characterize when the friendship network won’t depend on the random process by which people meet each other. Finally, w...

  8. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  9. Development, validity, and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire for antioxidants in elderly Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Malekahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, as a way to assess the dietary intake in comparison with other methods, is easier to analyze and takes less time and is less costly. Our aim in this study was to develop and validate an FFQ for estimating the intakes of selected antioxidants in elderly Iranian people. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 elderly people were randomly selected. Three-day food records were completed by the subjects and collected every 2 months and dietary intake levels of zinc, selenium, carotenes and vitamins C and E were estimated. Based on the food records data, geographic location, and age, an FFQ was designed to estimate antioxidant intakes during 1 year. In addition, for controlling energy intake, 2-day food records were also collected with the food frequency questionnaire. To assess the reliability, 40 individuals were asked to complete the FFQ twice with an interval of 3 months in between. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between the two FFQs ​​for antioxidant C, antioxidant E, carotene, selenium, and zinc were 0.62, 0.47, 0.51, 0.54, and 0.58, respectively (P < 0.05. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients between the FFQ and the food records, after controlling energy for vitamin C, vitamin E, carotene, selenium, and zinc, were 0.46, 0.48, 0.38, 0.55, and 0.47 respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, considering the fact that the FFQ was designed for the elderly and the special conditions (patience, memory, etc. and vulnerability of this age group, the questionnaire is relatively valid and reliable to use.

  10. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L.; Kelbæk, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before...... a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups....

  11. Selective CO2 Sequestration with Monolithic Bimodal Micro/Macroporous Carbon Aerogels Derived from Stepwise Pyrolytic Decomposition of Polyamide-Polyimide-Polyurea Random Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan M; Rewatkar, Parwani M; Majedi Far, Hojat; Taghvaee, Tahereh; Donthula, Suraj; Mandal, Chandana; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Leventis, Nicholas

    2017-04-19

    Polymeric aerogels (PA-xx) were synthesized via room-temperature reaction of an aromatic triisocyanate (tris(4-isocyanatophenyl) methane) with pyromellitic acid. Using solid-state CPMAS (13)C and (15)N NMR, it was found that the skeletal framework of PA-xx was a statistical copolymer of polyamide, polyurea, polyimide, and of the primary condensation product of the two reactants, a carbamic-anhydride adduct. Stepwise pyrolytic decomposition of those components yielded carbon aerogels with both open and closed microporosity. The open micropore surface area increased from CO2 opened access to the closed pores and the micropore area increased by almost 4× to 1150 m(2) g(-1) (out of 1750 m(2) g(-1) of a total BET surface area). At 0 °C, etched carbon aerogels demonstrated a good balance of adsorption capacity for CO2 (up to 4.9 mmol g(-1)), and selectivity toward other gases (via Henry's law). The selectivity for CO2 versus H2 (up to 928:1) is suitable for precombustion fuel purification. Relevant to postcombustion CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS), the selectivity for CO2 versus N2 was in the 17:1 to 31:1 range. In addition to typical factors involved in gas sorption (kinetic diameters, quadrupole moments and polarizabilities of the adsorbates), it is also suggested that CO2 is preferentially engaged by surface pyridinic and pyridonic N on carbon (identified with XPS) in an energy-neutral surface reaction. Relatively high uptake of CH4 (2.16 mmol g(-1) at 0 °C/1 bar) was attributed to its low polarizability, and that finding paves the way for further studies on adsorption of higher (i.e., more polarizable) hydrocarbons. Overall, high CO2 selectivities, in combination with attractive CO2 adsorption capacities, low monomer cost, and the innate physicochemical stability of carbon render the materials of this study reasonable candidates for further practical consideration.

  12. Decision-making after continuous wins or losses in a randomized guessing task: implications for how the prior selection results affect subsequent decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Hongli; Du, Xiaoxia

    2014-04-03

    Human decision-making is often affected by prior selections and their outcomes, even in situations where decisions are independent and outcomes are unpredictable. In this study, we created a task that simulated real-life non-strategic gambling to examine the effect of prior outcomes on subsequent decisions in a group of male college students. Behavioral performance showed that participants needed more time to react after continuous losses (LOSS) than continuous wins (WIN) and discontinuous outcomes (CONTROL). In addition, participants were more likely to repeat their selections in both WIN and LOSS conditions. Functional MRI data revealed that decisions in WINs were associated with increased activation in the mesolimbic pathway, but decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus relative to LOSS. Increased prefrontal cortical activation was observed during LOSS relative to WIN and CONTROL conditions. Taken together, the behavioral and neuroimaging findings suggest that participants tended to repeat previous selections during LOSS trials, a pattern resembling the gambler's fallacy. However, during WIN trials, participants tended to follow their previous lucky decisions, like the 'hot hand' fallacy.

  13. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of Serratulae quinquefoliae folium, a new source of β-arbutin, in selected skin hyperpigmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Monika; Nawrot, Joanna; Siatkowski, Idzi; Adamski, Zygmunt; Fedorowicz, Tomasz; Dawid-Pac, Renata; Urbanska, Maria; Nowak, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Arbutin is one of the most effective lightening substances. Serratula quinquefolia is a new source of its β-anomer. The HPLC method showed that the solid content of this compound in the dried plant raw material accounts for 6.86%. The leaves of Serratula quinquefolia do not contain hydroquinone. To assess the efficacy of the aqueous extract from' leaf of five-leaf serratula as a skin-lightening agent. We did a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The study involved 102 women aged 26-55, with two kinds of hyperpigmentary diseases: melasma and lentigo solaris. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups: a study group (N = 54) or a control group (N = 48). The study group applied the cream with the aqueous extract from leaf of five-leaf serratula containing 2.51% of arbutin. The cream was applied twice a day on the discolored side for 8 weeks. The experimental data showed that the cream with the extract causes decreased level of melanin in the skin pigmentation spot. Clinical effect in the form of lightening and evening skin tone on the discolored side was observed in 75.86% of the female patients with melasma and 56.00 % of the female patients with lentigo solaris. The cream with the aqueous extract from leaf of five-leaf serratula proved to be an effective and safe preparation for lightening skin discolorations (66.67 % of the female patients in the study group). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emmanuelle R; Moritz, Steffen; Schwannauer, Matthias; Wiseman, Zoe; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Scott, Jan; Beck, Aaron T; Donaldson, Catherine; Hagen, Roger; Ross, Kerry; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Ison, Rebecca; Williams, Sally; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa A

    2014-03-01

    The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes. Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas.

  15. Can Quality of Life Questionnaires be Used in Diabetics to Assess the Relation Between HbA1c and Patients' Domain Aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, quality of life (QOL has become an important concept in medical researches and treatments. Different meaningful reasons are given for this development. In the current research two standard questionnaires for evaluating of QOL were selected. First one, was a questionnaire from The World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF 26 and the second one, The Iranian Diabetics' Quality of Life (IRDQOL. The goal of this study is to assess the relation between different domains of these questionnaires and HbA1c in diabetics. A random sample of Iranian adult outpatient diabetics (n=76 was selected and they completed the WHOQOL and IRDQOL assessment instruments. In addition HbA1c was measured in these patients by calorimetric method. Comparisons were made between scores of "questionnaires' domains" and "HbA1c". Data analysis was carried out by the use of T-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and non-parametric statistical methods including Spearman correlation coefficient. Data analysis shows Psychological domain score in IRDQOL is lower than in WHOQOL and it is significant (P<0.0001. Physical domain score in IRDQOL is lower than WHOQOL and it is significant (P<0.0001. In WHOQOL questionnaire, analysis data showed when the patient's age increased, physical and psychological domain's score decreased. There is probably no relation between questionnaire domains and HbA1c in diabetics. Based on the findings in this research, there was obviously almost no difference between the two questionnaires for checking the QOL, but in IRDQOL spiritual domain is a very unreliable domain.

  16. Why does epidemiology need better questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, S.; Ring, I.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research.......The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research....

  17. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  18. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient delta

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper intr...

  19. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient δ

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This p...

  20. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  1. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ferrario S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Rossi Ferrario,1 Ines Giorgi,2 Paola Baiardi,3 Laura Giuntoli,4 Gianluigi Balestroni,1 Paola Cerutti,1 Marina Manera,2 Paola Gabanelli,2 Valentina Solara,5 Roberta Fornara,6 Michela Luisetti,1 Pierangela Omarini,1 Giovanna Omarini,1 Giulio Vidotto4 1Psychology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Veruno, NO, Italy; 2Psychology Unit, 3Scientific Direction, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 5Department of Neurology, ALS Centre, “Maggiore della Carita`” University Hospital, Novara, Italy; 6Psychology Unit, SS Trinità Hospital, Borgomanero, NO, Italy Purpose: Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ assessing patients’ and caregivers’ denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. Patients and methods: After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers together with the Anxiety–Depression Questionnaire – Reduced form (AD-R, in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω, and test–retest analysis were performed. Results: CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α: 0.87–0.96 indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and

  2. Randomized Comparison of Selective Internal Radiotherapy (SIRT) Versus Drug-Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael B., E-mail: michael.pitton@unimedizin-mainz.de; Kloeckner, Roman [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Ruckes, Christian [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, IZKS (Germany); Wirth, Gesine M. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Eichhorn, Waltraud [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Wörns, Marcus A.; Weinmann, Arndt [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Schreckenberger, Mathias [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Galle, Peter R. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Otto, Gerd [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare SIRT and DEB-TACE for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsFrom 04/2010–07/2012, 24 patients with histologically proven unresectable N0, M0 HCCs were randomized 1:1 to receive SIRT or DEB-TACE. SIRT could be repeated once in case of recurrence; while, TACE was repeated every 6 weeks until no viable tumor tissue was detected by MRI or contraindications prohibited further treatment. Patients were followed-up by MRI every 3 months; the final evaluation was 05/2013.ResultsBoth groups were comparable in demographics (SIRT: 8males/4females, mean age 72 ± 7 years; TACE: 10males/2females, mean age 71 ± 9 years), initial tumor load (1 patient ≥25 % in each group), and BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) stage (SIRT: 12×B; TACE 1×A, 11×B). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 180 days for SIRT versus 216 days for TACE patients (p = 0.6193) with a median TTP of 371 days versus 336 days, respectively (p = 0.5764). Median OS was 592 days for SIRT versus 788 days for TACE patients (p = 0.9271). Seven patients died in each group. Causes of death were liver failure (n = 4 SIRT group), tumor progression (n = 4 TACE group), cardiovascular events, and inconclusive (n = 1 in each group).ConclusionsNo significant differences were found in median PFS, OS, and TTP. The lower rate of tumor progression in the SIRT group was nullified by a greater incidence of liver failure. This pilot study is the first prospective randomized trial comparing SIRT and TACE for treating HCC, and results can be used for sample size calculations of future studies.

  3. [Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the selective anxiolytic afobazole in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorders: Results of a multicenter randomized comparative study of diazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syunyakov, T S; Neznamov, G G

    to summarize the previously published results of a multicenter randomized clinical research phase III study trial of afobazole (INN: fabomotizole) versus diazepam in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and adjustment disorders (AD). Five investigating centers included 150 patients aged 18 to 60 years (60 patients with GAD and 90 with AD) a simple structure of anxiety disorders without concurrent mental, neurological or somatic disorders. Patients were randomized to take afobazole (30 mg/day; n=100) or diazepam (30 mg/day; n=50) for 30 days. Prior to drug administration, patients susceptible to placebo were excluded according to the results of its 7-day use. Withdrawal syndrome was evaluated within 10 days after completion of active therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total score. The scores of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale and the Sheehan Scale as secondary efficacy endpoints  were analyzed. Drug safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events. Afobazole and diazepam caused a significant reduction of HAMA total score. In the afobazole group, the reduction of anxiety  exceeded that in the diazepam group (the difference in the total score changes was 2.93 [0.67; 5.19]; p=0,01).The proportion of patients with reduction of disease severity was 72% in the afobazole group and 58% in the diazepam group. After therapy completion, the proportion of patients with no or mild disorder in the afobazole group was significantly higher than that in the diazepam group (69 and 44%, respectively; χ2=12.46; p=0,014). There was a trend toward a higher subjective patient-rated estimate of the afobazole effect using the Sheehan scale. There were a total of 15 and 199 adverse events in the afobazole and diazepam groups, respectively. No manifestations of afobazole withdrawal syndrome were found. Diazepam withdrawal syndrome was observed in 34 (68%) patients. Afobazole is an

  4. Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muquith Mohammed A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM. The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ into Bengali (B-FIQ and to test its validity and reliability in Bangladeshi patients with FM. Methods The FIQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines and pretested in 30 female patients with FM. Next, the adapted B-FIQ was physician-administered to 102 consecutive female FM patients together with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, selected subscales of the SF-36, and visual analog scales for current clinical symptoms. A tender point count (TPC was performed by an experienced rheumatologist. Forty randomly selected patients completed the B-FIQ again after 7 days. Two control groups of 50 healthy people and 50 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients also completed the B-FIQ. Results For the final B-FIQ, five physical function sub-items were replaced with culturally appropriate equivalents. Internal consistency was adequate for both the 11-item physical function subscale (α = 0.73 and the total scale (α = 0.83. With exception of the physical function subscale, expected correlations were generally observed between the B-FIQ items and selected subscales of the SF-36, HAQ, clinical symptoms, and TPC. The B-FIQ was able to discriminate between FM patients and healthy controls and between FM patients and RA patients. Test-retest reliability was adequate for the physical function subscale (r = 0.86 and individual items (r = 0.73-0.86, except anxiety (r = 0.27 and morning tiredness (r = 0.64. Conclusion This study supports the reliability and validity of the B-FIQ as a measure of functional disability and health status in Bangladeshi women with FM.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muquith, Mohammed A; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haq, Syed A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Rasker, Johannes J; Yunus, Muhammad B

    2012-08-27

    Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Bengali (B-FIQ) and to test its validity and reliability in Bangladeshi patients with FM. The FIQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines and pretested in 30 female patients with FM. Next, the adapted B-FIQ was physician-administered to 102 consecutive female FM patients together with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), selected subscales of the SF-36, and visual analog scales for current clinical symptoms. A tender point count (TPC) was performed by an experienced rheumatologist. Forty randomly selected patients completed the B-FIQ again after 7 days. Two control groups of 50 healthy people and 50 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients also completed the B-FIQ. For the final B-FIQ, five physical function sub-items were replaced with culturally appropriate equivalents. Internal consistency was adequate for both the 11-item physical function subscale (α = 0.73) and the total scale (α = 0.83). With exception of the physical function subscale, expected correlations were generally observed between the B-FIQ items and selected subscales of the SF-36, HAQ, clinical symptoms, and TPC. The B-FIQ was able to discriminate between FM patients and healthy controls and between FM patients and RA patients. Test-retest reliability was adequate for the physical function subscale (r = 0.86) and individual items (r = 0.73-0.86), except anxiety (r = 0.27) and morning tiredness (r = 0.64). This study supports the reliability and validity of the B-FIQ as a measure of functional disability and health status in Bangladeshi women with FM.

  7. Item generation and design testing of a questionnaire to assess degenerative joint disease-associated pain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamprogno, Helia; Hansen, Bernie D; Bondell, Howard D; Sumrell, Andrea Thomson; Simpson, Wendy; Robertson, Ian D; Brown, James; Pease, Anthony P; Roe, Simon C; Hardie, Elizabeth M; Wheeler, Simon J; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2010-12-01

    To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners. 100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old. Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs. 22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats. Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.

  8. Development of a questionnaire measuring Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions-the APOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Sautier, Leon; Kriston, Levente; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Späth, Christina; Köther, Ulf; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-11-15

    Only a minority of people suffering from depression receive adequate treatment. Psychological Online Interventions (POIs) could help bridge existing treatment gaps and augment the effectiveness of current treatments. Apart from effectiveness, user acceptance of POIs must be achieved if such interventions are to be broadly implemented in existing health-care. Valid measurement tools examining attitudes towards POIs are lacking. Therefore, we examined the dimensionality of attitudes towards POIs, developed a novel questionnaire, the Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions Questionnaire (APOI), and gathered data to examine its reliability. We recruited a sample of 1004 adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms from a range of sources. We constructed a set of 35 items based on literature review as well as expert and patient queries. The initial items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a randomly selected subsample. A final set of 16 items was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to cross-validate the factor structure in a separate subsample. The EFA revealed four dimensions: "Scepticism and Perception of Risks", "Confidence in Effectiveness", "Technologization Threat" and "Anonymity Benefits". The model fit in the CFA was excellent relating to all applied indices (χ(2)=105.816, p=.651; SRMR=.042; RMSEA=.013; CFI=.994) and the APOI total scale showed acceptable to good internal consistency. Further research with the APOI might facilitate the development and dissemination of POIs and, ultimately, help improve the quality of care for people experiencing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and validity of the korean version of the pain disability questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jisun; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Tae Woo; Yang, Seo Yon; Sim, Mi Kyung

    2013-12-01

    To translate the English version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) into Korean and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PDQ (K-PDQ) in patients suffering chronic disabling musculoskeletal disorders (CDMDs). The English version of the PDQ was translated into Korean. Ten patients with CDMDs were randomly selected for a pilot study to assess the comprehensibility of the pre-final version. One hundred and thirty-nine patients suffering from CDMDs for more than 3 months were enrolled in this study. Follow-up questionnaires were obtained to examine the test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the brief form of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) using Pearson correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 70 patients, with an average time interval of 12 days. The ICC was 0.958 (pVAS was 0.834 in the first assessment and 0.831 in the second assessment. All domains of the WHOQOL-BREF showed a significant negative correlation with the K-PDQ. The K-PDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring disability and can be used to assess disability and treatment outcomes in Korean patients with CDMD.

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jisun; Kim, Tae Woo; Yang, Seo Yon; Sim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate the English version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) into Korean and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PDQ (K-PDQ) in patients suffering chronic disabling musculoskeletal disorders (CDMDs). Methods The English version of the PDQ was translated into Korean. Ten patients with CDMDs were randomly selected for a pilot study to assess the comprehensibility of the pre-final version. One hundred and thirty-nine patients suffering from CDMDs for more than 3 months were enrolled in this study. Follow-up questionnaires were obtained to examine the test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the brief form of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) using Pearson correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Results Test-retest reliability was assessed in 70 patients, with an average time interval of 12 days. The ICC was 0.958 (pvalid instrument for measuring disability and can be used to assess disability and treatment outcomes in Korean patients with CDMD. PMID:24466516

  11. Design and validity of a questionnaire to assess sexuality in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Angélica P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of validated methods for assessing female sexual dysfunction and a review of male and female sexual dysfunction did not refer to any specific questionnaire for evaluating sexuality during pregnancy. A study was performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Brazil to design and validate a pregnancy sexuality questionnaire, the Pregnancy Sexual Response Inventory (PSRI. Methods Women with a singleton pregnancy between 10 and 35 weeks of gestation were randomly recruited. There were five phases in the development of the PSRI: (1 item selection; (2 item development; (3 determination of internal consistency, reliability and convergence; (4 content validity; and (5 determination of inter-interviewer reliability. Internal consistency and reliability were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Inter-interviewer reliability was assessed by evaluating the responses of 18 academics at various institutions, using Kappa Index and Student t test. Results Good internal consistency and reliability were obtained (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.79. Among the 18 academics, 13 totally agreed (K = 1.0, three partially agreed (K = 0.67 and two disagreed (K = 0.33 with the proposed questions. Comparisons of the mean PSRI domain scores made between the primary investigators and the other interviewers showed no significant differences in all domains (p > 0.05. Conclusion PSRI is a new validated instrument for evaluating sexuality and sexual activity and related health concerns during pregnancy.

  12. Development and psychometric tests of the Chinese-version Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, H; Zhang, X; Xu, X; Bai, L; Wolffsohn, J S

    2005-08-01

    To develop and assess the psychometric validity of a Chinese language Vision Health related quality-of-life (VRQoL) measurement instrument for the Chinese visually impaired. The Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire (LVQOL) was translated and adapted into the Chinese-version Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire (CLVQOL). The CLVQOL was completed by 100 randomly selected people with low vision (primary group) and 100 people with normal vision (control group). Ninety-four participants from the primary group completed the CLVQOL a second time 2 weeks later (test-retest group). The internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, item-internal consistency, item-discrimination validity, construct validity and discriminatory power of the CLVQOL were calculated. The review committee agreed that the CLVQOL replicated the meaning of the LVQOL and was sensitive to cultural differences. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the split-half coefficient for the four scales and total CLVQOL scales were 0.75-0.97. The test-retest reliability as estimated by the intraclass correlations coefficient was 0.69-0.95. Item-internal consistency was > 0.4 and item-discrimination validity was generally measure instrument. It satisfies conventional psychometric criteria, discriminates visually healthy populations from low vision patients and may be valuable in screening the local community as well as for use in clinical practice or research.

  13. Use of Selection Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Thomas K., Comp.

    In December 1973, questionnaires were sent to academic libraries of varying size to discover which book and materials selection aids were used in the library's acquisition process. Aids under consideration included book reviews in library journals, professional subject journals, and publisher's selection/promotional material. The highlights of the…

  14. A risk model for severe anemia to select cancer patients for primary prophylaxis with epoetin alpha: a prospective randomized controlled trial of the ELYPSE study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Coquard, I; Dussart, S; Goillot, C; Mayeur, D; Debourdeau, P; Ghesquieres, H; Bachelot, T; Le Cesne, A; Anglaret, B; Agostini, C; Guastalla, J-P; Lancry, L; Biron, P; Desseigne, F; Blay, J-Y

    2009-06-01

    Epoetin (EPO) administration reduces the need for transfusion. Identifying patients at high risk of anemia requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is needed. This multicentric phase III trial tested epoetin alpha (EPOalpha) administration according to our risk model on the basis of three clinical parameters: hemoglobin (Hb) 1. Patients >or=18 years with chemotherapy-treated solid or hematologic tumors were randomized to 150 UI/kg/TIW s.c. EPOalpha (arm 1) or no EPOalpha (arm 2) and stratified on Hb level at day 0, lymphocyte count, and PS. The primary end point was transfusion rate; secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, and quality of life. From September 2000 to January 2005, 218 patients (median age 64 years, 42.7% males) with principally breast cancer, sarcoma, or lung carcinoma were included. In total, 93% patients had PS >1 and 35% had

  15. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE: SUGGEST AND WIN!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Its time to plan for the 2003-2004 lecture series. From today until April 25 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lectures Series. At the web site : http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  16. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE: SUGGEST AND WIN !

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Its time to plan for the 2003-2004 lecture series. From today until April 25 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lectures Series. At the web site : http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  17. Response rates for patient-reported outcomes using web-based versus paper questionnaires: comparison of two invitational methods in older colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevoorts, Nicole Je; Vissers, Pauline Aj; Mols, Floortje; Thong, Melissa Sy; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2015-05-07

    Improving questionnaire response rates is an everlasting issue for research. Today, the Internet can easily be used to collect data quickly. However, collecting data on the Internet can lead to biased samples because not everyone is able to access or use the Internet. The older population, for example, is much less likely to use the Internet. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry offers a platform to collect Web-based and paper questionnaires and to try different measures to improve response rates. In this study, our aim was to study the influence of two methods of invitation on the response rate. Our second aim was to examine the preference of questionnaire mode of administration (paper or Web-based) for the older patient in particular. To test these two invitational methods, 3406 colorectal cancer patients between ages 18 and 85 years received an invitation containing an access code for the Web-based questionnaire. They could also request a paper questionnaire with an included reply card (paper-optional group). In contrast, 179 randomly selected colorectal cancer patients received a paper questionnaire with the invitation (paper-included group). They could also choose to fill out the Web-based questionnaire with the included access code. Response rates did not differ between the paper-optional and the paper-included groups (73.14%, 2491/3406 and 74.9%, 134/179, P=.57). In the paper-optional group, online response was significantly higher when compared to the paper-included group (41.23%, 1027/2491 vs 12.7%, 17/134, Ponline respondents responded after the first invitation (95.33%, 979/1027), which was significantly higher than the paper respondents (52.19%, 764/1464, Pquestionnaire more often (71.0%, 677/954). In the oldest age group (≥80 years), 18.2% (61/336) of the respondents filled out a Web-based questionnaire. The lack of difference in response rates between invitation modes

  18. The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100 000 Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1 focus on development of a questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences and (2 feasibility of the study. Methods. The study is a nationwide cohort study of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish general population. A comprehensive questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences was developed. The methodological framework for the development included defining the domains to be measured, identification of previous items, scales and questionnaires in the literature, and pilot and field testing. Results. A total of five domains and 16 subdomains were defined covering the area of symptom experience, symptom characteristics, reaction in response to symptom experience, external factors, and personality characteristics with potential influence on the symptom experience. In total, 49 706 questionnaires were completed, yielding a response rate of 52.2%. Conclusion. We developed a comprehensive questionnaire used in a large combined survey and register-based study concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences of symptom experiences. We succeeded in conducting a large survey providing the groundwork for The Danish Symptom Cohort.

  19. The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100 000 Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Vedsted, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1) focus on development of a questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences and (2) feasibility of the study. Methods. The study is a nationwide cohort study of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish general population. A comprehensive questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences was developed. The methodological framework for the development included defining the domains to be measured, identification of previous items, scales and questionnaires in the literature, and pilot and field testing. Results. A total of five domains and 16 subdomains were defined covering the area of symptom experience, symptom characteristics, reaction in response to symptom experience, external factors, and personality characteristics with potential influence on the symptom experience. In total, 49 706 questionnaires were completed, yielding a response rate of 52.2%. Conclusion. We developed a comprehensive questionnaire used in a large combined survey and register-based study concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences of symptom experiences. We succeeded in conducting a large survey providing the groundwork for The Danish Symptom Cohort.

  20. Promoting mobility after hip fracture (ProMo: study protocol and selected baseline results of a year-long randomized controlled trial among community-dwelling older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipilä Sarianna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope at their homes, community-dwelling older people surviving a hip fracture need a sufficient amount of functional ability and mobility. There is a lack of evidence on the best practices supporting recovery after hip fracture. The purpose of this article is to describe the design, intervention and demographic baseline results of a study investigating the effects of a rehabilitation program aiming to restore mobility and functional capacity among community-dwelling participants after hip fracture. Methods/Design Population-based sample of over 60-year-old community-dwelling men and women operated for hip fracture (n = 81, mean age 79 years, 78% were women participated in this study and were randomly allocated into control (Standard Care and ProMo intervention groups on average 10 weeks post fracture and 6 weeks after discharged to home. Standard Care included written home exercise program with 5-7 exercises for lower limbs. Of all participants, 12 got a referral to physiotherapy. After discharged to home, only 50% adhered to Standard Care. None of the participants were followed-up for Standard Care or mobility recovery. ProMo-intervention included Standard Care and a year-long program including evaluation/modification of environmental hazards, guidance for safe walking, pain management, progressive home exercise program and physical activity counseling. Measurements included a comprehensive battery of laboratory tests and self-report on mobility limitation, disability, physical functional capacity and health as well as assessments for the key prerequisites for mobility, disability and functional capacity. All assessments were performed blinded at the research laboratory. No significant differences were observed between intervention and control groups in any of the demographic variables. Discussion Ten weeks post hip fracture only half of the participants were compliant to Standard Care. No follow-up for Standard Care or

  1. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  2. SIRFLOX: Randomized Phase III Trial Comparing First-Line mFOLFOX6 (Plus or Minus Bevacizumab) Versus mFOLFOX6 (Plus or Minus Bevacizumab) Plus Selective Internal Radiation Therapy in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Guy A; Heinemann, Volker; Sharma, Navesh K; Findlay, Michael P N; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Perez, David; Robinson, Bridget A; Strickland, Andrew H; Ferguson, Tom; Rodríguez, Javier; Kröning, Hendrik; Wolf, Ido; Ganju, Vinod; Walpole, Euan; Boucher, Eveline; Tichler, Thomas; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Powell, Alex; Eliadis, Paul; Isaacs, Richard; Price, David; Moeslein, Fred; Taieb, Julien; Bower, Geoff; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Cade, David N; Thurston, Kenneth; Gibbs, Peter

    2016-05-20

    SIRFLOX was a randomized, multicenter trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of adding selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres to standard fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX)-based chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with liver metastases plus or minus limited extrahepatic metastases were randomly assigned to receive either modified FOLFOX (mFOLFOX6; control) or mFOLFOX6 plus SIRT (SIRT) plus or minus bevacizumab. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at any site as assessed by independent centralized radiology review blinded to study arm. Between October 2006 and April 2013, 530 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (control, 263; SIRT, 267). Median PFS at any site was 10.2 v 10.7 months in control versus SIRT (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.12; P = .43). Median PFS in the liver by competing risk analysis was 12.6 v 20.5 months in control versus SIRT (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.90; P = .002). Objective response rates (ORRs) at any site were similar (68.1% v 76.4% in control v SIRT; P = .113). ORR in the liver was improved with the addition of SIRT (68.8% v 78.7% in control v SIRT; P = .042). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events, including recognized SIRT-related effects, were reported in 73.4% and 85.4% of patients in control versus SIRT. The addition of SIRT to FOLFOX-based first-line chemotherapy in patients with liver-dominant or liver-only metastatic colorectal cancer did not improve PFS at any site but significantly delayed disease progression in the liver. The safety profile was as expected and was consistent with previous studies. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Questionnaire study of the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Akiva; Slodownik, Dan; Jbarah, Adnan; Ingber, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of cosmetics-related contact dermatitis is rising, owing mainly to the wider use of cosmetics by the public and the routine diagnostic use of patch tests. To determine the prevalence of cosmetics allergy in Israel. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 360 female customers of pharmacies and beauty salons in two areas of the country. Items included general health profile, family history of atopy, occurrence of rash due to patch-test-proven cosmetics allergy, anatomic sites of the rash, subjective aspects regarding the rash, and cosmetics consumption habits. Patient age ranged from 15 to 89 years. Eleven subjects (3.1%) had patch-test-proven cosmetics allergic contact dermatitis. There was a correlation between proven cosmetics allergy and subjective sensitivity to facial cream (p = .03). The 3.1% prevalence rate of cosmetics contact allergic dermatitis in a randomly selected population in Israel is similar to values reported in the literature (about 2%). The higher-than-expected rate of subjective sensitivity to facial cream among patients with proven cosmetics allergy may be explained by the wide use of facial cream, facial skin susceptibility to insult, and the relatively long duration of contact of facial cream (a leave-on product) with the skin.

  4. The design and protocol of heat-sensitive moxibustion for knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial on the rules of selecting moxibustion location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhenhai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Moxibustion has been widely used to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis. Our past researches suggested heat-sensitive moxibustion might be superior to the conventional moxibustion. Our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of heat-sensitive moxibustion compared with conventional moxibustion or conventional drug treatment. Methods This study consists of a multi-centre (four centers in China, randomised, controlled trial with three parallel arms (A: heat-sensitive moxibustion; B: conventional moxibustion; C: conventional drug group. The moxibustion locations are different from A and B. Group A selects heat-sensitization acupoint from the region consisting of Yin Lingquan(SP9, Yang Lingquan(GB34, Liang Qiu(ST34, and Xue Hai (SP10. Meanwhile, fixed acupoints are used in group B, that is Xi Yan (EX-LE5 and He Ding (EX-LE2. The conventional drug group treats with intra-articular Sodium Hyaluronate injection. The outcome measures above will be assessed before the treatment, the 30 days of the last moxibustion session and 6 months after the last moxibustion session. Discussion This trial will utilize high quality trial methodologies in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. It will provide evidence for the effectiveness of moxibustion as a treatment for moderate and severe knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the result will clarify the rules of heat-sensitive moxibustion location to improve the therapeutic effect with suspended moxibustion, and propose a new concept and a new theory of moxibustion to guide clinical practices. Trial Registration The trial is registered at Controlled Clinical Trials: ChiCTR-TRC-00000600.

  5. A questionnaire survey of senior house officers/registrars response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the responses of randomly selected 54 senior house officers (SHO)/registrars to questions on their training at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Previous studies have identified excess workload, poor supervision and inadequate hours of formal educations as areas deserving increased ...

  6. Effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on early selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment onset for depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Feng, Hui; Mo, Yali; Gao, Jingfang; Mao, Hongjing; Song, Mingfen; Wang, Shengdong; Yin, Yan; Liu, Wenjuan

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) treatment effect onset in patients with depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology. Overall, 126 patients with depressive disorder were randomly divided into a medicine and acupuncture-medicine group using a random number table. Patients were treated for 6 consecutive weeks. The two groups were evaluated by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS) to assess the effect of the soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture method on early onset of SSRI treatment effect. Changes in serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and inflammatory cytokines before and after treatment were recorded and compared between the medicine group and the acupuncture-medicine group. The acupuncture-medicine group had significantly lower MADRS scores at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 after treatment compared with the medicine group (P 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the acupuncture-medicine group compared with the medicine group (P depressive disorder and can significantly reduce the adverse reactions of SSRIs. Moreover, acupuncture can enhance serum 5-HT and regulate the balance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions.

  8. Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulou Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r. Results The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83 were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67 were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70, demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion

  9. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  10. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L; Kelbæk, H; Vejlstrup, N; Engstrøm, T; Lønborg, J

    2017-07-01

    The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before acute CMR assessment compared to CMR-participants in a previously published double-blinded, placebo-controlled all-comer trial with CMR outcome as the primary endpoint. Baseline characteristics and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure and re-infarction after 30 days and 5 years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry. The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile upon admission as evaluated by the TIMI-risk score (3.7 (± 2.1) vs 4.0 (± 2.6), p = 0.043) and by left ventricular ejection fraction (43 (± 9) vs. 47 (± 10), p = 0.029). CMR drop-outs had a higher incidence of known hypertension (39% vs. 35%, p = 0.043), known diabetes (14% vs. 7%, p = 0.025), known cardiac disease (11% vs. 3%, p = 0.013) and known renal function disease (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.007). However, the 30-day and 5-years composite endpoint rate was not significantly higher among the CMR drop-out ((HR 1.43 (95%-CI 0.5; 3.97) (p = 0.5)) and (HR 1.31 (95%-CI 0.84; 2.05) (p = 0.24)). CMR-drop-outs had a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups.

  12. Questionnaires for Measuring Refractive Surgery Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Himal; Khadka, Jyoti; Lundström, Mats; Goggin, Michael; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    To identify the questionnaires used to assess refractive surgery outcomes, assess the available questionnaires in regard to their psychometric properties, validity, and reliability, and evaluate the performance of the available questionnaires in measuring refractive surgery outcomes. An extensive literature search was done on PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases to identify articles that described or used at least one questionnaire to assess refractive surgery outcomes. The information on content quality, validity, reliability, responsiveness, and psychometric properties was extracted and analyzed based on an extensive set of quality criteria. Eighty-one articles describing 27 questionnaires (12 refractive error-specific, including 4 refractive surgery-specific, 7 vision-but-non-refractive, and 8 generic) were included in the review. Most articles (56, 69.1%) described refractive error-specific questionnaires. The Quality of Life Impact of Refractive Correction (QIRC), the Quality of Vision (QoV), and the Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (NAVQ) were originally constructed using Rasch analysis; others were developed using the Classical Test Theory. The National Eye Institute Refractive Quality of Life questionnaire was the most frequently used questionnaire, but it does not provide a valid measurement. The QoV, QIRC, and NAVQ are the three best existing questionnaires to assess visual symptoms, quality of life, and activity limitations, respectively. This review identified three superior quality questionnaires for measuring different aspects of quality of life in refractive surgery. Clinicians and researchers should choose a questionnaire based on the concept being measured with superior psychometric properties. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(6):416-424.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Questionnaire Survey of Physical Therapy Students' View of General Education

    OpenAIRE

    日高, 正巳; 嶋田, 智明; 武政, 誠一; 篠原, 英記; 米田, 稔彦; 講武, 芳英; 松尾, 智; 松原, 貴子; 三木, 明徳; 平田, 総一郎; 石川, 斉

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze students' view of the relationship between general education and physical therapy education in the university. Fifty-six physical therapy students administered the questionnaire in this survey and completed it on their own. Nineteen subjects selected in general education were categorized into seven grades, indicating Grade 0 (no relation to physical therapy education) to Grade 6 (closest relation). It was characteristic that the students looked on the ...

  14. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires......; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person...... Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1–3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four...

  15. The relationship between job performance and perceived organizational support in faculty members at Chinese universities: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. Results The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. Conclusions The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities. PMID:24624932

  16. The relationship between job performance and perceived organizational support in faculty members at Chinese universities: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Sun, Tao; Hou, Yan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Yi-Ze; Fan, Li-Hua

    2014-03-13

    Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities.

  17. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine...... pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings...

  18. A Developmental Study on Students' Self-Education Abilities : An analysis by using retrospective questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    森, 敏昭; 清水, 益治; 石田, 潤

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes in self-education abilities by using retrospective questionnaire. Three different kinds of questionnaire were constructed so as to measure the students' self-education abilities in their college age, high school age and elementary school age. A total of 768 college students selected from 7 different colleges completed these three kinds of questionnaire, each of which was constructed of 7 subscales of self-education abilities: interest in learn...

  19. Additional benefit of using a risk-based selection for prostate biopsy: an analysis of biopsy complications in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Peter K; Alberts, Arnout R; Venderbos, Lionne D F; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate biopsy complications and hospital admissions that could be reduced by the use of European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators. All biopsies performed in the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC between 1993 and 2015 were included. Biopsy complications and hospital admission data were prospectively recorded in questionnaires that were completed 2 weeks after biopsy. The ERSPC risk calculators 3 (RC3) and 4 (RC4) were applied to men attending the first and subsequent rounds of screening, respectively. Applying the predefined RC3/4 probability thresholds for prostate cancer (PCa) risk of ≥12.5% and high-grade PCa risk ≥3%, we assessed the number of complications, admissions and costs that could be reduced by avoiding biopsies in men below these thresholds. A total of 10 747 biopsies with complete questionnaires were included. For these biopsies a complication rate of 67.9% (7294/10 747), a post-biopsy fever rate of 3.9% (424/10747) and a hospital admission rate of 0.9% (92/10747) were recorded. The fever rate was found to be static over the years, but the hospital admission rate tripled from 0.6% (1993-1996) to 2.1% (2009-2015). Among 7704 biopsies which fit the criteria for RC3 or RC4, 35.8% of biopsies (2757/7704), 37.4% of complications (1972/5268), 39.4% of fever events (128/325) and 42.3% of admissions (30/71) could have been avoided by using one of the risk calculators. More complications could have been avoided if RC4 had been used and for more recent biopsies (2009-2015). Our findings show that 35.9% of the total cost of biopsies and complication treatment could have been avoided. A significant proportion of biopsy complications, hospital admissions and costs could be reduced if biopsy decisions were based on ERSPC risk calculators instead of PSA only. This effect was most prominent in more recent biopsies and in men with repeated biopsies or screening. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU

  20. Internet and social media usage of orthopaedic patients: A questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Karadeniz, Hilmi; Çaçan, Mehmet Akif; Kömür, Baran; Demirtaş, Abdullah; Zehir, Sinan; Azboy, İbrahim

    2017-02-18

    To evaluate social media usage of orthopaedic patients to search for solutions to their health problems. The study data were collected using face-to-face questionnaire with randomly selected 1890 patients aged over 18 years who had been admitted to the orthopaedic clinics in different cities and provinces across Turkey. The questionnaire consists of a total of 16 questions pertaining to internet and social media usage and demographics of patients, patients' choice of institution for treatment, patient complaints on admission, online hospital and physician ratings, communication between the patient and the physician and its effects. It was found that 34.2% (n = 647) of the participants consulted with an orthopaedist using the internet and 48.7% (n = 315) of them preferred websites that allow users to ask questions to a physician. Of all question-askers, 48.5% (n = 314) reported having found the answers helpful. Based on the educational level of the participants, there was a highly significant difference between the rates of asking questions to an orthopaedist using the internet (P = 0.001). The rate of question-asking was significantly lower in patients with an elementary education than that in those with secondary, high school and undergraduate education (P = 0.001) The rate of reporting that the answers given was helpful was significantly higher in participants with an undergraduate degree compared to those who were illiterate, those with primary, elementary or high school education (P = 0.001). It was also found that the usage of the internet for health problems was higher among managers-qualified participants than unemployed-housewives, officers, workers-intermediate staff (P social media to select a specific physician or to seek solution to their health problems in an effective way. Even though the internet and social media offer beneficial effects for physicians or patients, there is still much obscurity regarding their harms and further studies are warranted

  1. Internet and social media usage of orthopaedic patients: A questionnaire-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Karadeniz, Hilmi; Çaçan, Mehmet Akif; Kömür, Baran; Demirtaş, Abdullah; Zehir, Sinan; Azboy, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate social media usage of orthopaedic patients to search for solutions to their health problems. METHODS The study data were collected using face-to-face questionnaire with randomly selected 1890 patients aged over 18 years who had been admitted to the orthopaedic clinics in different cities and provinces across Turkey. The questionnaire consists of a total of 16 questions pertaining to internet and social media usage and demographics of patients, patients’ choice of institution for treatment, patient complaints on admission, online hospital and physician ratings, communication between the patient and the physician and its effects. RESULTS It was found that 34.2% (n = 647) of the participants consulted with an orthopaedist using the internet and 48.7% (n = 315) of them preferred websites that allow users to ask questions to a physician. Of all question-askers, 48.5% (n = 314) reported having found the answers helpful. Based on the educational level of the participants, there was a highly significant difference between the rates of asking questions to an orthopaedist using the internet (P = 0.001). The rate of question-asking was significantly lower in patients with an elementary education than that in those with secondary, high school and undergraduate education (P = 0.001) The rate of reporting that the answers given was helpful was significantly higher in participants with an undergraduate degree compared to those who were illiterate, those with primary, elementary or high school education (P = 0.001). It was also found that the usage of the internet for health problems was higher among managers-qualified participants than unemployed-housewives, officers, workers-intermediate staff (P social media to select a specific physician or to seek solution to their health problems in an effective way. Even though the internet and social media offer beneficial effects for physicians or patients, there is still much obscurity regarding their harms and further

  2. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire,

  3. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  4. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueberall MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Ueberall,1 Gerhard H H Mueller-Schwefe2 1Institute of Neurological Sciences, Nuernberg, Germany; 2Interdisciplinary Center for Pain and Palliative Care Medicine, Goeppingen, Germany Objective: To evaluate the benefit–risk profile (BRP of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN and tapentadol (TAP in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP with a neuropathic component (NC in routine clinical practice. Methods: This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133. Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Results: Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P=0.014, due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% (P= ns/0.031/<0.001, for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% (P=0.043/0.018/0.001, and for

  5. Developing a Questionnaire on Attitude towards School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…

  6. Development of a Cuban Ethnic Identity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Margarita; Lega, Leonor I.

    1979-01-01

    The Cuban Behavioral Identity Questionnaire is a short, eight-item questionnaire answerable in a seven-point Likert-scale format. It inquires as to the frequency with which respondents engage in several ethnic behaviors and the degree to which they are familiar with Cuban idiomatic expressions and Cuban artists/musicians. (Author/NQ)

  7. Development of an Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; van Buuren, S.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted

  8. Evaluation of a validated food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyett, Patricia; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella H; Sabate, Joan

    2014-01-01

    .... Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified 'Block Method' using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list...

  9. Validation and normalization of the General Health Questionnaire 30 in parents with primary school children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Stewart, Donald; Yuan, Bao Jun; Zhang, Shu Hua

    2012-07-01

    Parenting can be a stressful experience. Higher levels of parenting stress are predictive of parents' negative appraisal of children's behavior, the use of physical discipline, and poor child outcomes across a variety of domains. Assessment of parenting depression is needed in China. This study aims to standardize the Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) for parents of primary school children. Stratified randomly selected parents of primary school children were selected from the cities of Nanjing and Shenyang in China. The Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire 30 was administered to 7615 parents of primary school students aged between 8 and 12 years. A high response rate was achieved, with 6672 parents (88%) responding to the survey. Exploratory factor analysis with a 5-factor solution showed that 5 factors were extracted from the scale, namely, depression, anxiety, inadequate coping, social dysfunctioning, and sleep disturbance. The 5-factor structures were confirmed by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Overall, the 5-factor structure had a high level of reliability for each individual dimension. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 5-factor structure abstracted from this study had a good model fit. The 5-factor structure derived from the present sample of parents, with good model fit in the CFA analysis, suggests that a 5-factor solution can be used to assess parent psychopathological symptoms in mainland Chinese parents of primary school children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A practical guide to surveys and questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L; Voelker, Courtney C J; Nussenbaum, Brian; Rich, Jason T; Paniello, Randal C; Neely, J Gail

    2011-06-01

    Surveys with questionnaires play a vital role in decision and policy making in society. Within medicine, including otolaryngology, surveys with questionnaires may be the only method for gathering data on rare or unusual events. In addition, questionnaires can be developed and validated to be used as outcome measures in clinical trials and other clinical research architecture. Consequently, it is fundamentally important that such tools be properly developed and validated. Just asking questions that have not gone through rigorous design and development may be misleading and unfair at best; at worst, they can result in under- or overtreatment and unnecessary expense. Furthermore, it is important that consumers of the data produced by these instruments understand the principles of questionnaire design to interpret results in an optimal and meaningful way. This article presents a practical guide for understanding the methodologies of survey and questionnaire design, including the concepts of validity and reliability, how surveys are administered and implemented, and, finally, biases and pitfalls of surveys.

  11. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2007-05-18

    Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Ferguson (1949) 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient delta, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, deltaG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of deltaG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003-2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (alpha) and discrimination (deltaG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Both scoring methods were reliable (alpha > 0.88). However, deltaG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (deltaG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Coefficient deltaG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's delta has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the more general

  12. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949) [1] derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (α) and discrimination (δG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88). However, δG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the

  13. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben eAlderson-Day; Charles eFernyhough

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-mad...

  14. Screening questionnaires for parkinsonism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahodwala, Nabila; Siderowf, Andrew; Baumgarten, Mona; Abrams, Aaron; Karlawish, Jason

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, treatable movement disorder that often remains undiagnosed despite clinically manifest symptoms. Screening for parkinsonism could lead to improved detection and earlier treatment, and facilitate research studies of PD prevalence. In order to determine the feasibility of screening, this study evaluated the validity of previously developed screening questionnaires. We systematically searched online databases PubMed and EMBASE for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2009. In each database a "Parkinson(s) disease" or "parkinsonism" term was combined with a screening term ("screening instrument," "screening questionnaire," "screen" or "prevalence survey") and a validity term ("validation," "sensitivity" and "specificity"). Included studies reported the psychometric properties of at least one self-report questionnaire for parkinsonism. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. From these studies, 9 screening questionnaires were identified. Sensitivity and specificity estimates varied widely. Sensitivity estimates were as high as 100% when questionnaires were tested among previously diagnosed PD patients and included a high number of parkinsonism specific items, but were as low as 48% when tested among early cases in a community-based sample. Specificity estimates were lower, ranging from 22 to 100%. An older sample, presence of multiple co-morbid conditions and lower literacy led to lower specificity estimates. Higher specificity estimates were seen when the screening questionnaires were administered by a physician. Screening questionnaires can detect symptomatic parkinsonism. However, the performance of these questionnaires varied based on the individual items, study sample, and method of administration. The performance of screening questionnaires in the detection of early or mild parkinsonism was modest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptação cultural do Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ para população brasileira Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ to the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse estudo realizaram-se a tradução para o português e a adaptação cultural do instrumento Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ para uso no Brasil. O instrumento foi traduzido da versão original (inglês para a língua portuguesa pelos autores e, posteriormente, revisado e avaliado quanto ao grau de dificuldade das traduções e equivalência por tradutores bilíngües. O instrumento foi, então, aplicado em 20 pacientes com hepatopatia crônica selecionados aleatoriamente. Não houve dificuldade na compreensão do instrumento, todas as questões foram consideradas aplicáveis pelos pacientes, e a equivalência cultural do CLDQ foi demonstrada sem que mudanças na tradução original precisassem ser feitas. A tradução e a adaptação cultural do CLDQ para o português, no Brasil, foram realizadas, tendo sido cumprida esta importante etapa para sua validação e utilização em nosso meio.The aims of this study were the English-to-Portuguese translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ for use in Brazil. The instrument was translated from the original language, English, to Portuguese by the authors, and was subsequently reviewed and evaluated as to the degree of difficulty of the translation and equivalence, by bilingual translators. The questionnaire was then applied to 20 randomly selected patients with chronic liver disease. Patients had no difficulty understanding the questionnaire and considered all the questions applicable. The cultural equivalence of the CLDQ was demonstrated, without requiring changes in the original translation. The translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation of the CLDQ successfully completed this important stage for its validation and use in Brazil.

  16. Aberrant behavior of preschool children: Evaluation of questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajgelj Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study metric characteristics of children aberrant behavior questionnaire were analyzed. The analysis was performed on the sample of 1.165 children, aged 4-7, in preschool institutions in several towns of Vojvodina. The questionnaire contained 36 items of the Likert-type scale and was filled in by one parent of each child. The authors examined main metric characteristics of the complete questionnaire, as well as individual items under the Rasche’s measurement model. Generally, parents seldom notice aberrant behavior in their children. Most frequently they notice stubbornness, while very rarely torturing of animals. The item discrimination, on the whole, was found satisfying. The reliability of the questionnaire is 0.84., and all indicators of misfit are within satisfactory ranges. According to differential functioning of the items, the authors found gender and age specificities of parents’ evaluation of aberrant behavior of their children. Parents often notice stubbornness and moldiness in girls, and aggression in boys. According to the parent’s observations, younger children are characterized by nail nibbling, ticklishness, and fearfulness, whereas older children show a tendency to force their way by crying, waywardness and bed-wetting. By means of factor analysis of the items, three principal facets of aberrant behavior were determined: overindulgence, shyness and quarrelsomeness. Cross validation (hold out showed that these three facets were robust in relation to the selection of the sample.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of Modified RHAQWRA Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaieh Rahmani Bilandi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examin the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of Reproductive Health Assessment Questionnaire for Women of Reproductive Age (RHAQWRA.Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional study. We selected 150 women aged 18- 45 years based on convenience sampling method who lived in the Quake-hit areas  in eastern part of Iran in 2013. Some previously recognized and established instructions were undertaken in translating and adapting the RHAQWRA questionnaire culturally. We sought help and feedback from teenagers and experts in the fields of midwifery, sociology, and epidemiology to establish the face and content validity of the questionnaire. To examine the test-retest reliability indices of all the items, we used Kappa and McNemar tests.Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI and Content Validity Ratio (CVR scores for RHAQWRA were above 0.70. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability. In order to evaluate the construct validity, known- group comparison (women with and without unwanted pregnancy was used. The internal consistency reliability indexes for the subscales obtained through Cronbach’s alpha were between 0.68 and 0.87.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Iranian version of RHAQWRA is a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used for measuring reproductive health needs during disasters.

  18. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  19. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  20. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  1. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Coding Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.

  2. Optimization methods for activities selection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahad, Nor Faradilah; Alias, Suriana; Yaakop, Siti Zulaika; Arshad, Norul Amanina Mohd; Mazni, Elis Sofia

    2017-08-01

    Co-curriculum activities must be joined by every student in Malaysia and these activities bring a lot of benefits to the students. By joining these activities, the students can learn about the time management and they can developing many useful skills. This project focuses on the selection of co-curriculum activities in secondary school using the optimization methods which are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP). A secondary school in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia was chosen as a case study. A set of questionnaires were distributed randomly to calculate the weighted for each activity based on the 3 chosen criteria which are soft skills, interesting activities and performances. The weighted was calculated by using AHP and the results showed that the most important criteria is soft skills. Then, the ZOGP model will be analyzed by using LINGO Software version 15.0. There are two priorities to be considered. The first priority which is to minimize the budget for the activities is achieved since the total budget can be reduced by RM233.00. Therefore, the total budget to implement the selected activities is RM11,195.00. The second priority which is to select the co-curriculum activities is also achieved. The results showed that 9 out of 15 activities were selected. Thus, it can concluded that AHP and ZOGP approach can be used as the optimization methods for activities selection problem.

  3. Digitised audio questionnaire for assessment of informed consent comprehension in a low-literacy African research population: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Bojang, Kalifa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ota, Martin O C; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Larson, Heidi J; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-24

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate an audio digitised tool for assessment of comprehension of informed consent among low-literacy Gambian research participants. We conducted this study in the Gambia where a high illiteracy rate and absence of standardised writing formats of local languages pose major challenges for research participants to comprehend consent information. We developed a 34-item questionnaire to assess participants' comprehension of key elements of informed consent. The questionnaire was face validated and content validated by experienced researchers. To bypass the challenge of a lack of standardised writing formats, we audiorecorded the questionnaire in three major Gambian languages: Mandinka, Wolof and Fula. The questionnaire was further developed into an audio computer-assisted interview format. The digitised questionnaire was administered to 250 participants enrolled in two clinical trials in the urban and rural areas of the Gambia. One week after first administration, the questionnaire was readministered to half of the participants who were randomly selected. Participants were eligible if enrolled in the parent trials and could speak any of the three major Gambian languages. The primary outcome measure was reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Item reduction by factor analysis showed that 21 of the question items have strong factor loadings. These were retained along with five other items which were fundamental components of informed consent. The 26-item questionnaire has high internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.73-0.79 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% CI 0.923 to 0.954). Hypotheses testing also showed that the questionnaire has a positive correlation with a similar questionnaire and discriminates between participants with and without education. We have developed a reliable and valid measure of comprehension of informed consent information for the Gambian context, which might be easily adapted to

  4. The effects of translating the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire from English to Mandarin: a test of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary; Zhao, Yun; Maycock, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    In China, sexuality studies using validated psychosexual instruments are limited, with no valid Mandarin language version of a sexuality inventory with psychometric properties available for use. Thus, the Mandarin version of the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire (M-MSQ), comprising four subscales, originating from the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire, was tested for its psychometric properties. A convenience sampling technique was employed to recruit 200 oil workers (100 males and 100 females) in northern China. Originally, 158 participants (84 males and 74 females) completed the questionnaire; these accounted for 79% of the total study sample. From this group, a subsample of 50 participants (25 males and 25 females) was randomly selected to investigate the test-retest reliability. Of these, the responses of 33 participants (18 males and 15 females) were valid. The analysis on reliability was based on Cronbach's α, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and the intraclass correlation coefficient, also including evaluation on criterion validity and discriminatory validity. The M-MSQ was found to be homogeneous in factor structure, comparing well with the original questionnaire. Both the discriminatory validity and the criterion-related validity were satisfactory in the total sample and gender groups, in addition, the overall reliability of the M-MSQ was sound in internal consistency with Cronbach's α=0.900-0.931. The results of the test-retest showed that the stability of the M-MSQ achieved a positive statistically significant standard assessed by Pearson's coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient. The M-MSQ is reliable in these four subscales, and may be used as a measure of sexual esteem, sexual conscious, sexual motivation and sexual satisfaction in Mandarin speakers.

  5. Measuring Healthy Lifestyle and Mental Health Indicators in South Asian Women Using the "Your Health: Quality of Life and Well-Being" Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nida; Ahmed, Sabahat; Carmichael, Zartasht; Sami, Amtul Salam

    Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A literature review has revealed that there is no specific questionnaire available to assess well-being within the community. Fifty South Asian women were randomly selected to complete the "Your Health: Quality of Life and Well-being Questionnaire" assessing diet, lifestyle, and mental health among others. Data from the questionnaires was extracted and participants were categorised based on these findings. This tool has positively identified a number of key risk factors for poor health, symptoms associated with mental illness, and the burden of comorbidities within the assessed cohort. Sixty-three percent of the women had an unhealthy body mass index (BMI), over half did not know the maximum limit of salt per day, and almost one-fourth had multiple health conditions. This questionnaire is an effective tool to use within the community. There is a significant burden of obesity, complicated by poor lifestyle habits and significant mood and anxiety symptoms within the studied South Asian population. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-year clinical outcomes in the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial a randomized comparison of an early invasive versus selective invasive management in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Peter; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2010-03-02

    We present the 5-year clinical outcomes according to treatment strategy with additional risk stratification of the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial. Long-term outcomes may be relevant to decide treatment strategy for patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and elevated troponin T. We randomly assigned 1,200 patients to an early invasive or selective invasive strategy. The outcomes were the composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and its individual components. Risk stratification was performed with the FRISC (Fast Revascularization in InStability in Coronary artery disease) risk score. At 5-year follow-up, revascularization rates were 81% in the early invasive and 60% in the selective invasive group. Cumulative death or MI rates were 22.3% and 18.1%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.66, p = 0.053). No difference was observed in mortality (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.60, p = 0.49) or MI (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.70, p = 0.20). After risk stratification, no benefit of an early invasive strategy was observed in reducing death or spontaneous MI in any of the risk groups. In patients presenting with NSTE-ACS and elevated troponin T, we could not demonstrate a long-term benefit of an early invasive strategy in reducing death or MI. (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes [ICTUS]; ISRCTN82153174). Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Report based on DT/7 questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette Balle; Kruse, Filip; Thøgersen, Jørn

    DT/7-D4 is concerned with which types of communication within academic communities are essential viewed in respect of preservation. The central product is a presentation and an analysis of a questionnaire deployed to researchers at Aarhus University....

  8. Measuring safety culture in Dutch primary care: psychometric characteristics of the SCOPE-PC questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Natasha J; Zwart, Dorien L M; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagner, Cordula

    2013-09-17

    Patient safety has been a priority in primary healthcare in the last years. The prevailing culture is seen as an important condition for patient safety in practice and several tools to measure patient safety culture have therefore been developed. Although Dutch primary care consists of different professions, such as general practice, dental care, dietetics, physiotherapy and midwifery, a safety culture questionnaire was only available for general practices. The purpose of this study was to modify and validate this existing questionnaire to a generic questionnaire for all professions in Dutch primary care. A validated Dutch questionnaire for general practices was modified to make it usable for all Dutch primary care professions. Subsequently, this questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2400 practices from eleven primary care professions. The instrument's factor structure, reliability and validity were examined using confirmatory and explorative factor analyses. 921 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 615 were eligible for factor analysis. The resulting SCOPE-PC questionnaire consisted of seven dimensions: 'open communication and learning from errors', 'handover and teamwork', 'adequate procedures and working conditions', 'patient safety management', 'support and fellowship', 'intention to report events' and 'organisational learning' with a total of 41 items. All dimensions had good reliability with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70-0.90, and the questionnaire had a good construct validity. The SCOPE-PC questionnaire has sound psychometric characteristics for use by the different professions in Dutch primary care to gain insight in their safety culture.

  9. Onomastic Field Research in Russia: Questionnaire Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana N. Dmitriyeva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a review of answers submitted to a questionnaire formulated by the editorial board of the journal, aiming to reveal the main directions and results of onomastic material field collection in Russia, with 31 research centres of Russia responding to the questionnaire. Though not exhaustive, the data help draw a picture of the state of things in field research achievements and gaps.

  10. A New Method of Random Environmental Walking for Assessing Behavioral Preferences for Different Lighting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Geoffrey R.; Rahm, Johan; Jansson, Märit; Johansson, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of people’s preferences for different outdoor lighting applications is increasingly considered important in the development of new urban environments. Here a new method of random environmental walking is proposed to complement current methods of assessing urban lighting applications, such as self-report questionnaires. The procedure involves participants repeatedly walking between different lighting applications by random selection of a lighting application and preferred choice or by random selection of a lighting application alone. In this manner, participants are exposed to all lighting applications of interest more than once and participants’ preferences for the different lighting applications are reflected in the number of times they walk to each lighting application. On the basis of an initial simulation study, to explore the feasibility of this approach, a comprehensive field test was undertaken. The field test included random environmental walking and collection of participants’ subjective ratings of perceived pleasantness (PP), perceived quality, perceived strength, and perceived flicker of four lighting applications. The results indicate that random environmental walking can reveal participants’ preferences for different lighting applications that, in the present study, conformed to participants’ ratings of PP and perceived quality of the lighting applications. As a complement to subjectively stated environmental preferences, random environmental walking has the potential to expose behavioral preferences for different lighting applications. PMID:28337163

  11. Evaluation of the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on postoperative pain intensity in hospitalized children in selected hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Sirousfard, Motahareh; Moeini, Mahin; Ghanadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is the common complication after a surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on the postoperative pain in children. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we selected 64 children of 3–6 years of age through convenient sampling and divided them randomly into two groups. Patients in group A were given inhalation aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill., and in group B, the patients were given almond oil as a placebo. Inhalation aromatherapy was used at the first time of subjects’ arrival to the ward and then at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h afterward. Common palliative treatments to relieve pain were used in both groups. Thirty minutes after aromatherapy, the postoperative pain in children was evaluated with the Toddler Preschooler Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS). Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no significant difference in pain scores at the first time of subjects’ arrival to the ward (before receiving any aromatherapy or palliative care) between the two groups. After each time of aromatherapy and at the end of treatment, the pain score was significantly reduced in the aromatherapy group with R. damascena Mill. compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: According to our results, aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill. can be used in postoperative pain in children, together with other common treatments without any significant side effects. PMID:25878704

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Jieun E.; Won, Wangyoun; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level. Method Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Results In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events). Conclusions The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder. PMID:22864465

  13. Safety of regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RegCOPD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory S; Tammelin, Bruce R; Schiffman, George L; Marquez, Rudy; Rice, Deborah L; Milikien, Douglas; Mathur, Vandana

    2008-01-01

    Patients with reactive airways are at risk for adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, mediated via A(2B) and/or A(3) adenosine receptors. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we examined the safety of regadenoson, a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38) and patients with severe COPD (n = 11) with a baseline mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 1.74 +/- 0.50 L and 1.0 +/- 0.35 L, respectively, 37% of whom had dyspnea during activities of daily living. Patients receiving glucocorticoids or oxygen and those with pretreatment wheezing were included. Short-acting bronchodilators were withheld for at least 8 hours before treatment. No differences emerged between regadenoson and placebo on multiple lung function parameters, including repeated FEV(1) and forced vital capacity, respiratory rate, pulmonary examinations, and oxygen saturation. The mean maximum decline in FEV(1) was 0.11 +/- 0.02 L and 0.12 +/- 0.02 L (P = .55) in patients after regadenoson and placebo, respectively, and new-onset wheezing was observed in 6% and 12%, respectively (P = .33). No patient required acute treatment with bronchodilators or oxygen. This pilot study showed the overall safety of regadenoson in 49 compromised outpatients with clinically stable moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on postoperative pain intensity in hospitalized children in selected hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Sirousfard, Motahareh; Moeini, Mahin; Ghanadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the common complication after a surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on the postoperative pain in children. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we selected 64 children of 3-6 years of age through convenient sampling and divided them randomly into two groups. Patients in group A were given inhalation aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill., and in group B, the patients were given almond oil as a placebo. Inhalation aromatherapy was used at the first time of subjects' arrival to the ward and then at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h afterward. Common palliative treatments to relieve pain were used in both groups. Thirty minutes after aromatherapy, the postoperative pain in children was evaluated with the Toddler Preschooler Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS). Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. There was no significant difference in pain scores at the first time of subjects' arrival to the ward (before receiving any aromatherapy or palliative care) between the two groups. After each time of aromatherapy and at the end of treatment, the pain score was significantly reduced in the aromatherapy group with R. damascena Mill. compared to the placebo group. According to our results, aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill. can be used in postoperative pain in children, together with other common treatments without any significant side effects.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of selected community-level interventions on key maternal, child health, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV outcomes in three countries (the ACCLAIM Project): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Kieffer, Mary Pat; Walker, Damilola; Mpofu, Daphne; Machekano, Rhoderick

    2016-02-16

    original study design. We purposively selected facilities in the districts/regions though originally the study clusters were to be randomly selected. Lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all HIV positive pregnant and lactating women, Option B+, was implemented in the three countries during the study period, with the potential for a differential impact by study arm. Implementation however, was rapidly done across the districts/regions, so that there is unlikely be this potential confounding. We developed a system of monitoring and documentation of potential confounding activities or actions, and these data will be incorporated into analyses at the conclusion of the project. Strengthens of the study are that it tests multilevel interventions, utilizes program as well as study specific and individual data, and it is conducted under "real conditions" leading to more robust findings. Limitations of the protocol include the lack of a true control arm and inadequate control for the potential effect of Option B+, such as the intensification of messages as the importance of early ANC and male partner testing. ClinicalTrials.gov (study ID: NCT01971710) Protocol version 5, 30 July 2013, registered 13 August 2013.

  16. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  17. Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is

  18. Development of a Home Food Safety Questionnaire Based on the PRECEDE Model: Targeting Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh; Abadi, Alireza; Roustaee, Roshanak; Alikhanian, Haleh; Khalafi, Marjan; Kiaee, Mohammad Farhad; Khaksar, Ramin

    2016-12-01

    Food safety is an essential public health issue for all countries. This study was the first attempt to design and develop a home food safety questionnaire (HFSQ), in the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE (predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling constructs in educational diagnosis and evaluation) model, and to assess its validity and reliability. The HFSQ was developed by reviewing electronic databases and 12 focus group discussions with 96 women volunteers. Ten panel members reviewed the questionnaire, and the content validity ratio and content validity index were computed. Twenty women completed the HFSQ, and face validity was assessed. Women who were responsible for food handling in their households (n =320) were selected randomly from 10 health centers and completed the HFSQ based on the PRECEDE model. To examine the construct validity, a principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was used. Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach's α. Reproducibility was checked by Kendall's τ after 4 weeks with 30 women. The developed HSFQ was considered acceptable with a content validity index of 0.88. Face validity revealed that 95% of the participants understood the questions and found them easy to answer, and 90% confirmed the appearance of the HFSQ and declared the layout acceptable. Principal component factor analysis revealed that the HFSQ could explain 33.7, 55.3, 34.8, and 60.0% of the total variance of the predisposing, reinforcing, practice, and enabling components, respectively. Cronbach's α was acceptable at 0.73. For Kendall's τc, r = 0.89, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 0.93. The HFSQ developed based on the PRECEDE model met the standards of acceptable reliability and validity, which can be generalized to a wider population. These results can provide information for the development of effective communication strategies to promote home food safety.

  19. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  20. Detection of mental disorders with the Patient Health Questionnaire in primary care settings in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Olatawura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders lead to difficulties in social, occupational and marital relations. Failure to detect mental disorder denies patients potentially effective treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and nature of mental disorders at the primary care settings and the recognition of these disorders by the attending physicians. Over a period of eight weeks, consecutive and consenting patients who attended three randomly selected primary health care facilities in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun state were recruited and administered a questionnaire that included a socio-demographic section and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. A total of 412 subjects took part in the study. Subject age ranged from 18-90 years with a mean age of 52.50±21.08 years. One hundred and seventy- six (42.7% of the subjects were males. A total of 120 (29.1% of the subjects had depressive disorder, 100 (24.3% had anxiety disorder, 196 (47.6% somatoform disorder and 104 (25.2% met the criteria for an alcohol related problem. The PHC physicians were only able to diagnose disorders relating to mental health in 52 (12.6% of the subjects. Health and work situations accounted for more than three-quarters of the causes of stress experienced by the subjects. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of mental disorders among patients seen in primary care settings and that a significant proportion of them are not recognized by the primary care physicians. Stress relating to health, work and financial problems is common among primary health care attendees. Physicians in primary health care should be alert to the possibility and the impact of undetected psychiatric morbidity.

  1. Data-quality issues and alternative variable-screening methods in a questionnaire-based study on subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Christensen, J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to determine risk factors for subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish finishing-pig herds. In this paper, the evaluation, combining and initial reduction of variables is presented, along with assessment of the hypothesis in the preliminary statistical testing. The first...... group of herds was selected at random with no former knowledge of S. enterica infection. Both the herd prevalence and the within-herd prevalence among these herds turned out to be low; hence, some additional herds were selected from The Danish Salmonella Control program, based on their high......-limiting precautions and feed and feeding procedures. To establish the prevalence of S. enterica infection within herds at the time of the visit, 50 blood samples from each herd were collected and serologically examined. The reliability of each variable from the questionnaire was assessed and it was decided which...

  2. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Braem

    Full Text Available In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc. and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc., and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447 and inter-rater (N = 120 reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter

  3. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Maya; Asher, Lucy; Furrer, Sibylle; Lechner, Isabel; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s) was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP) questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc.) and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc.), and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447) and inter-rater (N = 120) reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter-rater reliability

  4. [Reproducibility of a questionnaire for studying climacteric].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Benítez, E; Garrido-Latorre, F; MacGregor, C; Tamayo-Orozco, J; López-Carrillo, L; Parra, S; Santibañez-Moreno, G

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of a questionnaire concerned with the clinical and epidemiological aspects of menopause. The study population consisted of a hundred perimenopausal Mexican women seeking care at gynecology and obstetric health care services. Their participation was voluntary and they answered the same questionnaire two times with a 15-30 day lag between each application. The Kappa coefficient was high (0.81-1.0) for categorical variables such as: type of menstrual cycles, type of menopause, breast-feeding, use of estrogen during menopause and use of hormonal contraceptives. The Kappa coefficient was moderate (0.7-0.8) for symptoms related to menopause such as hot flashes, sweating, painful coitus, vaginal dryness and a decrease in libido. Mean differences were calculated for continuous variables such as age at menarche, age at menopause, time using estrogen and the duration of breast-feeding, the majority had a value of zero and 95% confidence intervals for these mean differences included the null value. The questionnaire also included other characteristics such as tobacco consumption and a short food frequency questionnaire, which showed high concordance (Kappa 0.7-1.0). The results of this study show that this questionnaire has a high level of reproducibility and can be useful as a research tool to explore menopause in Mexican women.

  5. Construction and Evaluation of Nursing Ethics Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faezeh Jahanpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Promoting the principles of professional practice through ethical principles education is one of the paramount means to enhance public trust in nurses. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure self-awareness of ethics in nurses. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, the initial list of 21 questions was prepared to design a genuine questionnaire of awareness of professional ethics in nursing. In order to check the the content validity and reliability, the Pearson and Kuder Richardson test was used. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20. Results: The results indicated that the initial list of 21 questions had high content validity and none were rejected. Content validity of the questionnaire was calculated to be 0.90. The final results disclosed that the final questionnaire was reliable with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.65. Conclusions: To assess the professional ethics in nursing, a reliable questionnaire should be used. The questionnaire designed in the present study may be a useful tool for evaluation of ethics in nursing.

  6. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2: study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Watkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. Methods/Design A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2IV 7-2. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms

  7. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples...... and standard deviations from selected community studies with comparable age groups, including parental reports for 7, 9 and 11 year-old children and self-reports of 13 and 15 year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: The descriptive statistics suggest that the distributions of SDQ scores are very similar across the Nordic...

  8. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. 2006-2007 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    Please help the Academic Training Committee to plan the 2006-07 programme of lectures by filling in the 2006-07 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire, which can be found at: http://academia.web.cern.ch/academia/questionnaire/ If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received.

  10. Converting ODM Metadata to FHIR Questionnaire Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doods, Justin; Neuhaus, Philipp; Dugas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Interoperability between systems and data sharing between domains is becoming more and more important. The portal medical-data-models.org offers more than 5.300 UMLS annotated forms in CDISC ODM format in order to support interoperability, but several additional export formats are available. CDISC's ODM and HL7's framework FHIR Questionnaire resource were analyzed, a mapping between elements created and a converter implemented. The developed converter was integrated into the portal with FHIR Questionnaire XML or JSON download options. New FHIR applications can now use this large library of forms.

  11. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily...... been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap....

  12. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  13. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  14. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  15. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  16. Protocol for Combined Analysis of FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global Randomized Phase III Trials of Chemotherapy +/- Selective Internal Radiation Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Pradeep S; Moschandreas, Joanna; Gebski, Val; Love, Sharon B; Francis, E Anne; Wasan, Harpreet S; van Hazel, Guy; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-03-28

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are associated with a poor prognosis. The FOXFIRE (an open-label randomized phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and folinic acid +/- interventional radioembolization as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer), SIRFLOX (randomized comparative study of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma), and FOXFIRE-Global (assessment of overall survival of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma in a randomized clinical study) clinical trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining first-line chemotherapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres, also called transarterial radioembolization. The aim of this analysis is to prospectively combine clinical data from 3 trials to allow adequate power to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with SIRT on overall survival. Eligible patients are adults with histologically confirmed CRC and unequivocal evidence of liver metastases which are not treatable by surgical resection or local ablation with curative intent at the time of study entry. Patients may also have limited extrahepatic metastases. Final analysis will take place when all participants have been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Efficacy and safety estimates derived using individual participant data (IPD) from SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE, and FOXFIRE-Global will be pooled using 2-stage prospective meta-analysis. Secondary outcome measures include progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, health-related quality of life, response rate, resection rate, and adverse event profile. The large study population will

  17. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Experiences with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 in young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-09-01

    Eating behaviours play a crucial role in the development of obesity. To conduct a psychometric analysis of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 and to investigate the correlates of obesogenic eating behaviours among males. Participants of the cross-sectional questionnaire-based study were male university students (n = 239, mean of age: 20.3 years, SD = 2.78 years). self-reported body weight and body height, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21, Trait Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical model of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 (χ 2 (186) = 366.1, peating behaviours, such as uncontrolled eating, cognitive restraint, and emotional eating. Results support the construct validity and reliability of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 among males and highlight the importance of taking psychological factors into account in the prevention of obesity. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(37): 1469-1477.

  19. Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-I. D. Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ using two 3-day food diaries (FDs. We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland–Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p < 0.05; percent difference <10%, with no presence of proportional bias (Bland–Altman correlation, p > 0.05. After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships.

  20. Use of online machine translation for nursing literature: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi

    2013-01-01

    The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem. To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearman's correlation were used for analyses. Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT. Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required.

  1. [End-of-life decisions: results of the expert-validated questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonçalves, Belén; Albarrán Juan, Elena; Labajo González, Elena; Santiago-Sáez, Andrés; Perea-Pérez, Bernardo

    2018-02-02

    To assess the attitudes and knowledge in the life's end about palliative care, advance directives, psychological-physical care, medically assisted suicide and spiritual accompaniment. A cross-sectional study performed in the population at primary health care center of the Autonomous Region of Madrid (Spain). It participated 425 selected people that a simple random was applied in the consultation sheets of health professionals. They analyzed 42 variables of self-administered questionnaire. The surveyed population of Madrid displayed the following characteristics: university studies 58%, 51-70 years 47%, married 60%, and women 61%. 91% would like to decide about their care at life's end. 58% of respondents are aware of palliative care and 53% would request spiritual accompaniment. They know advance directives (50%) but have not made the document. 54% are in favor of legalizing the euthanasia and 42% the assisted suicide. Madrid's people state they would like to decide what care they will receive at life's end and request spiritual accompaniment. Outstanding advocates of euthanasia against assisted suicide. They would like to receive palliative care and complete advance directives documents. To draw comparisons within the population, thereby increasing awareness about social health care resources in Autonomous Region of Madrid, surveys should be conducted in different primary health care centers areas of Madrid. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping scores from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to preference-based utility values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Gareth; Segal, Leonie; Leach, Matthew; Cocks, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Quality of life mapping methods such as "Transfer to Utility" can be used to translate scores on disease-specific measures to utility values, when traditional utility measurement methods (e.g. standard gamble, time trade-off, preference-based multi-attribute instruments) have not been used. The aim of this study was to generate preliminary ordinary least squares (OLS) regression-based algorithms to transform scores from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ), a widely used measure of mental health in children and adolescents, to utility values obtained using the preference-based Child Health Utility (CHU9D) instrument. Two hundred caregivers of children receiving community mental health services completed the SDQ and CHU9D during a telephone interview. Two OLS regressions were run with the CHU9D utility value as the dependent variable and SDQ subscales as predictors. Resulting algorithms were validated by comparing predicted and observed group mean utility values in randomly selected subsamples. Preliminary validation was obtained for two algorithms, utilising five and three subscales of the SDQ, respectively. Root mean square error values (.124) for both models suggested poor fit at an individual level, but both algorithms performed well in predicting mean group observed utility values. This research generated algorithms for translating SDQ scores to utility values and providing researchers with an additional tool for conducting health economic evaluations with child and adolescent mental health data.

  3. Psychological problems of Iranian children and adolescents: parent report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh, Heidar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soror; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Abbas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of psychological problems Iranian children and adolescents have, using parent report form of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In a community-based study, 9636 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected using the multistage cluster random sampling method from five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Razavi Khorasan and East Azerbaijan. The parents completed the SDQ, which consisted of five subscales including emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behaviors. The results revealed 21.4% of emotional problems, 32.9% of conduct problems, 20% of hyperactivity, 25.6% of peer problems, 7.6% of problems in prosocial behaviors and 16.7% of total difficulties among Iranian children and adolescents. We found that emotional problems were more prevalent among girls, while conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties and problems in prosocial behaviors were more prevalent among boys. High educational level of parents was a protective factor against some psychological problems. Considering the proportion of psychological problems in Iranian children and adolescents, we need to develop and implement special policies and programs to provide appropriate mental health services.

  4. The use of research questionnaires with hearing impaired adults: online vs. paper-and-pencil administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorén Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA, Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE a significant difference of format with a small effect size was found. The relevance of the difference in scores between the formats depends on which context the questionnaire is used in. On balance, it is recommended that the administration format remain stable across assessment points.

  5. Mouthguard use and dental injury in sport: a questionnaire study of national school children in the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Margaret; Evans, David S; Hewson, Antonia; Owens, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear. To determine the extent of mouthguard use, dental trauma and barriers to use among children. The survey also investigated school and sports club policy on mouthguard use in sport. A questionnaire was sent to parents of 1,111 children aged nine to 13 years attending 25 randomly selected schools in the Health Service Executive West region of Ireland. It sought information about children's sporting activities, mouthguard policy and use, barriers to use, and dental accidents. A total of 505 questionnaires were returned (46%). More than nine out of ten children were involved in sport. Mouthguards were worn by 22% of children during sport. Less than one-third of schools and sports clubs that children attended had a mouthguard policy. Significantly more children used mouthguards where there was a mouthguard policy. Reasons for not wearing mouthguards included cost, lack of knowledge and information, and lack of a mouthguard policy. One in ten children had suffered a sports accident in the previous year, of which 51% injured teeth. Of these, 72% visited a dentist within two hours. The dental profession and individual practitioners should promote mouthguard use for children during sport and be advocates for the development of policies in schools and sporting organisations.

  6. Pesticide applicators questionnaire content validation: A fuzzy delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakandan, S K; Rosnah, I; Mohd Ridhuan, J; Priya, R

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial step in forming a set of survey questionnaire is deciding the appropriate items in a construct. Retaining irrelevant items and removing important items will certainly mislead the direction of a particular study. This article demonstrates Fuzzy Delphi method as one of the scientific analysis technique to consolidate consensus agreement within a panel of experts pertaining to each item's appropriateness. This method reduces the ambiguity, diversity, and discrepancy of the opinions among the experts hence enhances the quality of the selected items. The main purpose of this study was to obtain experts' consensus on the suitability of the preselected items on the questionnaire. The panel consists of sixteen experts from the Occupational and Environmental Health Unit of Ministry of Health, Vector-borne Disease Control Unit of Ministry of Health and Occupational and Safety Health Unit of both public and private universities. A set of questionnaires related to noise and chemical exposure were compiled based on the literature search. There was a total of six constructs with 60 items in which three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of noise exposure and three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of chemical exposure. The validation process replicated recent Fuzzy Delphi method that using a concept of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers and Defuzzification process. A 100% response rate was obtained from all the sixteen experts with an average Likert scoring of four to five. Post FDM analysis, the first prerequisite was fulfilled with a threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2, hence all the six constructs were accepted. For the second prerequisite, three items (21%) from noise-attitude construct and four items (40%) from chemical-practice construct had expert consensus lesser than 75%, which giving rise to about 12% from the total items in the questionnaire. The third prerequisite was used to rank the items within the constructs by calculating the average

  7. Handicap questionnaires: what do they assess?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Brandsma, J. W.; de Groot, I. J.; van den Bos, G. A.; de Haan, R. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    1999-01-01

    There is an increasing need to get insight into the social and societal impact of chronic conditions on a person's life, i.e. person-perceived handicap. The purpose of this study is to report how current handicap questionnaires assess handicap. A literature search using both Medline and the database

  8. ING User Questionnaire - Summary of the Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. G. M.

    2005-12-01

    Earlier this year a questionnaire was issued to our community of telescope users with a number of questions regarding the current and future use of the telescopes. Many responses were received and these are of great value to the observatory and have served as input to the International Review of the ING that was held in July of this year.

  9. Chloroquine induced pruritus - questionnaire based epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of ...

  10. Structural Validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Bennett J.; Percy, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Two studies with 290 college students and 95 business managers investigated the latent structure of items from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Results support models in which transformational and transactional leadership items load on separate factors and suggest that charismatic and inspirational leadership scales converge for…

  11. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  12. The Caring School Leadership Questionnaire (CSLQ)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to develop the Caring School Leadership Questionnaire (CSLQ) as a valid and reliable instrument to measure ... Keywords: caring, caring school leadership, determinants of care, management, measuring instrument for caring school leadership ...... school management skills. Pretoria: Van ...

  13. Outlier Detection in Test and Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…

  14. A closer look at web questionnaire design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the design of online questionnaires and its consequences for data quality: what is the effect of the number of items placed on a screen, the response categories, layout choices et cetera. It also focuses on attrition and panel conditioning: what do people learn from

  15. University of Michigan Drug Education Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, John Bruce; Patch, David J.

    This questionnaire assesses attitudes toward potential drug education programs and drug use practices in college students. The 87 items (multiple choice or free response) pertain to the history and extent of usage of 27 different drugs, including two non-existent drugs which may be utilized as a validity check; attitude toward the content, format,…

  16. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  17. Validation of satisfaction questionnaire for outpatient neurology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patient satisfaction questionnaires are the commonly used patient satisfaction measure, and may be global or multidimensional in focus. Global patient satisfaction consists of overall patient satisfaction while multidimensional patient satisfaction has multiple items focusing on different dimensions of the ...

  18. Applicability of the Organisational Climate Description Questionnaire

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic categories and different demographic fields) of the OCDQ-RE questionnaire constitute a favourable point of ... as the applicable Area project manager were approached in writing to obtain permis- sion to apply the adapted ... principal) as in the OCDQ-RE. Item 24 (the principal corrects educators' mistakes),.

  19. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  20. The Caring School Leadership Questionnaire (CSLQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vyver, C. P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop the Caring School Leadership Questionnaire (CSLQ) as a valid and reliable instrument to measure the extent of care being given by school leaders (principals) to teachers. The research involved 1,041 teachers and 65 principals from 68 primary schools in the North-West Province of South Africa. The…

  1. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life). Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, VISQ) and responded to at least seven random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only two of the four VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking.

  2. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: A smartphone app study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eAlderson-Day

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints. The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life. Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, or VISQ and responded to at least 7 random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly-sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only 2 of the 4 VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking.

  3. Assessing obstetric patient experience: a SERVQUAL questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Francesca; Narayan, Harini

    2013-01-01

    Across health services, there is a drive to respond to patient feedback and to incorporate their views into service improvement. The SERVQUAL method has been used in several clinical settings to quantify whether services meet patient expectations. However, work has been limited in the obstetric population. This paper seeks to address these issues. This study used an adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire to assess a reconfigured antenatal clinic service. The most important care aspects, as rated by patients, were used to construct the SERVQUAL questions. The questionnaire was administered to eligible women in two parts. The first was completed before their first hospital antenatal appointment and the second either at home (a postal-chasing exercise) or while waiting for their next appointment. Only fully completed questionnaires (both parts) were analysed. Service strengths included staff politeness, patient respect and privacy. Areas for improvement included hand cleanliness, women's involvement in decision making and communicating risk. However, the low variability in patient responses makes concrete conclusions difficult and methodological issues complicate evaluating hand cleanliness. The new antenatal clinic service received low negative weighted and un-weighted overall scores. The SERVQUAL measure was developed from patient feedback and used to further improve services. The SERVQUAL-based measure allowed an internal evaluation of patient experience and highlighted areas for improvement. However, without validation, the questionnaire cannot be used as an outcome measure and variation between published SERVQUAL questionnaires makes comparisons difficult. This highlights an important balance in patient evaluation measures--between locally responsive and externally comparable. The SERVQUAL approach allows healthcare teams to evaluate patient experience, while accounting for variation in their expectations and priorities. The study highlights several areas that are

  4. Wellness appraisal among adolescents in Jordan: a model from a developing country: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda G; Owies, Arwa; Mansour, Amani

    2009-06-01

    The demographic and economic transition that many developing countries, including Jordan, are undergoing is producing important changes in diet and lifestyle that greatly impact the development of chronic illness. The health behavior of adolescents in developing countries constitutes one of the most serious global challenges we face. The purpose of this study was to explore the wellness appraisal of Jordanian adolescents. It specifically describes the (i) self-care and health history pattern, (ii) to assess physical activity and nutrition appraisal, (iii) quality of life appraisal and (iv) school and outside activities appraisal. A self-administrated questionnaire collected the data from adolescent groups (boys and girls.). A multi-stage stratified random sample was obtained from six public schools by first selecting the educational directorate located in the city of Irbid, which is located in the north of Jordan. A random sub sample of six individual schools was then selected. Individual classes were then selected. A total of 269 boys and 261 girls (12-17-year old) were included in the analysis. The results showed that the students engaged in risky health behaviors which could lead to short- and long-term health problems. The most alarming finding of this study was students' nutritional habits, including less than the daily requirements of fruits, vegetables, milk and meat, while the intake of fast food, soft drinks and sweets were higher than recommended. School-based health promotion and wellness programs should be established in Jordan to influence the health behaviors of adolescents and parents and to avoid further deterioration of their health. Jordanian school curriculum needs to integrate more precise health education programs about diet, exercise, self care and other life style behaviors. More detailed studies are needed with more elaborate instruments about food habits, physical activities and psycho social life.

  5. The Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia questionnaire : Development and validation of a new questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetz, I.; Burlage, Fred; Bijl, H.P.; Chouvalova, Olga; Christianen, M.E.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.; de Bock, G.H.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia (GRIX) questionnaire) that has the ability to distinguish between patient-rated xerostomia during day and night and can be used to evaluate the impact of emerging radiation

  6. 78 FR 45259 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is... below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, HUD is requesting comment from all interested... proposed forms or other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this...

  7. 78 FR 59046 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW... Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number...

  8. The effect of question wording in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw

    2012-12-01

    To identify factors that contribute to the high variability of the rates of use of placebo interventions reported in questionnaire surveys, the author investigated the effect of the explicit use of the word "placebo" in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice on the results obtained. 190 primary care physicians in Poland were divided randomly into two groups. The groups received a questionnaire in which either the word placebo or the term "nonspecific methods of treatment" was used. The respondents who were asked explicitly about the use of placebo interventions declared that they never used placebo interventions significantly more often than participants asked about the use of nonspecific treatment methods. Moreover, the former reported significantly rarer use of placebo interventions than the latter. The study demonstrates that differences in the wording of questions in questionnaire surveys on placebo use can create statistically significant differences in results.

  9. Quality of life of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode: development and use of a telephone questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubé Eve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative consequences of acute otitis media (AOM on the quality of life (QOL of children and their families need to be measured to assess benefits of preventive interventions. Methods A new questionnaire was specifically designed for use in telephone surveys. A random sample of Canadian families was selected using random-digit dialling. Caregivers of children 6-59 months of age who experienced at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months were interviewed. Multidimensional severity and global QOL scores were measured both for affected children and their caregivers. Internal consistency of scores was assessed using standard tests. Results Of the 502 eligible caregivers who completed the survey, 161 (32% reported at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months and these cases were included in the analysis. Average severity was 2.6 for children and 2.4 for caregivers on a 1 to 4 scale (maximum severity. Cronbach alpha values were 0.78 and 0.81 for the severity score of children and caregivers respectively. Average QOL was 3.4 for children and 3.5 for caregivers on a 1 to 5 scale (best QOL. There was moderate to high correlation between severity and QOL scores, and between these scores and duration of AOM episodes. Conclusions The questionnaire was easy to use during telephone interviews and results suggest good reliability and validity of the different scores to measure AOM severity and QOL of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode.

  10. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElHafeez Samar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4 patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α TM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance. Conclusion The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

  11. Applying computerized adaptive testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch analysis of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-02-17

    Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than -4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision.

  12. Screening of developmental disorders in five-year-olds using the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Jaakkola, Marjatta; Ahlroth, Anne; Pesonen, Aino-Elina; Turunen, Merja-Maaria

    2004-01-01

    The study examined the validity of the Five to Fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in detecting developmental disorders in five-year-old children. A pilot study (N=70) was first undertaken to try out a translation of the FTF into Finnish. Subsequently, FTF questionnaires were mailed to parents of all five-year-old children from specified health-care districts in Vantaa, Finland. A total of 769 questionnaires (60%) were completed and returned. Children scoring above a cut-off value in any domain were considered at risk for having developmental disorders (the Risk Group; N=90). A Control Group was formed by randomly selecting 30 children who did not score above the threshold value in any domain. The children from the Risk Group and the Control Group were called to individual neuropsychological assessments. All invited children attended the assessments. The parts of the FTF that assess fine motor skills, executive functions (including attention and impulsivity), perception, memory, and language were used for this study. The external criterion measure was the NEPSY, a neuropsychological assessment instrument. Results demonstrated that the five FTF Domain Scores used in this study correlated significantly with the corresponding NEPSY Domain Scores. Second, the Risk Group obtained significantly poorer scores on the NEPSY than the Control Group. Third, on a cross-tabulation a very high rate of positive hits (93 %) was obtained as well as a very low rate of misses (7 %), indicating a very good sensitivity. However, there were a large percentage of false positives (63 %), indicating that specificity was not so good. Evidently, parents may report concerns related to the young child's development even when neuropsychological assessments do not indicate significant disorders. On the whole, the findings supported the validity of the FTF as a developmental screening instrument.

  13. How you ask really matters: randomised comparison of four sexual behaviour questionnaire delivery modes in Zimbabwean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhaug, Lisa F; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pascoe, Sophie J S; Chirawu, Petronella; Woelk, Godfrey; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M

    2011-03-01

    A sexual health survey among rural Zimbabwean youth was used to compare the validity and reliability of sexual behaviour measures between four questionnaire delivery modes. Using a random permuted block design, 1495 youth were randomised to one of four questionnaire delivery modes: self-administered questionnaire (SAQ=373); SAQ accompanied by an audio soundtrack (Audio-SAQ=376); face-to-face interview with sensitive questions placed in a confidential voting box (Informal confidential voting interview; ICVI=365); and audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI=381). Key questions were selected a priori to compare item non-response and rates of reporting of sensitive behaviours between questionnaire delivery modes. Qualitative data were collected on perceived method acceptability (n=115). Item non-response was significantly higher with SAQ and Audio-SAQ than with ICVI and ACASI (p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds of reporting sexual activity among Audio-SAQ and ACASI users were twice as high as the odds for SAQ users (Audio-SAQ AOR=2.05 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4); ACASI AOR=2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)), with no evidence of reporting difference between ICVI and SAQ users (ICVI AOR=1.0 (95% CI 0.6 to 1.8)). ACASI users reported a lower age at first intercourse and were more likely to report a greater number of partners (mean difference=1.06; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.78; p=0.004). They reported an increased ability to answer questions honestly (p=0.004) and believed their answers would be kept secret. Participants claimed increased comprehension when hearing questions while reading them. ICVI users expressed difficulty answering sensitive questions, despite understanding that their answers were unknown to the interviewer. ACASI appears to reduce bias significantly, and is feasible and acceptable in resource-poor settings with low computer literacy. Its increased use would likely improve the quality of questionnaire data in general and sexual behaviour data

  14. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramian, Nahid; Gharaat, Leila; Taheri, Shohreh Akhavan; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Nahvizadeh, Mahmonir; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-12-01

    Considering the problem of drug abuse in Iran especially in adolescents and the youth, recent alterations in drug abuse rate and its trend, the necessity to have local information about this problem, applied research has a determining role in management of this problem and making proper decisions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a questionnaire to assess the status of drug abuse among high school students of Isfahan Province, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted out in 2009 in 20 cities of Isfahan Province. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice of high school students regarding addictive drugs and their associated causes. This was accomplished by recruiting 7137 students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The designed questionnaire identified the status quo of drug abuse according to age, gender, and different cities of Isfahan Province. We also accessed information about the type of abused drug, the most common causes of drug abuse for the first time, the most important causes of drug abuse, mean age of abusers and mean age at the first abuse, common time and locations of drug abuse, and the most common routes of drug abuse according to gender as well as urban and rural areas of Isfahan Province. Reliability of the questionnaire, based on the calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 77% considering a cut-off point of 0.07. According to the obtained results, the designed questionnaire is capable to assess the drug abuse status among high school students of Isfahan Province. Regarding the importance of teenage years in forming the future behaviors of adolescents and the opportunities provided at schools, it is prudent to pay more attention to interventions in this age group in order to increase their knowledge and correct their attitude toward illegal drugs and strengthening their confidence in this regard. These interventions can have an important role

  15. Psychometric evaluation of dietary habits questionnaire for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, W.; Ansari, T.; Butt, N. S.; Hamid, M. R. Ab

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of English version of dietary habits questionnaires developed for type 2 diabetic patients. There is scarcity of literature about availability of standardized questionnaires for assessing dietary habits of type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. As dietary habits vary from country to country, therefore, this was an attempt to develop questionnaires that can serve as a baseline. Through intensive literature review, four questionnaires were developed / modified and subsequently tested for psychometric properties. Prior to pilot study, a pre-test was conducted to evaluate the face validity and content validity. The pilot study was conducted from 23 October - 22 November, 2016 to evaluate the questionnaires’ reliability and validity. Systematic random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 132 patients by direct investigation method. Questionnaires assessing diabetes mellitus knowledge (0.891), dietary knowledge (0.869), dietary attitude (0.841) and dietary practices (0.874) had good internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis conducted on dietary attitude questionnaire showed a valid 5 factor solution. Directions of loadings were positive and free from factorial complexity. Relying on the data obtained from type 2 diabetics, these questionnaires can be considered as reliable and valid for the assessment of dietary habits in Saudi Arabia and neighbouring Gulf countries population.

  16. 2005-06 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    Please help the Academic Training Committee to plan the 2005-06 programme of lectures by filling in the 2005-06 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire which can be found at: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  17. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    . Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children...... acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.......Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230...

  18. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP......), the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were....... The resulting subgroups were descriptively compared using statistical measures and clinical interpretability. RESULTS: For each health domain, the preferred model solution ranged from five to seven subgroups for the summary-score strategy and seven to eight subgroups for the single-item strategy...

  19. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  20. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica

    The caregiving system was originally described by Bowlby and has been conceptually developed by George and Solomon (1989; 1996; 2008). It is “the other half” of the social bond between parent and child and is described as a behavioural system in its own right that is reciprocally linked to the ch......The caregiving system was originally described by Bowlby and has been conceptually developed by George and Solomon (1989; 1996; 2008). It is “the other half” of the social bond between parent and child and is described as a behavioural system in its own right that is reciprocally linked...... to the child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing...

  1. [Translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire on the reason for food choices (Food Choice Questionnaire - FCQ) into Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Sara Franco Diniz; Estima, Camilla Chermont Prochnik; das Neves, Fabricia Junqueira; de Aguiar, Aline Silva; Castro, Sybelle de Souza; Ferreira, Julia Elba de Souza

    2015-08-01

    The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) assesses the importance that subjects attribute to nine factors related to food choices: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. This study sought to assess the applicability of the FCQ in Brazil; it describes the translation and cultural adaptation from English into Portuguese of the FCQ via the following steps: independent translations, consensus, back-translation, evaluation by a committee of experts, semantic validation and pre-test. The pre-test was run with a randomly sampled group of 86 male and female college students from different courses with a median age of 19. Slight differences between the versions were observed and adjustments were made. After minor changes in the translation process, the committee of experts considered that the Brazilian Portuguese version was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English original. Semantic validation showed that the questionnaire is easily understood. The instrument presented a high degree of internal consistency. The study is the first stage in the process of validating an instrument, which consists of face and content validity. Further stages, already underway, are needed before other researchers can use it.

  2. Development of the children's eating behaviour questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, J.; Guthrie, C. A.; Sanderson, S.; Rapoport, L.

    2001-01-01

    Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from t...

  3. Methamphetamine and Paranoia: The Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Leamon, Martin H.; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E.; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2010-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. METHODS: We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. RESULTS: 45% (123) subjects first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia,...

  4. [Shoulder disability questionnaires: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M

    2005-07-01

    To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires designed to measure physical functioning and to examine those with satisfactory clinimetric quality. We used the Medline database and the "Guide des outils de mesure de l'évaluation en médecine physique et de réadaptation" textbook to search for questionnaires. Analysis took into account the development methodology, clinimetric quality of the instruments and frequency of their utilization. We classified the instruments according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Thirty-eight instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder- or upper extremity-specific outcome. Four scales assess upper-extremity disability and 3 others shoulder disability. We found 6 scales evaluating disability and shoulder pain, 7 scales measuring the quality of life in patients with various conditions of the shoulder, 14 scales combining objective and subjective measures, 2 pain scales and 2 unclassified scales. Older instruments developed before the advent of modern measurement development methodology usually combine objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with appropriate methodology. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Numerous shoulder outcome measure instruments are available. There is no "gold standard" for assessing shoulder function outcome in the general population.

  5. Menstrual questionnaires for clinical and research use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Kristen A

    2017-04-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have the potential to be extremely valuable in the clinical care delivery for women who report heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Increasingly, studies on HM