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Sample records for randomly selected inhabitants

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  4. The Nature of Inhabited Planets and their Inhabitants

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Earth-like planets are expected to provide the greatest opportunity for the detection of life beyond the Solar System. This notion stems from an assumption that the Earth constitutes a simple random sample amongst inhabited planets. However, in the event that other intelligent species exist, our planet should not be considered a fair sample. Just as a person's country of origin is a biased sample among countries, so too their planet of origin is a biased sample among planets. The strength of this effect can be substantial: over 98% of the world's population live in a country larger than the median. Any variable which influences either the population size or birth rate is susceptible to selection bias. In the context of a simple model where the mean population density is invariant to planet size, we infer that an inhabited planet selected at random (such as our nearest neighbour) has a radius r<1.2 r_Earth (95% confidence bound). If the range of habitable radii is sufficiently broad, most inhabited planets ...

  5. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  6. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Selected social and health problems in functioning of disabled rural and urban inhabitants in the Lublin Region--similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit, Katarzyna; Nasiłowska-Barud, Alicja; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Gorczyca, Rafał; Jędrych, Marian; Kołłątaj, Witold

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the frequency of occurrence of selected difficulties associated with disability and social problems which disturb the functioning of the disabled in rural and urban areas in the Lublin Region. The study was conducted by trained surveyors with the use of a standardized questionnaire which covered: 1) Demographic data: age, gender, education level and marital status; 2) Information concerning biological and legal disability, degree of disability, its causes, functional limitations due to disability; 3) Information pertaining to difficulties and barriers in daily living of the disabled population. The study covered 403 disabled selected by the method of targeted sampling--147 rural and 256 urban inhabitants. Log-linear model was applied for data analysis. Unfavourable demographic characteristics of the population of the disabled in the study: mean age 63; high percentage of never-married males and females; respondents possessing elementary education level; dominant number of those occupationally inactive. The most frequent limitations associated with disability: limitations in performing household jobs (70.9%), walking difficulties (68.1%). High intensity of material difficulties, in association with low education level and high percentage of those occupationally inactive, are the evidence of socio-economic deprivation of the population examined. Differences between rural and urban inhabitants was found: in the rural environment, compared to urban areas, the following were more frequently reported: lack of possibilities of rehabilitation in the place of residence, difficulties with access to medical specialist; alcohol abuse in the family, and family disagreements. Urban population more often than rural inhabitants perceived loneliness and isolation from the closest family.

  8. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  9. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  10. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  11. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  12. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  13. Inhabiting the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-03-01

    The new field of space architecture is introduced. Defined as the "theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space," the field synthesizes human space flight systems engineering subjects with the long tradition of making environments that support human living, work, and aspiration. The scope of the field is outlined, and its three principal domains differentiated. The current state of the art is described in terms of executed projects. Foreseeable options for 21st century developments in human space flight provide a framework to tease out potential space architecture opportunities for the next century.

  14. Inhabiting adaptive architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Schnädelbach, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Architecture concerns buildings that are specifically designed to adapt to their inhabitants and to their environments. Work in this space has a very long history, with a number of adaptive buildings emerging during the modernist period, such as Rietveld’s Schröder house, Gaudi’s Casa Batlló and Chareau's Maison de Verre. Such early work included manual adaptivity, even if that was motor-assisted. Today, buildings have started to combine this with varying degrees of automation and de...

  15. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  16. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  17. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  18. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  20. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  1. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  2. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First-Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; Fioritti, Angelo; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Neri, Giovanni; Ghigi, Daniela; Giubilini, Franco; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Pratelli, Michela; Bellini, Francesca; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Bissoli, Sarah; Poli, Sara; Ira, Elisa; Zoppei, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Bislenghi, Laura; Patelli, Giovanni; Cristofalo, Doriana; Meneghelli, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-element psychosocial interventions have been suggested to improve the outcomes of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but they have been studied primarily in experimental settings and in nonepidemiologically representative samples. Thus, we performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an integrated multi-element psychosocial intervention, comprising cognitive behavioral therapy, family intervention, and case management, with treatment as usual (TAU) for FEP patients in 117 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in a large area of northern Italy (10 million inhabitants). The randomized units (clusters) were the CMHCs, and the units of observation the patients (and, when available, their family members). The primary hypotheses were that add-on multicomponent intervention: (1) results in greater improvements in symptoms, as assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale and (2) reduces in-hospital stay, based on days of hospitalization over the 9-month follow-up. Four hundred and forty-four FEP patients received the intervention or TAU and were assessed at baseline and 9 months. Based on the retention rates of patients (and families) in the experimental arm, multi-element psychosocial interventions can be implemented in routine mental health services. Regarding primary outcomes, patients in the experimental arm showed greater reductions in overall symptom severity, while no difference could be found for days of hospitalization. Among the secondary outcomes, greater improvements were detected in the experimental arm for global functioning, emotional well-being, and subjective burden of delusions. No difference could be found for service disengagement and subjective burden of auditory hallucinations. These findings support feasibility and effectiveness of early interventions for psychosis in generalist mental health services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research

  4. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  6. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  7. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  8. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  9. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  10. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  11. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  12. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  13. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  14. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  15. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  16. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  17. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  18. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  19. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  20. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  1. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  2. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  3. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  4. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  5. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  6. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  7. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  8. Friendly Home and Inhabitants' Morality: Mutual Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Nartova-Bochaver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating the connection between the friendliness of the home environment and the moral motives' level. The friendliness of the home environment includes two aspects: the number of functions provided by home (functionality and the congruence of these functions with inhabitants' needs (relevance. The theoretical framework of the study was formed by research and ideas emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments. We hypothesized that the friendliness of the home environment and inhabitants' moral motives would have a reciprocal relationship: the friendlier the home the higher the inhabitants' moral motives' level, and, vice versa, the higher the person's moral motives' level the more positive home image. The respondents were 550 students (25% male. The Home Environment Functionality Questionnaire, the Home Environment Relevance Questionnaire, and the Moral Motivation Model Scale were used. As expected, it was found that the friendliness of the home environment and the inhabitants' moral motives are in reciprocal synergetic relationships. Relevance formed more nuanced correlation patterns with moral motives than functionality did. Functionality predicted moral motives poorly whereas moral motives predicted functionality strongly. Finally, relevance and moral motives were found to be in mutual relationships whereas the perceived functionality was predicted by moral motives only.

  9. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  10. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  11. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  12. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  13. On the relation between mobility and inhabitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    The paper reflects on the spatiality of mobile dwelling in bringing together two different bodies of empirical work; one on train commuting with commuters living in the countryside and working in the city and one on inhabitation with a group of urban dwellers that have recently moved to the count......The paper reflects on the spatiality of mobile dwelling in bringing together two different bodies of empirical work; one on train commuting with commuters living in the countryside and working in the city and one on inhabitation with a group of urban dwellers that have recently moved...... to the countryside. Both studies are conducted in the Zealand- and Capital Regions of Denmark and refer to Copenhagen as the major city. The studies demonstrate the multiplicity and relationality between mobility and dwelling as well as testify to the social impact on the everyday accommodation of distance...

  14. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  15. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  16. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  17. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  18. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  19. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  1. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  2. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  3. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  4. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  5. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  6. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  8. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying the risk of zoonotic geohelminth infections for rural household inhabitants in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gawor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of soil transmitted zoonotic helminth infections for families with young children, inhabitants of villages in the Mazowieckie Province of Central Poland. Epidemiological survey was conducted at 33 randomly selected households with 2–3 children present. Examination of soil samples from yards surrounding the houses for the presence of geohelminth eggs was conducted, the households were inspected, and family members interviewed using a designed questionnaire. Among 55 localities examined, i.e. 33 backyards, 10 vegetable gardens and 12 sandpits, contamination was found in 2 backyards (6.1% and 1 sandpit (8.3% at 3 households (9.1%. Of the total 550 examined soil samples, 4 (0.7% were found to contain Trichuris and Toxocara eggs, with an average density of 1.5 and 2.0 eggs per sample. The study showed a low level of soil contamination, which was the result of inhabitants care about the sanitation of their domiciles. However, the results of the questionnaire survey demonstrated the need to warn rural residents about the risk factors for zoonotic helmints infections. In particular, parents should be advised how to minimize the threat of parasitic diseases for children in the rural environment. The presented study showed that promotional campaigns implemented in recent years on the prevention of parasitic zoonoses have had little effect to increase the awareness of the rural community. The present results confirmed that Toxocara is the most common zoonotic agent among geohelminths in the rural environment.

  10. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  11. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  12. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  13. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  14. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  16. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  17. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  18. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  19. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  20. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  1. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  4. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  5. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  6. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  7. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  8. Fire safety arrangement of inhabited pressurized compartments of manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolodian, Ivan; Melikhov, Anatoliy; Tanklevskiy, Leonid

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with innovative technical solutions that provide fire safety in inhabited pressurized compartments of manned spacecraft by means of a fireproof device of inhabited pressurized compartments via application of engineering means of fire prevention and fire spreading prevention by lowering fire load in an inhabited pressurized module up to the point when the maximum possible levels of fire factors in an inhabited pressurized compartment of a manned spacecraft are prevented. Represented technical solutions are used at the present time according to stated recommendations during provision of fire safety of equipment created by a number of Russian organizations for equipage of inhabited pressurized compartments of spacecraft of the Russian segment of International space station.

  9. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  10. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  11. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  12. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  13. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...

  15. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  16. Use of alcohol among the inhabitants of the 107 largest cities in Brazil--2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galduróz, J C F; Carlini, E A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol is part of the history of humanity, seemingly as a result of countless factors including the easy production of alcoholic beverages in practically all regions of the world. The authors studied aspects of the use of and the dependence on alcohol in Brazil, through a household survey conducted by Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). A total of 8,589 interviews were held in 107 of the largest cities in Brazil, all of them with more than 200 thousand inhabitants. The study was planned to gather information within the household environment about a stratified probabilistic sample obtained in three selection phases: 1) the censitaire sectors for each municipality, 2) a systematic randomized sampling, and 3) drafting a respondent by lot in each household to provide information. Approximately 11.2% of the subjects were concerned with their own consumption of alcohol. The signs/symptoms of the syndrome of dependence evident in a greater percentage were the desire to stop or reduce the use of alcohol and to stop or reduce resorting to alcoholic beverages more often than desired, as reported by 14.5 and 9.4% of the respondents, respectively. The regions in Brazil with the highest percentage of dependents were the North (16.3%) and the Northeast (19.9%). According to the estimates obtained in the survey, 5.2% of the teenagers were concerned about the use of alcohol. The estimates obtained in this survey reveal a need to implant specific preventive programs for the problem of alcohol, especially for the very young.

  17. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  18. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  19. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  20. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pmemory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions

  1. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  2. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  3. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  4. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  5. Ernö Goldfinger and 2 Willow Road: inhabiting the modern utopia Hampstead, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mejía

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 Willow Road, houses built by Ernö Goldfinger facing Hampstead Heath in London, stand out as a paradigmatic example of Modernist British Architecture. Displacing traditional notions and ideals of a modernist house and of modernist inhabitation, what they ‘are’ goes somehow against to what they represent. Domesticity as well as concepts such as private and public, or exterior and interior are dislocated. Considered as one of the most distinguished manifestations of Modernity, in 2 Willow Road Modernism is suggested, but also disrupted by postmodern gestures. In a lifelong process that fills the space with collected objects, modernity is replaced by a more bourgeois environment: the atmosphere experienced in the interior is that of an inhabited collage closer to a nineteenth century dwelling. The heterogeneity of random order and arbitrary juxtapositions is, for this case, an aesthetic procedure that most likely legitimates Goldfinger’s beliefs and understanding of what life is. What 2 Willow Road actually testifies is about the romantic utopia of Modern inhabitation.

  6. Factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need and culture-related differences among Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.

  7. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  8. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  11. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  12. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  13. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  14. Migration of inhabitants in creative occupations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kozina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic temporal and spatial characteristics of the migration of inhabitants in creative occupations in Slovenia. While it has been already stated that an educated and more creative workforce has been moving out of the country recently and that incoming migrants are mostly low-skilled workers from the former Yugoslavian republics, the content of this article refers mainly to internal migration. The completed analytical work can be summarized as indicating that inhabitants in creative occupations in Slovenia are very immobile and by this criterion quite similar to other occupational groups. If we use the same criterion to compare them with inhabitants in creative occupations from abroad, we can conclude that they are most similar to those living in southern and eastern Europe – groups considered to be among the least mobile on the old continent. Further analysis showed that the inhabitants in creative occupations that live in more developed regions generally intensely migrate and are also more willing to relocate. Both characteristics are equally valid for the more urbanized settlements.

  15. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  16. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  17. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  18. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  19. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  20. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  1. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  2. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  3. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  4. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  5. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  6. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  7. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  8. Lifestyle and Sports Benefits for the Inhabitants of Oita Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    洲, 雅明; 清水, 富弘; 田井村, 明博; Masaaki, Suga; Tomihiro, Shimizu; Akihiro, Taimura

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the lifestyle and the sports benefits for the Inhabitants of Oita prefecture. This study was carried out by taking the concept of lifestyle and the theory and method of lifestyle segmentation into the field of sports marketing. This research was conducted in Oita prefecture. The questionnaire was given to adults from all over to maintain consistency in demographic features. In total, 4156 questionnaires were collected. The life...

  9. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  10. Patterns of reproductive allocation in Artemisia halodendron inhabiting two contrasting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhang, Ai-Sheng; Duan, Shun-Shan; Kang, Ling-Fen

    2005-07-01

    The perennial chenopod sub-shrub Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Bess. is endemic to the semi-fixed and mobile sand dunes in Inner Mongolia of northern China and is an important sand-stabilizing plant. A. halodendron can persist through either sexual reproduction (seedling recruitment) or vegetative propagation. However, it is not known if there are differences in patterns of reproductive allocation in A. halodendron inhabiting semi-fixed and mobile habitats. To characterize this, a test of field measurements was conducted on two typical semi-fixed and mobile sand dune habitats. In each habitat, 120 individual A. halodendron plants were randomly sampled at the time of seed production to examine changes in some reproductive characters including the number of flowering shoots, dry weight of flowering shoots, dry weight per flowering shoot, dry weight of seed, and reproductive effort (RE = seed dry weight/total above-ground dry weight) between habitats. Although total above-ground dry weight and dry weight of vegetative biomass were similar between habitats, plants inhabiting the less eroded semi-fixed habitat produced more flowering shoots, greater dry weight of flowering shoots, dry weight of seed and RE than those inhabiting the more eroded mobile habitat. This suggests that sexual reproduction is relatively favored by plants from the semi-fixed habitat, whereas vegetative propagation is favored by plants from the mobile habitat. The allocation of resources to reproduction was size-dependent and specific to habitats sampled. Reproductive biomass and the number of flowering shoots per plant increased with increasing vegetative biomass, with plants in the semi-fixed habitat producing more flowering shoots and greater reproductive biomass than plants in the mobile habitat. Plant size did not influence RE, indicating that allocation of resources to reproduction appeared to be a constant proportion across all plant sizes sampled.

  11. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Birth outcomes in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Senécal, Sacha; Simonet, Fabienne; Guimond, Éric; Penney, Christopher; Wilkins, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is essential for developing public health programs aimed at reducing such disparities. The lack of data on disparities in birth outcomes between Inuit and non-Inuit populations in Canada prompted us to compare birth outcomes in Inuit-inhabited areas with those in the rest of the country and in other rural and northern areas of Canada. Methods We conducted a cohort study of all births in Canada during 1990–2000 using linked vital data. We identified 13 642 births to residents of Inuit-inhabited areas and 4 054 489 births to residents of all other areas. The primary outcome measures were preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death. Results Compared with the rest of Canada, Inuit-inhabited areas had substantially higher rates of preterm birth (risk ratio [RR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–1.52), stillbirth (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.38–2.04) and infant death (RR 3.61, 95% CI 3.17–4.12). The risk ratios and absolute differences in risk for these outcomes changed little over time. Excess mortality was observed for all major causes of infant death, including congenital anomalies (RR 1.64), immaturity-related conditions (RR 2.96), asphyxia (RR 2.43), sudden infant death syndrome (RR 7.15), infection (RR 8.32) and external causes (RR 7.30). Maternal characteristics accounted for only a small part of the risk disparities. Substantial risk ratios for preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death remained when the comparisons were restricted to other rural or northern areas of Canada. Interpretation The Inuit-inhabited areas had much higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death compared with the rest of Canada and with other rural and northern areas. There is an urgent need for more effective interventions to improve maternal and infant health in Inuit-inhabited areas. PMID:20100852

  13. Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

  14. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  15. Reference values of olfactory function for Mexico City inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hudson, Robyn; López-Palacios, Martha; Drucker-Colín, René

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants. We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to 916 men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1) ability to detect an odor, 2) to discriminate between odors, and 3) to identify odors. We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers. In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants. The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  17. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  18. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  19. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  20. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  2. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Ammann, M. (STUK, Helsinki (Finland)); Backe, S. (IFE, Kjeller (Norway)); Rosen, K. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  3. Metatranscriptomics reveals the hydrolytic potential of peat-inhabiting Planctomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia A; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-11-13

    Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are common inhabitants of northern Sphagnum-dominated wetlands. Evidence is accumulating that, in these environments, some planctomycetes may be involved in degrading polymeric organic matter. The experimental data, however, remain scarce due to the low number of characterized representatives of this phylum. In a previous study, we used metatranscriptomics to assess the activity response of peat-inhabiting microorganisms to biopolymers abundantly present in native peat. The community responses to cellulose, xylan, pectin, and chitin availability were analysed relative to unamended controls. Here, we re-analysed these metatranscriptomes and retrieved a total of 1,602,783 rRNA and 35,522 mRNA sequences affiliated with the Planctomycetes. Each of the four polymers induced specific planctomycete responses. These were most pronounced on chitin. The two groups with increased 16S rRNA transcript pools were Gemmata- and Phycisphaera-like planctomycetes. Among uncultivated members of the Planctomycetaceae, two increased transcript pools were detected in pectin-amended samples and belonged to Pirellula-like bacteria. The analysis of taxonomically assigned mRNA reads confirmed the specific response of Gemmata-related planctomycetes to chitin amendment suggesting the presence of chitinolytic capabilities in these bacteria.

  4. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  5. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  6. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  7. Comparing Fear of Death of the Elderly Settled in Elderly’s Home and Inhabited in City Houses of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Nouhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the one hand, increased growth of the elderly population and on the other hand, social– economic changes, personal and family lifestyles have caused an increased number of the elderly protecting centres. The aim of the present survey is to compare the fear of death among the elderly settled in elderly home and inhabited in city houses of Isfahan. Methods & Materials: This study is an analysis – cross sectional study and statistical population are all of the elderly over 60 years inhabited in 14 – fold zones of Isfahan and the ones settled in Sadeghieh elderly home. Participants in this survey were 300 elderly people that 102 people settled in the elderly home (31 males and 71 females and 198 people inhabited in the community (97 males and 101 females. The elderly inhabited in the community were selected through a cluster sampling method and the ones settled in the elderly home through available sampling method and evaluated through a questionnaire of Collett-Lester Fear of Death. In order to analyse collected data, parametric statistical methods of K–Square test and independent–T have been used . Results: The finding of this survey showed that fear of death total score mean was 70.5±15.5 in the elderly group inhabited in houses that significantly was more than that the elderly group settled in the elderly home (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this survey showed that fear of death in the elderly group settled in city houses is higher than elderly settled in the elderly’s home. It is necessary that the authorities pay more attention to the sanitary systems in all levels, evaluate the causes and, try to get the aids of the relevant organizations in order to Reduced fear of death of elderly people.

  8. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  9. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  10. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  12. [Gender Differences of Behavioral Risk Factors in Saint-Petersburg Inhabitants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A V; Rotar, O P; Boyarinova, M A; Alieva, A S; Dudorova, E A; Kolesova, E P; Moguchaya, E V; Paskar, N A; Solntsev, V N; Baranova, E A; Konradi, A O

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries there are significant gender differences in lifetime expectancy that can be explained by behavioral risk factors (RF). The aim of our study was to estimate gender features of behavioral RF in general population of Saint-Petersburg, Russia. As a part of all-Russian epidemiology survey ESSE-RF a random sampling of 1600 Saint-Petersburg inhabitants (25-64 y.o.) stratified by age and sex was performed. All participants filled in the questionnaire. Anthropometry (weight, height, body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood-tests (lipids, glucose by Abbott Architect 8000 (USA)) were performed. There were examined 573 (36%) men and 1027 (64%) women. No gender differences in obesity were found according to BMI criteria--in 178 (31.2%) women and 352 (35.1%) men. Obesity was more often detected in females according to WC criteria: ATPIII--44.1 vs 30.3%; IDF 51.2 vs 66.4% (p level of physical activity was equally documented in both genders--540 (61.2%) women and 286 (58.9%) men. Daily intake of sweets was lower in men--228 (39.8%) vs 539 (52.5%) in women (p non-smokers, 395 (24.7%) were former smokers, and 395 (24.7%) were smokers at the moment of trial. The higher number of female smokers was observed--194 (19.1%). A high prevalence of obesity is observed in sample of Saint-Petersburg inhabitants--it is higher among women according to WC criteria regardless of menopause, possibly due to bigger sweets consumption. Males smoke more often and consume less fresh fruits and vegetables which is accompanied by a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  13. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  14. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krivanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix–producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  15. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Jan; Adameyko, Igor; Fried, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix-producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF NOISE POLLUTION OF INHABITED TERRITORIES IMPACTED BY AIRFIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonov Eduard Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, authors provide an overview of effective regulatory, reference and technical documents that govern the extent of suitability of territories adjacent to airfields for building-up. Methods of assessing the acceptable limits of the aviation noise in the areas adjacent to airfields are considered in the article. Ecologization of airfield environs is not a new problem. The research described in the article is noteworthy for the proposed optimization of any plans for the assurance of habitability of specific areas impacted by noise pollutions. The optimization consists in a set of organizational and technical solutions based on the noise levels in specific areas, development planning conditions of inhabited areas, and the monitoring of the airfield environs. It is the multi-factor approach that is capable of resolving the problem of ecological stress imposed by the noise coming from the air transport. Towards this end, the problem-solving strategy is to be developed and implemented in the areas that feature the same unfavorable environmental characteristics.

  17. ALJUSTREL (PORTUGAL MINING: HEALTH, DISEASE AND ACTIVITIES IN PAST INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serrano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1981/2 an archaeological emergency excavation took place on the fields associated with the pyrite mining of Aljustrel (Beja, Portugal. This area is also known by Vipasca, the Roman of this important cooper extraction center, still active nowadays. remains were recovered during the field seasons and later housed in the Municipal de Aljustrel. The current research aims to study these past inhabitants and contextualize them with the mine and mining activities. A minimal number of 28 individuals adults 28, 14 4 females and 10 of undetermined sex, a chronological range from the 7th to the 17th centuries A.D.. Among the evidences visible in the adult s special attention was given to the cases of oral (e.g. caries, calculus and teeth discoloration, congenital traumatic lesions (e.g. ulnae, ribs, and fibulae, stress indicators and traits such as gonial eversion. Moreover, an adult male shows fusion, femoral anteversion and hyperdorsiflexion of the joint. The reported, will be discussed with other studies in mining contexts worldwide. Considering that bioarchaeological studies in mine areas are scarce, this study is a contribution to the knowledge of the populations that cohabited with such environments.

  18. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  19. Assessment of wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes for biokraft pulping of softwood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wolfaardt, F

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available in the initial screening was to a large extent eliminated in the second screening step. The randomized block experimental design compensated for differences between cooking batches, and the composition of bat- ches was less heterogeneous. In some cases..., wood chips were treated for three weeks with 36 selected strains before pulping. Each treatment was replicated three times in random- 26 F. Wolfaardt et al. / Bioresource Technology 95 (2004) 25?30 ized block experiments. Three different experimentswere...

  20. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  1. Bias in the prediction of genetic gain due to mass and half-sib selection in random mating populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of gains from selection allows the comparison of breeding methods and selection strategies, although these estimates may be biased. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of such bias in predicting genetic gain. For this, we simulated 10 cycles of a hypothetical breeding program that involved seven traits, three population classes, three experimental conditions and two breeding methods (mass and half-sib selection. Each combination of trait, population, heritability, method and cycle was repeated 10 times. The predicted gains were biased, even when the genetic parameters were estimated without error. Gain from selection in both genders is twice the gain from selection in a single gender only in the absence of dominance. The use of genotypic variance or broad sense heritability in the predictions represented an additional source of bias. Predictions based on additive variance and narrow sense heritability were equivalent, as were predictions based on genotypic variance and broad sense heritability. The predictions based on mass and family selection were suitable for comparing selection strategies, whereas those based on selection within progenies showed the largest bias and lower association with the realized gain.

  2. Expressed sequence tags of randomly selected cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, D; Martin, F

    1995-01-01

    Random sequencing of cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal tissues was carried out to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Database comparisons revealed that 42% of the cDNAs corresponded to previously sequenced genes. These ESTs represent efficient molecular markers to analyze changes in gene expression during the formation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  3. Impact of Selection Bias on Treatment Effect Size Estimates in Randomized Trials of Oral Health Interventions: A Meta-epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, H; Armijo-Olivo, S; Cummings, G G; Amin, M; da Costa, B R; Flores-Mir, C

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to items of selection bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability) in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Using a 2-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity, we quantified the impact of selection bias on the magnitude of ES estimates. We identified 64 meta-analyses, including 540 randomized controlled trials analyzing 137,957 patients. Sequence generation was judged to be adequate (at low risk of bias) in 32% ( n = 173) of trials, and baseline comparability was judged to be adequate in 77.8% of trials. Allocation concealment was unclear in the majority of trials ( n = 458, 84.8%). We identified significantly larger treatment ES estimates in trials that had inadequate/unknown sequence generation (difference in ES = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.25) and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment (difference in ES = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.27). In contrast, baseline imbalance (difference in ES = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.12) was not associated with inflated or underestimated ES. In conclusion, treatment ES estimates were 0.13 and 0.15 larger in trials with inadequate/unknown sequence generation and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment, respectively. Therefore, authors of systematic reviews using oral health randomized controlled trials should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of

  4. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  5. A Randomized Comparative Study of Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment With or Without Selective Nerve Root Block for Chronic Cervical Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Qian; Xiao, Lizu; Yang, Juan; Xong, Donglin; Li, Disen; Liu, LiPing; Ancha, Sigdha; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a combination of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and cervical nerve root block (CNRB) via a posterior approach was superior to a transforaminal epidural steroid injection through the anterolateral approach for cervical radicular pain in a previous study. This randomized trial was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy between CNRB, PRF, and CNRB + PRF for cervical radicular pain. A prospective and randomized design was used in this study. Sixty-two patients were randomized into three parallel groups: CNRB, PRF, or CNRB + PRF. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain intensity, and global perceived effect (GPE) was scored by the patient on a 7-point scale, ranging from much worse (-3), no change (0), to total improvement (+3). The outcomes were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Side effects and complications were noted. The NRS was significantly reduced in all three groups 1 week after the treatments (P 0.05). No serious complications were observed in any of the patients. Combining CNRB and PRF appeared to be a safe and efficacious technique for cervical radicular pain. The combination therapy yielded better outcomes than either CNRB or PRF alone. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  7. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  8. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  9. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  10. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep inhabiting Sydney's drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576 of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142 of cattle, 2.3% (3/128 of sheep and 13.2% (14/106 of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5' half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12 and IdA15G1 (n = 2 in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4 in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1 in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9 in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3' end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  12. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    ; secondly, that it promotes technologies that treat environmental parameters as variables for our manipulation, rather than opportunities to reflect on, and adjust our own (temporal human) fit with our environment. Borrowing from Cole et al. [4], we argue for technologies that enable users to inhabit rather than occupy the built environment.

  13. Evaluation favour poultry meat and poultry meat products in selected group of inhabitants

    OpenAIRE

    LIŠKOVÁ, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with poultry meat and poultry meat products. In the introduction is outlined the consumption of meat in developed and less-developed countries and the goal of this work. The second chapter is about the history of meat and meat products processing, the development of the consumption of poultry meat in our country and the world. It is described the composition of poultry meat and its basic components. In the third chapter are written the types of poultry and shortly de...

  14. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  16. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Terrestrial Permafrost Models of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.

    2011-12-01

    Martian permafrost is still 100 times older. Only one terrestrial environment is close to Mars in age - volcanoes in permafrost areas. The age of volcanic deposits frozen after eruption is much younger than the age of surrounding permafrost. Culture- and culture-independent methods show the presence of viable thermophiles and their genes within pyroclastic frozen material on Deception Island, Antarctica and Kamchatka peninsula. These bacteria and archeae have not been found in permafrost outside the volcanic areas. The only way for thermophiles to get into frozen soil is through deposition during eruption, i.e. the catastrophic geological events transport microbes from the depths to the surface and they survive at subzero temperatures. The past activity of Martian volcanoes periodically burned through the frozen strata and products of eruptions rose from the depths to the surface and froze. Images taken by the Stereo Camera on board the Mars Express discovered volcanoes 2-15Myr old that date back to ages close to permafrost on Earth. Terrestrial communities might serve as a model of inhabitants for these young volcanoes. 3. The only opportunity for free water on Mars is the overcooled water brines, and halo/psychrophilc community of Arctic cryopegs, sandwiched within permafrost, represents a plausible prototype for Martian microbial life.

  18. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  19. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  20. H-DROP: an SVM based helical domain linker predictor trained with features optimized by combining random forest and stepwise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Teppei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Ryotaro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Domain linker prediction is attracting much interest as it can help identifying novel domains suitable for high throughput proteomics analysis. Here, we report H-DROP, an SVM-based Helical Domain linker pRediction using OPtimal features. H-DROP is, to the best of our knowledge, the first predictor for specifically and effectively identifying helical linkers. This was made possible first because a large training dataset became available from IS-Dom, and second because we selected a small number of optimal features from a huge number of potential ones. The training helical linker dataset, which included 261 helical linkers, was constructed by detecting helical residues at the boundary regions of two independent structural domains listed in our previously reported IS-Dom dataset. 45 optimal feature candidates were selected from 3,000 features by random forest, which were further reduced to 26 optimal features by stepwise selection. The prediction sensitivity and precision of H-DROP were 35.2 and 38.8%, respectively. These values were over 10.7% higher than those of control methods including our previously developed DROP, which is a coil linker predictor, and PPRODO, which is trained with un-differentiated domain boundary sequences. Overall, these results indicated that helical linkers can be predicted from sequence information alone by using a strictly curated training data set for helical linkers and carefully selected set of optimal features. H-DROP is available at http://domserv.lab.tuat.ac.jp.

  1. ethnomedicinal study o inhabitants of kano met omedicinal study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. A research was conducted to study the et spices by the indigenous people of selected markets in the area. A self collection. The result obtained revealed t representing nine families used as spices against several clinical symptoms such as and ulcerative colitis among others. They a hypertensive ...

  2. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S

    2011-03-01

    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  4. FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF KIELCE SUBURBAN MUNICIPALITIES VERSUS THE STANDARD OF LIVING OF THEIR INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Gąsiorowska-Mącznik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization processes of areas located within large cities entail a number of consequences, such as a change in employment structure of inhabitants in these areas. New housing developments attract a stream of well-educated and affl uent urban dwellers, who move to the suburbs and contribute to the transformation of dominating functions in the areas located near the cities. Based on selected empirically measurable characteristics, synthetic measures were calculated for the phenomena analyzed with the use of the Hellwig method. The following functions have been included: agricultural, recreational, service, industrial, and residential. Based on the conducted analysis, it can be claimed that most of the examined municipalities are characterized by multifunctional development, with no dominant function apparent. Also, the analysis revealed the existence of three social classes in the studied areas, distinguished by a very high, high, or average standard of living of their members. The study found that the highest standard of living is typical for the municipalities where industrial and service-related functions dominate. 

  5. Utilization of Herbal Medicine Among Inhabitants of an Urban Centre in North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Oluyem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined utilization of herbal medicine among inhabitants of Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. 460 participants selected through multi-stage sampling technique were included in the study. Result showed that, Pile 20.2%, was the most treated illness with herbal medicine followed closely by malaria fever 17.7% and typhoid fever 14.9%. 46.0% of the participants utilise herbal medicine because of its efficiency in treatment while 15.8% used it because it works faster for them. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants found to affect utilization of herbal medicine were: income (p=0.001, education (p=0.0001 and occupation (p=0.0005,while those found not to affect utilization of herbal medicine were: age (p=0.5330 and sex (p=0.0054.The study recommended massive enlightenment on the dangers involved in indiscrimate use of herbal medicine, regulation of herbal medicine, provision of health insurance scheme for Nigerians and more research into herbal medicine with a view to integrating it into the modern healthcare delivery system in Nigeria.

  6. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  7. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  9. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    infarction or other biomarker positive acute coronary syndrome, non-fatal stroke or CV death analysed using a Cox model with a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of 1.4 for the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: In total, 7297 participants were randomized. During a median 3-year follow-up, fewer subjects than......-years with celecoxib and 1.10 per 100 patient-years with nsNSAIDs (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.33; P = 0.75). Pre-specified non-inferiority was achieved in the ITT analysis. The upper bound of the 95% confidence limit for the absolute increase in OT risk associated with celecoxib treatment was two......NSAIDs. There was no advantage of a strategy of switching prescribed nsNSAIDs to prescribed celecoxib. This study excluded an increased risk of the primary endpoint of more than two events per 1000 patient-years associated with switching to prescribed celecoxib....

  10. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and lack of willingness on the part of people to seek environmental health and safety information on the causes, effect and how to mitigate global warming on the other hand. This study focuses on assessment of knowledge and awareness of causes, effects and mitigating measures of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. In this descriptive survey, purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from among the inhabitants of this area. A questionnaire with reliability co-efficient (r of 0.78 was used for data collection. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical methods such as Chi-square, frequency count, simple percentage and pie chart were used for data analysis. Results showed that only 20% had 34.0% had negative attitude while 81 (40.5% were indifferent, all the three hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, it was deduced that respondents have significant knowledge of global warming. In recommendation, people’s environmental health seeking behaviour should be promoted through multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and the development of inclusive environmental health and safety intervention strategies.

  11. [Pathogenesis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis in inhabitants of the Republic of Chuvashia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L V; Khokhlova, E A; Arkhipova, A V

    2009-01-01

    The study of Serum content of Selenium, Zinc, Manganese in inhabitants of the Republic of Chuvashia and also in chronic acalculous cholecystitis patients. Possibility of correction motor dysfunction of gallbladder with the use of natural mineral water "Syvlah-Zdorovie".

  12. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  13. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  14. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  15. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  16. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  17. Uncultivated cyanobacteria, Chloroflexus-like inhabitants, and spirochete-like inhabitants of a hot spring microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.; Bateson, M.M.; Heimbuch, B.K.; Kopczynski, E.D.; Ward, D.M. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Several species in the thermal Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat have been identified as probable community members by classical culture-dependent approach. A more recent approach, using 16S rRNA sequences as biomarkers, has indicated that the community harbors many more bacterial species than previously identified. This study analyses several long 16S rcDNA fragments, retrieved by preparing a cDNA library by selective priming of RNA obtained from purified small ribosomal subunits and selecting long rcDNA products. In addition 16S rRNA sequence of Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a green nonsulfur bacterium, and a partial 16S rRNA sequence for Heliothrix oregonensis, a novel filamentous photosynthetic bacterium, were analysed.

  18. Physical activity of inhabitants in the Czech Republic with regard to their employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The absence of a paid job has been especially in economically advanced countries associated with a range of negative factors. Unemployment is not only a factor influencing the quality of life but it is also a correlate of physical activity (PA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze physical activity in a random sample of inhabitants of the Czech Republic with regard to employment. It focuses not only on total PA but also on PA intensity and its different types. METHODS: The level of performed PA and its types were assessed using the IPAQ questionnaire, internationally standardized long administrative version of the questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003. The questionnaire estimates PA and sitting done in last seven days and compares PA of vigorous and moderate intensity, walking and sitting in the context with other personal, demographic and environmental factors. The data were gathered in autumn 2007. This study comprises data of 1514 women and 1458 men aged 25-54 years old. RESULTS: Employed men and women show more vigorous PA and walking than the unemployed. In moderate PA, there are no differences regarding employment and age. PA carried out at home and around the house, and leisure time PA are the same in both employed and unemployed women. Significant differences in total weekly PA between employed and unemployed respondents have been found only in women in the age category of 30-34 years. CONCLUSIONS: There are no difference in moderate PA regarding employment and age. Significant differences in vigorous PA advocate for involving the unemployed into community service and similar work activities.

  19. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  20. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  1. Citizen science data reveal ecological, historical and evolutionary factors shaping interactions between woody hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Maruyama, Pietro K; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Laessøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants. Fungal species richness was positively related to host size, wood pH, and the number of species in the host genus, with limited influence of host frequency and host history, that is, time since host establishment in the area. Modularity patterns were unaffected by host history, but largely reflected host phylogeny. Notably, fungal communities differed substantially between angiosperm and gymnosperm hosts. Host traits and evolutionary history appear to be more important than host frequency and recent history in structuring interactions between hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi. High wood acidity appears to act as a stress factor reducing fungal species richness, while large host size, providing increased niche diversity, enhances it. In some fungal groups that are known to interact with live host cells in the establishment phase, host selectivity is common, causing a modular community structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. The effects of Nordic Walking training on selected upper-body muscle groups in female-office workers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Piotr; Pospieszna, Barbara; Choszczewski, Daniel; Michalowski, Lukasz; Wiernicka, Marzena; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Regular Nordic Walking training could improve fitness and reduce tenderness in selected muscle groups in office workers. An assessment of the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking training program on the perceived pain threshold (PPT) and the flexibility of selected upper-body muscle groups in postmenopausal female office workers. 39 office workers were selected at random for the treatment group (NWg, n = 20) and the control group (Cg, n = 19). The persons from the NW group completed a 12-week Nordic Walking training program (3 times a week/1 hour). PPTs measurements in selected muscles and functional tests evaluating upper-body flexibility (Back Scratch - BS) were carried out twice in every participant of the study: before and after the training program. A significant increase in PPT (kg/cm2) was observed in the following muscles in the NW group only: upper trapezius (from 1,32 kg/cm2 to 1,99 kg/cm2), mid trapezius (from 2,92 kg/cm2 to 3,30 kg/cm2), latissimus dorsi (from 1,66 kg/cm2 to 2,21 kg/cm2) and infraspinatus (from 1,63 kg/cm2 to 2,93 kg/cm2). Moreover, a significant improvement in the BS test was noted in the NW group compared with the control group (from -1,16±5,7 cm to 2,18±5,1 cm in the NW group vs from -2,52±6,1 to -2,92±6,2 in the control group). A 12-week Nordic Walking training routine improves shoulder mobility and reduces tenderness in the following muscles: trapezius pars descendens and middle trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi, in female office workers.

  3. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  4. A comparison of the effects of random and selective mass extinctions on erosion of evolutionary history in communities of digital organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yedid

    Full Text Available The effect of mass extinctions on phylogenetic diversity and branching history of clades remains poorly understood in paleobiology. We examined the phylogenies of communities of digital organisms undergoing open-ended evolution as we subjected them to instantaneous "pulse" extinctions, choosing survivors at random, and to prolonged "press" extinctions involving a period of low resource availability. We measured age of the phylogenetic root and tree stemminess, and evaluated how branching history of the phylogenetic trees was affected by the extinction treatments. We found that strong random (pulse and strong selective extinction (press both left clear long-term signatures in root age distribution and tree stemminess, and eroded deep branching history to a greater degree than did weak extinction and control treatments. The widely-used Pybus-Harvey gamma statistic showed a clear short-term response to extinction and recovery, but differences between treatments diminished over time and did not show a long-term signature. The characteristics of post-extinction phylogenies were often affected as much by the recovery interval as by the extinction episode itself.

  5. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  6. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  7. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  8. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  9. Genetic evaluation and selection response for growth in meat-type quail through random regression models using B-spline functions and Legendre polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, L F M; Martins, P G M A; Littiere, T O; Abreu, L R A; Silva, M A; Bonafé, C M

    2017-08-14

    The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age. Residual variances were grouped in four age classes. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using 2 to 4 segments and were modeled by Legendre polynomial with orders of fit ranging from 2 to 4. The model with quadratic B-spline adjustment, using four segments for direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, was the most appropriate and parsimonious to describe the covariance structure of the data. The RRM using Legendre polynomials presented an underestimation of the residual variance. Lesser heritability estimates were observed for multi-trait models in comparison with RRM for the evaluated ages. In general, the genetic correlations between measures of BW from hatching to 35 days of age decreased as the range between the evaluated ages increased. Genetic trend for BW was positive and significant along the selection generations. The genetic response to selection for BW in the evaluated ages presented greater values for RRM compared with multi-trait models. In summary, RRM using B-spline functions with four residual variance classes and segments were the best fit for genetic evaluation of growth traits in meat-type quail. In conclusion, RRM should be considered in genetic evaluation of breeding programs.

  10. Interspecific interactions between wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, L.

    1996-05-01

    Studies of competition and succession in communities of wood-decomposing fungi were carried out using laboratory tests with different approaches. Based on results of these tests, an attempt to biologically control Heterobasidion annosum was made in field. Competitive interactions between six species of wood decay fungi were studied using a system of preinoculated wood blocks in unsterilized soil. Two of the species were root-rotting pathogens with a primary resource capture strategy, and four were primarily saprotrophic cord-forming species assumed to use secondary resource capture strategy. Of the species tested, Resinicium bicolor was the most successful in spreading through the soil, and it replaced other species, including the pathogens. When R. bicolor was absent other cord-forming species were able to expand their domain. A new system for measuring competitive success was developed. `Pie slices` were cut from round wood-discs, and after preinoculation, the pieces were paired in all possible combinations on water agar. In this way, inoculum size could be varied while the size of the contact area remained the same. Large mycelia had more competitive success than did smaller ones when paired with the same species. In a pilot study, R. bicolor was most successful in replacing the opposing species and H. annosum had the least success. In general, species found late in the succession were strong competitors, while earlier colonizers had less success. Species acting as selective replacers of primary decay species were found to be more competitive than the latter. 134 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  11. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  13. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98–58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7–50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2–20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8–30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  14. The effects of temperature on oxygen uptake and nutrient flux in sediment inhabited by molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic invertebrates play important roles in oxygen uptake and nutrient cycling in the benthic boundary layer. Temperature is an important factor that influences both invertebrate activity and the effects of the bioturbation on biogeochemistry. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of temperature on the sediment oxygen uptake and nutrient flux across the sediment-water interface in sediment inhabited by molluscs, animals that often dominate the benthic community. A microcosm was constructed using sediment, lake water, and molluscs from Lake Taihu, China. The clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae and the snail Bellamya aeruginosa (Gastropoda: Viviparidae were selected for the experiment because they dominate the benthic community in the lake. The effect of C. fluminea and B. aeruginosa on sediment oxygen uptake and nutrient flux was simultaneously examined at both 15 and 25℃. The results indicated that C. fluminea significantly increased the sediment oxygen uptake and release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP and ammonium from the sediment to the overlying water at both temperatures, and the net sediment oxygen uptake, and the net SRP and ammonium fluxes caused by the clams were significantly higher at 25℃ than at 15℃. Moreover, B. aeruginosa significantly increased the sediment oxygen uptake at the two experimental temperatures, however the net sediment oxygen uptake induced by the snail did not differ significantly between 15 and 25℃. The SRP released from the sediment was stimulated significantly by B. aeruginosa at 25℃, and B. aeruginosa also produced significantly more net SRP release at 25℃ than that at 15℃. In contrast, the influence of B. aeruginosa on the net ammonium flux at each temperature was not statistically significant.

  15. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection among Inhabitants of 2 Rural Areas in White Nile State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Jin-Su; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Mohamed, Abd Al Wahab Saed; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium , a protozoan parasite that causes watery diarrhea, is found worldwide and is common in areas with low water hygiene. In February 2014, 866 stool samples were collected from the inhabitants of 2 rural areas in White Nile State, Sudan. These stool samples were assessed by performing modified acid-fast staining, followed by examination under a light microscope. The overall positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 13.3%. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area having water purification systems and in 14.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area not having water purification systems. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection between men and women (14.7% and 14.1%, respectively). The positive rate of oocysts by age was the highest among inhabitants in their 60s (40.0%). These findings suggest that the use of water purification systems is important for preventing Cryptosporidium infection among inhabitants of these rural areas in Sudan.

  16. Automatic Construction of 3D Basic-Semantic Models of Inhabited Interiors Using Laser Scanners and RFID Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Adan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the automatic construction of 3D basic-semantic models of inhabited interiors using laser scanners with the help of RFID technologies. This is an innovative approach, in whose field scarce publications exist. The general strategy consists of carrying out a selective and sequential segmentation from the cloud of points by means of different algorithms which depend on the information that the RFID tags provide. The identification of basic elements of the scene, such as walls, floor, ceiling, windows, doors, tables, chairs and cabinets, and the positioning of their corresponding models can then be calculated. The fusion of both technologies thus allows a simplified 3D semantic indoor model to be obtained. This method has been tested in real scenes under difficult clutter and occlusion conditions, and has yielded promising results.

  17. Ensemble of random forests One vs. Rest classifiers for MCI and AD prediction using ANOVA cortical and subcortical feature selection and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J; Górriz, J M; Ortiz, A; Martínez-Murcia, F J; Segovia, F; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Castillo-Barnes, D; Illán, I A; Puntonet, C G

    2017-12-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and affects approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very frequently a prodromal phase of AD, and existing studies have suggested that people with MCI tend to progress to AD at a rate of about 10-15% per year. However, the ability of clinicians and machine learning systems to predict AD based on MRI biomarkers at an early stage is still a challenging problem that can have a great impact in improving treatments. The proposed system, developed by the SiPBA-UGR team for this challenge, is based on feature standardization, ANOVA feature selection, partial least squares feature dimension reduction and an ensemble of One vs. Rest random forest classifiers. With the aim of improving its performance when discriminating healthy controls (HC) from MCI, a second binary classification level was introduced that reconsiders the HC and MCI predictions of the first level. The system was trained and evaluated on an ADNI datasets that consist of T1-weighted MRI morphological measurements from HC, stable MCI, converter MCI and AD subjects. The proposed system yields a 56.25% classification score on the test subset which consists of 160 real subjects. The classifier yielded the best performance when compared to: (i) One vs. One (OvO), One vs. Rest (OvR) and error correcting output codes (ECOC) as strategies for reducing the multiclass classification task to multiple binary classification problems, (ii) support vector machines, gradient boosting classifier and random forest as base binary classifiers, and (iii) bagging ensemble learning. A robust method has been proposed for the international challenge on MCI prediction based on MRI data. The system yielded the second best performance during the competition with an accuracy rate of 56.25% when evaluated on the real subjects of the test set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  19. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  20. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  1. Radiofrequency catheter selection based on cavotricuspid angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Jamon, Yann; Bisch, Laurence; Isaaz, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) can be performed using either externally cooled-tip RFA catheters or large-tip (8 mm) catheters. However, experimental and clinical studies suggest that the efficacy of both catheters may vary with CTI anatomy and catheters orientation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate: a RFA catheter selection based on CTI angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter together with the risk of an expensive crossover catheter in both groups. Over a period of 16 months, 119 patients were included and randomized. When comparing the angiographic group (n = 56) and the externally cooled-tip RFA catheter group (n = 63), the duration of application time with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4.5-11) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 6-20; P = 0.008) and the duration of X-ray exposure with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4-10) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 5-15; P = 0.025) were significantly lower in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group. Furthermore, the number of catheters crossover was significantly higher in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group I (27% vs 7%; P = 0.007). This study shows that a strategy with a catheter selection based on a CTI angiographic evaluation is superior to an empirical use of an externally cooled-tip catheter during CTI RFA. Thus, angiographic isthmus evaluation predicts the effectiveness of a RFA catheter and the risk of an expensive catheter crossover.

  2. Comparative Evolutionary Histories of the Fungal Chitinase Gene Family Reveal Non-Random Size Expansions and Contractions due to Adaptive Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stenlid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae, and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.

  3. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: their illusive natural history and why subgroup statistics cannot provide normative criteria for clinical decisions or selection criteria for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Roy, D; Weill, A; Guilbert, F; Nguyen, T; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Johnston, S C; Cognard, C; Pierot, L; Meder, J-F; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    There is currently no evidence that treatment of unruptured aneurysms is beneficial. Confronted with the uncertainty, many clinicians are attracted by an individual calculus of risks using numbers extracted from subgroup statistics of observational studies or natural history data. The so-called natural history of unruptured aneurysms refers to a purely man-made ratio of events divided by the number of untreated patients identified by imaging, a ratio heavily influenced by referral patterns and arbitrary clinical decisions. Available studies lacked prespecified hypotheses, exposing all analyses to sampling error and bias, and sample sizes were too small to provide reliable subgroup statistics. Far from being "natural kinds" of aneurysms, subgroups were post-hoc creations. Resulting data-driven statistics can only be exploratory, the error too uncontrollable to serve for clinical decisions. A randomized trial is in order, but selection according to fixed size criteria is ill-advised, given the imprecision of imaging, the influence of other factors such as location, previous history, multiplicity of lesions, risks of treatment, age and the danger of arbitrarily excluding from a long trial a large segment of the population with aneurysms for whom the research question is most pertinent.

  4. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  5. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  6. Variation of Land-Expropriated Farmers’ Willingness: A Perspective of Employment and Inhabitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding land-expropriated farmers’ welfare change and the determinants of their willingness to change is very important for sustainable urbanization and social stability in developing countries. However, this issue has been seldom explored in previous studies, especially in China. This paper aims to enrich this field by conducting an empirical study using a household survey in 2014 in Nanjing, a major city in the Yangtze River Delta. The impacts of land expropriation on the variation of land-expropriated farmers’ employment and inhabitance are explored, while the determinants of land-expropriated farmers’ willingness are estimated using ordered logistic regression. Results show that the land-expropriated farmers pay more attention to the changes of employment and inhabitance after land expropriation, rather than land expropriation itself. While employment aspects were key determinants of the farmers’ willingness in 1996, factors relating to inhabitance aspects have become more important nowadays. Moreover, it is necessary to grasp the changing rules of land-expropriated farmers’ interest appeals in order to adjust the compensation and resettlement policies according to local conditions. Thus, this will improve land-expropriated farmers’ willingness. Meanwhile, the government should create a better expectation of employment and inhabitance after land expropriation for farmers. Furthermore, the government should also build a land expropriation information sharing and feedback mechanism in addition to improve the employment and housing security system.

  7. PARASITIC AND SYMBIOTIC FAUNA INHABITING OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) SAMPLED FROM THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting 5 sites in the Caloosahatchee River estuary were studied over a 13 month period to determine the suitability of oyster habitat in relation to their health and condition. Histological examination of 650 oysters (10 animals per station per...

  8. The Role of Social Influence on How Residence Hall Inhabitants Respond to Fire Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, Michael; Stark, Emily

    2016-01-01

    College resident halls pose a threat for a catastrophic event in the case of fire, but little research has examined potential influences on students' responses to fire alarms, particularly the role of social influence in affecting their behaviors. In the current study, residence hall inhabitants reported their knowledge about fire safety, their…

  9. Cobalt and Zinc in Toenails of Some Kano Inhabitants *J.T. Ayodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). when in short supply the .... Nickel and Iron concentration in Hair and Nail of some Kano inhabitants Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Scientia Afr. 7:1-9. Ayodele, J.T. and Abubakar, M.B. (1998). Trace element contamination of rain water in the semi arid ...

  10. Disturbance and diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi: effects of canopy gaps and downed woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Brazee; Daniel L. Lindner; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; Jodi A. Forrester; David J. Mladenoff

    2014-01-01

    Experimental canopy gap formation and additions of coarse woody debris (CWD) are techniques intended to mimic the disturbance regime and accelerate the development of northern hardwood forests. The effects of these techniques on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning were investigated by surveying the abundance and diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in six treatments...

  11. Fipronil as a larvicide against container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the laboratory, Fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th instar Aedes albopictus larvae. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting one-liter capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery, St. A...

  12. The inhabited environment, infrastructure development and advanced urbanization in China’s Yangtze River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Kammen, Daniel M.; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship among the inhabited environment, infrastructure development and environmental impacts in China’s heavily urbanized Yangtze River Delta region. Using primary human environment data for the period 2006-2014, we examine factors affecting the inhabited environment and infrastructure development: urban population, GDP, built-up area, energy consumption, waste emission, transportation, real estate and urban greenery. Then we empirically investigate the impact of advanced urbanization with consideration of cities’ differences. Results from this study show that the growth rate of the inhabited environment and infrastructure development is strongly influenced by regional development structure, functional orientations, traffic network and urban size and form. The effect of advanced urbanization is more significant in large and mid-size cities than huge and mega cities. Energy consumption, waste emission and real estate in large and mid-size cities developed at an unprecedented rate with the rapid increase of economy. However, urban development of huge and mega cities gradually tended to be saturated. The transition development in these cities improved the inhabited environment and ecological protection instead of the urban construction simply. To maintain a sustainable advanced urbanization process, policy implications included urban sprawl control polices, ecological development mechanisms and reforming the economic structure for huge and mega cities, and construct major cross-regional infrastructure, enhance the carrying capacity and improvement of energy efficiency and structure for large and mid-size cities.

  13. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...

  14. The impact of park development on the lives of local inhabitants within Gros Morne National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot Herd; Paul. Heintzman

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a national park changes the local community's relationship to the land. In 1973, Parks Canada created Gros Morne National Park around existing communities and only relocated a small number of inhabitants to nearby communities. While park creation placed some restrictions on traditional activities, compromises were made to allow the continuation of...

  15. Automatic fire-extinguishing system for inhabited pressurized compartments of manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolodian, Ivan; Melikhov, Anatoliy; Tanklevskiy, Leonid

    2017-06-01

    There is an innovational fire-extinguishing technology implemented via equipage of inhabited pressurized modules of the space station "Mir" and compartments of the Russian segment of International space station by automatic fire extinguishing systems in an orbital flight. Fire-safety in inhabited pressurized compartments of spacecraft (further - InPC SC) became one of the most dangerous factors during an orbital flight after a number of fire-hazardous situations occurred in different countries during preparation and execution of spaceflights [1,2]. High fire-risk in InPC of manned SC is determined by the following specific peculiarities of a arrangement and usage conditions of these items: - atmosphere of inhabited compartments is considerably enriched with oxygen - up to 25-40%; - there are many structural non-metal materials (here and after - materials) in order to lower the weight of InPC SC, most part of these materials is combustible under a given concentration of oxygen (here and after - Cox) in the atmosphere of InPC SC; - ventilation flow (here and after - Vvf) under normal operation of ventilation means in InPC SC considerably increases a possibility of fast fire-spread in InPC. - inhabited pressurized compartments of SC are filled with electrical equipment, which elements during failures even in low-current circuits became fire sources in oxygen-rich atmosphere; - indoor spaces of inhabited pressurized compartments of SC, as a rule, have complicated figuration with isolated for usage of local fire extinguishing zones with elements of electrical devices.

  16. Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada

    2017-12-08

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic

  17. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  18. Sequence based prediction of DNA-binding proteins based on hybrid feature selection using random forest and Gaussian naïve Bayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangchao Lou

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that

  19. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  20. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Herman

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for 7 days. Oropharyngeal swabs obtained before, within 48 h post-treatment and at 28-35 days were assessed for proportions of amoxicillin-resistant (ARS; amoxicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L) and -non-susceptible (ANS; MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) streptococci. Alterations in amoxicillin MICs and in penicillin-binding-proteins were also investigated. ITT and PP analyses were conducted. ARS and ANS proportions increased 11- and 2.5-fold, respectively, within 48 h post-amoxicillin treatment compared with placebo [ARS mean increase (MI) 9.46, 95% CI 5.57-13.35; ANS MI 39.87, 95% CI 30.96-48.78; P  0.1588). ARS/ANS were grouped by pbp mutations. Group 1 strains exhibited significantly lower amoxicillin resistance (mean MIC 2.8 mg/L, 95% CI 2.6-3.1) than group 2 (mean MIC 9.3 mg/L, 95% CI 8.1-10.5; P amoxicillin is modest and short-lived, probably due to 'fitness costs' engendered by high-level resistance-conferring mutations. This evidence further supports European guidelines that recommend amoxicillin when an antibiotic is indicated for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  1. Acne RA-1,2, a novel UV-selective face cream for patients with acne: Efficacy and tolerability results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia

    2017-06-01

    General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m(2) ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm(2) ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  3. [Analysis of good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units of the Andalusian Health Service (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, M Eugenia; Pastor Moreno, Guadalupe; Pérez Corral, Olivia; Iriarte de Los Santos, M Teresa; Mena Jiménez, Ángel Luis; Escudero Espinosa, M Cecilia; García Romera, Inmaculada; Blanco García, Martín Germán; Martín Barato, Amelia

    To discover good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units (CMUs) of the Andalusian Health Service (AHS) (Spain) and to explore the reasons perceived by CMU and AHS professionals that may influence the presence and distribution of those good practices among the CMU. Study with mixed methodology carried out in Andalusia (Spain) in two phases (2013-2015). Firstly, an online survey was delivered to the Directors of the CMUs which had set up an inhabitant participation commission. In a second phase, a qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Andalusian Health Service with previous experience in inhabitant participation. A descriptive analysis of the quantitative information and a semantic content analysis of the qualitative information were carried out. 530 CMUs took part in the survey. The inhabitant participation practices more often implemented in the CMUs are those related to the informing and consultation levels. Twelve professionals were interviewed in the second phase. Other practices with higher inhabitant involvement and delegation are secondary. The barriers which were identified by professionals are related to the beliefs and attitudes of the inhabitants, the professionals, the health system and the environment. The main practices for inhabitant participation in the CMUs are related to the most basic levels of participation. The method and dynamics which facilitate inhabitant empowerment within the health system are not clearly recognised. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  6. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  7. Ascomycetes with cellulolytic, amylolytic, pectinolytic, and mannanolytic activities inhabiting dead beech (Fagus crenata) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, K; Sugimura, T; Nakatake, K

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dead tree decomposition is performed mainly by delignifying basidiomycetes. While ascomycetes have been reported to inhabit dead tree bark, their contribution to dead tree decomposition is still unclear. Here, we isolated five bark-inhabiting ascomycetes possessing cellulolytic activity from dead beech tree and assessed their polysaccharolytic activities. When cultivated in a medium containing filter paper as a sole carbon source, three strains degraded >40 % of the filter paper in a 4-week cultivation and the others degraded 15-30 % of the paper. The degraders possessed amylolytic, pectinolytic, and mannanolytic activities as well as cellulolytic activity, implying that they play an important role in dead tree decomposition after delignification by basidiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis based on large subunit ribosomal DNA (lsu-DNA) sequences implied that the isolates belonged to Penicillium or Amorphotheca.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  9. Why are the high altitude inhabitants like the Tibetans shorter and lighter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, N S

    2008-09-01

    High altitude inhabitants (HAI) are generally smaller than low altitude inhabitants (LAI). This anthropological observation has recently been confirmed in the Tibetan refugees who have settled in India since 1950s. Those settled at lower altitudes (970 m) are taller and muscular than compatriots settled at higher altitudes (3500 m). While lower socioeconomic status is implicated in growth retardation at higher altitudes, the smaller stature in adults in well-off communities says otherwise. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is the main challenge at high altitudes, which the long established HAI have overcome via biological adaptations, including larger chests, raised blood hemoglobin, and producing more nitric oxide (NO), which deliver similar levels of oxygen to tissues, as LAI. The Tibetans produce 10-fold more NO than LAI. NO is a potent inhibitor of steroidogenesis. Therefore I hypothesize that the short stature and lower musculature in HAI results from steroid deficiency precipitated by NO, which HAI produce to cope with HH.

  10. Encountering local inhabitants' perspectives in terms of authenticity: The example of rural tourism in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weidinger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of globalisation and various standardisation processes in everyday life are currently reflected through individuals’ quests for encountering authenticity. The paper interrogates in which particular ways local inhabitants evaluate rural localities with regard to authenticity by means of local architectural styles and filmic representations. Empirical findings from two qualitative studies carried out in rural Southern Germany are presented. The studies were comprised of qualitative interviews with local inhabitants and representatives in tourism, politics and heritage conservation together with a film analysis of a popular Heimat film shot in the Bavarian forest. Results reveal locals’ critique of modern architectural styles such as “Tuscan houses” as inauthentic, whereby a link between architecture and regional identity (“archidentity” cannot be established. However, the film analysis brings forth locals’ congruities between filmic representations and their lived spaces. In sum, locals’ perspectives on authentication processes can contribute to re-evaluate localities that are mainly shaped by idealised images for tourism purposes.

  11. Diversity of Wood-Inhabiting Polyporoid and Corticioid Fungi in Odaesan National Park, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species,...

  12. Health-Associated Niche Inhabitants as Oral Probiotics: The Case of Streptococcus dentisani

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, Arantxa; Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Ferrer, María D.; Simon-Soro, Áurea; Mira, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontitis, are among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and develop as a consequence of a microbial dysbiosis. Several bacterial strains are being tested as potential oral health-promoting organisms, but usually they are species isolated from niches other than the site where they must exert its probiotic action, typically from fecal samples. We hypothesize that oral inhabitants associated to health conditions will be more effective than tradit...

  13. Türme der Gastarbeiter: The Representation of Postwar Housing and the Migrant Inhabitants in Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Kacel, E. (Ela)

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the city of Cologne and its postwar history, this paper investigates the contradicting forms of the production, use, and circulation of photography that are employed in representing the new image of the modern city and of the migrant-dweller. The photographic exclusion of migrant inhabitants from the official documentary photographs of the new towers built as workers’ housing contradicts the fact that those towers were defined as urban landmarks to represent the new...

  14. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Road Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0H3 Project Number: CSSP -2012-CD-1019 Contract Scientific Authority: Norman Yanofsky, DRDC Centre for Security...May 2014 Project: CSSP -2012-CD-1019 1 IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS CSSP -2012-CD-1019 A Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for...Inhabited Areas was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for

  15. The Environmental Fluctuations of some Bioactive Nutraceutical Compounds in Zilla spinosa Inhabiting Arid Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmat Ibrahim KHATTAB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zilla spinosa is one of the dominated woody perennial shrubs widespread in the Egyptian Red sea coastal desert, belonging to family Brassicacea. Z. spinosa is used as a folk medicine and for heating by local people. Z. spinosa inhabits arid habitats exposed to adverse climatic changes which influence the production of the bioactive natural products. The natural secondary products have significant importance for plant acclimatization to the arid habitats beside their significant practical application in medicinal, nutritive and industrial purposes. The accumulation levels of some natural products including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, proanthocyanidins and cardiac glycosides were measured in Z. spinosa inhabiting different locations of Wadi Hagul during spring and summer seasons. The results of the current study showed that Z. spinosa grown in the adverse environment has adapted to cope with extreme temperature, water deficit and geoclimate changes especially in summer, by enhancing the accumulation of some antioxidant compounds including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, concomitant with increments in the total antioxidant capacity and PAL activity. Consequently, Z. spinosa shrubs inhabiting the arid environment is a promising new source of saponins, glucosinolates, cardiac glycosides, phenols and flavonoids which could participate in drug development and exploration of alternative strategies to increase productivity of wild plants.

  16. A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Pivotal Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of a Selective Cytopheretic Device in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Tumlin

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a highly morbid condition in critically ill patients that is associated with high mortality. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Selective Cytopheretic Device (SCD in the treatment of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU.A randomized, controlled trial of 134 ICU patients with AKI, 69 received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT alone and 65 received SCD therapy.No significant difference in 60-day mortality was observed between the treated (27/69; 39% and control patients (21/59; 36%, with six patients lost to follow up in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. Of the 19 SCD subjects (CRRT+SCD and 31 control subjects (CRRT alone who maintained a post-filter ionized calcium (iCa level in the protocol's recommended range (≤ 0.4 mmol/L for greater or equal to 90% of the therapy time, 60-day mortality was 16% (3/19 in the SCD group compared to 41% (11/27 in the CRRT alone group (p = 0.11. Dialysis dependency showed a borderline statistically significant difference between the SCD treated versus control CRRT alone patients maintained for ≥ 90% of the treatment in the protocol's recommended (r iCa target range of ≤ 0.4 mmol/L with values of, 0% (0/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively (P = 0.10. When the riCa treated and control subgroups were compared for a composite index of 60 day mortality and dialysis dependency, the percentage of SCD treated subjects was 16% versus 58% in the control subjects (p<0.01. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between the treated (45/69; 65% and control groups (40/65; 63%; p = 0·86.SCD therapy may improve mortality and reduce dialysis dependency in a tightly controlled regional hypocalcaemic environment in the perfusion circuit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400893 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01400893.

  17. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of amnioreduction versus selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Shera, David; Lee, Hanmin; Johnson, Mark; D’Alton, Mary; Porter, Flint; Chyu, Jacquelyn; Silver, Richard; Abuhamad, Alfred; Saade, George; Shields, Laurence; Kauffman, David; Stone, Joanne; Albanese, Craig T.; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Ball, Robert H.; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Coleman, Beverly; Farmer, Diana; Feldstein, Vickie; Harrison, Michael R.; Hedrick, Holly; Livingston, Jeffrey; Lorenz, Robert P.; Miller, David A.; Norton, Mary E.; Polzin, William J.; Robinson, Julian N.; Rychik, Jack; Sandberg, Per L.; Seri, Istvan; Simon, Erin; Simpson, Lynn L.; Yedigarova, Larisa; Wilson, R. Douglas; Young, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (SFLP) versus serial amnioreduction (AR) on perinatal mortality in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Study Design 5-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome variable was 30-day postnatal survival of donors and recipients. Results There is no statistically significant difference in 30-day postnatal survival between SFLP or AR treatment for donors at 55% (11/20) vs 55% (11/20) (p=1, OR=1, 95%CI=0.242 to 4.14) or recipients at 30% (6/20) vs 45% (9/20) (p=0.51, OR=1.88, 95%CI=0.44 to 8.64). There is no difference in 30-day survival of one or both twins on a per pregnancy basis between AR at 75% (15/20) and SFLP at 65% (13/20) (p=0.73, OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.34 to 8.09). Overall survival (newborns divided by the number of fetuses treated) is not statistically significant for AR at 60% (24/40) vs SFLP 45% (18/40) (p=0.18, OR=2.01, 95%CI=0.76 to 5.44). There is a statistically significant increase in fetal recipient mortality in the SFLP arm at 70% (14/20) versus the AR arm at 35% (7/20) (p=0.25, OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.19 to 27.6). This is offset by increased recipient neonatal mortality of 30% (6/20) in the AR arm. Echocardiographic abnormality in recipient twin Cardiovascular Profile Score is the most significant predictor of recipient mortality (p=0.055, OR=3.025/point) by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The outcome of the trial does not conclusively determine whether AR or SFLP is a superior treatment modality. TTTS cardiomyopathy appears to be an important factor in recipient survival in TTTS. PMID:17904975

  18. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  19. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reales, Jos? M; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Elo?Sa; Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    .... Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com...

  20. Contemporary radiation doses to mice and voles inhabiting East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Starichenko, Vera I.; Chibiryak, Mikhail V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, 202, 8 Marta St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is the radioactively contaminated territory formed after accidental explosion at nuclear waste storage facility of Mayak nuclear plant in 1957. Contemporary doses were estimated for the mice and voles, that were trapped by staff of IPAE at two sites in 2000-s. The site 1 is situated directly close to the territory of the plant. Contemporary surface {sup 90}Sr contamination is 24-40 MBq/m{sup 2}. The site 2 is located as far as 6 km to the north-east from the site 1 (3.1-8.1 MBq/m{sup 2}). Fifty years after accident long-lived {sup 90}Sr is most significant contributor to terrestrial animal's exposure. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr was measured utilising developed nondestructive method of bone beta-radiometry. To estimate radiation doses the strontium biokinetic model and dosimetric model for mouse-like rodent were designed. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr for animals trapped at site 1: 44-1249 Bq/g, mean 592 Bq/g; at site 2: 4-124 Bq/g, mean 32 Bq/g. Following parameters were selected as indicators of exposure: whole body dose (WBD) accumulated during 45 days, skeletal dose accumulated during 45 days and WBD rate on the last day before trapping. As can be seen in the table, there is a full agreement of the radiation dose and the level of surface contamination. For the animals inhabiting the most contaminated site mean WBD rate is close to 1 mGy/day. It can be reliably concluded that considering both internal and external exposures the dose rate exceeds 1 mGr/day in average. Publication 108 ICRP suggests derived consideration reference level (DCRL) for small mammals in a range 0.1-1 mGy/day. Thus in the most contaminated part of the EURT WBD rate exceeds the upper limit of the DCRL. Radiation doses on the second site are significantly lower. Mean WBD rate is below 0.1 mGy/day. At the same time, the WBD rate exceeds 0.1 mGy/day (lower limit of the DCRL) for approximately 40 % of animals from the

  1. Factors that influence pa of adult inhabitants in the Olomouc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Horák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis, help control weight, and promote psychological well-being. There are many factors that can influence physical activity; socioeconomic status, family, size of place of residence, environmental conditions etc AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze physical activity and inactivity of adult population in the Olomouc region in terms of size of residence, type of housing, body weight status, smoking and participation in organized physical activity. METHODS: 1011 randomly selected residents of the Olomouc region (448 males and 563 females aged 41.14 ± 8.63 years participated in this study. To obtain selected indicators of physical activity, we used the ANEWS questionnaire which was distributed by university students in Spring and Fall periods from 2005 to 2009. For healthy adults aged 18 to 65 years, the goal recommended by the WHO is to achieve a minimum of 30 minutes of moderateintensity physical activity 5 days a week or at least 20 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity 3 days a week. RESULTS: The most physically active were males aged 36-45 years. From the selected correlates, those with the highest influence on total weekly PA were the size of residence and type of house. On the other hand, factors that did not affect total weekly PA were smoking, participation in organized PA and body mass index. The most commonly performed type of PA is cycling; followed in males with soccer and tennis and in women with aerobic dance and fitness walking. CONCLUSION: In the Olomouc region there is a need to preserve and develop the conditions to perform PA. Due to the landscape in the Olomouc region and due to the popularity of cycling, we recommend focus on this type of PA.

  2. Influence of inhabitant background on the physical changes of Banjarese houses: A case study in Kuin Utara settlement, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meidwinna Vania Michiani

    2016-12-01

    A research was conducted in the embryo of Banjarmasin along the Kuin riverside settlement in Kuin Utara sub-district through a door-to-door survey with a questionnaire. The exploration indicates the following: (1 the original form of all remaining houses has been altered, (2 most of the inhabitants are classified as a low-income society, (3 the different characteristics of the present inhabitants change the physical condition of houses, (4 the relationship of the current house condition to the socio-culture and economy of the inhabitants plays a prominent role in revitalizing Banjarese houses as a valuable asset.

  3. Seasonal field efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations against container-inhabiting mosquito Aedes albopictus under different habitat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Faraji, Ary; Williams, Gregory M; Williges, Eric; Gaugler, Randy

    2017-10-31

    Control of the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is difficult using conventional methods due to its selection of cryptic peri-domestic habitats. We evaluated whether autodissemination stations can deliver sufficient pyriproxyfen to sentinel containers to produce significant pupal mortality in different habitats such as competing oviposition sites, peri-domestic habitats, junkyards and tire piles. We also tested how far the pesticide could be transferred over a 200-m range. Autodissemination stations performed effectively for 8-12 weeks under field conditions. Pupal mortality was reduced in sentinel cups with high-competing oviposition habitats (5 versus 20) in isolated plots; however, similar results were not seen in residential areas. Increasing the number of stations per plot (from 1 to 4) enhanced the efficacy. Peri-domestic habitat trials showed the highest pupal mortality (50.4%) and site contamination with pyriproxyfen (82.2%) among the trials. Autodissemination stations were able to contaminate habitats in a junkyard (50.0%) and tire piles (40.2%). Pyriproxyfen was detected in sentinel cups up to 200 m from stations. Detection of pyriproxyfen by residue analysis (0.005-0.741 µg L-1 ) in field samples confirmed the transfer of the insect growth regulator. Autodissemination stations have shown promising potential as a novel pest management tool against container mosquitoes in field trials in different habitats confronted by mosquito control personnel. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Extremely Halotolerant and Halophilic Fungi Inhabit Brine in Solar Salterns Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zalar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time halotolerant and halophilic fungi have been known exclusively as contaminants of food preserved with high concentrations of either salt or sugar. They were first reported in 2000 to be active inhabitants of hypersaline environments, when they were found in man-made solar salterns in Slovenia. Since then, they have been described in different salterns and salt lakes on three continents. The mycobiota that inhabit these natural hypersaline environments are composed of phylogenetically unrelated halotolerant, extremely halotolerant, and halophilic fungi, which are represented not only by species previously known only as food contaminants, but also by new and rare species. The dominant representatives are different species of black yeast-like and related melanized fungi of the genus Cladosporium, different species within the anamorphic Aspergillus and Penicillium, and the teleomorphic Emericella and Eurotium, certain species of non-melanized yeasts, and Wallemia spp. Until the discovery and description of indigenous saltern mycobiota, the physiological and molecular mechanisms related to salt tolerance in eukaryotic microorganisms were studied using salt-sensitive model organisms. The most studied eukaryotic microorganism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which cannot adapt to hypersaline conditions. Species like Debaryomyces hansenii, Aureobasidum pullulans, Hortaea werneckii and Wallemia ichthyophaga, which have now been isolated globally from natural hypersaline environments, represent more suitable model organisms for the study of halotolerance in eukaryotes. Such studies in these species, and particularly with the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and obligately halophilic W. ichthyophaga have continued to unravel the different strategies that these microorganisms can use to cope with the problems of ion toxicity and low water activity. The focus of this review is to present the main species of fungi inhabiting solar salterns

  5. These squatters are not innocent: the evidence of parasitism in sponge-inhabiting shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ďuriš

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic and T. spongicola (Mediterranean. The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae and Synalpheus (Alpheidae. The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.

  6. Changes in the inhabitation of the Biśnik Cave during the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrek, Krzysztof; Sudoł, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The Biśnik Cave lies on the left western slope of the Wodąca Valley, which is part of the Niegownice-Smoleń hills, situated in the central part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The cave consists of several chambers joined by corridors, and a number of entrances. Interdisciplinary research (archaeology, sedimentology, geomorphology and paleozoology) carried out since 1992 has dealt with the exploration of the following elements of the cave system: the main chamber, side shelter, side chamber and the area underneath the overhang. The Biśnik Cave is currently the oldest cave site in Poland with a well-preserved cross-section of sediments formed in separate stages of climatic changes, starting with the period preceding the Odra Glaciation to the Holocene. The oldest traces of settlement of Palaeolithic man go as far back as over 400,000 years ago. The most interesting mid-Palaeolithic sequence of the cave inhabitation comprises 17 cultural levels preserved in the form of stone and bone artefacts' concentrations, hearth remains and fragments of animal bones of post-consumption character. The attempts to date separate levels using the uranium-thorium dating method, electronic paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence method are very relevant. Scientific value of the Biśnik Cave turns it into a sample mid-Palaeolithic site in this part of Europe. A three-dimensional localisation of all finds made it possible to prepare a detailed map of the artefacts' distribution in the consecutive sedimentary layers. This, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of changes of the cave inhabitation by man. The correlation of those changes with the description of climatic conditions in the period of formation of sedimentary layers helped link the cave inhabitation methods with natural conditions dominating the area of the Biśnik Cave at that time.

  7. Heavy metals concentrations in scalp hairs of ASGM miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriati Arifin, Yayu; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sera, Koichiro

    2017-06-01

    We performed the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis on scalp hair samples of 115 ASGM miners and inhabitants of Gorontalo Utara regency. Along with mercury (Hg), we presented other trace elements such as Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn). Concentrations of Cu, Mn and Hg in the scalp hairs of ASGM miners are higher non miners. Significant and positive correlations coefficients between Cu and Hg concentration with Mn concentration may indicate that there are still unknown metabolism process related with ASGM activities.

  8. Attitudes of inhabitants of border areas of Slovenia towards the Slovene-Croatian state border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Article represents basic geographical characteristics of four sample border areas (Slovenska Istra, Bela Krajina, Spodnje Posavje and Spodnje Podravje, which were included in the research about the effects of a new state border on the living of inhabitants. We analysed their comprehension of changes in economic and social conditions, traffic currencies, interethnic relations, etc. Questioned persons (1200 questionnaires were estimating also development possibilities of domestic region in the light of its border position as well as obstacles for cooperation with the neighbouring Croatia and first of all with its border regions. Also current projects of transborder cooperation are represented.

  9. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  10. Day 3 embryo selection by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouw, C.G.; Kieslinger, D.C.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Botros, L.L.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Sakkas, D.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    study question: Is the selection of a single Day 3 embryo by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology able to improve live birth rates in IVF, compared with embryo selection by morphology alone? summary answer: The live birth rate

  11. The impact of the assimilation of migrants on the well-being of native inhabitants: A theory

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded; Bielawski, Jakub; Jakubek, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory that systematically and causally links the well-being of native inhabitants with variation in the extent of the assimilation of migrants. Recent empirical findings are yielded as predictions of the theory.

  12. Great unexpected differences between two populations of the intertidal crab Neohelice granulata inhabiting close but contrasting habitats (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo D. Spivak; Claudia C. Bas; Tomás A. Luppi

    2016-01-01

    ...), are separated by only 190 km. They inhabit bays that drain into a Patagonian gulf in the southernmost limit of the geographical distribution of the species: San Antonio Bay (SAO) and San José Gulf (RSJ...

  13. [Impact of natural selection on the polymorphism of HLA-G 3'UTR among five ethnic Chinese populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Sun, Qianqian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Chu, Jiayou; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2016-08-01

    To assess the impact of natural selection and genetic background on the polymorphisms of HLA-G 3-untranslated regions (UTR) among five ethnic Chinese populations. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to determine the polymorphisms among 432 individuals from the five ethnic populations. Their genetic background was determined by genotyping of 10 short tandem repeats (STRs). Eight variations were identified among Gelao, Mongolian and Kirgiz populations, while only 7 were found in Shui and Dai people. For all 3 southern populations (Gelao, Shui, and Dai), the observed heterozygosites (Ho) was higher than expected heterozygosities (He). But this was reversed for the 2 northern populations (Mongolian and Kirgiz). The Ho and He of the 10 neutral STRs were in random distribution. Ewens-Watterson testing based on haplotypes of the HLA-G 3'UTR has suggested that a natural selection had occurred in the region where Dai and Shui had inhabited, but not in the northern region where Mongolian and Kirgiz population inhabited. Polygenetic trees based on the HLA and STRs were also different. The HLA-G 3'UTR of Dai and Shui people who lived in southern China may have subjected to a selection pressure. Based on current knowledge, this pressure may have been driven by a pathogenic selection.

  14. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 second...

  15. EURANOS. Generic handbook for assisting in the management of contaminated inhabited areas in Europe following a radiological emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brown, J.

    The handbook for inhabited areas has been developed as a result of a series of European and UK initiatives that started in the early 1990s. It is aimed at national and local authorities, central government departments and agencies, radiation protection experts, emergency services, the water indus....... The handbook for inhabited areas complements the two other handbooks for food production systems and drinking water supplies....

  16. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  17. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18-78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content.

  18. Mite species inhabiting commercial bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests in Polish greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej, Elżbieta; Witaliński, Wojciech; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Wantuch, Marta; Moroń, Dawid; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2012-03-01

    Nests of social insects are usually inhabited by various mite species that feed on pollen, other micro-arthropods or are parasitic. Well-known negative effects of worldwide economic importance are caused by mites parasitizing honeybee colonies. Lately, attention has focused on the endoparasitic mite Locustacarus buchneri that has been found in commercial bumblebees. However, little is known of other mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests. Transportation of commercial bumblebee colonies with unwanted residents may introduce foreign mite species to new localities. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and species composition of mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests and determined if the mites are foreign species for Poland and for Europe. The study was conducted on 37 commercial bumblebee nests from two companies (Dutch and Israeli), originating from two greenhouses in southern Poland, and on 20 commercial bumblebee colonies obtained directly from suppliers. The species composition and abundance of mites inhabiting commercial bumblebee nests were determined. Seven mite species from three families were found in nests after greenhouse exploitation. The predominant mite species was Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) that was a 100-fold more numerous than representatives of the family Laelapidae (Hypoaspis marginepilosa, H. hyatti, H. bombicolens). Representatives of Parasitidae (Parasitellus fucorum, P. crinitus, P. ignotus) were least numerous. All identified mite species are common throughout Europe, foreign species were not found. Mites were not detected in nests obtained directly from suppliers. We conclude that probably bumblebee nests are invaded by local mite species during greenhouse exploitation.

  19. The importance of ecosystem services for rural inhabitants in a changing cultural landscape in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional cultural landscapes evolved as coupled social-ecological systems. It is important to understand how such systems navigate novel challenges posed by globalization. To address this issue, we bring together two components of a pilot study carried out in a cultural landscape from Central Romania. The region was affected by major social and economic perturbations in the past century, affecting ethnic composition, community cohesion, land property regimes, and the management of common resources. The first component of our study investigated how rural inhabitants appreciated ecosystem services through questionnaires with 98 people in 30 villages. The second component aimed to assess the perception of people about ongoing changes in their communities through semistructured interviews with 50 people in 5 villages. Rural inhabitants particularly valued provisioning ecosystem services such as firewood, water, and crops, but also healthy soils. Rural communities were characterized by a number of social and economic issues, especially individualism, lack of trust, corruption, and poverty. People from communities with many initiatives, e.g., NGOs, associations, and active individuals, were more optimistic regarding the future of their communities than people from villages with few or no initiatives. A major challenge for cultural landscapes such as those in Central Romania is to find new, meaningful ways to keep the social and ecological systems connected. Otherwise there is a risk that (short-term socioeconomic interests may impair the provisioning of important ecosystem services.

  20. Comparative metagenomics of viral assemblages inhabiting four phyla of marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Michael Gudenkauf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, killing 10-20% of oceanic biomass each day. However, despite their ecological importance, viruses inhabiting many echinoderms, cnidarians, urochordates, and marine arthropods have not been investigated with significant breadth. We conducted a broad survey of the viral assemblages inhabiting these hosts through viral metagenomics and phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that different invertebrate groups harbor distinct viral assemblages. Interestingly, however, no significant difference is observed between the viral assemblages of echinoderms and arthropods. These similarities and differences may be due to cellular, immunological, geographical, and ecological differences amongst host phyla, although mechanistic determination is beyond the purview of this work. Additionally, we present evidence of the detection of several viral families that have not yet been observed in these hosts. Finally, we confirm the result of previous investigation that method of library construction significantly biases metagenomic results by altering the representation of of ssDNA and dsDNA viral genomes.

  1. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides.

  2. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  3. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.

  4. Characterization of bacterial community inhabiting the surfaces of weathered bricks of Nanjing Ming city walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi-Wang; Ma, Guang-You; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2011-01-15

    Nanjing Ming city wall, one of the important historic heritages in China, has greatly suffered weathering. Microbes play an important role in the weathering of historic buildings. However, little is known about the microbial community inhabiting naturally weathered brick minerals and their roles in the mineral weathering. To examine the associations between microorganisms and brick weathering process, we compare the phylogenetic diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific functional groups of bacteria existing in weathered bricks by using a coupled approach involving cultivation-independent analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as cultivation-based analysis of Si-releasing bacteria. DGGE and sequence analyses show that the bacterial communities were different along a weathering gradient and the abundance of bacterial communities positively and significantly correlates with the extent of brick weathering. Laboratory brick mineral dissolution experiments indicate that bacteria isolated from the surfaces of weathered brick were very effective in enhancing brick dissolution. Phylogenetic analyses show that the weathered bricks were inhabited by specific functional groups of bacteria (Bacillus, Massillia, Brevibacillus, Glacialice, Acinetobacter, Brachysporum, and Achromobacter) that contribute to the brick weathering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abundance and Diversity of Mould Inhabiting Muara Layang Estuary Sediment, Bangka Belitung Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Estuary basin is a fertile area which has important role for sustaining many organisms from estuary and sea. Mould and other saprobic microorganisms have important role to decomposing organic material in estuary water. A study on diversity and abundance of mould inhabiting Muara Layang estuary sediment, Bangka Belitung Islands has not conduct before. The objective of this study is to investigate the abundance and diversity of mould inhabiting Muara Layang estuary sediment, Bangka Belitung Islands. The mould isolation was based on sample dilution method with Rose Bengal Cloramphenicol Agar mould isolation media. The abundance of mould was counted by measuring the average Colony Forming Unit (CFU/ml of all mould colonies which grown on isolation media by Total Plate Count (TPC method. The diversity of isolated mould was identified based on phenotypic characters by observing both of macroscopic and microscopic mould morphology. The result showed that the growth average of mould colonies is about (5-27.5 x102 CFU/mL. The result of mould identification showed that eight mould genera, Aspergillus (6 species, Chaetomium, Eupenicillium (3 species, Gliocladium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium (3 species, Scopulariopsis, Trichoderma (3 species, one group identified in class level (Coelomycetes, and three groups of unidentified sterile mould isolates were isolated.

  6. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  7. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment—A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals’ natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours. PMID:27254150

  8. DISTINGUISHING A HYPOTHETICAL ABIOTIC PLANET–MOON SYSTEM FROM A SINGLE INHABITED PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low–moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet–moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH{sub 4} absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet–moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  9. Abandoned spaces, mute memories: On marginalized inhabitants in the urban centres of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrobat-Virloget Katja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on degraded heritage(s and their meanings for different groups of inhabitants, interpreting it/them through the studies of dominant and silenced memories. Case-studies of chosen Slovenian urban centres illustrate the consequences of drastic population change after the Second World War and of the transformation of power relations after Slovenia’s independence which brought changes in the political-ideological and economic system. As the authors observed, memories and heritage of Italian, German and Yugoslav inhabitants are often mute and silenced within the contemporary Slovenian hegemonic/authorised heritage discourse. Consequences of changes in social relations were also recognised at the micro level in the valorisation of the socialist heritage of industrial plants and military barracks. Today, these places are left to decay as the material reminders of the unwanted (pre-WWII or socialist past or they are transformed into centres of youth culture, creative industries or administrative centres. However, such reinterpretation does not enable their former users to access them and claim them as their own heritage.

  10. Patterns of Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding by eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting an Australian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Sangster, Nicholas C; Slade, Martin B; Veal, Duncan A

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in feces from a population of wild eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a protected watershed in Sydney, Australia, was investigated. Over a 2-year period, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 239 of the 3,557 (6.7%) eastern grey kangaroo fecal samples tested by using a combined immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometric technique. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this host population was estimated to range from 0.32% to 28.5%, with peaks occurring during the autumn months. Oocyst shedding intensity ranged from below 20 oocysts/g feces to 2.0 x 10(6) oocysts/g feces, and shedding did not appear to be associated with diarrhea. Although morphologically similar to the human-infective Cryptosporidium hominis and the Cryptosporidium parvum "bovine" genotype oocysts, the oocysts isolated from kangaroo feces were identified as the Cryptosporidium "marsupial" genotype I or "marsupial" genotype II. Kangaroos are the predominant large mammal inhabiting Australian watersheds and are potentially a significant source of Cryptosporidium contamination of drinking water reservoirs. However, this host population was predominantly shedding the marsupial-derived genotypes, which to date have been identified only in marsupial host species.

  11. Collective Nicknames of the Inhabitants of the Eastern Vologda-Kostroma Frontier: Materials for a Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Vorontsova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The publication covers the collective nicknames registered by the Ural Federal University Toponymic Expedition in 2009–2013 on the territory of the eastern Vologda-Kostroma frontier: in Vokhomsky, Oktyabrsky, Pavinsky, Sharyinky Districts of Kostroma Region and in Nikolsky District of Vologda Region. The dictionary entries include collective nicknames as headwords which can have onomasiological variants with a localizing element derived from the corresponding place name, e. g. VODOKHLYOBY and VOKHMYAKY-VODOKHLYOBY , the names designating inhabitants of either an administrative unit (village, township, selsoviet or a geographically isolated territorial unit (e. g. a river basin. The entries optionally provide examples, parallel names of the same entity (e. g. BUSARY // NEMYTIKI , the meaning of dialectal words and information about the names of neighboring entities created in the same pattern (e. g. VORONY — SKVORTSY . The publication contains a geographical song which includes characterological names of the inhabitants of Petretsovsky Selsoviet of Vokhomsky District, Kostroma Region (such names, as to their semantic and functional features, are close to collective names which also can be found in geographical songs.

  12. Low effect of young afforestations on bird communities inhabiting heterogeneous Mediterranean cropland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Sánchez-Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agricultural Policy have spread tree plantations on former cropland. These afforestations attract generalist forest and ubiquitous species but may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated the effects of young (<20 yr tree plantations dominated by pine P. halepensis on bird communities inhabiting the adjacent open farmland habitat in central Spain. We hypothesize that pine plantations located at shorter distances from open fields and with larger surface would affect species richness and conservation value of bird communities. Regression models controlling for the influence of land use types around plantations revealed positive effects of higher distance to pine plantation edge on community species richness in winter, and negative effects on an index of conservation concern (SPEC during the breeding season. However, plantation area did not have any effect on species richness or community conservation value. Our results indicate that the effects of pine afforestation on bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean cropland are diluted by heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.

  13. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. (Hepatozoidae): description of the first avian apicomplexan blood parasite inhabiting granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Mobley, Kristin; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2016-02-01

    Blood parasites of the genus Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) infect all groups of terrestrial vertebrates, and particularly high prevalence and species diversity have been reported in reptiles and mammals. A few morphologically similar species, in which gamonts inhabit mononuclear leukocytes and red blood cells, have been described in birds. Here, we report a new Hepatozoon species, which was found in wild-caught secretary birds Sagittarius serpentarius, from Tanzania. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all described species of avian Hepatozoon because its gamonts develop only in granulocytes, predominantly in heterophils, a unique characteristic among bird parasites of this genus. Additionally, this is the first reported avian apicomplexan blood parasite, which inhabits and matures in granulocytes. We describe H. ellisgreineri based on morphological characteristics of blood stages and their host cells. This finding broadens knowledge about host cells of avian Hepatozoon spp. and other avian apicomplexan blood parasites, contributing to the better understanding of the diversity of haematozoa. This is the first report of hepatozoonosis in endangered African birds of the Sagittariidae.

  14. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial of the Oral Selective NR2B Antagonist MK-0657 in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Lobna; DiazGranados, Nancy; Jolkovsky, Libby; Brutsche, Nancy; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Herring, W. Joseph; Potter, William Z.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system may play an increasingly important role in the development of novel therapeutics for major depressive disorder (MDD), particularly agents associated with rapid antidepressant effects. Diverse glutamatergic modulators targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have shown efficacy in MDD, but their associated psychotomimetic effects presently preclude their use in larger samples. This small, randomized, double-blind, placebo-contr...

  15. Methods and analysis of realizing randomized grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Randomization is one of the four basic principles of research design. The meaning of randomization includes two aspects: one is to randomly select samples from the population, which is known as random sampling; the other is to randomly group all the samples, which is called randomized grouping. Randomized grouping can be subdivided into three categories: completely, stratified and dynamically randomized grouping. This article mainly introduces the steps of complete randomization, the definition of dynamic randomization and the realization of random sampling and grouping by SAS software.

  16. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Clemente, Tara M.; Viviani, Donn A.; Fong, Allison A.; Thomas, Kimberley A.; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M.; White, Angelicque E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the “great Pacific garbage patch.” The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m−3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production − community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public’s attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on

  17. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  18. Hornet silk proteins in the cocoons produced by different Vespa species inhabiting Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Kojima, Katsura; Zhang, Qiang; Sezutsu, Hideki; Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Tamada, Yasushi

    2008-10-01

    We compared the components of hornet silk - a fibrous protein occurring in the cocoons produced by hornet larvae - among 6 species of the genus Vespa inhabiting Japan: V. simillima, V. dybowskii, V. crabro, V. mandarinia, V. ducalis, and V. analis. From the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and 5'-RACE, it was found that the major component proteins composing hornet silk could be divided into 6 groups. Among these 6 proteins, 5 proteins were common to the hornet silks of all 6 Vespa species. The SDS-PAGE major band corresponding to the remaining protein was observed only in the hornet silks of V. mandarinia and V. ducalis. This correspondence between V. mandarinia and V. ducalis can probably be explained in terms of the phylogenetic relationships of the Vespa species.

  19. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  20. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  1. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne Al; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the 'true' prevalence of S. stercoralis.

  2. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Quarto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  3. Trichosporon Species Isolated from Guano Samples Obtained from Bat-Inhabited Caves in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2005-01-01

    Yeasts from caves have rarely been examined. We examined yeasts collected from bat guano samples from 20 bat-inhabited limestone and volcanic caves located in 11 prefectures in Japan. Of ∼700 yeast-like colonies, nine Trichosporon species were recovered from 15 caves. Two of these were known species, and the remaining seven are potentially novel species, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In addition to Trichosporon species, identifiable strains of eight ascomycetous yeasts and one basidiomycetous yeast were recovered at frequencies of 5 to 35%. Our findings suggest that Trichosporon spp. are the major yeast species in bat guano in Japan and that bat guano is a potentially rich source of previously undescribed yeast species. PMID:16269819

  4. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  5. Seasonal gametogenesis of host sea anemone ( Entacmaea quadricolor) inhabiting Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jianwen

    2015-02-01

    Studying gonadal development of annual cycle can reveal the process of gametogenesis and reproductive period, and evaluate fertility and source utilization of a species. Host sea anemones are conspicuous members of tropical and subtropical reef ecosystems, but little is known about its biology including reproductive seasonality. Here we reported a one-year study on the gametogenesis and reproduction of host sea anemone ( Entacmaea quadricolor) inhabiting Hong Kong waters. E. quadricolor tissues were sampled in 12 occasions from 5 m and 15 m depths of water, respectively. Histological sectioning of the tissues showed that E. quadricolor was dioecious, and populational ratio of female to male was 1:1.6. The gonadal development was asynchronous within an annual cycle, which included proliferating, growing, maturing, spawning, and resting stages. The spawning occurred between August and October when surface seawater temperature reached the annual maximum (28°C), suggesting that temperature is an important factor modulating the gonadal development and mature of E. quadricolor.

  6. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  7. On the plurality of inhabited worlds: a brief history of extraterrestrialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Mark

    2006-10-01

    This paper delineates the cultural evolution of the ancient idea of a plurality of inhabited worlds, and traces its development through to contemporary extraterrestrialism, with its foundation in the physical determinism of cosmology, and its attendant myths of alien contact drawn from examples of British film and fiction. We shall see that, in the evolving debate of the existence of extraterrestrial life and intelligence, science and science fiction have benefited from an increasingly symbiotic relationship. Modern extraterrestrialism has influenced both the scientific searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and become one of the most pervasive cultural myths of the 20th century. Not only has pluralism found a voice in fiction through the alien, but fiction has also inspired science to broach questions in the real world.

  8. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine does not change rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although widely prescribed, the evidence for the use of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has visceral analgesic properties, leading to

  9. Adjacent, distal, or combination of point-selective effects of acupuncture on temporomandibular joint disorders: A randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Kang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that point-selective effects among adjacent, distal, or a combination of acupoints are hardly associated with pain intensity or palpation index in participants with TMDs. Larger sample size trials are required to overcome the shortcomings of the study.

  10. Friendship Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We model the formation of friendships as repeated cooperation within a set of heterogeneous players. The model builds around three of the most important facts about friendship: friends help each other, there is reciprocity in the relationship and people usually have few friends. In our results we explain how similarity between people affects the friendship selection. We also characterize when the friendship network won’t depend on the random process by which people meet each other. Finally, w...

  11. Chernobyl accident: reconstruction of thyroid dose for inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilin, Y I; Khrouch, V T; Shinkarev, S M; Krysenko, N A; Skryabin, A M; Bouville, A; Anspaugh, L R

    1999-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 resulted in widespread contamination of the environment with radioactive materials, including (131)I and other radioiodines. This environmental contamination led to substantial radiation doses in the thyroids of many inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus. The reconstruction of thyroid doses received by Belarussians is based primarily on exposure rates measured against the neck of more than 200,000 people in the more contaminated territories; these measurements were carried out within a few weeks after the accident and before the decay of (131)I to negligible levels. Preliminary estimates of thyroid dose have been divided into 3 classes: Class 1 ("measured" doses), Class 2 (doses "derived by affinity"), and Class 3 ("empirically-derived" doses). Class 1 doses are estimated directly from the measured thyroidal (131)I content of the person considered, plus information on lifestyle and dietary habits. Such estimates are available for about 130,000 individuals from the contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts and from the city of Minsk. Maximum individual doses are estimated to range up to about 60 Gy. For every village with a sufficient number of residents with Class 1 doses, individual thyroid dose distributions are determined for several age groups and levels of milk consumption. These data are used to derive Class 2 thyroid dose estimates for unmeasured inhabitants of these villages. For any village where the number of residents with Class 1 thyroid doses is small or equal to zero, individual thyroid doses of Class 3 are derived from the relationship obtained between the mean adult thyroid dose and the deposition density of (131)I or 137Cs in villages with Class 2 thyroid doses presenting characteristics similar to those of the village considered. In order to improve the reliability of the Class 3 thyroid doses, an extensive program of measurement of (129)I in soils is envisaged.

  12. Assessment of unhealthy days of urban marginal inhabitants and effective factors in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ziaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of the quality of life (HRQOL related to health and its determinants contain aspects of quality of life that clearly affect people’s physical or mental health. One of the newest ways to assess the health and also the quality of life-related to health is the self-assessed health of the individual. The aim of the present study was assessment of unhealthy days, self-reported health status, and its influencing factors on residents of the marginalpart of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 580 citizens of the marginal regions and slum areas of Mashhad city were enrolled through cluster sampling method using governmental health care services divisions. The Persian version of the questionnaire CDC HRQOL-4 was used to measure the unhealthy days. Data was analyzed using SPSS, version 11.5, running ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the present study, 359 persons (61% were women and the mean age of participants was 32.6±11.51 years. The means of unhealthy days, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and days with dysfunction were found to be 7.2, 2.8, 4.1, and 1.7 days, respectively. The unhealthiest days (physical and mental were seen in unemployed people and the best to excellent health days were seen in housewives. Conclusion: Unhealthy days and days with dysfunction were reported higher in slum inhabitants, especially female, low literacy, and housewife participants. Providing the education and employment facilities for people who live in marginal city areas might decrease the unhealthy days.Keywords: Unhealthy days; Health; Urban Marginal Inhabitants; Mashhad

  13. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in blood serum of inhabitants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB; α-, β-, γ-HCH; pp'DDE; op'DDT; and pp'DDT in blood serum of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 150 blood serum samples that constituted that which remained after clinical analyses, using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as milligrams per kilogram on fat basis and micrograms per liter on wet weight. Only the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in 100% of samples at mean 15.8 mg/kg and 8.4 μg/L; p,p'-DDT was presented in 41.3.% of monitored samples at mean 3.1 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L; β-HCH was found in 48.6% of the samples at mean 4.9 mg/kg and 2.7 μg/L; op'DDT was determined to be in only 3.3% of monitored samples at mean 2.7 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L. The pooled samples divided according to sex showed significant differences of β-HCH and pp'DDE concentrations in females. The samples grouped according to age presented the third tertile as more contaminated in both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with serum organochlorine pesticide levels in Veracruz inhabitants.

  15. Knowledge and practice of physical exercise among the inhabitants of Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajpratham, Piyapat; Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn

    2007-11-01

    To study the knowledge and practice of physical exercise among the inhabitants of Bangkok. The factors correlated with knowledge and the practice of physical exercise, were also explored. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to survey 1200 inhabitants in Bangkok and the vicinity aged more than 18 years old. One thousand one hundred and seven people aged ranging from 18-81 years old completed the questionnaires (response rate 92.25%). Six hundred and forty people (58.4%) exercised regularly. The exercise was performed 1-2 days per week with varied duration. They performed exercises alone, in their homes, in the evening. They did not report any expenditure on the exercises. Common types of exercise reported were walking, jogging, attending an aerobic exercise class, using an exercise machine, and callisthenic exercise. Two hundred and seven people (18.9%) did not perform exercise at all because of the lack of time. The factors correlated with regular exercise were the increasing age, the high level of education, the amount of free time per day, and the enjoyment of exercise. With relation to knowledge of exercise, most people lacked knowledge of the benefits of exercise rather than how to do exercise and when to stop exercising. People who had a higher educational level than secondary school and a high income, practiced exercise everyday. They acquired their knowledge of exercise from attending an exercise course. People living in Bangkok usually performed regular exercises of 1-2 days per week with varied duration. The majority lacked knowledge of the benefits of exercise. Educational level of the samples was the only factor correlated with both regular exercise and knowledge of exercise.

  16. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Trueman, Mandy; Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chamorro, Susana; Guerrero, Ana Mireya; Pozo, Paola; Atkinson, Rachel

    2010-04-21

    Plant invasions are causing habitat degradation in Galapagos. Problems are concentrated on the four inhabited islands. Plants introduced to rural areas in the humid highlands and urban areas on the arid coast act as foci for invasion of the surrounding Galapagos National Park. Here we present results of the most comprehensive inventory to date of alien vascular plants in the inhabited areas of Galapagos. The survey was conducted between 2002 and 2007, in 6031 properties (97% of the total) on Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz Islands. In total 754 alien vascular plant taxa were recorded, representing 468 genera in 123 families. Dicotyledons represented 554 taxa, monocotyledons 183, there were 7 gymnosperms and 10 pteridophytes. Almost half (363) of the taxa were herbaceous. The most represented families were Fabaceae (sensu lato), Asteraceae and Poaceae. The three most recorded species in the humid rural areas were Psidium guajava, Passiflora edulis and Bryophyllum pinnatum, and in the dry urban areas, Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Carica papaya. In total, 264 (35%) taxa were recorded as naturalized. The most common use for taxa was ornamental (52%). This extensive survey has increased the known alien vascular flora of Galapagos by 257 species, giving a ratio of alien to native taxa of 1.57:1. It provides a crucial baseline for plant invasion management in the archipelago and contributes data for meta analyses of invasion processes worldwide. A repeat of the survey in the future would act as an effective early detection tool to help avoid further invasion of the Galapagos National Park.

  17. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant invasions are causing habitat degradation in Galapagos. Problems are concentrated on the four inhabited islands. Plants introduced to rural areas in the humid highlands and urban areas on the arid coast act as foci for invasion of the surrounding Galapagos National Park. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present results of the most comprehensive inventory to date of alien vascular plants in the inhabited areas of Galapagos. The survey was conducted between 2002 and 2007, in 6031 properties (97% of the total on Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz Islands. In total 754 alien vascular plant taxa were recorded, representing 468 genera in 123 families. Dicotyledons represented 554 taxa, monocotyledons 183, there were 7 gymnosperms and 10 pteridophytes. Almost half (363 of the taxa were herbaceous. The most represented families were Fabaceae (sensu lato, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The three most recorded species in the humid rural areas were Psidium guajava, Passiflora edulis and Bryophyllum pinnatum, and in the dry urban areas, Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Carica papaya. In total, 264 (35% taxa were recorded as naturalized. The most common use for taxa was ornamental (52%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This extensive survey has increased the known alien vascular flora of Galapagos by 257 species, giving a ratio of alien to native taxa of 1.57:1. It provides a crucial baseline for plant invasion management in the archipelago and contributes data for meta analyses of invasion processes worldwide. A repeat of the survey in the future would act as an effective early detection tool to help avoid further invasion of the Galapagos National Park.

  18. Effectiveness of Shortwave Diathermy for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and Value of Night Pain for Patient Selection: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Kaysin, Meryem; Akpinar, Pinar; Aktas, Ilknur; Unlü Ozkan, Feyza; Silte Karamanlioglu, Duygu; Cagliyan Hartevioglu, Hulya; Vural, Nazan

    2017-09-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of short wave diathermy (SWD) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 patients (aged 35-65 yrs) were classified into night pain positive (NP[+]) (n = 28) and night pain negative (NP[-]) (n = 29) groups. Both groups were randomly assigned to SWD (NP[+], n = 14; NP[-], n = 14) and sham (NP[+], n = 15; NP[-], n = 14) subgroups. Visual analog scale, Constant-Murley Scale (CS), and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) scores were used for evaluation. There was only a significant difference in pain with activity at 1-mo (mean difference [MD], -1.65; 95% confidence interval, -3.01 to -0.28]) and 2-mo evaluations (MD, -2.1; 95% confidence interval, -3.51 to -0.69) between SWD versus sham groups. In the NP(+) SWD group, the CS pain score was significantly higher than in the NP(+) sham group at all evaluations after treatment. At 1 mo, the NP(-) SWD group showed significantly better pain, strength, total CS, and SDQ scores than the NP(-) sham group. At 2 mos, the pain, range of motion, strength, and total CS and SDQ scores were better in the NP(-) SWD group than in the NP(-) sham group (P diathermy is more effective in subacromial impingement syndrome without NP.

  19. HPV Infection and Cervical Screening in Socially Isolated Indigenous Women Inhabitants of the Amazonian Rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Jardim Fonseca

    Full Text Available Indigenous women from the Amazon regions have some of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the world. This study evaluated cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV in native women that differ by lifestyle and interaction with western society. Yanomami women are isolated deep in the Amazon with a hunter/gatherer lifestyle. Macuxi and Wapishana women live in proximity to western society.To select a representative group of women from each district, random cluster sampling was used, considering each registered village as a cluster. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and HPV detection and typing by PCR amplification and next generation sequencing. The study was approved by the National IRB and by tribal leaders.664 native women were enrolled from 13 indigenous villages (76% participation rate. Yanomami women had higher rates of abnormal cytology (5.1% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04 and prevalent HR-HPV (34.1% vs. 19.2%, p35 y of age were significantly more likely to have HR-HPV, whereas women ≤ 35 y did not significantly differ between groups. Prevalence of HPV was significantly different amongst geographically clustered Yanomami women (p<0.004. The most prevalent HPV types in the entire group were HPV31 (8.7%, HPV16 (5.9% and HPV18 (4.4%.Isolated endogenous Yanomami women were more likely to be HPV+ and rates increased with age. Study of HPV in isolated hunter-gather peoples suggests that long-term persistence is a characteristic of prehistoric humans and patterns reflecting decreased prevalence with age in western society represents recent change. These studies have implications for cervical cancer prevention and viral-host relationships.

  20. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L.; Kelbæk, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before...... a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups....

  1. Selective CO2 Sequestration with Monolithic Bimodal Micro/Macroporous Carbon Aerogels Derived from Stepwise Pyrolytic Decomposition of Polyamide-Polyimide-Polyurea Random Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan M; Rewatkar, Parwani M; Majedi Far, Hojat; Taghvaee, Tahereh; Donthula, Suraj; Mandal, Chandana; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Leventis, Nicholas

    2017-04-19

    Polymeric aerogels (PA-xx) were synthesized via room-temperature reaction of an aromatic triisocyanate (tris(4-isocyanatophenyl) methane) with pyromellitic acid. Using solid-state CPMAS (13)C and (15)N NMR, it was found that the skeletal framework of PA-xx was a statistical copolymer of polyamide, polyurea, polyimide, and of the primary condensation product of the two reactants, a carbamic-anhydride adduct. Stepwise pyrolytic decomposition of those components yielded carbon aerogels with both open and closed microporosity. The open micropore surface area increased from CO2 opened access to the closed pores and the micropore area increased by almost 4× to 1150 m(2) g(-1) (out of 1750 m(2) g(-1) of a total BET surface area). At 0 °C, etched carbon aerogels demonstrated a good balance of adsorption capacity for CO2 (up to 4.9 mmol g(-1)), and selectivity toward other gases (via Henry's law). The selectivity for CO2 versus H2 (up to 928:1) is suitable for precombustion fuel purification. Relevant to postcombustion CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS), the selectivity for CO2 versus N2 was in the 17:1 to 31:1 range. In addition to typical factors involved in gas sorption (kinetic diameters, quadrupole moments and polarizabilities of the adsorbates), it is also suggested that CO2 is preferentially engaged by surface pyridinic and pyridonic N on carbon (identified with XPS) in an energy-neutral surface reaction. Relatively high uptake of CH4 (2.16 mmol g(-1) at 0 °C/1 bar) was attributed to its low polarizability, and that finding paves the way for further studies on adsorption of higher (i.e., more polarizable) hydrocarbons. Overall, high CO2 selectivities, in combination with attractive CO2 adsorption capacities, low monomer cost, and the innate physicochemical stability of carbon render the materials of this study reasonable candidates for further practical consideration.

  2. Decision-making after continuous wins or losses in a randomized guessing task: implications for how the prior selection results affect subsequent decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Hongli; Du, Xiaoxia

    2014-04-03

    Human decision-making is often affected by prior selections and their outcomes, even in situations where decisions are independent and outcomes are unpredictable. In this study, we created a task that simulated real-life non-strategic gambling to examine the effect of prior outcomes on subsequent decisions in a group of male college students. Behavioral performance showed that participants needed more time to react after continuous losses (LOSS) than continuous wins (WIN) and discontinuous outcomes (CONTROL). In addition, participants were more likely to repeat their selections in both WIN and LOSS conditions. Functional MRI data revealed that decisions in WINs were associated with increased activation in the mesolimbic pathway, but decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus relative to LOSS. Increased prefrontal cortical activation was observed during LOSS relative to WIN and CONTROL conditions. Taken together, the behavioral and neuroimaging findings suggest that participants tended to repeat previous selections during LOSS trials, a pattern resembling the gambler's fallacy. However, during WIN trials, participants tended to follow their previous lucky decisions, like the 'hot hand' fallacy.

  3. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of Serratulae quinquefoliae folium, a new source of β-arbutin, in selected skin hyperpigmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Monika; Nawrot, Joanna; Siatkowski, Idzi; Adamski, Zygmunt; Fedorowicz, Tomasz; Dawid-Pac, Renata; Urbanska, Maria; Nowak, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Arbutin is one of the most effective lightening substances. Serratula quinquefolia is a new source of its β-anomer. The HPLC method showed that the solid content of this compound in the dried plant raw material accounts for 6.86%. The leaves of Serratula quinquefolia do not contain hydroquinone. To assess the efficacy of the aqueous extract from' leaf of five-leaf serratula as a skin-lightening agent. We did a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The study involved 102 women aged 26-55, with two kinds of hyperpigmentary diseases: melasma and lentigo solaris. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups: a study group (N = 54) or a control group (N = 48). The study group applied the cream with the aqueous extract from leaf of five-leaf serratula containing 2.51% of arbutin. The cream was applied twice a day on the discolored side for 8 weeks. The experimental data showed that the cream with the extract causes decreased level of melanin in the skin pigmentation spot. Clinical effect in the form of lightening and evening skin tone on the discolored side was observed in 75.86% of the female patients with melasma and 56.00 % of the female patients with lentigo solaris. The cream with the aqueous extract from leaf of five-leaf serratula proved to be an effective and safe preparation for lightening skin discolorations (66.67 % of the female patients in the study group). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Origins of inhabitants from the 16th century Sala (Sweden) silver mine cemetery – a lead isotope perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, T. Douglas; Frei, Robert; Bäckström, Ylva

    2017-01-01

    these grave types, as well as harsh conditions of life. Strontium and oxygen isotopes have been used previously to investigate the place of origin of the cemetery inhabitants and clear differences among the types of graves were seen in the isotope results. Place of origin was more difficult to ascertain...... however. Here we utilize lead isotopes as an additional isotopic tracer to identify origins. The lead isotope investigations pinpoint several areas outside of the Sala region where some of the inhabitants originated. In addition, the study documents the benefits of using lead isotopes in human...

  5. Randomized Comparison of Selective Internal Radiotherapy (SIRT) Versus Drug-Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael B., E-mail: michael.pitton@unimedizin-mainz.de; Kloeckner, Roman [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Ruckes, Christian [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, IZKS (Germany); Wirth, Gesine M. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Eichhorn, Waltraud [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Wörns, Marcus A.; Weinmann, Arndt [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Schreckenberger, Mathias [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Galle, Peter R. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Otto, Gerd [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare SIRT and DEB-TACE for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsFrom 04/2010–07/2012, 24 patients with histologically proven unresectable N0, M0 HCCs were randomized 1:1 to receive SIRT or DEB-TACE. SIRT could be repeated once in case of recurrence; while, TACE was repeated every 6 weeks until no viable tumor tissue was detected by MRI or contraindications prohibited further treatment. Patients were followed-up by MRI every 3 months; the final evaluation was 05/2013.ResultsBoth groups were comparable in demographics (SIRT: 8males/4females, mean age 72 ± 7 years; TACE: 10males/2females, mean age 71 ± 9 years), initial tumor load (1 patient ≥25 % in each group), and BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) stage (SIRT: 12×B; TACE 1×A, 11×B). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 180 days for SIRT versus 216 days for TACE patients (p = 0.6193) with a median TTP of 371 days versus 336 days, respectively (p = 0.5764). Median OS was 592 days for SIRT versus 788 days for TACE patients (p = 0.9271). Seven patients died in each group. Causes of death were liver failure (n = 4 SIRT group), tumor progression (n = 4 TACE group), cardiovascular events, and inconclusive (n = 1 in each group).ConclusionsNo significant differences were found in median PFS, OS, and TTP. The lower rate of tumor progression in the SIRT group was nullified by a greater incidence of liver failure. This pilot study is the first prospective randomized trial comparing SIRT and TACE for treating HCC, and results can be used for sample size calculations of future studies.

  6. [Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the selective anxiolytic afobazole in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorders: Results of a multicenter randomized comparative study of diazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syunyakov, T S; Neznamov, G G

    to summarize the previously published results of a multicenter randomized clinical research phase III study trial of afobazole (INN: fabomotizole) versus diazepam in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and adjustment disorders (AD). Five investigating centers included 150 patients aged 18 to 60 years (60 patients with GAD and 90 with AD) a simple structure of anxiety disorders without concurrent mental, neurological or somatic disorders. Patients were randomized to take afobazole (30 mg/day; n=100) or diazepam (30 mg/day; n=50) for 30 days. Prior to drug administration, patients susceptible to placebo were excluded according to the results of its 7-day use. Withdrawal syndrome was evaluated within 10 days after completion of active therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total score. The scores of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale and the Sheehan Scale as secondary efficacy endpoints  were analyzed. Drug safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events. Afobazole and diazepam caused a significant reduction of HAMA total score. In the afobazole group, the reduction of anxiety  exceeded that in the diazepam group (the difference in the total score changes was 2.93 [0.67; 5.19]; p=0,01).The proportion of patients with reduction of disease severity was 72% in the afobazole group and 58% in the diazepam group. After therapy completion, the proportion of patients with no or mild disorder in the afobazole group was significantly higher than that in the diazepam group (69 and 44%, respectively; χ2=12.46; p=0,014). There was a trend toward a higher subjective patient-rated estimate of the afobazole effect using the Sheehan scale. There were a total of 15 and 199 adverse events in the afobazole and diazepam groups, respectively. No manifestations of afobazole withdrawal syndrome were found. Diazepam withdrawal syndrome was observed in 34 (68%) patients. Afobazole is an

  7. Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift.

  8. Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

    2009-06-01

    Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius

  9. Food resource and temporal partitioning amongst a guild of predatory agroecosystem - inhabiting ant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mohan AGARWAL, Neelkamal RASTOGI

    2009-10-01

    . The agroecosystem-inhabiting ant species prey on a large number and wide variety of insect herbivores as evident from the differences in the peak foraging times and the proportion of each type of prey hunted. Overall, our results indicate that the structure of agroecosystem-inhabiting ant assemblage may be influenced by a variety of factors including competition, temporal heterogeneities, prey availability and its characteristics such as size and mobility [Current Zoology 55 (5 : –, 2009].

  10. A risk model for severe anemia to select cancer patients for primary prophylaxis with epoetin alpha: a prospective randomized controlled trial of the ELYPSE study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Coquard, I; Dussart, S; Goillot, C; Mayeur, D; Debourdeau, P; Ghesquieres, H; Bachelot, T; Le Cesne, A; Anglaret, B; Agostini, C; Guastalla, J-P; Lancry, L; Biron, P; Desseigne, F; Blay, J-Y

    2009-06-01

    Epoetin (EPO) administration reduces the need for transfusion. Identifying patients at high risk of anemia requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is needed. This multicentric phase III trial tested epoetin alpha (EPOalpha) administration according to our risk model on the basis of three clinical parameters: hemoglobin (Hb) 1. Patients >or=18 years with chemotherapy-treated solid or hematologic tumors were randomized to 150 UI/kg/TIW s.c. EPOalpha (arm 1) or no EPOalpha (arm 2) and stratified on Hb level at day 0, lymphocyte count, and PS. The primary end point was transfusion rate; secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, and quality of life. From September 2000 to January 2005, 218 patients (median age 64 years, 42.7% males) with principally breast cancer, sarcoma, or lung carcinoma were included. In total, 93% patients had PS >1 and 35% had

  11. Vélib and data: a new way of inhabiting the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Boullier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vélib bike rental system is worth analyzing in order to understand how cities move out of a model of large infrastructures towards a personal service principle connected to digital traceability and mapping of all activities. The new offer of bikes distributed all over the city creates a new map for access to mobility resources while introducing citizens to a “personal-public” device. Each feature of the system requires a very well designed information system to match the needs for bikes and to charge the users through cards (credit or transportation cards. Personal data is the essential entity that fuels the whole system and that creates potential privacy problems as well as monetization opportunities. The paper relies on a theoretical framework, called habitele, which accounts for the process of inhabiting that is now extended to the personal data ecosystem. The portability of mobile phones (and other devices such as cards creates an envelope that follows the urban citizen and equips all his activities while it makes a new layer of the city appear, adapted to the personal involvement in the urban environment

  12. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  13. Characterization of GlobalFiler loci in Angolan and Guinean populations inhabiting Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Soraia; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Carneiro de Sousa, Maria José; Dario, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed the GlobalFiler short tandem repeat (STR) loci for 152 and 70 unrelated individuals from Angolan and Guinean immigrant populations inhabiting Southern Portugal, respectively. After Bonferroni correction, no significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were detected for either population. For the Angolan population, SE33 was the most informative marker. In contrast, D5S818 and D13S317 were the least informative loci. The combined power of discrimination was 99.9999999999999999999999961907%. For the Guinean population, SE33 and D21S1 were the most informative loci, while D13S317 was the least. The combined power of discrimination was 99.99999999999999999999997915%. No significant differences were observed between Angolan, Guinean, and Afro-American populations for any of the analyzed STRs. The South African population presented significant differences at D22S1045 and D10S1248 when compared to Angola, and at D22S1045 when compared to Guinea-Bissau. The MDS plot and neighbor-joining tree analysis revealed that Angolan and Guinean populations are genetically close to African-American and South African populations, and genetically different from Korean, Mexican, European (including American-Caucasian), and Middle Eastern populations.

  14. Diversity of Wood-Inhabiting Polyporoid and Corticioid Fungi in Odaesan National Park, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species, 69 genera, 22 families, and 11 orders were recognized. Half (74 species) of the species were polypores, and the other half (75 species) were corticioid fungi. Most of the species belonged to Polyporales (92 species) followed by Hymenochaetales (33 species) and Russulales (11 species). At the genus level, a high number of species was observed from Steccherinum, Hyphodontia, Phanerochaete, Postia, and Trametes. Concerning distribution, almost all the species could be found below 1,000 m, and only 20% of the species were observed from above 1,000 m. Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, T. pubescens, Bjerkandera adusta, and Ganoderma applanatum had wide distribution areas. Deciduous wood was the preferred substrate for the collected species. Sixty-three species were new to this region, and 21 species were new to Korea, of which 17 species were described and illustrated.

  15. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  16. Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae inhabiting foliar tanks of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule (Bromeliaceae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the family Culicidae develop their immature forms in different environments depending on various circumstances. This study represents the first contribution to the ecological knowledge of culicids living in the bromeliad G. brasiliensis. The objectives of the study were to compare the Culicidae fauna of bromeliads in two seasonal periods, analyzing their abundance, richness and the influence of pH, conductivity and water volume, on the populations. Sampling was done at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil between 2003 and 2005. Six samplings were done in the rainy season and six in the dry season. On each sampling day, six terrestrial and six epiphytic bromeliads, totaling 144 sampling units, were retrieved. A total of 444 immature mosquitoes were collected, distributed in the following species: Culex (Microculex stonei Lane & Whitman, Culex (Microculex chryselatus Dyar & Knab, Culex (Microculex sp., Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia autocratica Dyar & Knab and Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia splendida Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. The relationship between abundance of Culicidae and sampling period was not significant, although abundance was higher in the dry period. There were significant correlations between water volume and the abundance (p = 0.003 and richness (p = 0.001 of culicids. The pH was positively related to the occurrence of the species Wy. autocratica (p= 0.010 and Wy. splendida (p= 0.006, demonstrating the influence of this factor in the structuring of bromeliad-inhabiting communities.

  17. Biochemical characterization of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acids from two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-01-01

    We have screened two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats for the presence of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) compounds. The identification and characterization of one MAA (RT 3.1-3.8 min, λmax -334 nm) from both Nostoc species were performed using absorption spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Shinorine and porphyra-334 were commonly present in both Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-6. Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 also showed the presence of an unknown MAAs with retention time of 6.9 min and a corresponding λmax of 334 nm. Present investigation clearly demonstrated the presence of diverse profile of MAAs in the hot spring cyanobacterium in comparison to the rice field isolate. Thus, Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 would be a better source for the production of MAAs that can be used as a potent natural sunscreen against UV-B irradiation.

  18. Health-Associated Niche Inhabitants as Oral Probiotics: The Case of Streptococcus dentisani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Arantxa; Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Ferrer, María D; Simon-Soro, Áurea; Mira, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontitis, are among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and develop as a consequence of a microbial dysbiosis. Several bacterial strains are being tested as potential oral health-promoting organisms, but usually they are species isolated from niches other than the site where they must exert its probiotic action, typically from fecal samples. We hypothesize that oral inhabitants associated to health conditions will be more effective than traditional, gut-associated probiotic species in key aspects such as colonization of the oral site where disease takes place or the possession of oral health promoting functions, as well as more practical issues like safety and toxicity, and establishing proper doses for administration. As an example of these active colonizers, we describe the case of Streptococcus dentisani, a new streptococcal species isolated from dental plaque of caries-free individuals. We have detected it in 98% of dental plaque samples from healthy individuals and, as expected, it does not produce any toxic secondary metabolite and does not survive a simulated stomach digestion, preventing potential secondary effects. Besides, this species has a double probiotic action, as it inhibits the growth of major oral pathogens through the production of bacteriocins, and also buffers acidic pH (the primary cause of dental caries) through an arginolytic pathway. We propose the use of S. dentisani as a promising probiotic against tooth decay.

  19. Microbial associations in gut systems of wood- and bark-inhabiting longhorned beetles [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, S; Pilhofer, M; Höll, W

    2010-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and PCR-based rDNA sequencing, gut microflora in the larvae of bark- and wood-inhabiting cerambycid beetles (Rhagium inquisitor, Tetropium castaneum, Plagionotus arcuatus and Leptura rubra [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]) was investigated. A total of 12 novel ascomycetous yeast strains were isolated from the gut content. Panfungal and strain-specific oligonucleotide probes identified two yeast strains as Candida rhagii and Candida shehatae, which were colonizing specialized organs (mycetomes) adhering to the gut of R. inquisitor and L. rubra larvae, respectively. Fragments containing these organisms were constantly being released from the mycetomes into the gut lumen. Whereas the mycetome symbiont of T. castaneum could not be identified, all larvae of this species harbored an additional bacterial endocytobiont in their gut epithelium. This novel gammaproteobacterium belonged to the Sodalis clade of insect symbionts, which includes the secondary endosymbiont of tsetse flies (Sodalis glossinidius) and the Sitophilus oryzae primary endosymbiont (SOPE). Extracellular gut flora of the investigated cerambycid larvae was comprised of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria. However, the individual composition among investigated larvae was highly variable and supposedly depended on individual host nutrition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Heidegger, environmental ethics, and the metaphysics of nature: inhabiting the earth in a technological age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of philosophical problems concerning the human disruption and destruction of the natural environment have tended to presuppose (a) that the problems themselves are adequately defined by the natural sciences, and (b) that the proper philosophical approach is by means of an ethics that restricts itself to determining the character and limits of moral obligation. This dissertation (a) argues that modern natural science, which is expected to define the problem of an environmental crisis, itself employs a concept of nature, derived from the metaphysical tradition, that is generative of the very problems to be resolved; (b) develops, on the basis of Heidegger's rethinking of the traditional question of being, a more adequate understanding of nature; and (c) shows that the resolution of these problems can best be accomplished by means of a more broadly conceived ethics that closes the breach between theory and praxis by articulating an appropriate manner of comportment toward entities as a whole (and not soley human, nor even sentient, entities) which displays an integration of thought and action, and which Heidegger calls inhabitation or dwelling.

  1. Diversity and Interactions of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi and Beetles after Deadwood Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Rudloff, Renate; Hoppe, Björn; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Freshly cut beech deadwood was enriched in the canopy and on the ground in three cultural landscapes in Germany (Swabian Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin) in order to analyse the diversity, distribution and interaction of wood-inhabiting fungi and beetles. After two years of wood decay 83 MOTUs (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units) from 28 wood samples were identified. Flight Interception Traps (FITs) installed adjacent to the deadwood enrichments captured 29.465 beetles which were sorted to 566 species. Geographical ‘region’ was the main factor determining both beetle and fungal assemblages. The proportions of species occurring in all regions were low. Statistic models suggest that assemblages of both taxa differed between stratum and management praxis but their strength varied among regions. Fungal assemblages in Hainich-Dün, for which the data was most comprehensive, discriminated unmanaged from extensively managed and age-class forests (even-aged timber management) while canopy communities differed not from those near the ground. In contrast, the beetle assemblages at the same sites showed the opposite pattern. We pursued an approach in the search for fungus-beetle associations by computing cross correlations and visualize significant links in a network graph. These correlations can be used to formulate hypotheses on mutualistic relationships for example in respect to beetles acting as vectors of fungal spores. PMID:26599572

  2. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  3. Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the saline Lake Red located in Sovata, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Felföldi, Tamás; Máthé, István; Bognár, Vivien; Knáb, Mónika; Krett, Gergely; Jurecska, Laura; Tóth, Erika M; Márialigeti, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Lake Red is one of the saline lakes which were formed as a consequence of salt massif dissolution at the foot of the Gurghiu Mountains (Central Romania) at the end of the nineteenth century. The lake water had approximately 15 % w/v salt content. Phylogenetic diversity of prokaryotes inhabiting the water and sediment of the lake was studied using cultivation and cultivation-independent methods following a sampling in spring 2009. According to the results of 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the richness of Bacteria was higher than Archaea on the basis of the number and position of dominant bands in the gel. Sequences from DGGE bands were affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (Halomonas and Alkalilimnicola) and Bacteroidetes (Psychroflexus) as well as Euryarchaeota. Cultivation from five different saline media resulted in 101 bacterial strains of which Gammaproteobacteria (Halomonas, Marinobacter and Salinivibrio) were the most abundant. Firmicutes (Bacillus) and Alphaproteobacteria (Aurantimonas and Roseovarius) were also identified among the isolated strains. The 16S rRNA genes from 82 bacterial and 95 archaeal clones were also phylogenetically analyzed. Bacterial clones were related to various genera of Gammaproteobacteria (Alkalilimnicola, Alkalispirillum, Arhodomonas, Halomonas, Saccharospirillum), Bacteroidetes (Gracilimonas, Psychroflexus) and Alphaproteobacteria (Oceanicola, Roseinatronobacter, Roseovarius). All of the archaeal clones sequenced corresponded to a homologous cluster affiliated with Halopelagius.

  4. The life cycle of the reptile-inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidates the life-cycle of the reptile inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae in Australia. Eight Varanus gouldii (Lacertilia: Varanidae, and two Christinus marmoratus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae lizards were captured in the wild. Two V. gouldii were used as controls and no experimental procedures were carried out on them. Another six V. gouldii (final host and the two C. marmoratus (paratenic host were treated with oral anthelmintics to remove all parasitic worms and were fed with infected live arthropods containing third stage larvae of Abbreviata hastaspicula. Faeces of V. gouldii were examined under the microscope weekly to determine whether the third stage larvae had developed into adults. Two months later, a total of 30 larvae and adults of A. hastaspicula were found in the stomachs of four experimentally-infected V. gouldii lizards. No cysts or larva were found in the C. marmoratus. This is the first study to demonstrate the life-cycle of this genus of nematode in their definitive reptile hosts.

  5. Detection and diversity of aeromonads from treated wastewater and fish inhabiting effluent and downstream waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic Popovic, Natalija; Kazazic, Snjezana P; Strunjak-Perovic, Ivancica; Barisic, Josip; Sauerborn Klobucar, Roberta; Kepec, Slavko; Coz-Rakovac, Rozelinda

    2015-10-01

    A two-season investigation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, of related waters, sludge and fish across a wide area and 11 stations, with emphasis on Aeromonas spp. was conducted. Aeromonas veronii was the prevailing aeromonad isolated by MALDI TOF MS in the summer period. A rise of Aeromonas hydrophila was observed in summer in raw sewage, treated wastewater and effluent-carrying canal. The ratio of aeromonad species retrieved from fish tissues did not correspond with the water and sludge findings, as in spring in the effluent-carrying canal fish carried Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida and Aeromonas bestiarum, while in summer mainly A. veronii and Acinetobacter johnsonii were isolated from fish tissues in the same location. No correlation was established between fecal coliforms/enterococci and aeromonad occurrence. All retrieved Aeromonas species demonstrated a distinct spectral pattern, with peaks showing unique mass distribution ranging from 4000 to 10,000Da. Hierarchical clustering separated aeromonads of all isolated species and clustered closely related strains together. Resistance was determined towards amoxicillin, and frequently towards sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In summer, a high proportion of water and sludge Aeromonas species demonstrated multiple resistance patterns towards five or more antimicrobials. The quinolone resistance of water aeromonads was mostly related to A. veronii. There are potential health concerns regarding aeromonad exposure amongst recreational fishermen who come into contact with fish inhabiting waters downstream from the WWTP, and WWTP workers who are occupationally exposed to wastewaters and their aerosols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

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    Malin Bomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp. dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp. below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems.

  7. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  8. Temporal metatranscriptomic patterning in phototrophic Chloroflexi inhabiting a microbial mat in a geothermal spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Christian G; Liu, Zhenfeng; Ludwig, Marcus; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Ward, David M

    2013-09-01

    Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs) are abundant members of microbial mat communities inhabiting neutral and alkaline geothermal springs. Natural populations of FAPs related to Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. have been well characterized in Mushroom Spring, where they occur with unicellular cyanobacteria related to Synechococcus spp. strains A and B'. Metatranscriptomic sequencing was applied to the microbial community to determine how FAPs regulate their gene expression in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and resource availability over a diel period. Transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and photosynthetic reaction centers were much more abundant at night. Both Roseiflexus spp. and Chloroflexus spp. expressed key genes involved in the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-OHP) carbon dioxide fixation bi-cycle during the day, when these FAPs have been thought to perform primarily photoheterotrophic and/or aerobic chemoorganotrophic metabolism. The expression of genes for the synthesis and degradation of storage polymers, including glycogen, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters, suggests that FAPs produce and utilize these compounds at different times during the diel cycle. We summarize these results in a proposed conceptual model for temporal changes in central carbon metabolism and energy production of FAPs living in a natural environment. The model proposes that, at night, Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. synthesize BChl, components of the photosynthetic apparatus, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters in concert with fermentation of glycogen. It further proposes that, in daytime, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters are degraded and used as carbon and electron reserves to support photomixotrophy via the 3-OHP bi-cycle.

  9. Ecomorphological variation in shell shape of the freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna inhabiting different aquatic flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gabriel

    2008-12-01

    Populations of species that inhabit a range of environments frequently display divergent morphologies that correlate with differences in ecological parameters. The velocity of water flow (i.e., flow velocity) is a critical feature of aquatic environments that has been shown to influence morphology in a broad range of taxa. The focus of this study was to evaluate the relationship between flow velocity and shell morphology for males and females of the semi-aquatic freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna. For both sexes, the carapace and plastron show significant morphological differences between habitats characterized by slow-flowing (i.e., lentic) and fast-flowing (i.e., lotic) water. In general, the most prominent pattern for both sexes is that the shells of individuals from lotic habitats are more streamlined (small height-to-length ratio) than the shells of individuals from lentic habitats. Of the two shell components (carapace and plastron), the carapace shows greater divergence between habitats, particularly for males. These results are consistent with adaptations to flow velocity, and suggest that variation in shape may be more constrained in females. I also provide empirical evidence for an adaptive benefit of the observed shape change (i.e., drag reduction) and a brief comment on the relative roles of genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity in generating shape differences observed in this species.

  10. Diversity and Interactions of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi and Beetles after Deadwood Enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Floren

    Full Text Available Freshly cut beech deadwood was enriched in the canopy and on the ground in three cultural landscapes in Germany (Swabian Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin in order to analyse the diversity, distribution and interaction of wood-inhabiting fungi and beetles. After two years of wood decay 83 MOTUs (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units from 28 wood samples were identified. Flight Interception Traps (FITs installed adjacent to the deadwood enrichments captured 29.465 beetles which were sorted to 566 species. Geographical 'region' was the main factor determining both beetle and fungal assemblages. The proportions of species occurring in all regions were low. Statistic models suggest that assemblages of both taxa differed between stratum and management praxis but their strength varied among regions. Fungal assemblages in Hainich-Dün, for which the data was most comprehensive, discriminated unmanaged from extensively managed and age-class forests (even-aged timber management while canopy communities differed not from those near the ground. In contrast, the beetle assemblages at the same sites showed the opposite pattern. We pursued an approach in the search for fungus-beetle associations by computing cross correlations and visualize significant links in a network graph. These correlations can be used to formulate hypotheses on mutualistic relationships for example in respect to beetles acting as vectors of fungal spores.

  11. Response of inhabitants of the western part of the Šalek Valley to the sandscape sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Špeh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Lignite minning was planned under the studied area in 1984. However it was rejected in 2002. The research project was founded in 1999 on the relation of the potentialy affected inhabitants to the landscape sources (especially the lignite. The results revealed almost uniform public opinion against the planned excavation, was expressed by both rural and urban population.

  12. The Complex of Scolytinae Inhabiting Persea borbonia and Persea americana in Florida: Possible Interactions with Other Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diverse number of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been found inhabiting Persea borbonia and P. americana in Florida during 2009 and 2010. They include the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, vector of Raffaelea lauricola, X. volvulus, X. ferrugineus, Xylosandrus crassiu...

  13. Promoting mobility after hip fracture (ProMo: study protocol and selected baseline results of a year-long randomized controlled trial among community-dwelling older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipilä Sarianna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope at their homes, community-dwelling older people surviving a hip fracture need a sufficient amount of functional ability and mobility. There is a lack of evidence on the best practices supporting recovery after hip fracture. The purpose of this article is to describe the design, intervention and demographic baseline results of a study investigating the effects of a rehabilitation program aiming to restore mobility and functional capacity among community-dwelling participants after hip fracture. Methods/Design Population-based sample of over 60-year-old community-dwelling men and women operated for hip fracture (n = 81, mean age 79 years, 78% were women participated in this study and were randomly allocated into control (Standard Care and ProMo intervention groups on average 10 weeks post fracture and 6 weeks after discharged to home. Standard Care included written home exercise program with 5-7 exercises for lower limbs. Of all participants, 12 got a referral to physiotherapy. After discharged to home, only 50% adhered to Standard Care. None of the participants were followed-up for Standard Care or mobility recovery. ProMo-intervention included Standard Care and a year-long program including evaluation/modification of environmental hazards, guidance for safe walking, pain management, progressive home exercise program and physical activity counseling. Measurements included a comprehensive battery of laboratory tests and self-report on mobility limitation, disability, physical functional capacity and health as well as assessments for the key prerequisites for mobility, disability and functional capacity. All assessments were performed blinded at the research laboratory. No significant differences were observed between intervention and control groups in any of the demographic variables. Discussion Ten weeks post hip fracture only half of the participants were compliant to Standard Care. No follow-up for Standard Care or

  14. SIRFLOX: Randomized Phase III Trial Comparing First-Line mFOLFOX6 (Plus or Minus Bevacizumab) Versus mFOLFOX6 (Plus or Minus Bevacizumab) Plus Selective Internal Radiation Therapy in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Guy A; Heinemann, Volker; Sharma, Navesh K; Findlay, Michael P N; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Perez, David; Robinson, Bridget A; Strickland, Andrew H; Ferguson, Tom; Rodríguez, Javier; Kröning, Hendrik; Wolf, Ido; Ganju, Vinod; Walpole, Euan; Boucher, Eveline; Tichler, Thomas; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Powell, Alex; Eliadis, Paul; Isaacs, Richard; Price, David; Moeslein, Fred; Taieb, Julien; Bower, Geoff; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Cade, David N; Thurston, Kenneth; Gibbs, Peter

    2016-05-20

    SIRFLOX was a randomized, multicenter trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of adding selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres to standard fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX)-based chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with liver metastases plus or minus limited extrahepatic metastases were randomly assigned to receive either modified FOLFOX (mFOLFOX6; control) or mFOLFOX6 plus SIRT (SIRT) plus or minus bevacizumab. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at any site as assessed by independent centralized radiology review blinded to study arm. Between October 2006 and April 2013, 530 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (control, 263; SIRT, 267). Median PFS at any site was 10.2 v 10.7 months in control versus SIRT (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.12; P = .43). Median PFS in the liver by competing risk analysis was 12.6 v 20.5 months in control versus SIRT (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.90; P = .002). Objective response rates (ORRs) at any site were similar (68.1% v 76.4% in control v SIRT; P = .113). ORR in the liver was improved with the addition of SIRT (68.8% v 78.7% in control v SIRT; P = .042). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events, including recognized SIRT-related effects, were reported in 73.4% and 85.4% of patients in control versus SIRT. The addition of SIRT to FOLFOX-based first-line chemotherapy in patients with liver-dominant or liver-only metastatic colorectal cancer did not improve PFS at any site but significantly delayed disease progression in the liver. The safety profile was as expected and was consistent with previous studies. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. The design and protocol of heat-sensitive moxibustion for knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial on the rules of selecting moxibustion location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhenhai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Moxibustion has been widely used to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis. Our past researches suggested heat-sensitive moxibustion might be superior to the conventional moxibustion. Our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of heat-sensitive moxibustion compared with conventional moxibustion or conventional drug treatment. Methods This study consists of a multi-centre (four centers in China, randomised, controlled trial with three parallel arms (A: heat-sensitive moxibustion; B: conventional moxibustion; C: conventional drug group. The moxibustion locations are different from A and B. Group A selects heat-sensitization acupoint from the region consisting of Yin Lingquan(SP9, Yang Lingquan(GB34, Liang Qiu(ST34, and Xue Hai (SP10. Meanwhile, fixed acupoints are used in group B, that is Xi Yan (EX-LE5 and He Ding (EX-LE2. The conventional drug group treats with intra-articular Sodium Hyaluronate injection. The outcome measures above will be assessed before the treatment, the 30 days of the last moxibustion session and 6 months after the last moxibustion session. Discussion This trial will utilize high quality trial methodologies in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. It will provide evidence for the effectiveness of moxibustion as a treatment for moderate and severe knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the result will clarify the rules of heat-sensitive moxibustion location to improve the therapeutic effect with suspended moxibustion, and propose a new concept and a new theory of moxibustion to guide clinical practices. Trial Registration The trial is registered at Controlled Clinical Trials: ChiCTR-TRC-00000600.

  16. Neritinaceramides A–E, New Ceramides from the Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea and Their Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1, B (2, C (3, D (4 and E (5, together with six known ceramides (6–11, two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13 and a known nucleoside (14, were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E,10E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3′-triol (1, (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (2, (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E-2-(octadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (3, (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3′-triol (4 and (2S,3R,3′S,4E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4-octadecene-l,3,3′-triol (5 on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3′S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1–3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1–5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A–E (1–5 added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides.

  17. Effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on early selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment onset for depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Feng, Hui; Mo, Yali; Gao, Jingfang; Mao, Hongjing; Song, Mingfen; Wang, Shengdong; Yin, Yan; Liu, Wenjuan

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) treatment effect onset in patients with depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology. Overall, 126 patients with depressive disorder were randomly divided into a medicine and acupuncture-medicine group using a random number table. Patients were treated for 6 consecutive weeks. The two groups were evaluated by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS) to assess the effect of the soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture method on early onset of SSRI treatment effect. Changes in serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and inflammatory cytokines before and after treatment were recorded and compared between the medicine group and the acupuncture-medicine group. The acupuncture-medicine group had significantly lower MADRS scores at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 after treatment compared with the medicine group (P 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the acupuncture-medicine group compared with the medicine group (P depressive disorder and can significantly reduce the adverse reactions of SSRIs. Moreover, acupuncture can enhance serum 5-HT and regulate the balance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions.

  19. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  20. Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

    2009-04-01

    Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their

  1. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  2. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L; Kelbæk, H; Vejlstrup, N; Engstrøm, T; Lønborg, J

    2017-07-01

    The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before acute CMR assessment compared to CMR-participants in a previously published double-blinded, placebo-controlled all-comer trial with CMR outcome as the primary endpoint. Baseline characteristics and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure and re-infarction after 30 days and 5 years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry. The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile upon admission as evaluated by the TIMI-risk score (3.7 (± 2.1) vs 4.0 (± 2.6), p = 0.043) and by left ventricular ejection fraction (43 (± 9) vs. 47 (± 10), p = 0.029). CMR drop-outs had a higher incidence of known hypertension (39% vs. 35%, p = 0.043), known diabetes (14% vs. 7%, p = 0.025), known cardiac disease (11% vs. 3%, p = 0.013) and known renal function disease (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.007). However, the 30-day and 5-years composite endpoint rate was not significantly higher among the CMR drop-out ((HR 1.43 (95%-CI 0.5; 3.97) (p = 0.5)) and (HR 1.31 (95%-CI 0.84; 2.05) (p = 0.24)). CMR-drop-outs had a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural Inhabitants of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections, particularly in the rural areas, are one of the most important indices of the hygiene status and sanitation level of the society. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections among rural inhabitant of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from 50 families in seven villages that were directly and indirectly involved in raising livestock and other domestic animals in spring of 2012. The demographic data were collected by interview and included age, sex, educational level, place of keeping animals, direct or indirect contact with animals, and occupation. Fecal samples were concentrated using formol-ether sedimentation technique and examined by iodine-stained wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples were assessed by trichrome staining method. Results Among 228 samples, 80 (35.1% were diagnosed with parasitic infection, which separately included 43 cases of Entamoeba coli (18.9%, 32 Blastocystis hominis (14%, 16 Endolimax nana (7%, nine Iodamoeba butschlii (3.9%, five Giardia lamblia (2.2%, two Taenia species (0.9%, two Hymenolepis nana (0.9%, one Chilomastix mesnili (0.4%, one Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, and one Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.4%. No significant difference in infection rate was observed with regard to indirect or direct contact with livestock. Coinfection of E. coli and B. hominis, E. coli and I. butschlii, and E. nana and G. lamblia were statistically significant. Interestingly, no Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was seen in this population. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of some infections with intestinal parasites is high in the Hamadan City. Considering that most of the parasites are nonpathogenic, pathogenic ones have been reduced generally in comparison to the previous reports. Nevertheless, the existence of Taenia species and H. nana could not

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in indigenous inhabitants of traditional communities from the north of Mexico.

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    Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Sandoval-Herrrera, F; Alvarado-Ruiz, R

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults indigenous to their traditional communities from the north of Mexico. The study was based on a cross- sectional survey of inhabitants from Mexicaneros, Huicholes and Tepehuanos communities, which have not been influenced by a western lifestyle. A home interview and clinical examination that included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of 217 men and 598 non-pregnant women aged between 35 to 64 years was carried out. Eligible indigenous subjects must have had no migratory history to partially or totally urbanised areas. Target population represented approximately 100% of the indigenous people who have spent all their life time in the community of birthplace. Age and body mass index average was 48.9+/-12.9 years and 25.6+/-5.1 kg/m2. Hypertension was identified in 56 individuals, 45 women and 11 men (prevalence 6.87%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-8.6). Forty-one percent of the hypertensive subjects were aware of being hypertensive. Hypertensive subjects had a higher intake of saturated fats than non-hypertensives. Salt consumption was lower than 6 g per day in subjects with and without hypertension. High intake of saturated fats (odds ratio 6.4, 95% CI 2.1-12.3; P<0.01) was an independent predictor for hypertension. This study presents, for the first time, data concerning hypertension in adults who are indigenous to and living in traditional communities from Mexico. Prevalence of hypertension was lower than in the partly urbanised rural communities with a westernised lifestyle and the urban areas of Mexico.

  5. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico

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    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Methods Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Results Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Discussion Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  6. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne; Chanlatte-Baik, Luis; Toranzos, Gary A; Cano, Raul J

    2017-01-01

    The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  7. Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Beasley, Isabel; Ackermann, Corinne Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Ryan, Gerard E; Bejder, Lars; Parra, Guido J; Wolfensberger, Rebekka; Spencer, Peter B S

    2018-01-01

    In threatened wildlife populations, it is important to determine whether observed low genetic diversity may be due to recent anthropogenic pressure or the consequence of historic events. Historical size of the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) population inhabiting the Mekong River is unknown and there is significant concern for long-term survival of the remaining population as a result of low abundance, slow reproduction rate, high neonatal mortality, and continuing anthropogenic threats. We investigated population structure and reconstructed the demographic history based on 60 Irrawaddy dolphins samples collected between 2001 and 2009. The phylogenetic analysis indicated reciprocal monophyly of Mekong River Orcaella haplotypes with respect to haplotypes from other populations, suggesting long-standing isolation of the Mekong dolphin population from other Orcaella populations. We found that at least 85% of all individuals in the two main study areas: Kratie and Stung Treng, bore the same mitochondrial haplotype. Out of the 21 microsatellite loci tested, only ten were polymorphic and exhibited very low levels of genetic diversity. Both individual and frequency-based approaches suggest very low and non-significant genetic differentiation of the Mekong dolphin population. Evidence for recent bottlenecks was equivocal. Some results suggested a recent exponential decline in the Mekong dolphin population, with the current size being only 5.2% of the ancestral population. In order for the Mekong dolphin population to have any potential for long-term survival, it is imperative that management priorities focus on preventing any further population fragmentation or genetic loss, reducing or eliminating anthropogenic threats, and promoting connectivity between all subpopulations.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran’s Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad Taghizadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Mahaki, Ali Asghar; Ammari, Hassan; Ardalan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (pbusinessman, employee (p=0.001) or being housewife (p=0.002) were related risk factors. In addition, people in the Southern high risk regions were significantly more knowledgeable (OR=0.618 compared to people in low risk regions) about earthquakes. Conclusions It is suggested that preparedness programs should target people with lower educational level and people in high risk regions especially the Northern districts of the city and aim at increasing public knowledge about earthquakes. Address for correspondence: Ali Ardalan, No. 78, Italia Ave, Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: aardalan@gmail.com or aardalan@tums.ac.ir Citation: Ostad Taghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran’s Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6 PMID:22953240

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad Taghizadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Mahaki, Ali Asghar; Ammari, Hassan; Ardalan, Ali

    2012-08-06

    Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (pbusinessman, employee (p=0.001) or being housewife (p=0.002) were related risk factors. In addition, people in the Southern high risk regions were significantly more knowledgeable (OR=0.618 compared to people in low risk regions) about earthquakes. Conclusions It is suggested that preparedness programs should target people with lower educational level and people in high risk regions especially the Northern districts of the city and aim at increasing public knowledge about earthquakes. Address for correspondence: Ali Ardalan, No. 78, Italia Ave, Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: aardalan@gmail.com or aardalan@tums.ac.ir Ostad Taghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6.

  10. Temporal metatranscriptomic patterning in phototrophic Chloroflexi inhabiting a microbial mat in a geothermal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Christian G; Liu, Zhenfeng; Ludwig, Marcus; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Ward, David M

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs) are abundant members of microbial mat communities inhabiting neutral and alkaline geothermal springs. Natural populations of FAPs related to Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. have been well characterized in Mushroom Spring, where they occur with unicellular cyanobacteria related to Synechococcus spp. strains A and B′. Metatranscriptomic sequencing was applied to the microbial community to determine how FAPs regulate their gene expression in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and resource availability over a diel period. Transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and photosynthetic reaction centers were much more abundant at night. Both Roseiflexus spp. and Chloroflexus spp. expressed key genes involved in the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-OHP) carbon dioxide fixation bi-cycle during the day, when these FAPs have been thought to perform primarily photoheterotrophic and/or aerobic chemoorganotrophic metabolism. The expression of genes for the synthesis and degradation of storage polymers, including glycogen, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters, suggests that FAPs produce and utilize these compounds at different times during the diel cycle. We summarize these results in a proposed conceptual model for temporal changes in central carbon metabolism and energy production of FAPs living in a natural environment. The model proposes that, at night, Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. synthesize BChl, components of the photosynthetic apparatus, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters in concert with fermentation of glycogen. It further proposes that, in daytime, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters are degraded and used as carbon and electron reserves to support photomixotrophy via the 3-OHP bi-cycle. PMID:23575369

  11. Exploring the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus fecal microbiome, bacterial inhabitants of a worldwide pet

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    Luis David Alcaraz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome. Methods In this paper, we analyzed the gut microbiome from fecal samples of three healthy adult cockatiels by massive sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we compared the cockatiel fecal microbiomes with those of other bird species, including poultry and wild birds. Results The vast majority of the bacteria found in cockatiels were Firmicutes, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were poorly represented. A total of 19,280 different OTUs were detected, of which 8,072 belonged to the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Discussion It is relevant to study cockatiel the microbiomes of cockatiels owing to their wide geographic distribution and close human contact. This study serves as a reference for cockatiel bacterial diversity. Despite the large OTU numbers, the diversity is not even and is dominated by Firmicutes of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Cockatiels and other wild birds are almost depleted of Bacteroidetes, which happen to be abundant in poultry-related birds, and this is probably associated with the intensive human manipulation of poultry bird diets. Some probable pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Serratia, appeared to be frequent inhabitants of the fecal microbiome of cockatiels, whereas other potential pathogens were not detected.

  12. Comorbidity diseases in adults with diagnosed interstitial lung diseases among inhabitants of the Silesian voivodeship, Poland

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    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interstitial lung diseases form a group of chronic diseases associated with a significant worsening of the quality of life. Proper management of these diseases involves the recognition and treatment of comorbidities, so it implies high direct and indirect costs of therapy. The lack of epidemiological data on the total incidence of interstitial diseases in Poland, as well as of information on their increasing incidence in other European countries justify investigations into epidemiological situation in the Silesian voivodeship (the southern region of Poland. Material and Methods: In a descriptive study registered data provided by the National Health Found in 2006–2010 were used to assess the temporal variability of standardized incidence rates. A data set included interstitial lung diseases and comorbidities in adults aged ≥ 19 years, residents of the Silesian voivodeship. Results: In the period under study standardized incidence ratios for interstitial lung disease declined from 9.7/100 000 adult population to 7.8/100 000 adult population. The most prevalent comorbidities included cardio-vascular diseases, chronic and infectious respiratory diseases, metabolic diseases and musculoskeletal and connective tissue diseases. Comorbidities were found more frequently in older people ≥ 65 years, except for sarcoidosis, which was four times more prevalent in younger people (19–64 years compared to older patients. The estimated costs of treatment of the analysed diseases reached more than 50 mln zlotys (12 mln dollars per year. Conclusions: A small but systematic decrease in the value of the standardized incidence rate for interstitial lung disease has been shown within the range of 9.7–7.8/100 000 adult inhabitants. The most frequent comorbidities included cardiovascular or chronic and infectious respiratory diseases. The high cost of therapy of interstitial lung diseases was largely related to simultaneous treatment of

  13. Species and genetic diversity in the genus Drosophila inhabiting the Indian subcontinent.

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    Singh, Bashisth N

    2015-06-01

    Biodiversity is the sum total of all living things on the earth with particular reference to the profound variety in structure,function and genetic constitution. It includes both number and frequency of species or genes in a given assemblage and the variety of resulting ecosystems in a region. It is usually considered at three different levels: genetic, species and ecological diversities. Genus Drosophila belongs to the family Drosophilidae (class Insecta, order Diptera), characterized by rich species diversity at global level and also in India, which is a megadiverse country. At global level, more than 1500 species have been described and several thousands estimated. Hawaiian Islands are particularly rich in species diversity with more than 500 species which provides a unique opportunity to study evolution in genus Drosophila. About 150 species of Drosophila have been reported from India. Certain species of Drosophila found in India have been investigated for genetic diversity within the species. In this regard, Drosophila ananassae is noteworthy. It is a cosmopolitan and domestic species with common occurrence in India and is endowed with many genetic peculiarities. Population genetics and evolutionary studies in this species have revealed as to how genetic diversity within a species play an important role in adaptation of populations to varying environments. In addition, the work carried on D. melanogaster, D. nasuta, D. bipectinata and certain other species in India has shown that these species vary in degree and pattern of genetic diversity, and have evolved different mechanisms for adjusting to their environments. The ecological adaptations to various kinds of stress studied in certain species of Drosophila inhabiting the Indian subcontinent are also discussed.

  14. Perceptions, preferences, and reactions of local inhabitants in Vikos-Aoos National Park, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakolis, D

    2001-11-01

    Local inhabitants' perceptions, preferences, and reactions were investigated in Vikos-Aoos National Park, 25 years after its designation. Knowledge of aims of the park and source of information about them, necessity for infrastructure, reactions to certain policies, and effectiveness of administration and management scheme were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. Personal interviews were performed by systematic sampling, which resulted in 203 cases for analysis. Most respondents said that they had knowledge of the aims of the national park, and this was positively associated with education; protection of flora and fauna was identified by most as the main aim, and the management authority (the Forest Service) ranked first in order as source of information. Tourism development of the area was seen as a positive change, and recreation facilities and improvement in accessibility were considered of high priority for development. The investigation into peoples' reactions to several possible alternative management policies revealed willingness to accept certain restrictions on their agricultural use of the land. A policy of non-intensive agriculture with compensation for loss of income, if the ecosystems of the park were in danger, seems the most acceptable. Long-term leasing of farms by the Forest Service was another policy with a high degree of acceptance, especially for certain occupational groups; those working in the secondary and tertiary sectors of economy would accept such a policy more easily than those working in the primary sector. Finally, a very large majority of the respondents expressed a preference for a new administration and management scheme with the participation of local communities in the decision-making process.

  15. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

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    Jiali Wang

    Full Text Available Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing <90% identity to any previously reported sequence in GenBank. At least 4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs in mesosaline lakes, while up to eighteen OTUs in hypersaline lakes show very low CCM and CEM scores, indicating that these sequences are highly distantly related to any existing sequence. Most of the 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%, whereas Stramenopiles (26.65% and Alveolates (10.84% are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%, whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50% and Xiaochaidan (1.15%. Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations

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    Ueberall MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Ueberall,1 Gerhard H H Mueller-Schwefe2 1Institute of Neurological Sciences, Nuernberg, Germany; 2Interdisciplinary Center for Pain and Palliative Care Medicine, Goeppingen, Germany Objective: To evaluate the benefit–risk profile (BRP of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN and tapentadol (TAP in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP with a neuropathic component (NC in routine clinical practice. Methods: This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133. Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Results: Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P=0.014, due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% (P= ns/0.031/<0.001, for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% (P=0.043/0.018/0.001, and for

  17. Risk Factors for and Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Healthy Inhabitants in Northern Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Darnindro, Nikko; Puspita Hapsari, Florentina Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is a developing country, in most of which the infection rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been reported to be high. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Indonesia has been unexpectedly reported to be low. The purpose of our study was to con rm whether the prevalence of H. pylori infection is low among healthy inhabitants in Northern Jakarta by 13C-urea breath test (UBT), and to examine the association of their lifestyle/environmental factors with H. pylori infection and to identify potential routes of transmission. We recruited a total of 196 subjects from a low-income community in Northern Jakarta, Indonesia. Of them, 193 subjects who completed a questionnaire about their lifestyle/environment and had UBT were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for sex and age with 95% con dence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression model. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 15.0%. There was difference in H. pylori infection rates among Buginese (40.0%), Betawi (9.1%), Sundanese (3.7%), and Batak (9.1%). After multivariate analysis, the ORs of intake of soybean milk, cucumber more than one time a week, infrequent hand washing before meals, and alcohol consumption were 0.10 (95%CI: 0.01-0.97), 6.61 (95%CI: 1.87-23.3), 4.10 (95%CI: 1.15-14.6), and 61.9 for former drinkers (95%CI: 1.67-2300.8), respectively. Buginese (OR=7.84; 95%CI: 1.82- 33.8) and Batak ethnic groups (OR=20.1; 95%CI: 1.90-213.2) were infected more frequently, compared with Javanese. The H. pylori infection rate in this study was low, as reported previously. After we scrutinized the factors, Buginese and Batak ethnic groups eat food using ngers more frequently than Javanese, Betawi, and Sundanese. In addition, infrequent hand wash practice before meal increased the risk. Our study indicated that person-person transmission was possible in this low prevalence area. The low infection rates of H. pylori among those of Javanese, Betawi, and

  18. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  19. WHAT MOTIVATES CULTURAL TOURISTS? AN ANALYSIS OF BUCHAREST INHABITANTS' MOTIVATION TO VISIT THE CENTRE REGION

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    Ravar Anamaria Sidonia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism is currently one of the main driving forces of the tourist phenomena, accounting for a significant part of the world's tourist flows. Cultural tourism may take many forms, according to the motivation behind tourists' impetus to travel to a certain destination. Cultural heritage and historical sites, dance, music and theatre performances, art galleries, museums and exhibitions, religious and worship sites and ethnic traditions are the main attractions for tourists motivated by knowledge seeking, self-development and the desire to experience other cultures. Although cultural motivations play an important role in the generation of tourist flows towards cultural tourism destinations, a tourism experience is rarely generated as a result of a single motivation. The act of choosing a specific destination and tourism product is influenced by multiple motivations, not only cultural but also connected to relaxation or family. Furthermore, tourism products are rarely homogeneous – a single holiday may include experiences with cultural content as well as leisure time, sports, adventure or entertainment. Thus, culture is not always the main motivation behind cultural tourism and may in fact be less central to the decision to travel than other factors. This is particularly true in the case of destinations which dispose of various cultural assets, but whose natural tourist resources – such as landscape, climate, access to the sea – also makes them attractive for other types of tourism. The aim of this article is to show that in the case of tourist destinations where cultural attractions represent the vast majority of the areas' tourist heritage, cultural motivations remains central to the decision to travel. Furthermore, we will seek to identify the main types of cultural attractions that motivate cultural tourism in Romania by investigating Bucharest inhabitants' perception of the Centre Region, a cultural destination par excellence in

  20. Building, inhabiting and «perceiving» private houses in early medieval Italy

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    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article sums up the evolution of the subject of private houses and homes in Italian historiography, beginning mainly in the 1970s, when scholars began to take an interest in this subject, also thanks to the development of the modern discipline of Medieval Archeology. After identifying current lines of research, the second section analyzes the main kinds of dwellings, their geographical distribution, and their various chronologies. The third section goes on to discuss the issue of how these residential buildings were the product of particular technical skills, analyzing the characteristics of the knowledge of the people who built them, in some cases also attested to in written sources. The fourth section seeks to link specific choices of construction solution to the socio-economic context of the time, trying to establish a connection between the type of buildings that were built, the kind of life their inhabitants led, and the contemporary mentality. The last section is dedicated to a sort of final synthesis, with a brief, further examination of the various issues dealt with in the article as a whole.La primera parte del artículo hace un resumen de la evolución de las casas particulares y viviendas domésticas en la historiografía italiana a partir de los años 70, cuando los estudiosos empezaron a interesarse por el tema y también gracias al desarrollo de la disciplina moderna de arqueología medieval. Tras identificar las actuales líneas de investigación, la segunda parte analiza los principales tipos de vivienda, su distribución geográfica y diversas cronologías. La tercera aborda el concepto de las viviendas residenciales como el resultado de determinadas habilidades técnicas y analiza las características del conocimiento del pueblo que las levantó, corroborando algunos casos con fuentes documentales. La cuarta parte intenta encontrar una relación entre las decisiones tomadas en determinadas soluciones

  1. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  2. Evolution of Spaces between Buildings in Polish Mass Housing Estates in the Eyes of the Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanska, Anna

    2017-10-01

    structured interviews with the inhabitants of the estates. The paper presents the results of two interdisciplinary surveys, held five years apart in the same estate, and based on the same questionnaire. Its results confirm that user expectations evolve. The interest in the development of green areas, and availability of recreational facilities in the proximity of home is growing as people observe that changes are possible. Some people declare some form of active participation in improvements. Preferences towards functions and accessibility of the areas reflect changes in the demographic structure. Surveys of this kind may be regularly used in defining guidelines for further improvement measures, and raising user awareness of the personal responsibility for the condition of the neighbourhood.

  3. The impact of preferences of inhabitants of settlements for developers activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.

    2017-08-01

    Urban community contributes to the development of any city, but it is essential that its residents can live, work and relax in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape, shaped by the functional spatial layout of streets, blocks of buildings and structures and the accompanying elements of nature and development, ensuring the rational development of urban space. The need to knowing of public expectations in relation to residence, is an important step in planning new investments by developers and construction companies. In order to carry out of research cooperation has been established with the construction company. Cooperation allowed to gain experience in the commercialization and implementation of research and carry out analysis and evaluation of spatial structures in terms of urban development and functional housing estates, with special emphasis on the needs of society. The observations focused in particular on ecological building and the necessity of the creation and development of green areas, sports and recreation to residential areas. We know that every square meter of land designated for housing carries a possible profit for the developer. The more will be built and sold apartments the more earn the investor. However, to the apartment were popular meet the demands of customers concerning not only the housing unit, but also the environment in which the building is situated. It is therefore important that the settlements were attractive and meet the social needs of society. Social needs are related to satisfying the expectations of the inhabitants of the settlements related to the comfort of the apartment, being, rest and recreation living within the zone of residence. As part of the research work carried study work and field research. They consisted gain knowledge about work organization in the enterprise and hearing the reasons and scope of the activities the developer, as well as get

  4. Demonstration of generic handbooks for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Duranova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development of these h......Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development...... of the handbooks. Two additional demonstrations took place in Denmark and Slovakia to investigate the appropriateness and applicability of a stakeholder participatory process when applying the handbooks. These stakeholders expressed their willingness to discuss the issues at stake from contamination of food...

  5. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic

  6. Reduction of noise generated by air conditioning and ventilation plants and transmitted to inhabited areas. [application of silencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harastaseanu, E.; Cristescu, G.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fans with which the conditioning and ventilation plants of weaving and spinning mills are equipped and the conditioning devices used in certain confection and knit wear departments of the textile industry generate loud noise. Solutions are presented for reducing the noise generated by the fans of ventilation and conditioning plants and transmitted to inhabited regions down to the admissible level, as well as the results obtained by experimental application of some noise reduction solutions in the conditioning plants of a spinning mill.

  7. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  8. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and its effects on atopy and asthma in children and adult inhabitants in rural Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozańska, B; Pearce, N; Dudek, K; Cullinan, P

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of unpasteurized cow's milk has been identified as a possible protective factor for atopy and asthma. Most studies have been conducted among children and in farming populations. We investigated the effects of consumption of unpasteurized milk in early life on atopy, asthma, and rhinitis in village and town inhabitants in a region of Poland and assessed whether any protective effects of milk consumption differed according to place of residence and farming status. We surveyed the inhabitants (aged >5 years) of a small town and seven nearby villages in southwest Poland (n = 1700, response rate 88%). Participants (or their parents for those asthma and rhinitis. In particular, information was collected on unpasteurized milk consumption in early life. Atopy was assessed using skin prick tests. Consumption of unpasteurized milk in the first year of life was inversely associated with atopy and asthma both among town and village inhabitants - town: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for atopy 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.52] asthma 0.51 (0.32-0.74); villages: atopy 0.59 (0.44-0.70) and asthma 0.59 (0.42-0.74). For atopy, the protective effect was more clearly seen among nonfarmers (0.42; 0.34-0.46) than in farmers (0.82; 0.54-1.11). For doctor-diagnosed hay fever and current rhinitis symptoms, the protective effect was only observed among town inhabitants and/or nonfarmers. Early-life exposure to unpasteurized milk may protect against atopy, asthma, and related conditions, independently of place of residence and farming status, and in both children and adults. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian inhabitants during 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2015-04-01

    To summarize the data on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuania inhabitants (1991-2010). New prevalent cases consist of growing-up patients with diabetes onset in childhood, i.e., up to 14 years, new onset 15-34-year-aged type 1 diabetic patients Lithuanian inhabitants, and immigrants. The data on type 1 diabetes was collected with the help of general practitioners and regional endocrinologists in Lithuania. On 31 December 1991, there were 1202 adolescent and adult 15-34-year-aged patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or 103.59 per 100,000 inhabitants of the same age group (95% Poisson CI 97.90-109.62), and at the end of 2010 - 1533 or 187.80 (178.63-197.44), respectively in Lithuania. During 19-year period the mean increase of type 1 diabetic patients was 1.25±1.94% per year or 1.47±2.74 per 100,000 inhabitants per mean year of the study period (for males 1.42±2.14% or 1.69±3.05/100,000 and for females 1.05±1.99%, or 1.24±2.92/100,000). Regression-based linear trends showed that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-age group had a tendency to increase among males (r=0.953; p2.81/100,000 and 104.55/100,000, and in 2010 - 193.75 and 182.01. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-age males and females had a tendency to increase during 1991-2010. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  11. Community structure and function of high-temperature chlorophototrophic microbial mats inhabiting diverse geothermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, Christian G.; Inskeep, William P.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Six phototrophic microbial mat communities from different geothermal springs (YNP) were studied using metagenome sequencing and geochemical analyses. The primary goals of this work were to determine differences in community composition of high-temperature phototrophic mats distributed across...... the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem, and to identify metabolic attributes of predominant organisms present in these communities that may correlate with environmental attributes important in niche differentiation. Random shotgun metagenome sequences from six phototrophic communities (average 53Mbp/site) were...

  12. A pilot study examining the effectiveness of physical therapy as an adjunct to selective nerve root block in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain from disk herniation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Anne; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Zaman, Faisel M; Willick, Stuart E

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic selective nerve root blocks (SNRBs) are a common intervention for patients with sciatica. Patients often are referred to physical therapy after SNRBs, although the effectiveness of this intervention sequence has not been investigated. This study was a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of SNRBs, with or without subsequent physical therapy, in people with low back pain and sciatica. This investigation was a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. The settings were spine specialty and physical therapy clinics. Forty-four participants (64% men; mean age=38.5 years, SD=11.6 years) with low back pain, with clinical and imaging findings consistent with lumbar disk herniation, and scheduled to receive SNRBs participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to receive either 4 weeks of physical therapy (SNRB+PT group) or no physical therapy (SNRB alone [SNRB group]) after the injections. All participants received at least 1 SNRB; 28 participants (64%) received multiple injections. Participants in the SNRB+PT group attended an average of 6.0 physical therapy sessions over an average of 23.9 days. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months with the Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, a numeric pain rating scale, and the Global Rating of Change. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred over time in both groups, with no differences between groups at either follow-up for any outcome. Nine participants (5 in the SNRB group and 4 in the SNRB+PT group) underwent surgery during the follow-up period. The limitations of this study were a relatively short-term follow-up period and a small sample size. A physical therapy intervention after SNRBs did not result in additional reductions in pain and disability or perceived improvements in participants with low back pain and sciatica.

  13. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Aripiprazole Versus Bupropion Augmentation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unresponsive to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Randomized, Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Park, Young-Woo; Lee, Jong-Hun; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Sung, Hyung-Mo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole versus bupropion augmentation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This is the first randomized, prospective, open-label, direct comparison study between aripiprazole and bupropion augmentation. Participants had at least moderately severe depressive symptoms after 4 weeks or more of SSRI treatment. A total of 103 patients were randomized to either aripiprazole (n = 56) or bupropion (n = 47) augmentation for 6 weeks. Concomitant use of psychotropic agents was prohibited. Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment. Overall, both treatments significantly improved depressive symptoms without causing serious adverse events. There were no significant differences in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, and Iowa Fatigue Scale scores, and response rates. However, significant differences in remission rates between the 2 groups were evident at week 6 (55.4% vs 34.0%, respectively; P = 0.031), favoring aripiprazole over bupropion. There were no significant differences in adverse sexual events, extrapyramidal symptoms, or akathisia between the 2 groups. The present study suggests that aripiprazole augmentation is at least comparable to bupropion augmentation in combination with SSRI in terms of efficacy and tolerability in patients with MDD. Both aripiprazole and bupropion could help reduce sexual dysfunction and fatigue in patients with MDD. Aripiprazole and bupropion may offer effective and safe augmentation strategies in patients with MDD who are unresponsive to SSRIs. Double-blinded trials are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  14. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  15. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  16. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  17. 5-year clinical outcomes in the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial a randomized comparison of an early invasive versus selective invasive management in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Peter; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2010-03-02

    We present the 5-year clinical outcomes according to treatment strategy with additional risk stratification of the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial. Long-term outcomes may be relevant to decide treatment strategy for patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and elevated troponin T. We randomly assigned 1,200 patients to an early invasive or selective invasive strategy. The outcomes were the composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and its individual components. Risk stratification was performed with the FRISC (Fast Revascularization in InStability in Coronary artery disease) risk score. At 5-year follow-up, revascularization rates were 81% in the early invasive and 60% in the selective invasive group. Cumulative death or MI rates were 22.3% and 18.1%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.66, p = 0.053). No difference was observed in mortality (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.60, p = 0.49) or MI (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.70, p = 0.20). After risk stratification, no benefit of an early invasive strategy was observed in reducing death or spontaneous MI in any of the risk groups. In patients presenting with NSTE-ACS and elevated troponin T, we could not demonstrate a long-term benefit of an early invasive strategy in reducing death or MI. (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes [ICTUS]; ISRCTN82153174). Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hyperuricemia as a risk factor for noninfectious diseases in the inhabitants of Chuvashia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madianov, I V; Balabolkin, M I; Saperov, V N; Markov, D S; Oreshnikov, E V; Grigor'ev, A A; Markova, T N

    1997-01-01

    The relation of hyperuricemia with obesity, arterial hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia, high intensity of lipid peroxidation, hyperinsulinemia, diabetoid carbohydrate disturbances (abnormal tolerance to carbohydrates and type-II diabetes mellitus) has been investigated in an epidemiological survey of a random population. The study covered 594 citizens of Chuvashia aged 16-65 years (mean age 39.4 +/- 0.5 years). Hyperuricemia is shown to be related with hyperlipidemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, high activity of lipid peroxidation and hyperinsulinemia. It is evident that on the population level hyperuricemia may serve an indicator of hormonal-metabolic athero-, diabetogenic shifts.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on postoperative pain intensity in hospitalized children in selected hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Sirousfard, Motahareh; Moeini, Mahin; Ghanadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is the common complication after a surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on the postoperative pain in children. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we selected 64 children of 3–6 years of age through convenient sampling and divided them randomly into two groups. Patients in group A were given inhalation aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill., and in group B, the patients were given almond oil as a placebo. Inhalation aromatherapy was used at the first time of subjects’ arrival to the ward and then at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h afterward. Common palliative treatments to relieve pain were used in both groups. Thirty minutes after aromatherapy, the postoperative pain in children was evaluated with the Toddler Preschooler Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS). Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no significant difference in pain scores at the first time of subjects’ arrival to the ward (before receiving any aromatherapy or palliative care) between the two groups. After each time of aromatherapy and at the end of treatment, the pain score was significantly reduced in the aromatherapy group with R. damascena Mill. compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: According to our results, aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill. can be used in postoperative pain in children, together with other common treatments without any significant side effects. PMID:25878704

  20. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Jieun E.; Won, Wangyoun; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level. Method Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Results In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events). Conclusions The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder. PMID:22864465

  1. Safety of regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RegCOPD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory S; Tammelin, Bruce R; Schiffman, George L; Marquez, Rudy; Rice, Deborah L; Milikien, Douglas; Mathur, Vandana

    2008-01-01

    Patients with reactive airways are at risk for adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, mediated via A(2B) and/or A(3) adenosine receptors. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we examined the safety of regadenoson, a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38) and patients with severe COPD (n = 11) with a baseline mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 1.74 +/- 0.50 L and 1.0 +/- 0.35 L, respectively, 37% of whom had dyspnea during activities of daily living. Patients receiving glucocorticoids or oxygen and those with pretreatment wheezing were included. Short-acting bronchodilators were withheld for at least 8 hours before treatment. No differences emerged between regadenoson and placebo on multiple lung function parameters, including repeated FEV(1) and forced vital capacity, respiratory rate, pulmonary examinations, and oxygen saturation. The mean maximum decline in FEV(1) was 0.11 +/- 0.02 L and 0.12 +/- 0.02 L (P = .55) in patients after regadenoson and placebo, respectively, and new-onset wheezing was observed in 6% and 12%, respectively (P = .33). No patient required acute treatment with bronchodilators or oxygen. This pilot study showed the overall safety of regadenoson in 49 compromised outpatients with clinically stable moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on postoperative pain intensity in hospitalized children in selected hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Sirousfard, Motahareh; Moeini, Mahin; Ghanadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the common complication after a surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on the postoperative pain in children. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we selected 64 children of 3-6 years of age through convenient sampling and divided them randomly into two groups. Patients in group A were given inhalation aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill., and in group B, the patients were given almond oil as a placebo. Inhalation aromatherapy was used at the first time of subjects' arrival to the ward and then at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h afterward. Common palliative treatments to relieve pain were used in both groups. Thirty minutes after aromatherapy, the postoperative pain in children was evaluated with the Toddler Preschooler Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS). Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. There was no significant difference in pain scores at the first time of subjects' arrival to the ward (before receiving any aromatherapy or palliative care) between the two groups. After each time of aromatherapy and at the end of treatment, the pain score was significantly reduced in the aromatherapy group with R. damascena Mill. compared to the placebo group. According to our results, aromatherapy with R. damascena Mill. can be used in postoperative pain in children, together with other common treatments without any significant side effects.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of selected community-level interventions on key maternal, child health, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV outcomes in three countries (the ACCLAIM Project): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Kieffer, Mary Pat; Walker, Damilola; Mpofu, Daphne; Machekano, Rhoderick

    2016-02-16

    original study design. We purposively selected facilities in the districts/regions though originally the study clusters were to be randomly selected. Lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all HIV positive pregnant and lactating women, Option B+, was implemented in the three countries during the study period, with the potential for a differential impact by study arm. Implementation however, was rapidly done across the districts/regions, so that there is unlikely be this potential confounding. We developed a system of monitoring and documentation of potential confounding activities or actions, and these data will be incorporated into analyses at the conclusion of the project. Strengthens of the study are that it tests multilevel interventions, utilizes program as well as study specific and individual data, and it is conducted under "real conditions" leading to more robust findings. Limitations of the protocol include the lack of a true control arm and inadequate control for the potential effect of Option B+, such as the intensification of messages as the importance of early ANC and male partner testing. ClinicalTrials.gov (study ID: NCT01971710) Protocol version 5, 30 July 2013, registered 13 August 2013.

  4. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  5. Grasshopper populations inhabiting the B-C Cribs and REDOX Pond Sites, 200 Area Plateau, United States Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, J K; Rogers, L E

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition, abundance, and food habits of grasshopper populations inhabiting the 200 Area plateau. Two sites were selected for detailed study, one near the B-C Cribs control zone and the other near the former REDOX Pond. A total of 14 grasshopper species were collected from the B-C Cribs study area and 16 species from the REDOX Pond area. Thirteen of these species occurred at both locations. Population density was low throughout most of the spring, increased in late May, and reached a peak of about 4 grasshoppers per square meter in early July. A dietary analysis showed that 7 of the 28 species of vascular plants recorded from the area were major components in grasshopper diets. These included needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), turpentine cymopterus (Cymopterus terebinthinus), Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana), western tansymustard (Descurainia pinnata), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus). The plant most heavily utilized was big sagebrush, followed by turpentine cymopterus, green rabbitbrush, and Carey's balsamroot. Other species were less frequently eaten. Several plants were present in the diet at a much higher frequency than they occurred in the environment, indicating that they were preferred food items.

  6. Hill numbers for the assessment of generic and taxonomic diversity in inhabitation groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitikov Vladimir Kirillovitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A group of parametric factors of generic and taxonomic diversity , based on the estimations of "effective number of species" or Hill numbers is considered. The difference of this group from other diversity indices based on Shannon formula or other expressions is discussed. The way of partitioning general γ-diversity into α- and β-components is demonstrated. The computation procedure of taxonomic distances matrix based on the phylogenetic tree of Linnaean systematics is described. Dynamics of indices variability of generic and taxonomic diversity along a longitudinal waterway profile on the example of macrobenthos communities of the middle-size flatland river Sok (inflow of the Saratov water basin is considered. The algorithms of statistical significance control of differences between diversity indices in comparing two or more groups of the habitat based on randomization procedures are described.

  7. Fauna, flora, fowl, and fruit: effects of the Columbian Exchange on the allergic response of New and Old World inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaggio, J E

    1992-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange has been described as "the most important event in human history since the end of the Ice Age." This interchange of many species of fauna, flora, fowl, and fruits resulted in new encounters between New and Old World inhabitants. Prominent among these were manifestations of allergic reactions to many of the new substances. Little imagination is required to reflect on what these substances, added to or detracted from both the New and Old World lifestyles, habits, and diets. The numerous peas, vegetable seeds, and grasses, such as sugarcane, introduced during Columbus' later voyages, made an enormous difference in the lives of New World inhabitants, as did the introduction of the cow and horse, not to mention substances such as coconuts and bananas, that are now intimately associated with the Caribbean and the Bahamas. This article focuses on some the more important exchange substances and emphasizes many forms of anaphylaxis: asthma, food allergy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, serum sickness, and other conditions that developed in both New and Old World inhabitants. To mention only a few examples, the Europeans introduced to the New World potential dangers such as honeybees (anaphylaxis). It also gave the New World the cow and the horse (serum sickness), which became the constant companion of Columbus' Indians and the American cowboy. It gave the Italians their thick red gravy, and the New World its pizza (food allergy). The Caribbean received bananas and coconuts and the New World embraced coffee (caffeine addiction). On the other hand, the exchange also caused Europeans to begin puffing away on tobacco.

  8. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and ancestry of Paquimé inhabitants, Casas Grandes (A.D. 1200-1450).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Arce, Ana Y; Snow, Meradeth H; Kelley, Jane H; Anne Katzenberg, M

    2017-07-01

    The Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200-1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures. This study uses ancient DNA analysis from fourteen samples to estimate genetic affinities of ancient Paquimé inhabitants. DNA was extracted from 14 dental ancient samples from Paquimé. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to obtain mitochondrial control region sequences. Networks, PCoA, and Nei genetic distances were estimated to compare Paquimé haplotypes against available past haplotypes data from Southwestern and Mesoamerican groups. Haplogroups were characterized for 11 of the samples, and the results revealed the presence of four distinct Amerindian mitochondrial lineages: B (n = 5; 45%), A (n = 3; 27%), C (n = 2; 18%) and D (n = 1; 10%). Statistical analysis of the haplotypes, haplogroup frequencies, and Nei genetic distances showed close affinity of Paquimé with Mimbres. Although our results provide strong evidence of genetic affinities between Paquimé and Mimbres, with the majority of haplotypes shared or derived from ancient Southwest populations, the causes of cultural development at Paquimé still remain a question. These preliminary results provide evidence in support of other bioarchaeological studies, which have shown close biological affinities between Paquimé and Mimbres, a Puebloan culture, in the Southwestern US. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Assessing the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome according to NCEP ATP III in Germany: feasibility and quality aspects of a two step approach in 1550 randomly selected primary health care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn describes a cluster of metabolic disorders and is considered a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Although a high prevalence is commonly assumed in Germany data about the degree of its occurrence in the population and in subgroups are still missing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn according to the NCEP ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in persons aged ≥18 years attending a general practitioner in Germany. Here we describe in detail the methods used and the feasibility of determining the MetSyn in a primary health care setting. Research design and methods: The German-wide cross-sectional study was performed during two weeks in October 2005. Blood samples were analyzed in a central laboratory. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed, data on smoking, life style, fasting status, socio-demographic characteristics and core information from non-participants collected. Quality control procedures included telephone-monitoring and random on-site visits. In order to achieve a maximal number of fasting blood samples with a minimal need for follow-up appointments a stepwise approach was developed. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated, the Taylor expansion method used to estimate standard errors needed for calculation of confidence intervals for clustered observations. Results: In total, 1511 randomly selected general practices from 397 out of 438 German cities and administrative districts enrolled 35,869 patients (age range: 18-99, women 61.1%. More than 50,000 blood samples were taken. Fasting blood samples were available for 49% of the participants. Of the participating patients 99.3% returned questionnaires to the GP, only 12% were not filled out completely. The overall prevalence of the MetSyn (NCEP/ATP III 2001 was found to be 19.8%, with men showing higher prevalence rates than women (22

  10. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2: study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Watkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. Methods/Design A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2IV 7-2. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms

  11. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The North American (north of Mexico species of the tenebrionid genus Paratenetus Spinola are reviewed and a key is presented for their identification. Five species are recognized, P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, P. fuscus LeConte, P. punctatus Spinola and two sp. n., P. exutus [type locality: Tabusintac, Nova Scotia] and P. texanus [type locality: Port Isabel, Cameron County, Texas]. Two syn. n. are proposed: P. cribratus Motschulsky, 1868 with P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, 1868 and P. crinitus Fall, 1907 with P. fuscus LeConte, 1850. A lectotype is selected for Paratenetus punctatus Spinola. A type species is designated for Storthephora Mäklin, 1875 (Storthephora denticollis Mäklin, 1875.

  13. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  14. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  15. Protocol for Combined Analysis of FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global Randomized Phase III Trials of Chemotherapy +/- Selective Internal Radiation Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Pradeep S; Moschandreas, Joanna; Gebski, Val; Love, Sharon B; Francis, E Anne; Wasan, Harpreet S; van Hazel, Guy; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-03-28

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are associated with a poor prognosis. The FOXFIRE (an open-label randomized phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and folinic acid +/- interventional radioembolization as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer), SIRFLOX (randomized comparative study of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma), and FOXFIRE-Global (assessment of overall survival of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma in a randomized clinical study) clinical trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining first-line chemotherapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres, also called transarterial radioembolization. The aim of this analysis is to prospectively combine clinical data from 3 trials to allow adequate power to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with SIRT on overall survival. Eligible patients are adults with histologically confirmed CRC and unequivocal evidence of liver metastases which are not treatable by surgical resection or local ablation with curative intent at the time of study entry. Patients may also have limited extrahepatic metastases. Final analysis will take place when all participants have been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Efficacy and safety estimates derived using individual participant data (IPD) from SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE, and FOXFIRE-Global will be pooled using 2-stage prospective meta-analysis. Secondary outcome measures include progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, health-related quality of life, response rate, resection rate, and adverse event profile. The large study population will

  16. Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude, which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory, and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F=3.50, P=0.01, seed size (F=8.31, P<0.01, and seed shape (F=2.62, P=0.04 differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight (P=0.15, seed size (P=0.38, or seed shape (variance (P=0.95 and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F=3.64, P=0.01 and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces.

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases and its awareness among inhabitants of Sokoto metropolis: outcome of a screening program for hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and overt proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusidi, Muhammad Ali; Liman, Hamid Muhammad; Yakubu, Abdulmunin; Isah, Muhammad Dan Asabi; Jega, Ridwan Muhammad; Adamu, Habibullah; Chijioke, Adindu

    2013-09-01

    Developing countries confront double jeopardy of prevalent infectious disease and increasing Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) with imminent projected epidemic proportions. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural to urban migration culminating in emergence of NCD. The impact of these diseases on the lives of people is enormous when measured in terms of outcomes. We initiated a screening program among inhabitants of Sokoto metropolis in an attempt to unravel the prevalence and pattern of NCD. This is a descriptive cross sectional study involving 535 participants who were randomlyselected during World Kidney Day Screening in Sokoto. Health promotion talk was organized for the participants before commencing the screening. We took anthropometric measurements and calculated body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio for all individuals. We also checked blood pressure and blood glucose levels and performed urinalysis for all participants. There were 535 participants including 332 males and 203 females with a mean age of 37 ± 17 years. Overweight, obesity and morbid obesity were found in 12.3%, 6.7% and 0.9% of participants respectively. About 11% had waist/hip ratio greater than 1. The prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension was 8.5% and 30.2% respectively. Elevated random blood glucose levels were found in 6% of participants while 17.9% had at least 1+ of proteinuria in urinalysis. Non-communicable diseases are common in our environment and the level of awareness is low. Regular health education and screening programs are necessary in order to reduce the menace.

  19. Herbicidal activity of pure compound isolated from rhizosphere inhabiting Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Saeed Ullah; Lutfullah, Ghosia; Iqbal, Zafar; Rehman, Irshad Ur; Ahmad, Jamshaid; Khan, Abid Ali

    2017-05-11

    In the quest for bioactive natural products of fungal origin, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from rhizosphere of Mentha piperita using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czapec Yeast Broth (CYB) nutrient media for metabolites production. In total, three different metabolites were purified using HPLC/LCMS and the structures were established using 500 Varian NMR experiments. Further the isolated metabolites in different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) were tested for herbicidal activity using Completely Randomized design (CRD) against the seeds of Silybum marianum and Avena fatua which are major threats to wheat crop in Pakistan. Among the isolated metabolites, one compound was found active against the test weed species whose activity is reported in the present work. The chemical name of the compound is 2-(1, 4-dihydroxybutan-2-yl)-1, 3-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethoxyanthracene-9, 10(4aH, 9aH)-dione with mass of 388. Results showed that all seeds germinated in control treatment; however, with the metabolite treated, the growth was retarded to different levels in all parts of the weeds. At a dose of 1000 μg/mL of the pure compound, 100% seeds of S. marianum and 60% seeds of A. fatua were inhibited. Interestingly, the pure compound exhibited less inhibition of 10% towards the seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum).

  20. Risky encounters with doctors? Medical diversity and health-related strategies of the inhabitants of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkala-Gawęcka, Danuta

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces the notion of 'risky encounters', referring to the way in which contacts with doctors are commonly perceived by the inhabitants of Bishkek, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. The author's research conducted between 2011 and 2013 revealed that most people were extremely critical of biomedical personnel, despite positive assessments of healthcare reforms expressed by experts. Owing to the prevailing distrust of doctors, their interventions are often considered risky to one's health, which strongly influences people's health-related strategies in the context of medical diversity. This perception of risk is deeply embedded in feelings of uncertainty and anxiety, which should be viewed from the more general perspective of the political, economic and social uncertainties resulting from the difficulties of the period of post-Soviet transformation. It is evident that medical diversity in Bishkek provides people in need with many non-biomedical treatment options, and a distrust of doctors significantly contributes to the popularity of complementary medicine. Economic constraints and local concepts of health, illness and efficacy are among the many other factors that play a role in therapeutic choices. However, the current paper focuses on risk, uncertainty and trust, as emotions that are central to an understanding of the health-related strategies and tactics used by the inhabitants of present-day Bishkek.

  1. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  3. Nutritional physiology of a rock-inhabiting, model microcolonial fungus from an ancestral lineage of the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Corrado; Wong, Helen Y; Pannenbecker, Annette; Broughton, William J; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P; Gueidan, Cécile; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-07-01

    Rock-inhabiting black fungi [also microcolonial or meristematic fungi (MCF)] are a phylogenetically diverse group of melanised ascomycetes with distinctive morphological features that confer extensive stress tolerance and permit survival in hostile environments. The MCF strain A95 Knufia petricola (syn. Sarcinomyces petricola) belongs to an ancestral lineage of the order Chaetothyriales (class Eurotiomycetes). K. petricola strain A95 is a rock-inhabiting MCF and its growth requirements were studied using the 96-well plate-based Biolog System under ∼1070 different conditions (osmotic stress, pH growth optima, growth factor requirements and nutrient catabolism). A95 is an osmotolerant, oligotrophic MCF that grows best around pH 5. Remarkably, A95 shows metabolic activity in the absence of added nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. Correlations could be drawn between the known nutrient requirements of A95 and what probably is available in sub-aerial systems (rock and other material surfaces). Detailed knowledge of A95's metabolic requirements allowed formulation of a synthetic medium that supports strong fungal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  6. Adaptive response of blood lymphocytes of inhabitants residing in high background radiation areas of ramsar- micronuclei, apoptosis and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shahla; Taghavi-Dehaghani, Mahnaz; Gharaati, Mohammad R; Masoomi, Reza; Ghiassi-Nejad, Mehdi

    2006-11-01

    The hot springs in certain areas of Ramsar contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The effects of natural radiation on the inhabitants of these areas and the inhabitant's radiosensitivity or adaptive responses were studied. One group of volunteers from areas with high natural background radiation and another group from areas with normal background radiation were chosen as the case and control group respectively. The frequency of micronuclei, apoptosis, and DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured following gamma irradiation (4 Gy). The incidence of micronuclei in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group while their frequency of apoptosis was higher (P < 0.05). However, the rates of induced DNA damage and repair were significantly higher in the case group (P < 0.05). Smaller number of micronuclei and higher levels of apoptosis in the case group could be the result of higher resistance to radiation stress and a more rigorous checkpoint at cell division. However, regarding the alkaline labile sites, the individuals in the case group are more sensitive and susceptible to DNA damage. The results of micronuclei, apoptosis and repair studies suggest that an adaptive response might be induced in people residing in areas with high background radiation.

  7. Community Structure and Function of High-temperature Chlorophototrophic Microbial Mats Inhabiting Diverse Geothermal Environments

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    William P. Inskeep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Six phototrophic microbial mat communities from different geothermal springs (YNP were studied using metagenome sequencing and geochemical analyses. The primary goals of this work were to determine differences in community composition of high-temperature phototrophic mats distributed across the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem, and to identify metabolic attributes of predominant organisms present in these communities that may correlate with environmental attributes important in niche differentiation. Random shotgun metagenome sequences from six phototrophic communities (average~ 53 Mbp/site were subjected to multiple taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional analyses. All methods, including G+C content distribution, MEGAN analyses and oligonucleotide frequency-based clustering, provided strong support for the dominant community members present in each site. Cyanobacteria were only observed in non-sulfidic sites; de novo assemblies were obtained for Synechococcus-like populations at Chocolate Pots (CP_7 and Fischerella-like populations at White Creek (WC_6. Chloroflexi-like sequences (esp. Roseiflexus and/or Chloroflexus spp. were observed in all six samples and contained genes involved in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis and the 3-hydroxypropionate carbon fixation pathway. Other major sequence assemblies were obtained for a Chlorobiales population from CP_7 (proposed family Thermochlorobacteriaceae, and an anoxygenic, sulfur-oxidizing Thermochromatium-like (Gamma-proteobacteria population from Bath Lake Vista Annex (BLVA_20. Additional sequence coverage is necessary to establish more complete assemblies of other novel bacteria in these sites (e.g., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes; however, current assemblies suggested that several of these organisms play important roles in heterotrophic and fermentative metabolisms. Definitive linkages were established between several of the dominant phylotypes present in these habitats and important functional

  8. Community Structure and Function of High-Temperature Chlorophototrophic Microbial Mats Inhabiting Diverse Geothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Christian G.; Inskeep, William P.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Jay, Zackary J.; Rusch, Douglas B.;  Tringe, Susannah G.; Niki Parenteau, M.; Ward, David M.; Boomer, Sarah M.; Bryant, Donald A.;  Miller, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Six phototrophic microbial mat communities from different geothermal springs (YNP) were studied using metagenome sequencing and geochemical analyses. The primary goals of this work were to determine differences in community composition of high-temperature phototrophic mats distributed across the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem, and to identify metabolic attributes of predominant organisms present in these communities that may correlate with environmental attributes important in niche differentiation. Random shotgun metagenome sequences from six phototrophic communities (average ∼53 Mbp/site) were subjected to multiple taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional analyses. All methods, including G + C content distribution, MEGAN analyses, and oligonucleotide frequency-based clustering, provided strong support for the dominant community members present in each site. Cyanobacteria were only observed in non-sulfidic sites; de novo assemblies were obtained for Synechococcus-like populations at Chocolate Pots (CP_7) and Fischerella-like populations at White Creek (WC_6). Chloroflexi-like sequences (esp. Roseiflexus and/or Chloroflexus spp.) were observed in all six samples and contained genes involved in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis and the 3-hydroxypropionate carbon fixation pathway. Other major sequence assemblies were obtained for a Chlorobiales population from CP_7 (proposed family Thermochlorobacteriaceae), and an anoxygenic, sulfur-oxidizing Thermochromatium-like (Gamma-proteobacteria) population from Bath Lake Vista Annex (BLVA_20). Additional sequence coverage is necessary to establish more complete assemblies of other novel bacteria in these sites (e.g., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes); however, current assemblies suggested that several of these organisms play important roles in heterotrophic and fermentative metabolisms. Definitive linkages were established between several of the dominant phylotypes present in these habitats and important functional

  9. THE LIFE QUALITY OF BUYNAKSK CITY INHABITANTS, REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN (POPULATION STUDY

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied the life quality indicators of the population in Buynaksk city, Dagestan, in a random representative sample of 315 people (155 women and 160 men aged between 18 and 76 years. Respondents were divided into 3 age groups (up to 35 years, 35-50 years and 50 years and older.Methods. The study was performed using a common health survey – Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (SF-36 in accordance with the requirements of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project (IQOLA.Results. We conducted a comparative analysis of age dynamics of population quality of life, as well as the male and female population of the study sample. The highest quality of life indicators are found on the scales of social (SF and physical functioning (PF – 83.4 and 82.9 points, respectively, the lowest – on the scale of general health (GH– 58.6. In general, with aging, there is a decrease of life quality among both male and female population. The most marked age-related changes are observed on the scale of role-physical functioning (RF and physical functioning (PF – 54.2 and 48.0% respectively and the least marked on the scale of mental health – 4.4%. The value of the integral index of quality of life in population-based study in Buynaksk city, Republic of Dagestan was 583.4.Conclusion. The research findings might be used in planning, developing and evaluating the effectiveness of various reforms, health and socio-economic programs being implemented in the region as well as to improve the quality of life and well-being. 

  10. Environmental tuning of an insect ensemble: the tenebrionid beetles inhabiting a Mediterranean coastal dune zonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Santoro, Riccardo; Maurizi, Emanuela; Acosta, Alicia T R; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated insect ensembles, i.e. phylogenetically bounded groups of species that use a similar set of resources within a community. The zonation of dune vegetation makes these ecosystems ideal for the study of insect ensembles in a short space. In this study, we investigated if the tenebrionid beetles forming an ensemble on a dune zonation showed variations in community organization (relative abundances and species diversity) in different but spatially associated biotopes defined by different plant communities. Three biotopes (corresponding to European Commission habitat 2110, 2120 and 2230) of a well-preserved Mediterranean dune were sampled using square plots of 2×2 m at three places. To investigate if there was some association between species and habitat we applied a χ(2) test. Variations in community structure parameters were investigated using Shannon index. The three biotopes host tenebrionid communities with similar species composition and overall abundances, confirming that they form a single ensemble. However, tenebrionid species are differently associated with different biotopes along the zonation, with some species occurring with different proportions among the biotopes. A local selection process can be postulated as a mechanism responsible for these differences. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Drought Influence over Radial Growth of Mexican Conifers Inhabiting Mesic and Xeric Sites

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    Marín Pompa-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major constraint of forest productivity and tree growth across diverse habitat types. In this study, we investigated the drought responses of four conifer species growing within two locations of differing elevation and climatic conditions in northern Mexico. Two species were selected at a mesic site (Cupressus lusitanica Mill., Abies durangensis Martínez and the other two species were sampled at a xeric site (Pinus engelmannii Carr., Pinus cembroides Zucc.. Using a dendrochronological approach, we correlated the radial-growth series of each species and the climatic variables. All study species positively responded to wet-cool conditions during winter and spring. Despite the close proximity of species at a mesic site, A. durangensis had high responsiveness to hydroclimatic variability, but C. lusitanica was not responsive. At the xeric site, P. engelmannii and P. cembroides were very responsive to drought severity, differentiated only by the longer time scale of the response to accumulated drought of P. engelmannii. The responsiveness to hydroclimate and drought of these tree species seems to be modulated by site conditions, or by the functional features of each species that are still little explored. These findings indicate that differentiating between mesic and xeric habitats is a too coarse approach in diverse forests with a high topographic heterogeneity.

  12. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of cities, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some species. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. A statistically significant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exacerbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according field.

  13. Population genetic structure in six sympatric and widespread aquatic plants inhabiting diverse lake environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian-Jin; Mei, Fang-Fang; Wang, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Many aquatic plant species are distributed over large areas and diverse environments with populations interconnected by abiotic and biotic mediators. Here, we examined differences and similarities in the population genetic structure of six sympatric and widespread aquatic plant species. We sampled the aquatic species from six Chinese lakes found on plateaus, plains, and different river systems and analyzed them using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Samples originating from each lake tended to cluster together. Of the six species, only Nymphoides peltata and Myriophyllum spicatum could be divided into plateau and plain groups, once Taihu Lake individuals were excluded. Genetic similarities between populations connected by the Yangtze River were not consistently higher than unconnected populations. Populations from Taihu Lake and/or Weishanhu Lake were distant from other lake populations for all species except Potamogeton lucens . The Taihu and Weishanhu populations clustered for Ceratophyllum demersum and Typha latifolia . Hydrophilous C. demersum had the lowest gene flow ( Nm  = 0.913), whereas the entomophilous Hydrocharis dubia ( Nm  = 2.084) and N. peltata ( Nm  = 2.204) had the highest gene flow. The genetic relationships among distant populations of aquatic plants reflect the comprehensive effects of environmental selection pressure and biotic and abiotic connectivity. Differences in environmental factors between plateau and plain lakes and long distance hydrochory have limited importance on aquatic plant genetic structures. Among multiple evolutionary forces, gene flow mediated by birds may play the most important role in the formation of genetic patterns in the six species examined. For example, the close genetic relationship between Taihu Lake and Weishanhu Lake populations, each in different river systems and with different climates, may be related to the migration routes of birds. Differences in gene flow among the six aquatic plants

  14. Comparison of agomelatine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Lin; Lu, Wan-Chen; Wang, Ying-Yue; Hu, Gwo-Chi; Lu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Wei-Ying; Hsu, Chien-Chi

    2014-07-01

    Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with unique melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) and 1B ( MTNR1B) agonism and serotonergic receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HT-2C) antagonism. Several studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have confirmed the superior efficacy and safety of agomelatine in comparison with established treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This meta-analysis comprehensively shows the efficacy, acceptability, and safety of agomelatine in comparison with SSRIs and SNRIs used as antidepressants in MDD. Comprehensive electronic database searches were performed to identify reports of head-to-head randomized controlled trials that have compared agomelatine with SSRIs or SNRIs in terms of efficacy/effectiveness in treating MDD. Response and remission rates at both acute (6-12 weeks) and follow-up (24 weeks) phases, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale response and remission rates, changes in depression scale scores, improvements in subjective sleep, dropout rates, and side effect rates were extracted and analysed. The meta-analysis included six head-to-head trials involving 1871 patients. In the acute phase, agomelatine had higher response rates (relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.15) compared to SSRIs and SNRIs. In the remission analysis, only acute remission rates (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24) significantly differed. The action of agomelatine was superior on the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire-Quality of Sleep score (mean difference 4.05, 95% CI 0.61-7.49). Discontinuation due to inefficacy did not differ between agomelatine and SSRIs/SNRIs (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42-1.28). Compared to SSRIs and SNRIs, however, agomelatine revealed a lower rate of discontinuation due to side effects (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.57). Agomelatine has significantly higher efficacy and potential acceptability compared to SSRIs and

  15. A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or both combined for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: treatment results through 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Franske J; Timmerman, Marieke E; Mersch, Peter Paul A; van Hout, Wiljo J P J; Visser, Sako; van Dyck, Richard; den Boer, Johan A

    2010-05-01

    To establish the long-term effectiveness of 3 treatments for DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT + SSRI). As a secondary objective, the relationship between treatment outcome and 7 predictor variables was investigated. Patients were enrolled between April 2001 and September 2003 and were randomly assigned to treatment. Academic and nonacademic clinical sites participated. Each treatment modality lasted 1 year. Pharmacotherapists were free to choose between 5 SSRIs currently marketed in The Netherlands. Outcome was assessed after 9 months of treatment (posttest 1), after discontinuation of treatment (posttest 2), and 6 and 12 months after treatment discontinuation (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2). In the sample (N = 150), 48% did not suffer from agoraphobia or suffered from only mild agoraphobia, while 52% suffered from moderate or severe agoraphobia. Patients in each treatment group improved significantly from pretest to posttest 1 on the primary outcome measures of level of anxiety (P < .001), degree of coping (P < .001), and remitter status (P < .001), as well as on the secondary outcome measures of depressive symptomatology (P < .001), and from pretest to posttest 2 for health-related quality of life (P < .001). Gains were preserved from posttest 2 throughout the follow-up period. Some superiority of CBT + SSRI and SSRI as compared with CBT was observed at posttest 1. However, at both follow-ups, differences between treatment modalities proved nonsignificant. Client satisfaction appeared to be high at treatment endpoint, while patients receiving CBT + SSRI appeared slightly (P < .05) more satisfied than those receiving CBT only. No fall-off in gains was observed for either treatment modality after treatment discontinuation. SSRIs were associated with adverse events. Gains produced by CBT were slower to emerge than

  16. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-04-01

    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  17. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  18. [MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE LIVER IN COMMON VOLES INHABITING THE TERRITORY OF BORODINO COAL DEPOSITS AND RECULTIVATION AREAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkarenko, Ye A; Savchenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphological changes of liver in common voles (Microtus arvalis Pallas) inhabiting the territories of brown coal deposition in Borodino coal opencast (Krasnoyarsk region) and on reclaimed dumps 10 and 20 years after its production. Trapping of the voles (10 animals in each group) living under natural conditions on each territory, was conducted for 30 days. Histological examination of the liver in all animals demonstrated degenerative changes and necrosis of hepatocytes, expressed to a various degree. Morphometric study has shown that the greatest changes in the structure of hepatic stroma and parenchyma took place in voles that lived in the dumps of coal, reclaimed 10 years before. It was found that in the animals of this group, the thickness of hepatocyte plates was increased 1.3 times, while the specific volume of necrotic hepatocytes was twice as much as this parameter in the animals that lived on intact territory.

  19. Mercury concentrations in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Titcomb, Elizabeth Murdoch; Fair, Patricia A; Stavros, Hui-Chen W; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2015-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) have tissue mercury concentrations among the highest reported worldwide. Analysis of total mercury (THg) concentrations in blood collected between 2003 and 2012 showed a significant linear decrease over time (p=0.04). Significant differences in the spatial distribution of THg in resident IRL dolphins were also observed with a general gradient in concentration from north to south. Evaluation of local biogeochemistry and accumulation of mercury in prey species is needed to better understand factors influencing the distribution of Hg in the apex predator. Analyses of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to THg in this sentinel species may have implications for both ecosystem and public health in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  1. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus......Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...

  2. Long-term immune and cytogenetic effects of high level natural radiation on Ramsar inhabitants in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Zakeri, F; Assaei, R Gh; Kariminia, A

    2004-01-01

    Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, overlooking the Caspian Sea, has some high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) as well as over 50 hot springs with low and high radium contents used as spas by the public and vacationers. The average whole body dose received by population in these areas is about 5 times higher than the normal background radiation level. Studies on the long-term effects of high level natural radioactivity on some immunological and cytogenetical parameters, in the Ramsar inhabitants are summarized in this paper. Our results showed a significant increase of CD69 expression on TCD4+ stimulated cells (P < 0.004) and a significant increase of total serum IgE (P < 0.05), and also higher incidence of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations in the HLNRA group compared to the control group with normal background radiation (P < 0.05).Other humoral immune parameters, did not show significant differences between the two groups.

  3. Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao KS

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables.

  4. FAT-FREE MASS INDEX AND FAT MASS INDEX OF INHABITANTS OF THE CITY OF BIALA PODLASKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiluk Agnieszka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A steady and considerable increase in the incidence of overweight and obesity is observed in the majority of developed countries. It affects every age group, regardless of sex and race. One of the causes of this negative trend, which has already reached an epidemic scale, is negative changes in lifestyle. We spend increasingly more time in front of a TV or a computer screen at the expense of other activities requiring energy expenditure. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in body components of adult inhabitants of Biala Podlaska and determine the reference values for FFMI and FMI. Materials and method: The examined 668 women and 674 men (20 years old and older inhabitants of Biala Podlaska. Values of somatic traits were evaluated on the basis of anthropometric measurements. Tissue composition was evaluated with the bioelectrical impedance method. Results: The reference values of FMI (25th-75th centile in women ranged from 7.15 kg/m 2 to 12.93 kg/m 2, whereas in men from 4.94 kg/m 2 to 9.43 kg/m 2. In women the reference values FFMI ranged from 15.29 kg/m 2 to17.28 kg/m 2 and were similar in all calendar age groups. The reference values for all men ranged between 18.76 kg/m 2 and 22.01 kg/m 2 and were the lowest in the oldest category of age. Conclusions: The data presented in the following study might be useful for physicians and nutritionists as control values.

  5. Rarity of bacterial and viral meningitis in areas of Western Greece with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michael; Diamantopoulos, Stavros; Makrakis, Konstantinos; Ellina, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Agelos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of childhood meningitis in regions with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants (rural regions) and regions with more than 2,000 inhabitants (urban regions) in the prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during 1991-2005. Included were all 555 children hospitalized for meningitis. The criteria for bacterial meningitis were (i) positive blood/cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) culture, Gram stain, or latex agglutination and/or (ii) increased beta-glucuronidase in CSF. In case of suspected bacterial meningitis, the following findings were considered: compatible clinical and laboratory findings, and whether or not a cure was achieved with antibiotic treatment and finally resulted in negative cultures. In cases of suspected viral meningitis, compatible clinical and laboratory findings were considered, together with observation of a cure without antibiotic treatment. Only 28 of 555 meningitis patients were from rural regions. The incidence per 10,000 children in rural and urban regions, respectively, was as follows: meningitis, 1.13 and 8.99; bacterial meningitis, 0.16 and 2.40; suspected bacterial meningitis, 0.52 and 3.00; and viral meningitis, 0.44 and 3.58. The incidence ratio for bacterial, suspected bacterial, and viral meningitis in urban versus rural regions was 14.85, 5.72, and 8.10, respectively. Only 2 of the 79 cases with a confirmed causative pathogen came from rural regions. In conclusion, compared to those living in urban regions, children living in rural regions are relatively spared from bacterial and viral meningitis.

  6. Life inhabits rocks: clues to rock erosion from electron microscopy of pisolite at a UNESCO heritage site in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Lindenmayer, Zara Gerhardt; Shirotori, Tatsuya; Vargas, Juliana Missiaggia; Nowatzki, Carlos Henrique; Coelho, Osmar Wöhl

    2009-02-01

    Rock erosion is attracting increasing attention from scientists worldwide. The area encompassing the Saint John Baptist Church, Saint John Village, XVII century ruins in Rio Grande do Sul at the UNESCO World Heritage Site is considered a Brazilian treasure. However, the risk of damage to this site from rock erosion has recently increased tremendously. Generally, the rocky construction such as fence, wall and tomb stone, seems strong but is actually extremely sensitive to erosion caused by lichens, fungi, molds and bacteria. Because of biological erosion and massive exposure, the fresh rock is dominated by clays and microorganisms. Water-adsorbing clays and microorganisms influence the mechanisms of the rock erosion. In this study, the formation of bio-clay-minerals in porous structure of pisolite was demonstrated using electron microscopy. Bacterial clay mineralization can deform the rock structure and even produce organic materials. Biological activity could easily corrode rocky constructions around the Saint John Baptist Church site. The rocks are pisolitic laterites possibly formed in Tertiary over the Kretaceous Parana flood Basalts. Samples inhabited by lichens and fungi were collected from a collapsed wall in the ancient church. The zonal reddish-brown pisolites are 4 mm in diameter in a matrix of clays associated with porous and empty spaces. Elemental distribution maps from X-ray fluorescence microscopy show iron-rich spherules of pisolite, whereas the matrix is composed of Al, Si, Mn, and Sr; thus producing goethite and kaolinite. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that various types of bacteria inhabit the spherule and are associated with clay minerals and graphite. STEM elemental analysis confirmed the bio-clay-mineralization with Al, Si, S, and Fe, around bacterial cells. The results presented here will improve our understanding of nm-scale bio-mineralization and bio-erosion in lateritic rocks.

  7. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  8. Distribution, diet, and energetic condition of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Zaleski, Marilyn F.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2016-10-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are commercially and ecologically important species in Alaska waters. Little is known about their ecology after transitioning from larvae to free swimming fish until settlement to nursery habitats in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Differences in the distribution, diet, body size, and energetic status between the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska were investigated during summer months to better understand regional and interspecific differences in life history and ecology. The composition of zooplankton prey in the diets of walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting shelf waters was more varied relative to those inhabiting the slope and basin. Body condition and total energy content of Pacific cod was greater than walleye pollock, however total energy content increased with length at a similar rate for both species. Walleye pollock inhabiting continental slope waters had higher energy stores relative to those inhabiting the continental shelf and basin, indicating an energetic advantage for individuals remaining off the shelf during summer months or potentially the advection of fish with higher energy reserves off of the shelf. Previous studies have documented the importance of energy stores for surviving winter and future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms influencing lipid storage and somatic growth for walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska.

  9. Selfish spermatogonial selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Jasmine; Maher, Geoffrey J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply...

  10. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  11. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  12. The freshwater crab, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae, as perceived by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are key elements of the aquatic biota of streams, rivers, lakes, and dams because of their ecological and economic importance. Considering that Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 is an important source of food for the human settlements that inhabit the places of its occurrence, this article records, for the first time, an ethnocarcinological study carried out with the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, Bahia State. Data were obtained from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews using the usual techniques of ethnographical survey. Sixteen women and eleven men were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 25 to 86 years old. The results showed that the ethnocarcinological knowledge about T. fluviatilis is relatively consistent with academic knowledge. Ethnozoological studies that stress the cultural significance of freshwater crustaceans are very important, since they would represent a great contribution to the debate on biodiversity conservation in the environments these animals inhabit.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  14. Behavioural adaptations to moisture as an environmental constraint in a nocturnal burrow-inhabiting Kalahari detritivore Parastizopus armaticeps Peringuey (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A.E. Rasa

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal desert detritivore Parastiz.opus armaticeps shows differences in surface activity patterns and burrow fidelity depending on surface humidity. After rain approximately half of the beetle population, independent of sex, is highly vagile and disperses over long distances. During drought, beetles are more sedentary and show higher burrow fidelity. They also inhabit burrows that are longer and deeper than non-inhabited ones, such burrows being relatively scarce. Burrow fidelity and the adoption of a more sedentary habit during drought are considered strategies to avoid the risks of not locating a suitable burrow before sunrise and subsequent desiccation in shallow burrows.

  15. The waaL gene mutation compromised the inhabitation of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 in the mosquito gut environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dong; Jiang, Jinjin; Yu, Wanqin; Kukutla, Phanidhar; Uentillie, Alejandro; Xu, Jiannong

    2015-08-27

    The mosquito gut harbors a variety of bacteria that are dynamically associated with mosquitoes in various contexts. However, little is known about bacterial factors that affect bacterial inhabitation in the gut microbial community. Enterobacter sp. Ag1 is a predominant Gram negative bacterium in the mosquito midgut. In a mutant library that was generated using transposon Tn5-mediated mutagenesis, a mutant was identified, in which the gene waaL was disrupted by the Tn5 insertion. The waaL encodes O antigen ligase, which is required for the attachment of O antigen to the outer core oligosaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The waaL(-) mutation caused the O antigen repeat missing in the LPS. The normal LPS structure was restored when the mutant was complemented with a plasmid containing waaL gene. The waaL(-) mutation did not affect bacterial proliferation in LB culture, the mutant cells grew at a rate the same as the wildtype (wt) cells. However, when waaL(-) strain were co-cultured with the wt strain or complemented strain, the mutant cells proliferated with a slower rate, indicating that the mutants were less competitive than wt cells in a community setting. Similarly, in a co-feeding assay, when fluorescently tagged wt strain and waaL(-) strain were orally co-introduced into the gut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, the mutant cells were less prevalent in both sugar-fed and blood-fed guts. The data suggest that the mutation compromised the bacterial inhabitation in the gut community. Besides, the mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress, demonstrated by lower survival rate upon exposure to 20 mM H₂O₂. Lack of the O antigen structure in LPS of Enterobacter compromised the effective growth in co-culture and co-feeding assays. In addition, O-antigen was involved in protection against oxidative stress. The findings suggest that intact LPS is crucial for the bacteria to steadily stay in the gut microbial community.

  16. [A survey on blood lipid levels among newborns and healthy inhabitants in urban Shanghai from 1997 to 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Zhou, T; Han, Q; Chen, B; Zhoo, Z; Ye, W

    2001-05-10

    To analyze the blood lipid levels among inhabitants of different ages in urban Shanghai by the end of 1990 and compare the results with those in 1970 s and 1980 s. Venous blood samples were collected from 3647 persons undergoing annual health examination, including workers and staff members, employees, functionaries, and students of factories, governmental organizations, institutions, enterprises, and schools. Umbilical blood samples were collected from 88 newborns. Serum TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C were determined. 3647 blood samples were collected in total. It is found that: (1) The levels of blood lipids increased along with the age. The levels of TC and LDL-C among females over their fifty were higher that those among the males in the same age groups. The level of TG among females over fifty was similar to that among the males in the same age groups. The levels of LDL-C were higher in families in all of the age groups than those in the males of the same ages. (2) In comparison to those in 1970 s the levels of TC and TG in 1990 s were significantly higher by 6.79% - 17.69% and 21.95% - 45.53% respectively, and the level of HDL-C decreased by 8.02% - 29.19%. (3) The percentage of persons over forty with their TC levels over the upper normal limit was much larger in 1990 s than in 1970 s (for TC 11.57% vs. 4.40% among males and 16.02% vs. 5.40% among females, for TG 21.83% vs. 5.20% among males and 13.32% vs. 5.70% among females). and (4) The percentage of persons with their TC/HDL-C >or= 4 and TG >or= 1.70 mmol/L was much larger among persons over forty than among persons under forty (20.74% vs. 10.99% among males and 13.32% vs. 2.05% among females). The mean serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels increased and the HDL-C level decreased significantly among healthy inhabitants in urban Shanghai in 1990 s. Along with the rise of living standards of people, their mean lipid level increases too. Nutrition education is necessary.

  17. Biokinetics of radiocesium depuration in marine fish inhabiting the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Aono, Tatsuo; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP) accident contaminated the fish inhabiting the port of 1FNPP. Radiocesium concentrations in some fishes, especially rockfish, have still remained at elevated levels, while concentrations in olive flounder have decreased in 2015 to the level which is close to the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products (0.1 kBq kg-wet-1). In this study a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct radiocesium levels in olive flounder residing around the port area. As a result, the observed 137Cs concentrations in olive flounder collected from the port could be explained by the simulated values in the fish, using the seawater level records at the port entrance. The reconstructed maximum 134+137Cs concentration in olive flounder inhabiting the port area was 72 kB kg-wet-1 in July 2011 and the ecological half-life (EHL) was estimated as being 180 days during the period of 2014-2015. Short term simulation which assumed that the coastal water fish swam into the port during 1 month, demonstrated that the radiocesium level in the olive flounder may become equivalent to the depurated level in the fish which were initially contaminated. This result indicated that the increase of radiocesium levels in wandering fish is unlikely to change total radiocesium concentrations in the olive flounder. In this sense, the radiocesium levels in the olive flounder of the port area can be interpreted as being convergent in 2015, regardless of the differences in their contamination histories. On the other hand, the higher 137Cs concentrations in fat greenling, compared to the olive flounder, can be attributed to a history of exposure to the contaminated seawater and food at the inner area of the port, such as the shallow draft quay and seawall area. As a result of the reconstructed initial higher radiocesium concentration, constrained by exposure history at the inner area of the port

  18. Inhabit the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Reflects on how student affairs professionals can help students explore the unfamiliar space between knowing and doing. Discusses the role of student development educators in helping students go from knowing something to being able to use that knowledge to inform their own attitudes and behaviors. (GCP)

  19. Association of cognitive performance with the physical activity and body mass index in middle-aged and older rural inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojko, D; Pałys, W; Czajkowska, A; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K; Łukasik, S; Górna, K; Sobieska, M; Gajewska, E; Suwalska, A

    2014-01-01

    Last few decades have witnessed rapid ageing of the population. The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is significantly higher in people aged 60 and over than in younger. The aim of the study was the assessment of the putative associations between physical activity and cognitive functioning in elderly inhabitants of a rural area. The participants underwent physical assessment, physical activity, cognitive functions, depression were assessed. Highly active participants had better results in tests assessing psychomotor speed and in measuring attention and its flexibility comparing to groups of medium and low physical activity. Active people made fewer errors in the test measuring visual memory and new learning, and had significantly better results in the spatial-recognition memory test. Persons with symptoms of depression performed worse in visuospatial memory and working memory tests. Associations between physical activity and cognitive test results as well as association between body mass index and blood pressure and cognitive performance were observed. The results of the study suggest an association between higher physical activity and better cognitive functioning in the field of working memory and visual and spatial-recognition, attention and attention flexibility. Symptoms of depression, hypertension and increased BMI may adversely affect cognitive performance in elderly.

  20. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dolz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  1. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  2. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.; Kern, J.W.; Strickland, M.D.; McDonald, L.L. (Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)); Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)); Hoffman, D.J. (Geological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition > 50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows and American robins were lower than in reference areas; however, differences were not statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area ([bar x] = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas. Study results indicate that 43% of the song sparrows and 83% of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among inhabitants in Java Island, Indonesia, with a small pig population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Eiji; Sakai, Yohei; Kitai, Yoko; Yamanaka, Atsushi

    2009-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is maintained through a transmission cycle between amplifier swine and vector mosquitoes in a peridomestic environment. Thus, studies on natural JEV activities in an environment with a small size of pig population have been limited. Here, we surveyed antibodies against JEV in inhabitants of Jakarta and Surabaya located in Java Island (Indonesia), which has a small swine population. Overall, 2.2% of 1,211 sera collected in Jakarta and 1.8% of 1,751 sera collected in Surabaya had neutralizing antibody titers of >or= 1:160 (90% plaque reduction). All the samples with titers of >or= 1:160 against JEV were also examined for neutralizing antibodies against each of four dengue viruses to confirm that JEV antibody prevalences obtained in the present survey were not attributable to serologic cross-reactivities among flaviviruses distributed in Java. These results indicated that people in Java Island are exposed to natural JEV infections despite a small swine population.

  4. The molluscan assemblages inhabiting the leaves and rhizomes of a deep water Posidonia oceanica settlement in the central Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo G. Albano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan assemblages inhabiting the leaf and rhizome layers of Posidonia oceanica were studied in a deep water (–24/26 m settlement of a highly heterogeneous substratum on an off-shore reef in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. This is one of the few works dealing with the rhizome layer and with Posidonia oceanica that has settled on hard substrata. The leaf assemblage only had a few species, less than other assemblages at a comparable depth in the same basin. This poorness may be due to the depth, but it may also be due to the high fragmentation of the meadow. However, the high percentage of carnivores is consistent with previous observations in deep water meadows. The rhizome assemblage is highly diverse both in terms of species and feeding guilds, which could be explained by the higher affinity for low light conditions of most molluscs and the greater habitat heterogeneity. The marked differences in the two taxocoenoses and the high diversification of the rhizome assemblage evidence that they should be included in studies on the potential diversity of Posidonia oceanica meadows. Failure to consider this layer seriously affects any evaluation of the biodiversity of this habitat, which is of great conservation interest.

  5. Trichosporon xylopini sp. nov., a hemicellulose-degrading yeast isolated from the wood-inhabiting beetle Xylopinus saperdioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjari, Pushpa; Suh, Sung-Oui; Lee, Ching-Fu; Zhou, Jianlong J

    2011-10-01

    Four arthroconidium-producing yeasts were isolated from the gut of wood-inhabiting tenebrionid and passalid beetles. The rRNA genes of these yeast strains were sequenced, compared and analysed. The sequence results and other taxonomic characterizations placed two of the strains into Trichosporon porosum, and the remaining strains, EH024(T) and EH026 which were isolated from Xylopinus saperdioides (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), into a novel species of the genus Trichosporon in the Porosum clade. Strain EN6S23 was independently isolated from forest soil in Taiwan and was identified as the same novel species based on identical sequences in the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and similar physiological characteristics to those of strains EH024(T) and EH026. The three strains can assimilate cellulose and xylan as sole carbon source, and are clearly distinguished from their closest taxon, T. porosum, by 14 nt differences in the ITS and D1/D2 region. These strains did not reproduce sexually under the laboratory conditions tested. The novel species is proposed as Trichosporon xylopini sp. nov. (type strain EH024(T)  = ATCC MYA-4670(T)  = CBS 11841(T)).

  6. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Teuber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  7. Is there an association between food patterns and life satisfaction among Norway's inhabitants ages 65 years and older?

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Beate; Canhão, Helena; Espnes, Geir A; Ferreira Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gregorio, Maria João; Nguyen, Camilla; Sousa, Rute; Grønning, Kjersti

    2017-03-01

    The lack of information regarding older adults' health and lifestyles makes it difficult to design suitable interventions for people at risk of developing unhealth lifestyles. Therefore, there is a need to increase knowledge about older adults' food patterns and quality of life. Our aim was to determine associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction in Norwegian inhabitants ages 65+. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a large, population-based cohort study that includes data for 125 000 Norwegian participants. The cohort used for this study is wave three of the study, consisting of 11 619 participants age 65 and over. Cluster analysis was used to categorize the participants based on similarities in food consumption; two clusters were identified based on similarities regarding food consumption among participants. Significant differences between the clusters were found, as participants in the healthy food-patterns cluster had higher life satisfaction and lower anxiety and depression than those in the unhealthy food-patterns cluster. The associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction among older adults show the need for increased focus on interactions among food patterns, food consumption, and life satisfaction among the elderly in order to explore how society can influence these patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor spraying with the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin: effects on spraymen and inhabitants of sprayed houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, A

    1991-01-01

    In March 1990 a study was carried out in the village of Kicheba, United Republic of Tanzania, in which the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was sprayed on all the internal surfaces of houses and other shelters at a coverage of about 25 mg of active ingredient per m2. Every day for 6 days, 12 spraymen and 3 squad-leaders were interviewed about symptoms of overexposure to the insecticide. Each sprayman used up to 62 g of lambda-cyhalothrin over 2.7-5.1 hours every day. All the spraymen complained at least once of symptoms that were related to exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, the commonest being itching and burning of the face, and nose or throat irritation frequently accompanied by sneezing or coughing. Facial symptoms occurred on non-protected areas only. The symptoms were experienced at various times after the beginning of exposure and disappeared before the following morning. The number of subjects affected and the duration of their facial symptoms were proportional to the amount of compound sprayed. A sample of individuals was interviewed 1 day and 5-6 days after their houses had been sprayed. One woman, who entered her house 30 minutes after the end of spraying, complained of periorbicular itching, but this lasted only a few minutes. No other significant, insecticide-related adverse effect was reported by the inhabitants of the sprayed houses.

  9. The two-headed snake in the view of the inhabitants of Itatiaia village, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barbosa Mateus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaenids are fossorial Squamate reptiles popularly known as two-headed snakes. They are animals poorly known in urban areas, although being present in the daily life of the rural population. Aiming to document the folk knowledge, as well as the superstitions with regard to these animals, this ethnobiological study was developed in Itatiaia village, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between April and November 2009, ecological and biological aspects of amphisbaenids were approached through interviews with 48 villagers. Only the individuals who allowed the access to their knowledge and beliefs were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the union model of several individual competences. According to the number of inhabitants who were interviewed, it is possible to say that the population classifies amphisbaenids as snakes, considering them dangerous animals, thus favoring their death whenever they are found. The ethnozoology can be used as an important tool for obtaining information about amphisbaenids and, if combined to educational activities, it may also contribute to the conservation of these animals.

  10. Compliance of Transparency Requirements: A Diagnosis of the Situation of Spanish Municipalities Over 50,000 Inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Delgado Jalón

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Law 19/2013, of December 9th on Transparency, access to public information and good governance has put the concept of transparency in Spain in the spotlight. With the passing of this law our country faces a new reality that contrasts with the lack of tradition of many public administrations in their accountability; a lack that becomes especially significant considering the possibility that the activity of the administration may also be judged by society. Therefore, it seems logical that the adoption of such law still shows numerous weaknesses that have undoubtedly been improving as the required cultural change takes place. This process is even more complex when we refer to the Local Administration. The purpose of this work was to measure the degree of compliance of the Transparency Law in the 144 Spanish municipalities with a population of more than 50,000 inhabitants, according to an own-elaboration indicator that includes the analysis of the four legislated information areas that must be published by the municipalities on their websites. Results indicate that few months after the implementation of the Law there is a great need for improvement at the institutional, organizational and planning level, as well as at economic, budgetary and statistical information, being the latter variable the point where municipal corporations have to make a greater effort.

  11. Microscopy and microanalysis of hematological parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting a polluted lake in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Barua, R; Dutta, K

    2012-10-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of red blood cells (RBCs) of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting a polluted lake in Northeast India revealed a number of abnormalities. About 7% of the RBC showed the presence of a micronucleus, besides the presence of some bi-nucleated and abnormally shaped nuclei. RBCs, white blood cells, and hemoglobin content were found to be reduced significantly as compared to the control. SEM showed the presence of spherocytes, early stages of echinocytes, cytoplasmic blebbing, erythrocytes with contraction from one side, abnormal shape of erythrocytes (hexagonal/pentagonal/tetragonal), development of lobopodial projections, cell rupture, membrane internalization, and formation of ring-shaped RBC. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of a considerable percentage of silicon and lead in erythrocytes of the fish collected from the polluted lake, in contrast to a negligible concentration of the two elements in control fish. Significance of the study in relation to fish health in a polluted body of water and the importance of SEM, EDS, and light microscopy in utilizing hematological parameters as pollution indicators are discussed.

  12. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  14. Purification, characterization, and properties of an alkaline protease produced by Serratia marcescens S3-R1 inhabiting Korean ginseng rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myoung Soo; Whang, Kyung Sook; Choi, Seong Hyun; Bae, Hyoung Churl; Kim, Yoo Kyeong; Park, Young W

    2013-12-01

    An alkaline protease produced by the Serratia marcescens S3-R1 which inhabits in the Korean ginseng rhizosphere was investigated. The purposes of this study were to characterize and purify the bacterial enzyme by four different purification steps: precipitation of enzyme fraction by ammonium sulfate, loading the enzyme pellets on a DEAE-Sepharose anion-exchange chromatograph, separation of the fraction containing enzyme activity by fast protein liquid Mono Q chromatography and identification of the single-band fraction by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and then quantification of the single-band fraction by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified protease was estimated as 50 308 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protease was identified as Ala-Val-Thr-Ile-Glu-Asp-Ala-Val-Asp-Asp, and the enzyme belongs to the metalloprotease family. The optimal activities of the protease occurred at pH 7-9 and a temperature 40 °C. The ranges of pH and thermal stability of the enzyme were at 7-10 and 30-40 °C, respectively. The alkaline protease was successfully purified and characterized from the bacterium Serratia marcescens S3-R1, which has potential for industrial application, including milk protein hydrolysates. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Detection and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis from asymptomatic Hungarian inhabitants and comparative findings in three distinct locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, Judit; Törökné, Andrea; Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Kucsera, István; Farkas, Kata; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    The transmission route of giardiasis not yet understood and why some infected individuals remain asymptomatic while others become quite ill. The drinking water quality is supposedly responsible for the prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia duodenalis infections in different areas, therefore asymptomatic giardiasis has been investigated in three water supply areas of Hungary: three hundred stool samples from inhabitants of Budapest, Füzér and Mátrafüred were examined by immunological and molecular methods for the presence of G. duodenalis infections. Individuals were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire at the time of stool collection and the interview covered demographic data, family life, education and travel history.In Budapest and in Mátrafüred in one stool sample G. duodenalis Assemblage A, whereas in Füzér once G. duodenalis Assemblage A, once Assemblage B and twice mixed infection were detected. We found higher prevalence rate of 4% of G. duodenalis infections of asymptomatic people in the village Füzér, where the removal of the Giardia cysts of the drinking water treatment plant was not effective. This study throws a light the need to look into the possibility of other risks of Giardia infections such as water transmission routes. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections in asymptomatic persons in Hungary.

  16. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of