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Sample records for randomly selected group

  1. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  2. Methods and analysis of realizing randomized grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Randomization is one of the four basic principles of research design. The meaning of randomization includes two aspects: one is to randomly select samples from the population, which is known as random sampling; the other is to randomly group all the samples, which is called randomized grouping. Randomized grouping can be subdivided into three categories: completely, stratified and dynamically randomized grouping. This article mainly introduces the steps of complete randomization, the definition of dynamic randomization and the realization of random sampling and grouping by SAS software.

  3. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  4. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  6. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  7. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  8. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  9. The effects of Nordic Walking training on selected upper-body muscle groups in female-office workers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Piotr; Pospieszna, Barbara; Choszczewski, Daniel; Michalowski, Lukasz; Wiernicka, Marzena; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Regular Nordic Walking training could improve fitness and reduce tenderness in selected muscle groups in office workers. An assessment of the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking training program on the perceived pain threshold (PPT) and the flexibility of selected upper-body muscle groups in postmenopausal female office workers. 39 office workers were selected at random for the treatment group (NWg, n = 20) and the control group (Cg, n = 19). The persons from the NW group completed a 12-week Nordic Walking training program (3 times a week/1 hour). PPTs measurements in selected muscles and functional tests evaluating upper-body flexibility (Back Scratch - BS) were carried out twice in every participant of the study: before and after the training program. A significant increase in PPT (kg/cm2) was observed in the following muscles in the NW group only: upper trapezius (from 1,32 kg/cm2 to 1,99 kg/cm2), mid trapezius (from 2,92 kg/cm2 to 3,30 kg/cm2), latissimus dorsi (from 1,66 kg/cm2 to 2,21 kg/cm2) and infraspinatus (from 1,63 kg/cm2 to 2,93 kg/cm2). Moreover, a significant improvement in the BS test was noted in the NW group compared with the control group (from -1,16±5,7 cm to 2,18±5,1 cm in the NW group vs from -2,52±6,1 to -2,92±6,2 in the control group). A 12-week Nordic Walking training routine improves shoulder mobility and reduces tenderness in the following muscles: trapezius pars descendens and middle trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi, in female office workers.

  10. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  11. Groups, graphs and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

  12. Radiofrequency catheter selection based on cavotricuspid angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Jamon, Yann; Bisch, Laurence; Isaaz, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) can be performed using either externally cooled-tip RFA catheters or large-tip (8 mm) catheters. However, experimental and clinical studies suggest that the efficacy of both catheters may vary with CTI anatomy and catheters orientation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate: a RFA catheter selection based on CTI angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter together with the risk of an expensive crossover catheter in both groups. Over a period of 16 months, 119 patients were included and randomized. When comparing the angiographic group (n = 56) and the externally cooled-tip RFA catheter group (n = 63), the duration of application time with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4.5-11) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 6-20; P = 0.008) and the duration of X-ray exposure with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4-10) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 5-15; P = 0.025) were significantly lower in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group. Furthermore, the number of catheters crossover was significantly higher in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group I (27% vs 7%; P = 0.007). This study shows that a strategy with a catheter selection based on a CTI angiographic evaluation is superior to an empirical use of an externally cooled-tip catheter during CTI RFA. Thus, angiographic isthmus evaluation predicts the effectiveness of a RFA catheter and the risk of an expensive catheter crossover.

  13. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  15. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  16. Group selection as behavioral adaptation to systematic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form "groups", even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution-selection with correlated reproductive risk-that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon.

  17. Students' Perceptions of Classroom Group Work as a Function of Group Member Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to examine whether differences exist between students who self-select their classroom work group members and students who are randomly assigned to their classroom work groups in terms of their use of organizational citizenship behaviors with their work group members; their commitment to, trust in, and relational…

  18. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  19. A risk model for severe anemia to select cancer patients for primary prophylaxis with epoetin alpha: a prospective randomized controlled trial of the ELYPSE study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Coquard, I; Dussart, S; Goillot, C; Mayeur, D; Debourdeau, P; Ghesquieres, H; Bachelot, T; Le Cesne, A; Anglaret, B; Agostini, C; Guastalla, J-P; Lancry, L; Biron, P; Desseigne, F; Blay, J-Y

    2009-06-01

    Epoetin (EPO) administration reduces the need for transfusion. Identifying patients at high risk of anemia requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is needed. This multicentric phase III trial tested epoetin alpha (EPOalpha) administration according to our risk model on the basis of three clinical parameters: hemoglobin (Hb) 1. Patients >or=18 years with chemotherapy-treated solid or hematologic tumors were randomized to 150 UI/kg/TIW s.c. EPOalpha (arm 1) or no EPOalpha (arm 2) and stratified on Hb level at day 0, lymphocyte count, and PS. The primary end point was transfusion rate; secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, and quality of life. From September 2000 to January 2005, 218 patients (median age 64 years, 42.7% males) with principally breast cancer, sarcoma, or lung carcinoma were included. In total, 93% patients had PS >1 and 35% had

  20. Good for the group? Explaining apparent group-level selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that group selection can explain adaptive trait evolution is still controversial. Recent empirical work proposes evidence for group-level adaptation in a social spider, but the findings can also be explained from an individual-level perspective. The challenge remains to identify situations

  1. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  3. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  4. Applied group theory selected readings in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    1968-01-01

    Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic

  5. Randomized clinical trial: group counseling based on tinnitus retraining therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, James A; Loovis, Carl; Montero, Melissa; Kaelin, Christine; Anselmi, Kathryn-Anne; Coombs, Rebecca; Hensley, June; James, Kenneth E

    2007-01-01

    .... We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that group educational counseling based on TRT principles would effectively treat veterans who have clinically significant tinnitus...

  6. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  7. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  8. Group theory for embedded random matrix ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, V. K. B.

    2015-04-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated quantum many-particle systems. For the simplest spinless fermion (or boson) systems with say m fermions (or bosons) in N single particle states and interacting with say k-body interactions, we have EGUE(k) [embedded GUE of k-body interactions) with GUE embedding and the embedding algebra is U(N). In this paper, using EGUE(k) representation for a Hamiltonian that is fc-body and an independent EGUE(t) representation for a transition operator that is t-body and employing the embedding U(N) algebra, finite-N formulas for moments up to order four are derived, for the first time, for the transition strength densities (transition strengths multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies). In the asymptotic limit, these formulas reduce to those derived for the EGOE version and establish that in general bivariate transition strength densities take bivariate Gaussian form for isolated finite quantum systems. Extension of these results for other types of transition operators and EGUE ensembles with further symmetries are discussed.

  9. Kin groups and trait groups: population structure and epidemic disease selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1984-10-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation based on the population structure of a small-scale human population, the Semai Senoi of Malaysia, has been developed to study the combined effects of group, kin, and individual selection. The population structure resembles D.S. Wilson's structured deme model in that local breeding populations (Semai settlements) are subdivided into trait groups (hamlets) that may be kin-structured and are not themselves demes. Additionally, settlement breeding populations are connected by two-dimensional stepping-stone migration approaching 30% per generation. Group and kin-structured group selection occur among hamlets the survivors of which then disperse to breed within the settlement population. Genetic drift is modeled by the process of hamlet formation; individual selection as a deterministic process, and stepping-stone migration as either random or kin-structured migrant groups. The mechanism for group selection is epidemics of infectious disease that can wipe out small hamlets particularly if most adults become sick and social life collapses. Genetic resistance to a disease is an individual attribute; however, hamlet groups with several resistant adults are less likely to disintegrate and experience high social mortality. A specific human gene, hemoglobin E, which confers resistance to malaria, is studied as an example of the process. The results of the simulations show that high genetic variance among hamlet groups may be generated by moderate degrees of kin-structuring. This strong microdifferentiation provides the potential for group selection. The effect of group selection in this case is rapid increase in gene frequencies among the total set of populations. In fact, group selection in concert with individual selection produced a faster rate of gene frequency increase among a set of 25 populations than the rate within a single unstructured population subject to deterministic individual selection. Such rapid evolution with plausible rates of

  10. Random Group Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics problem solving is highly specific to the problem at hand and to develop the general mind framework to become an effective problem solver requires ingenuity and creativity on top of a solid grounding on theoretical and conceptual knowledge. A blended approach with prototype demo, problem-based learning, and an opinion questionnaire was used during first semester of 2013. Students working in randomly selected teams had to interact with classmates while solving a randomly selected problem. The approach helps improve awareness of what is important to learn in this class while reducing grading load. It also provides a more rewarding contact time for both pupils and instructor.

  11. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  12. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  13. A Search for Alternatives to Random Assignment to Treatment Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    In a public school setting administrators are frequently under local pressure to make a new project service available to all eligible children. However, comparable control groups for project evaluation are often absent, and although random assignment to treatment groups remains the most systematic method of providing controls, this is not often…

  14. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  15. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  16. Operation of the Selected Local Action Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to compare the current operation of elected local action group with the concept of learning regions. This comparison is built on detailed knowledge and understanding of the operation of local action group Podbrnensko citizens’ association (Podbrnensko CA and learning regions in general. The following is assumed: the understanding of community-based processes from the perspective of residents, the important stakeholders who influence the operation of communities or locations. The operation of local action groups is in line with the current concept led by local community development (community led local development, CLLD, which uses elements of the LEADER method. In this method the solution of development problems comes primarily from the inside, not from the outside of the studied territory. The methods used for the collection of empirical data were mostly observation and interviews with all partners involved in LAG (31 people, all mayors in LAG (29 people and 176 people from region, i.e. methods, which result in so called deep data. Between the primary techniques applied in the research are: participant observation, unstructured or semi-structured interviews and public debates.

  17. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  18. Modeling fiber type grouping by a binary Markov random field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H. W.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the quantification of fiber type grouping is presented, in which the distribution of histochemical type in a muscle cross section is regarded as a realization of a binary Markov random field (BMRF). Methods for the estimation of the parameters of this model are discussed. The first

  19. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, W.M.; Bijma, P.; schinckel, A.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting

  20. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  1. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  2. Randomized trial of group musi therapy with Chinese prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xi Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared...... to standard care. Anxiety (STAI), depression (BDI) and self-esteem (TSBI, RSI) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared to standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition...... decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems...

  3. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  4. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  5. Comparing groups randomization and bootstrap methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Zieffler, Andrew S; Long, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on guide to using R to carry out key statistical practices in educational and behavioral sciences research Computing has become an essential part of the day-to-day practice of statistical work, broadening the types of questions that can now be addressed by research scientists applying newly derived data analytic techniques. Comparing Groups: Randomization and Bootstrap Methods Using R emphasizes the direct link between scientific research questions and data analysis. Rather than relying on mathematical calculations, this book focus on conceptual explanations and

  6. Bayesian Group Bridge for Bi-level Variable Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2017-06-01

    A Bayesian bi-level variable selection method (BAGB: Bayesian Analysis of Group Bridge) is developed for regularized regression and classification. This new development is motivated by grouped data, where generic variables can be divided into multiple groups, with variables in the same group being mechanistically related or statistically correlated. As an alternative to frequentist group variable selection methods, BAGB incorporates structural information among predictors through a group-wise shrinkage prior. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient MCMC algorithm. In addition to the usual ease-of-interpretation of hierarchical linear models, the Bayesian formulation produces valid standard errors, a feature that is notably absent in the frequentist framework. Empirical evidence of the attractiveness of the method is illustrated by extensive Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis. Finally, several extensions of this new approach are presented, providing a unified framework for bi-level variable selection in general models with flexible penalties.

  7. Selecting groups of covariates in the elastic net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    This paper introduces a novel method to select groups of variables in sparse regression and classication settings. The groups are formed based on the correlations between covariates and ensure that for example spatial or spectral relations are preserved without explicitly coding for these....... The preservation of relations gives increased interpretability. The method is based on the elastic net and adaptively selects highly correlated groups of variables and does therefore not waste time in grouping irrelevant variables for the problem at hand. The method is illustrated on a simulated data set...... and on regression of moisture content in multispectral images of sand. In both cases, the predictions were better or similar to existing regression and classication algorithms and the interpretation was enhanced using the grouping method. On top of that, the grouping method more consistently selects the important...

  8. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  10. Usual and unusual care: existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Mohr, David C; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions and the role of extrinsic health care services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Selective qualitative review. Extrinsic health care services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment-as-usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials.

  11. Strategy selection in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaolin; Feng, Shasha; Wang, Pei; Chen, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory provides an appropriate tool for investigating the competition and diffusion of behavioral traits in biological or social populations. A core challenge in evolutionary game theory is the strategy selection problem: Given two strategies, which one is favored by the population? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends not only on the payoff functions of strategies but also on the interaction structure of the population. Group interactions are one of the fundamental interactive modes within populations. This work aims to investigate the strategy selection problem in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks. In detail, the strategy selection conditions are obtained for some typical networks with group interactions. Furthermore, the obtained conditions are applied to investigate selection between cooperation and defection in populations. The conditions for evolution of cooperation are derived for both the public goods game and volunteer's dilemma game. Numerical experiments validate the above analytical results.

  12. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  13. Random Vector and Matrix Theories: A Renormalization Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn-Justin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Random matrices in the large N expansion and the so-called double scaling limit can be used as toy models for quantum gravity: 2D quantum gravity coupled to conformal matter. This has generated a tremendous expansion of random matrix theory, tackled with increasingly sophisticated mathematical methods and number of matrix models have been solved exactly. However, the somewhat paradoxical situation is that either models can be solved exactly or little can be said. Since the solved models display critical points and universal properties, it is tempting to use renormalization group ideas to determine universal properties, without solving models explicitly. Initiated by Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin, the approach has led to encouraging results, first for matrix integrals and then quantum mechanics with matrices, but has not yet become a universal tool as initially hoped. In particular, general quantum field theories with matrix fields require more detailed investigations. To better understand some of the encountered difficulties, we first apply analogous ideas to the simpler O(N) symmetric vector models, models that can be solved quite generally in the large N limit. Unlike other attempts, our method is a close extension of Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin. Discussing vector and matrix models with similar approximation scheme, we notice that in all cases (vector and matrix integrals, vector and matrix path integrals in the local approximation), at leading order, non-trivial fixed points satisfy the same universal algebraic equation, and this is the main result of this work. However, its precise meaning and role have still to be better understood.

  14. Grouped Gene Selection of Cancer via Adaptive Sparse Group Lasso Based on Conditional Mutual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juntao; Dong, Wenpeng; Meng, Deyuan

    2017-10-11

    This paper deals with the problems of cancer classification and grouped gene selection. The weighted gene co-expression network on cancer microarray data is employed to identify modules corresponding to biological pathways, based on which a strategy of dividing genes into groups is presented. Using the conditional mutual information within each divided group, an integrated criterion is proposed and the data-driven weights are constructed. They are shown with the ability to evaluate both the individual gene significance and the influence to improve correlation of all the other pairwise genes in each group. Furthermore, an adaptive sparse group lasso is proposed, by which an improved blockwise descent algorithm is developed. The results on four cancer data sets demonstrate that the proposed adaptive sparse group lasso can effectively perform classification and grouped gene selection.

  15. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  17. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects ...

  18. Novel web service selection model based on discrete group search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jie; Shao, Zhiqing; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Haiteng

    2014-01-01

    In our earlier work, we present a novel formal method for the semiautomatic verification of specifications and for describing web service composition components by using abstract concepts. After verification, the instantiations of components were selected to satisfy the complex service performance constraints. However, selecting an optimal instantiation, which comprises different candidate services for each generic service, from a large number of instantiations is difficult. Therefore, we present a new evolutionary approach on the basis of the discrete group search service (D-GSS) model. With regard to obtaining the optimal multiconstraint instantiation of the complex component, the D-GSS model has competitive performance compared with other service selection models in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and ability to solve high-dimensional service composition component problems. We propose the cost function and the discrete group search optimizer (D-GSO) algorithm and study the convergence of the D-GSS model through verification and test cases.

  19. Linguistic Extension for Group Multicriteria Project Manager Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Dodangeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualified human resource selection is one of the organizational key success factors. Since choosing the best candidate to fill the defined vacancy in a company is a complex task, intelligence analytical methods would be required to deal with this important issue. Regarding the vagueness and uncertainty of human resource selection process, it requires the linguistic extension of multicriteria decision making (MCDM models for robust recruitment. This research is aimed to develop a fuzzy MCDM model for linguistic reasoning under new fuzzy group decision making. The new linguistic reasoning for group decision making is able to aggregate subjective evaluation of the decision makers and hence create an opportunity to perform more robust human resource selection procedures. A numerical example demonstrates possibilities for the improvement of human resource management and any other business decision areas through applying the proposed model.

  20. Spin selection at organic spinterface by anchoring group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qiu, Shuai; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Hu, Gui-chao, E-mail: hgc@sdnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The sign of interfacial spin polarization can be selected by using different anchoring groups. • A sp{sup 3}-d or sp-d hybridization may occur and induce spin polarization when the anchoring group changes. • Interfacial spin polarization depends on both the type of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy. - Abstract: Control of organic interfacial spin polarization is crucial in organic spintronics. Based on ab initio theory, here we proposed a spin selection at organic interface via anchoring group by adsorbing an organic molecule onto Ni(111) surface. The results demonstrate that either a positive or negative interfacial spin polarization may be obtained by choosing different anchoring groups. The orbital analysis via the projected density of states shows that the interfacial spin polarization is sensitive to the hybridization of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy relative to the d orbital of the ferromagnetic atom. The work indicates a feasible way to realize spin selection at the organic spinterface by anchoring group.

  1. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  3. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  4. Mathematics of kin- and group-selection: formally equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a general mathematical framework that describes the evolution of social traits. This framework forms the basis of many multilevel selection models and is also frequently used to model evolutionary dynamics on networks. Kin selection, which was initially restricted to describe social interactions between relatives, has also led to a broader mathematical approach, inclusive fitness, that can not only describe social evolution among relatives, but also in group structured populations or on social networks. It turns out that the underlying mathematics of game theory is fundamentally different from the approach of inclusive fitness. Thus, both approaches-evolutionary game theory and inclusive fitness-can be helpful to understand the evolution of social traits in group structured or spatially extended populations.

  5. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Cunnane, C.

    2010-07-01

    In regional flood frequency estimation, a homogeneous pooling group of sites leads to a reduction in the error of quantile estimators which is the main aim of a regional flood frequency analysis. Examination of the homogeneity of regions/pooling groups is usually based on a statistic that relates to the formulation of a frequency distribution model, e.g. the coefficient of variation (Wiltshire, 1986; Fill and Stedinger, 1995) and/or skew coefficient, their L-moment equivalents (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Hosking and Wallis, 1997) or of dimensionless quantiles such as the 10-yr event (Dalrymple, 1960; Lu and Stedinger, 1992). Hosking andWallis (1993, 1997) proposed homogeneity tests based on L-moment ratios such as L-CV alone (H1) and L-CV & L-skewness jointly (H2) which were also recently investigated by Viglione et al. (2007). In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group, which satisfies the 5T rule (FEH, 1999, 3, p. 169) for the 100 yr quantile. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2) in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have all their t2 values within the confidence limits, while 7, 33 and 44 of them have 1, 2 or 3 or more, t2 values outside the confidence limits. The outcomes are also compared with the

  6. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent’s fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  7. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  8. Brain networks supporting perceptual grouping and contour selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eVolberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system groups local elements into global objects seemingly without effort. Using a contour integration task and EEG source level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that perceptual grouping requires a top-down selection, rather than a passive pooling, of neural information that codes local elements in the visual image. The participants were presented visual displays with or without a hidden contour. Two tasks were performed: a central luminance-change detection task and a peripheral contour detection task. Only in the contour-detection task could we find differential brain activity between contour and non-contour conditions, within a distributed brain network including parietal, lateral occipital and primary visual areas. Contour processing was associated with an inflow of information from lateral occipital into primary visual regions, as revealed from the slope of phase differences between source level oscillations within these areas. The findings suggest that contour integration results from a selection of neural information from lower visual areas, and that this selection is driven by the lateral occipital cortex.

  9. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  10. Headache : The placebo effects in the control groups in randomized clinical trials; An analysis of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Femke M.; Voogt-Bode, Annieke; Passchier, Jan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Koes, Bart W.; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the effects in the placebo and "no treatment" arms in trials with headache patients. Method: This is a secondary analysis of randomized controlled trials from 8 systematic reviews and selected trials with a "no treatment" or placebo control group.

  11. Management of Assortment Inventory Groups in Selected Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymszal J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As experience shows the practical, reliable assessment and optimisation of total costs of logistical processes implemented in supply chains of foundry plants is a quite complex and complicated process, because it requires to enclose all, without exception, performed actions, including them in various reference cross-sections, systematic activities and finally transforming them in a totally homogenous collection. Only solid analysis and assessment of assortment management in logistical supply systems in foundry plants of particular assortment groups allows to lower the supply costs significantly. In the article the analysis and assessment of the newest implemented optimising algorithms are presented in the process stock management of selected material groups used in a production process of a chosen foundry plant. A practical solution to solve a problem of rotary stock cost minimisation is given as well as of costs while creating a stock with the usage of economical volume and value of order.

  12. Stochastic group selection model for the evolution of altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, A T C; Silva, Ana T. C.

    1999-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically a stochastic group selection model in which a population of asexually reproducing individuals, each of which can be either altruist or non-altruist, is subdivided into $M$ reproductively isolated groups (demes) of size $N$. The cost associated with being altruistic is modelled by assigning the fitness $1- \\tau$, with $\\tau \\in [0,1]$, to the altruists and the fitness 1 to the non-altruists. In the case that the altruistic disadvantage $\\tau$ is not too large, we show that the finite $M$ fluctuations are small and practically do not alter the deterministic results obtained for $M \\to \\infty$. However, for large $\\tau$ these fluctuations greatly increase the instability of the altruistic demes to mutations. These results may be relevant to the dynamics of parasite-host systems and, in particular, to explain the importance of mutation in the evolution of parasite virulence.

  13. Stochastic group selection model for the evolution of altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana T. C.; Fontanari, J. F.

    We study numerically and analytically a stochastic group selection model in which a population of asexually reproducing individuals, each of which can be either altruist or non-altruist, is subdivided into M reproductively isolated groups (demes) of size N. The cost associated with being altruistic is modelled by assigning the fitness 1- τ, with τ∈[0,1], to the altruists and the fitness 1 to the non-altruists. In the case that the altruistic disadvantage τ is not too large, we show that the finite M fluctuations are small and practically do not alter the deterministic results obtained for M→∞. However, for large τ these fluctuations greatly increase the instability of the altruistic demes to mutations. These results may be relevant to the dynamics of parasite-host systems and, in particular, to explain the importance of mutation in the evolution of parasite virulence.

  14. The effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sodani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and aim: Increase in addiction in the community and the plight of its people demand for improving the problems of addicts, indicate a need for individuals to interventions and training expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life.  .  Methods: This study is an quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow up with the control group. The study population included: all addicted people who referred to ahvaz addiction treatment center in 2015. 50 addicts were selected by using of  available sampling and randomly divided into  two experimental group (number=25 and control group (number=25. The participants were completed the quality of life inventory in three stages (pre-test, post-test and follow-up after 60 days. The experimental group was received group training of the concepts of selection theory of 10 sessions of 90 minutes per week.Statistical data were analyzed  using of covariance(ANCOVA analysis. Results: Group training theory led to a significant difference among pretest, posttest, and follow-up of quality of addicted people life (p <0.001. In this case, the post-test and follow-up, after controlling of pre-test score, the experimental group compared to the control group higher quality of life was reported. Conclusion: Group training of selected theory about the role of choosing a behavior, five senses  the importance of self control, the role of effective behavior, the way of need fulfilment, responsibility, self worth, Quality world, seven destructive behavior, seven caring behavior, faiure identification and success identification can result in increasing the quality of life for addicted people.

  15. Creating groups with similar expected behavioural response in randomized controlled trials: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Crutzen, Rik

    2014-12-12

    Controlling bias is key to successful randomized controlled trials for behaviour change. Bias can be generated at multiple points during a study, for example, when participants are allocated to different groups. Several methods of allocations exist to randomly distribute participants over the groups such that their prognostic factors (e.g., socio-demographic variables) are similar, in an effort to keep participants' outcomes comparable at baseline. Since it is challenging to create such groups when all prognostic factors are taken together, these factors are often balanced in isolation or only the ones deemed most relevant are balanced. However, the complex interactions among prognostic factors may lead to a poor estimate of behaviour, causing unbalanced groups at baseline, which may introduce accidental bias. We present a novel computational approach for allocating participants to different groups. Our approach automatically uses participants' experiences to model (the interactions among) their prognostic factors and infer how their behaviour is expected to change under a given intervention. Participants are then allocated based on their inferred behaviour rather than on selected prognostic factors. In order to assess the potential of our approach, we collected two datasets regarding the behaviour of participants (n = 430 and n = 187). The potential of the approach on larger sample sizes was examined using synthetic data. All three datasets highlighted that our approach could lead to groups with similar expected behavioural changes. The computational approach proposed here can complement existing statistical approaches when behaviours involve numerous complex relationships, and quantitative data is not readily available to model these relationships. The software implementing our approach and commonly used alternatives is provided at no charge to assist practitioners in the design of their own studies and to compare participants' allocations.

  16. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  17. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  18. Multicriteria decision group model for the selection of suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have been studying group decision making over the years, which indicates how relevant it is. This paper presents a multicriteria group decision model based on ELECTRE IV and VIP Analysis methods, to those cases where there is great divergence among the decision makers. This model includes two stages. In the first, the ELECTRE IV method is applied and a collective criteria ranking is obtained. In the second, using criteria ranking, VIP Analysis is applied and the alternatives are selected. To illustrate the model, a numerical application in the context of the selection of suppliers in project management is used. The suppliers that form part of the project team have a crucial role in project management. They are involved in a network of connected activities that can jeopardize the success of the project, if they are not undertaken in an appropriate way. The question tackled is how to select service suppliers for a project on behalf of an enterprise that assists the multiple objectives of the decision-makers.Vários autores têm estudado decisão em grupo nos últimos anos, o que indica a relevância do assunto. Esse artigo apresenta um modelo multicritério de decisão em grupo baseado nos métodos ELECTRE IV e VIP Analysis, adequado aos casos em que se tem uma grande divergência entre os decisores. Esse modelo é composto por dois estágios. No primeiro, o método ELECTRE IV é aplicado e uma ordenação dos critérios é obtida. No próximo estágio, com a ordenação dos critérios, o método VIP Analysis é aplicado e as alternativas são selecionadas. Para ilustrar o modelo, uma aplicação numérica no contexto da seleção de fornecedores em projetos é realizada. Os fornecedores que fazem parte da equipe do projeto têm um papel fundamental no gerenciamento de projetos. Eles estão envolvidos em uma rede de atividades conectadas que, caso não sejam executadas de forma apropriada, podem colocar em risco o sucesso do

  19. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  20. Genetic grouping strategies in selection efficiency of composite beef cattle ( × ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, J; Pertile, S F N; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G; Mourão, G B

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of genetic groups in sire evaluation has been widely used to represent genetic differences among animals not accounted for by the absence of parentage data. However, the definition of these groups is still arbitrary, and studies assessing the effects of genetic grouping strategies on the selection efficiency are rare. Therefore, the aim in this study was to compare genetic grouping strategies for animals with unknown parentage in prediction of breeding values (EBV). The total of 179,302 records of weaning weight (WW), 29,825 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 70,302 records of muscling score (MUSC) from Montana Tropical animals, a Brazilian composite beef cattle population, were used. Genetic grouping strategies involving year of birth, sex of the unknown parent, birth farm, breed composition, and their combinations were evaluated. Estimated breeding values were predicted for each approach simulating a loss of genealogy data. Thereafter, these EBV were compared to those obtained in an analysis involving a real relationship matrix to estimate selection efficiency and correlations between EBV and animal rankings. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups and class of the dam age at calving, the covariates of additive and nonadditive genetic effects, and age, and the additive genetic effect of animal as random effects. A second model also included the fixed effects of genetic group. The use of genetic groups resulted in means of selection efficiency and correlation of 70.4 to 97.1% and 0.51 to 0.94 for WW, 85.8 to 98.8% and 0.82 to 0.98 for SC, and 85.1 to 98.6% and 0.74 to 0.97 for MUSC, respectively. High selection efficiencies were observed for year of birth and breed composition strategies. The maximum absolute difference in annual genetic gain estimated through the use of complete genealogy and genetic groups were 0.38 kg for WW, 0.02 cm for SC, and 0.01 for MUSC, with lower differences obtained when year of birth

  1. Merged Group Tractography Evaluation with Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Qixiang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations is difficult to manage and assess. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT, an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates proven dMRI practices, in order for group-wise dMRI to be more accessible to researchers. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image-based score (Normalized Overlapping Score (NOS that can quantify the quality of the group tractography results. We deploy SAGIT to evaluate deterministic and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSTdet, CSTprob, extended streamline tractography (XST, and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT in their ability to delineate different neuroanatomy, as well as validating NOS across these different brain regions. Methods: MR sequences were acquired from 42 healthy adults. Anatomical and group registrations were performed using ANTs. Cortical segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer. Four tractography algorithms were used to delineate 6 sets of neuroanatomy: fornix, facial/vestibular-cochlear cranial nerve complex, vagus nerve, rubral-cerebellar decussation, optic radiation, and auditory radiation. The tracts were generated both with and without ROI filters. The generated visual reports were then evaluated by 5 neuroscientists. Results: At a group level, merged tractography demonstrated that different methods have different fiber distribution characteristics. CSTprob is prone to false-positives, and thereby suitable in anatomy with strong priors. CSTdet and XST are more conservative, but have more trouble resolving hemispherical decussation and distant crossing projections. DTT consistently shows the worst reproducibility across the anatomies. Linear regression of rater scores against NOS shows significant (p0.05 for unfiltered tractography.Conclusions: The

  2. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  3. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  4. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  5. A Discrete Group Search Optimizer for Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Random Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zhe; Gu, Xingsheng

    2014-01-01

    ...) together with a discrete group search optimizer algorithm (DGSO). In particular, two different working cases, preempt-resume case, and preempt-repeat case are considered under random breakdown...

  6. Usual and unusual care: existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Mohr, David C; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions and the role of extrinsic health care services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials...

  7. EPA Selects Lawrence, Mass. Group for Brownfields Job Training Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, EPA announced that the Merrimack Valley Workforce Investment Board, of Lawrence, Mass., was one of 14 organizations nationwide selected to receive funding to operate environmental job training programs for local unemployed residents.

  8. OPPS Provider Summary for 30 Selected APC Groups - CY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A provider level summary of Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) average estimated submitted charges and average Medicare Payments for 30 selected Ambulatory...

  9. A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The French Study Group on Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastinne, H; Wolff, M; Delatour, F; Faurisson, F; Chevret, S

    1992-02-27

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract with topical nonabsorbable antibiotics has been reported to prevent nosocomial infections in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and the procedure is used widely in Europe. However, it is unclear whether selective decontamination improves survival. We conducted a randomized, double-blind multicenter study in which 445 patients receiving mechanical ventilation in 15 intensive care units were given either prophylactic nonabsorbable antibiotics (n = 220) or a placebo (n = 225). Topical antibiotics (tobramycin, colistin sulfate, and amphotericin B) or a placebo was administered through a nasogastric tube and applied to the oropharynx throughout the period of ventilation. The main end points were the mortality rate in the intensive care unit and within 60 days of randomization. A total of 142 patients died in the intensive care unit; 75 (34 percent) in the treatment group and 67 (30 percent) in the placebo group (P = 0.37). Mortality within 60 days of randomization was similar in the two groups (P = 0.40), even after adjustment for factors that were either unbalanced or individually predictive of survival in the two groups (P = 0.70). Pneumonia developed in 59 patients (13 percent) in the intensive care unit within 30 days of enrollment in the study (33 in the placebo group and 26 in the treatment group, P = 0.42). Pneumonia acquired in the intensive care unit and due to gram-negative bacilli was less frequent (P = 0.01) in the treatment group than in the placebo group. The total charges for antibiotics were 2.2 times higher in the treatment group. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract does not improve survival among patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit, although it substantially increases the cost of their care.

  10. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  11. Group Music Therapy as a Preventive Intervention for Young People at Risk: Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2017-07-01

    Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents.

  12. Directional selection causes decanalization in a group I ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Eric J; Weikert, Christian; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A canalized genotype is robust to environmental or genetic perturbations. Canalization is expected to result from stabilizing selection on a well-adapted phenotype. Decanalization, the loss of robustness, might follow periods of directional selection toward a new optimum. The evolutionary forces causing decanalization are still unknown, in part because it is difficult to determine the fitness effects of mutations in populations of organisms with complex genotypes and phenotypes. Here, we report direct experimental measurements of robustness in a system with a simple genotype and phenotype, the catalytic activity of an RNA enzyme. We find that the robustness of a population of RNA enzymes decreases during a period of directional selection in the laboratory. The decrease in robustness is primarily caused by the selective sweep of a genotype that is decanalized relative to the wild-type, both in terms of mutational robustness and environmental robustness (thermodynamic stability). Our results experimentally demonstrate that directional selection can cause decanalization on short time scales, and demonstrate co-evolution of mutational and environmental robustness.

  13. Conformity and Group Polarization: A Selected Annotated Basic Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K. Phillip

    Sources in this annotated bibliography are compiled for investigators in speech communication and social sciences interested in the influence of the group on the individual member (conformity and deviation), and for those interested in group consensus formation and the consequences of pressure to uniformity (polarization). The 34 citations include…

  14. Maximizing Consensus in Portfolio Selection in Multicriteria Group Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michael, Emmerich T. M.; Deutz, A.H.; Li, L.; Asep, Maulana A.; Yevseyeva, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a scenario of decision making where a moderator selects a (sub)set (aka portfolio) of decision alternatives from a larger set. The larger the number of decision makers who agree on a solution in the portfolio the more successful the moderator is. We assume that decision makers

  15. Selected papers on harmonic analysis, groups, and invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers range over a variety of topics, including representation theory, differential geometry, invariant theory, and complex analysis.

  16. Perceived Visual Deterioration among a Selected Group of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the perceived visual deterioration and the determinants among selected dental surgeons in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of Resident doctors attending the Revision course of Faculty of Dental Surgery of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, ...

  17. A simple model of group selection that cannot be analyzed with inclusive fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, M.; Luo, S.; Simon, B.

    2014-01-01

    A widespread claim in evolutionary theory is that every group selection model can be recast in terms of inclusive fitness. Although there are interesting classes of group selection models for which this is possible, we show that it is not true in general. With a simple set of group selection models,

  18. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder among college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Brosse, Alisha L; Carey, Gregory; Hauser, Monika; Mackiewicz Seghete, Kristen L; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Weatherley, Donald; Erwin, Brigette A; Craighead, W Edward

    2011-11-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was compared to group psychotherapy (GPT), a credible, structurally equivalent control condition that included only nonspecific factors of group treatment (such as group dynamics). Participants were 45 college students at the University of Colorado with a primary diagnosis of SAD. Each treatment condition comprised eight group sessions lasting 2 hr each. Independent assessors (blind to treatment assignment) assessed participants at baseline and posttreatment with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Both treatments were found to be equally credible. There were five noncompleters in the CBGT condition (21.7%) and only one in the GPT condition (4.3%). There were no statistically significant differences posttreatment (controlling for pretreatment scores) between the two treatment conditions, and both treatments were found to be efficacious. Effect sizes for CBGT were similar to earlier studies, and adherence ratings revealed excellent adherence. Treatment of SAD appears to be moving toward individual CBT, partly because of high attrition rates and underutilization of group dynamics in group CBT. However, group therapy has unique therapeutic ingredients, and it may be too early to give up on group treatment altogether. Discussion of these findings included future directions with this treatment modality, especially whether these two types of group treatment could be combined and whether such combination might serve to decrease attrition, enhance efficacy, and facilitate dissemination. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diagonals of rational functions and selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, A.; Boukraa, S.; Maillard, J.-M.; Weil, J.-A.

    2015-12-01

    We recall that diagonals of rational functions naturally occur in lattice statistical mechanics and enumerative combinatorics. In all the examples emerging from physics, the minimal linear differential operators annihilating these diagonals of rational functions have been shown to actually possess orthogonal or symplectic differential Galois groups. In order to understand the emergence of such orthogonal or symplectic groups, we analyze exhaustively three sets of diagonals of rational functions, corresponding respectively to rational functions of three variables, four variables and six variables. We impose the constraints that the degree of the denominators in each variable is at most one, and the coefficients of the monomials are 0 or \\+/- 1, so that the analysis can be exhaustive. We find the minimal linear differential operators annihilating the diagonals of these rational functions of three, four, five and six variables. We find that, even for these sets of examples which, at first sight, have no relation with physics, their differential Galois groups are always orthogonal or symplectic groups. We discuss the conditions on the rational functions such that the operators annihilating their diagonals do not correspond to orthogonal or symplectic differential Galois groups, but rather to generic special linear groups.

  20. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Programming a randomized dependent group contingency and common stimuli to promote durable behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariveau, Tom; Kodak, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of academic engagement may impede students' acquisition of skills. Intervening on student behavior using group contingencies may be a feasible way to increase academic engagement during group instruction. The current study examined the effect of a randomized dependent group contingency on levels of academic engagement for second-grade participants receiving small-group reading and writing instruction. The results showed that a randomized dependent group contingency increased the academic engagement of primary participants and several of the other participants during small-group instruction. The findings also showed that high levels of academic engagement were maintained when common stimuli were present and the dependent group contingency was withdrawn. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Personnel selection using group fuzzy AHP and SAW methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personnel evaluation and selection is a very important activity for the enterprises. Different job needs different ability and the requirement of criteria which can measure ability is different. It needs a suitable and flexible method to evaluate the performance of each candidate according to different requirements of different jobs in relation to each criterion. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of Multi Criteria decision making methods derived from paired comparisons. Simple Additive Weighting (SAW is most frequently used multi attribute decision technique. The method is based on the weighted average. It successfully models the ambiguity and imprecision associated with the pair wise comparison process and reduces the personal biasness. This study tries to analyze the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to make the recruitment process more reasonable, based on the fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model to achieve the goal of personnel selection. Finally, an example is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method.

  3. The Influence of Randomly Allocated Group Membership when Developing Student Task Work and Team Work Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Giles Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether randomly assigning group membership enhances the student learning experience. The paper starts with a critical analysis of the approaches to student learning within higher education and how these approaches conflict with findings from applied psychology on group behaviour. The study adopts a serendipitous qualitative…

  4. Efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, N; Vos, J; van Uden-Kraan, C F; Breitbart, W.; Cuijpers, P; Holtmaat, K; Witte, B I; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) to improve personal meaning, compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care as usual (CAU). METHOD: A total of 170 cancer survivors were randomly assigned

  5. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  6. Group selection, kin selection, altruism and cooperation: when inclusive fitness is right and when it can be wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Group selection theory has a history of controversy. After a period of being in disrepute, models of group selection have regained some ground, but not without a renewed debate over their importance as a theoretical tool. In this paper I offer a simple framework for models of the evolution of

  7. Body Image Disturbance in Selected Groups of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Douglas J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined satisfaction with body image in sample of 18 male college hockey players, 18 male college body builders, and 18 college students in a psychology class using measures of body image distortion and body image dissatisfaction. Found marked levels of distortion and dissatisfaction in body builders, but not in other two groups. (Author/ABL)

  8. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  9. The Effect of Group Psychoeducation Program on Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorders: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Sajjad; Asghari, Elnaz

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorders and often results in worsening disease prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group psychoeducation on medication adherence in female patients with bipolar mood disorder type I. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 76 patients with bipolar mood disorder admitted in female psychiatric wards of Razi teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Patients in experimental group received 10 continuous 90 minutes sessions of psychoeducation, two times a week. Medication adherence was measured using the medicine check list and medication adherence rating scale (MARS) before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed with SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding medication adherence before the intervention. After the study intervention, the mean scores of medication adherence check list and medication adherence rating scale in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Since group psychoeducation was effective in improving patients' medication adherence, it could be recommended for psychiatric nurses to apply this intervention in the clinical setting.

  10. The Effect of Group Psychoeducation Program on Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorders: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorders and often results in worsening disease prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group psychoeducation on medication adherence in female patients with bipolar mood disorder type I. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 76 patients with bipolar mood disorder admitted in female psychiatric wards of Razi teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Patients in experimental group received 10 continuous 90 minutes sessions of psychoeducation, two times a week. Medication adherence was measured using the medicine check list and medication adherence rating scale (MARS before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed with SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding medication adherence before the intervention. After the study intervention, the mean scores of medication adherence check list and medication adherence rating scale in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Since group psychoeducation was effective in improving patients' medication adherence, it could be recommended for psychiatric nurses to apply this intervention in the clinical setting.

  11. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  12. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  13. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  14. Lower group productivity under kin-selected reproductive altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssèdre, Anne; Couvet, Denis; Nunney, Leonard

    2006-10-01

    Hamilton's rule provides the foundation for understanding the genetic evolution of social behavior, showing that altruism is favored by increased relatedness and increased productivity of altruists. But how likely is it that a new altruistic mutation will satisfy Hamilton's rule by increasing the reproductive efficiency of the group? Altruism per se does not improve efficiency, and hence we would not expect a typical altruistic mutation to increase the mean productivity of the population. We examined the conditions under which a mutation causing reproductive altruism can spread when it does not increase productivity. We considered a population divided into temporary groups of genetically similar individuals (typically family groups). We show that the spread of altruism requires a pleiotropic link between altruism and enhanced productivity in diploid organisms, but not in haplodiploid organisms such as Hymenoptera. This result provides a novel biological understanding of the barrier to the spread of reproductive altruism in diploids. In haplodiploid organisms, altruism within families that lowers productivity may spread, provided daughters sacrifice their own reproduction to raise full-sisters. We verified our results using three single-locus genetic models that explore a range of the possible reproductive costs of helping. The advantage of female-to-female altruism in haplodiploids is a well-known prediction of Hamilton's rule, but its importance in relaxing the linkage between altruism and efficiency has not been explored. We discuss the possible role of such unproductive altruism in the origins of sociality. We also note that each model predicts a large region of parameter space were polymorphism between altruism and selfishness is maintained, a pattern independent of dominance.

  15. The rhizosphere selects for particular groups of acidobacteria and verrucomicrobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Nunes da Rocha

    Full Text Available There is a lack in our current understanding on the putative interactions of species of the phyla of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with plants. Moreover, progress in this area is seriously hampered by the recalcitrance of members of these phyla to grow as pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether particular members of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are avid colonizers of the rhizosphere. Based on previous work, rhizosphere competence was demonstrated for the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups of Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and it was hypothesized that the rhizosphere is a common habitat for Acidobacteria subdivision 8 (class Holophagae. We assessed the population densities of Bacteria, Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and Acidobacteria subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6 and Holophagae in bulk soil and in the rhizospheres of grass, potato and leek in the same field at different points in time using real-time quantitative PCR. Primers of all seven verrucomicrobial, acidobacterial and holophagal PCR systems were based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultivable representatives of the different groups. Luteolibacter, Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, subdivision 6 acidobacteria and Holophaga showed preferences for one or more rhizospheres. In particular, the Holophaga 16S rRNA gene number were more abundant in the leek rhizosphere than in bulk soil and the rhizospheres of grass and potato. Attraction to, and colonization of, leek roots by Holophagae strain CHC25 was further shown in an experimental microcosm set-up. In the light of this remarkable capacity, we propose to coin strain CHC25 Candidatus Porrumbacterium oxyphilus (class Holophagae, Phylum Acidobacteria, the first cultured representative with rhizosphere competence.

  16. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  17. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  18. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  19. The Group Selection or Assessment Centre (AC) Approach to Personnel Selection: An Annotated Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    D.L. (1980). Issues in personnel selection. Professional Psycology . 2(3), 369-384. Reviews a number of methods and issues in selection, including ACs...to assessments of managerial potential. Also found that ratings of management potential developed from a careful review of company personnel records

  20. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  1. "Right from the Start": Randomized Trial Comparing an Attachment Group Intervention to Supportive Home Visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Background: Infant attachment security is a protective factor for future mental health, and may be promoted by individual interventions. Given service demands, it is important to determine if a group-based intervention for parents could be used to enhance infant attachment security. Methods: In a randomized trial involving 76 mothers, an 8-session…

  2. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  3. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  4. Group support for patients with metastatic cancer. A randomized outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, D; Bloom, J R; Yalom, I

    1981-05-01

    The effects of weekly supportive group meetings for women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast were systematically evaluated in a one-year, randomized, prospective outcome study. The groups focused on the problems of terminal illness, including improving relationships with family, friends, and physicians and living as fully as possible in the face of death. We hypothesized that this invention would lead to improved mood, coping strategies, and self-esteem among those in the treatment group. Eighty-six patients were tested at four-month intervals. The treatment group had significantly lower mood-disturbance scores on the Profile of Mood States scale, had fewer maladaptive coping responses, and were less phobic than the control group. This study provides objective evidence that a supportive group intervention for patients with metastatic cancer results in psychological benefit. Mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of this group intervention are explored.

  5. Groups of galaxies. IV. Effect of observational selection on the relationship between the characteristics and distance of groups and a comparison with the groups of Geller and Huchra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of observational selection on the relationship between the characteristics of groups of galaxies and their distances is discussed in this paper. For our groups the dependence of the pairwise distance between the members on the distance of the group is just that. For the groups of Geller and Huchra, on the other hand, the analogous dependence is distorted by the effect of their selection criteria for groups of galaxies. The average dispersion of the radial velocities of the galaxies for our groups is less than half that for the groups of Geller and Huchra, while the mass-to-luminosity ratio is smaller, on the average, by more than an order of magnitude in our case. Geller-Huchra groups with mass-to-luminosity ratios greater than 1000 are most likely unreal.

  6. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Random-effects regression analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Hu, F B

    2000-04-01

    Random-effects regression modelling is proposed for analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. Two analysis approaches are considered. The first treats survival time as an ordinal outcome, which is either right-censored or not. The second approach treats survival time as a set of dichotomous indicators of whether the event occurred for time periods up to the period of the event or censor. For either approach both proportional hazards and proportional odds versions of the random-effects model are developed, while partial proportional hazards and odds generalizations are described for the latter approach. For estimation, a full-information maximum marginal likelihood solution is implemented using numerical quadrature to integrate over the distribution of multiple random effects. The quadrature solution allows some flexibility in the choice of distributions for the random effects; both normal and rectangular distributions are considered in this article. An analysis of a dataset where students are clustered within schools is used to illustrate features of random-effects analysis of clustered grouped-time survival data.

  8. Characterization of geometrical random uncertainty distribution for a group of patients in radiotherapy; Caracterizacion de la distribucion de incertidumbres geometricas aleatorias para un grupo de pacientes en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Montplet, C.; Jurado Bruggeman, D.

    2010-07-01

    Geometrical random uncertainty in radiotherapy is usually characterized by a unique value in each group of patients. We propose a novel approach based on a statistically accurate characterization of the uncertainty distribution, thus reducing the risk of obtaining potentially unsafe results in CT V-Pt margins or in the selection of correction protocols.

  9. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of Schistosoma haematobium group species based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukas, A; Dias Neto, E; Simpson, A J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1994-04-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles were produced using four oligonucleotide primers with genomic DNA from 15 isolates of schistosome. Both inter- and intraspecific variation were noted. Intraspecific variation was greater for two species of the S. haematobium group (S. haematobium and S. intercalatum) than for S. mansoni. The inferred phylogeny placed S. curassoni and S. bovis as sister groups to S. mansoni-S. rodhaini group. S. mattheei and S. leiperi formed a separate lineage. The results confirm that RAPD profiles may be used for both strain and species differentiation and for the generation of phylogenetic trees.

  11. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ng, Petrus Y N

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, Pcontrol group's participants did not show any significant change. This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants.

  12. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  13. Does group training during pregnancy prevent lumbopelvic pain? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Kjell Asmund; Schei, Berit; Lydersen, Stian; Bø, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of lumbopelvic pain in pregnancy has been sparsely studied. One aim of this study was to assess if a 12-week training program during pregnancy can prevent and/or treat lumbopelvic pain. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at Trondheim University Hospital and three outpatient physiotherapy clinics. Three hundred and one healthy nulliparous women were included at 20 weeks of pregnancy and randomly allocated to a training group (148) or a control group (153). The outcome measures were self-reported symptoms of lumbopelvic pain (once per week or more), sick leave, and functional status. Pain drawing was used to document the painful area of the body. The intervention included daily pelvic floor muscle training at home, and weekly group training over 12 weeks including aerobic exercises, pelvic floor muscle and additional exercises, and information related to pregnancy. At 36 weeks of gestation women in the training group were significantly less likely to report lumbopelvic pain: 65/148 (44%) versus 86/153 (56%) (p=0.03). Three months after delivery the difference was 39/148 (26%) in the training group versus 56/153 (37%) in the control group (p=0.06). There was no difference in sick leave during pregnancy, but women in the training group had significantly (p=0.01) higher scores on functional status. A 12-week specially designed training program during pregnancy was effective in preventing lumbopelvic pain in pregnancy.

  14. Production rates and costs of group selection harvests with a christy cable yarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; James Sherar; Tom Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Group selection harvest studies in Eastern hardwoods have shown that economic success of such harvests rests heavily on product market values, tree quality, and logging costs (Boucher and Hall 1989; Bell 1989). Other studies have attempted to define group selection harvests and where they can be used (Roach 1974). Additional studies have documented the reproduction of...

  15. Songbird response to group selection harvests and clearcuts in a New Hampshire northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Costello; Mariko Yamasaki; Peter J. Pekins; William B. Leak; Christopher D. Neefus

    2000-01-01

    Clearcutting creates habitat for many species of early successional songbirds; however, little information is available on bird use of small forest openings created by group selection harvests. Group selection harvests are increasing on the White Mountain National Forest due to negative public response to clearcutting. The objective of this study was to determine if...

  16. An expert system for estimating production rates and costs for hardwood group-selection harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; R. S. Pabba

    2003-01-01

    As forest managers shift their focus from stands to entire ecosystems alternative harvesting methods such as group selection are being used increasingly. Results of several field time and motion studies and simulation runs were incorporated into an expert system for estimating production rates and costs associated with harvests of group-selection units of various size...

  17. Testing the cultural group selection hypothesis in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural group selection (CGS) hypothesis in light of our fieldwork in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca, highly multi-ethnic regions. Our evidence fails to corroborate two central predictions of the hypothesis: that the cultural group is the unit of evolution, and that cultural homogenization is to be expected as the outcome of a selective process.

  18. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lowell Stone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  19. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader)

  20. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  2. The evolution of competition and policing: opposing selection within and among groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Michael J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although selection favors exploitative competition within groups, a group of hypercompetitive individuals may be less productive than a cooperative group. When competition is costly for group fitness, among-group selection can favor groups with 'policing' individuals who reduce within-group competition at a cost to their own fitness, or groups of individuals who restrain their competitive intensity ('self policing'. We examine these possibilities in a series of explicit population-genetic models. Results By comparing results from models of half and full sib structured populations, we find that increased relatedness increases the strength of among-group selection against competition genotypes, and increases the strength of among group selection favoring policing genotypes. However, the strength of selection favoring costly policing behavior also increases with increased levels of competition. When levels of competition and policing feedback on one another, groups with lower levels of relatedness can favor higher levels of costly policing. Conclusion The result of the joint selection on policing and competition leads to results different from those based on the evolution of policing alone. Our model makes 'long term' predictions equivalent to those of optimization models, but we also show the existence of protected polymorphisms of police and civilians, as well as competitors and non-competitors.

  3. Group Eigenvalue Method for Food Supplier Selection Model with Ordinal Interval Preference Information

    OpenAIRE

    Wanzhen Liu

    2014-01-01

    With the economic globalization, market competition is more and more fierce. The best food supplier selection is important for a food company maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The food supplier selection problem is a complex group decision making problem. To food supplier selection problem, which the evaluation information is the ordinal interval preference information, a new decision making method is proposed based on the concept of group eigenvalue method. A practical example...

  4. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for chronic low back pain: randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel-group trial with 3 groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Michael; Müller, Hans-Helge; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Basler, Heinz D; Schäfer, Helmut; Maier, Christoph; Endres, Heinz G; Trampisch, Hans J; Molsberger, Albrecht

    2007-09-24

    To our knowledge, verum acupuncture has never been directly compared with sham acupuncture and guideline-based conventional therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. A patient- and observer-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in Germany involving 340 outpatient practices, including 1162 patients aged 18 to 86 years (mean +/- SD age, 50 +/- 15 years) with a history of chronic low back pain for a mean of 8 years. Patients underwent ten 30-minute sessions, generally 2 sessions per week, of verum acupuncture (n = 387) according to principles of traditional Chinese medicine; sham acupuncture (n = 387) consisting of superficial needling at nonacupuncture points; or conventional therapy, a combination of drugs, physical therapy, and exercise (n = 388). Five additional sessions were offered to patients who had a partial response to treatment (10%-50% reduction in pain intensity). Primary outcome was response after 6 months, defined as 33% improvement or better on 3 pain-related items on the Von Korff Chronic Pain Grade Scale questionnaire or 12% improvement or better on the back-specific Hanover Functional Ability Questionnaire. Patients who were unblinded or had recourse to other than permitted concomitant therapies during follow-up were classified as nonresponders regardless of symptom improvement. At 6 months, response rate was 47.6% in the verum acupuncture group, 44.2% in the sham acupuncture group, and 27.4% in the conventional therapy group. Differences among groups were as follows: verum vs sham, 3.4% (95% confidence interval, -3.7% to 10.3%; P = .39); verum vs conventional therapy, 20.2% (95% confidence interval, 13.4% to 26.7%; P vs conventional therapy, 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 10.1% to 23.4%; P acupuncture treatment for at least 6 months. Effectiveness of acupuncture, either verum or sham, was almost twice that of conventional therapy.

  6. Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtarossa, Andrea; Griggio, Paola; Pizzinat, Anna; Palmieri, Luca

    2002-05-01

    Spinning is one of the most effective and well-known ways to reduce polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers. In spite of the popularity of spinning, a detailed theory of spin effects is still lacking. We report an analytical expression for the mean differential group delay of a randomly birefringent spun fiber. The result holds for any periodic spin function with a period shorter than the fiber's beat length.

  7. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  8. Effectiveness of an online group course for depression in adolescents and young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Rianne; Kramer, Jeannet; Gerrits, Rob; Cuijpers, Pim

    2012-06-07

    Depression is a serious mental health problem, whose first onset is usually in adolescence. Online treatment may offer a solution for the current undertreatment of depression in youth. For adults with depressive symptoms, the effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated. This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness online depression treatment for young people with depressive complaints and the first to focus on an online group course. To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of a guided Web-based group course called Grip op Je Dip (Master Your Mood [MYM]), designed for young people aged 16 to 25 years with depressive symptoms, in comparison with a wait-listed control group. We randomly assigned 244 young people with depressive symptoms to the online MYM course or to a waiting-list control condition. The primary outcome measure was treatment outcome after 3 months on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes were anxiety (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and mastery (Mastery Scale). We studied the maintenance of effects in the MYM group 6 months after baseline. Missing data were imputed. The MYM group (n = 121) showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months than the control group (n = 123) (t(187 )= 6.62, P limitation is the infeasibility of comparing the 6-month outcomes of the MYM and control groups, as the controls had access to MYM after 3 months. The online group course MYM was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety and in increasing mastery in young people. These effects persisted in the MYM group at 6 months.

  9. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  10. A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Adam D; Cooke, Lara; Wright, Bruce; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2010-10-14

    Effective teaching requires an understanding of both what (content knowledge) and how (process knowledge) to teach. While previous studies involving medical students have compared preceptors with greater or lesser content knowledge, it is unclear whether process expertise can compensate for deficient content expertise. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare the effect of preceptors with process expertise to those with content expertise on medical students' learning outcomes in a structured small group environment. One hundred and fifty-one first year medical students were randomized to 11 groups for the small group component of the Cardiovascular-Respiratory course at the University of Calgary. Each group was then block randomized to one of three streams for the entire course: tutoring exclusively by physicians with content expertise (n = 5), tutoring exclusively by physicians with process expertise (n = 3), and tutoring by content experts for 11 sessions and process experts for 10 sessions (n = 3). After each of the 21 small group sessions, students evaluated their preceptors' teaching with a standardized instrument. Students' knowledge acquisition was assessed by an end-of-course multiple choice (EOC-MCQ) examination. Students rated the process experts significantly higher on each of the instrument's 15 items, including the overall rating. Students' mean score (±SD) on the EOC-MCQ exam was 76.1% (8.1) for groups taught by content experts, 78.2% (7.8) for the combination group and 79.5% (9.2) for process expert groups (p = 0.11). By linear regression student performance was higher if they had been taught by process experts (regression coefficient 2.7 [0.1, 5.4], p teach first year medical students within a structured small group environment; preceptors with process expertise result in at least equivalent, if not superior, student outcomes in this setting.

  11. Pilot study of the Korean Parent Training Program using a partial group randomized experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2017-01-01

    Problems Korean American (KA) children experience mental health problems due to difficulties in parenting dysfunction complicated by living in two cultures. Methods Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children (ages 3–8) using partial group randomized controlled experimental study design. Self-report survey and observation data were gathered. Findings Analyses using generalized estimating equation indicated the intervention group mothers increased effective parenting and their children decreased behavior problems and reported less acculturation conflict with mothers. Conclusions The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. PMID:24645901

  12. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  13. Community-based group exercise for persons with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Diehl, M Dyer; Chrzastowski, Casey; Didrick, Nora; McCoin, Brittany; Mox, Nicholas; Staples, William H; Wayman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare group boxing training to traditional group exercise on function and quality of life in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A convenience sample of adults with PD (n = 31) were randomly assigned to boxing training or traditional exercise for 24-36 sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, over 12 weeks. Boxing training included: stretching, boxing (e.g. lateral foot work, punching bags), resistance exercises, and aerobic training. Traditional exercise included: stretching, resistance exercises, aerobic training, and balance activities. Participants were tested before and after completion of training on balance, balance confidence, mobility, gait velocity, gait endurance, and quality of life. The traditional exercise group demonstrated significantly greater gains in balance confidence than the boxing group (p exercise for persons with PD will be an important future consideration for rehabilitation professionals.

  14. Group cognitive behavior therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: an initial randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J Gayle; Coffey, Scott F; Foy, David W; Keane, Terence M; Blanchard, Edward B

    2009-03-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a serious motor vehicle accident were randomly assigned to either group cognitive behavioral treatment(GCBT) or a minimum contact comparison group (MCC).Compared to the MCC participants (n=16), individuals who completed GCBT (n=17) showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, whether assessed using clinical interview or a self-report measure. Among treatment completers, 88.3% of GCBT participants did not satisfy criteria for PTSD at posttreatment assessment, relative to31.3% of the MCC participants. Examination of anxiety,depression, and pain measures did not show a unique advantage of GCBT. Treatment-related gains were maintained over a 3-month follow-up interval. Patients reported satisfaction with GCBT, and attrition from this treatment was comparable with individually administered CBTs.Results are discussed in light of modifications necessitated by the group treatment format, with suggestions for future study of this group intervention.

  15. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  16. Peer Group Influence and Selection in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which peer group similarity in school burnout is due to peer group influence and the extent to which it is due to peer group selection. Moreover, the roles of academic achievement and gender in school burnout were examined. A total of 611 ninth graders were examined at the beginning of the final term of…

  17. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  18. Social Groups Prioritize Selective Attention to Faces: How Social Identity Shapes Distractor Interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    Full Text Available Human faces automatically attract visual attention and this process appears to be guided by social group memberships. In two experiments, we examined how social groups guide selective attention toward in-group and out-group faces. Black and White participants detected a target letter among letter strings superimposed on faces (Experiment 1. White participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (Black compared to in-group (White distractor faces. Likewise, Black participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (White compared to in-group (Black distractor faces. However, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load-when the task was visually difficult. To examine the malleability of this pattern of racial bias, a separate sample of participants were assigned to mixed-race minimal groups (Experiment 2. Participants assigned to groups were less accurate on trials with their minimal in-group members compared to minimal out-group distractor faces, regardless of race. Again, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load. Taken together, these results suggest that social identity guides selective attention toward motivationally relevant social groups-shifting from out-group bias in the domain of race to in-group bias in the domain of minimal groups-when perceptual resources are scarce.

  19. Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Church

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques, a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N=18. The EFT group (n=9 had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n=9 (EFT BDI mean=23.44, SD=2.1 versus control BDI mean=20.33, SD=2.1. After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the “nondepressed” range (P=.001; EFT BDI mean=6.08, SE=1.8 versus control BDI mean=18.04, SE=1.8. Cohen's d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  1. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  2. Random matrix theory, the exceptional Lie groups and L-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, J P [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Linden, N [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Rudnick, Z [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    There has recently been interest in relating properties of matrices drawn at random from the classical compact groups to statistical characteristics of number-theoretical L-functions. One example is the relationship conjectured to hold between the value distributions of the characteristic polynomials of such matrices and value distributions within families of L-functions. These connections are extended here to non-classical groups. We focus on an explicit example: the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}. The value distributions for characteristic polynomials associated with the 7- and 14-dimensional representations of G{sub 2}, defined with respect to the uniform invariant (Haar) measure, are calculated using two of the Macdonald constant term identities. A one-parameter family of L-functions over a finite field is described whose value distribution in the limit as the size of the finite field grows is related to that of the characteristic polynomials associated with the seven-dimensional representation of G{sub 2}. The random matrix calculations extend to all exceptional Lie groups.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardan, Antonio Y; Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Libove, Robin A; Ardel, Christina M; Phillips, Jennifer; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B

    2015-08-01

    With rates of autism diagnosis continuing to rise, there is an urgent need for effective and efficient service delivery models. Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is considered an established treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, there have been few well-controlled studies with adequate sample size. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate PRT parent training group (PRTG) for targeting language deficits in young children with ASD. Fifty-three children with autism and significant language delay between 2 and 6 years old were randomized to PRTG (N = 27) or psychoeducation group (PEG; N = 26) for 12 weeks. The PRTG taught parents behavioral techniques to facilitate language development. The PEG taught general information about ASD (clinical trial NCT01881750; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Analysis of child utterances during the structured laboratory observation (primary outcome) indicated that, compared with children in the PEG, children in the PRTG demonstrated greater improvement in frequency of utterances (F(2, 43) = 3.53, p = .038, d = 0.42). Results indicated that parents were able to learn PRT in a group format, as the majority of parents in the PRTG (84%) met fidelity of implementation criteria after 12 weeks. Children also demonstrated greater improvement in adaptive communication skills (Vineland-II) following PRTG and baseline Mullen visual reception scores predicted treatment response to PRTG. This is the first randomized controlled trial of group-delivered PRT and one of the largest experimental investigations of the PRT model to date. The findings suggest that specific instruction in PRT results in greater skill acquisition for both parents and children, especially in functional and adaptive communication skills. Further research in PRT is warranted to replicate the observed results and address other core ASD symptoms. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  5. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  6. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip- and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2017-11-17

    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non- opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities varies between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0-24h postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where NSAID was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligi- ble for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received: 'opioid', 'NSAID+opioid', 'acetamino- phen+opioid', or 'NSAID+acetaminophen+opioid'. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Addi- tionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  7. A Discrete Group Search Optimizer for Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Random Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling problems have been discussed in the literature extensively under the assumption that the machines are permanently available without any breakdown. However, in the real manufacturing environments, the machines could be unavailable inevitably for many reasons. In this paper, the authors introduce the hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with random breakdown (RBHFS together with a discrete group search optimizer algorithm (DGSO. In particular, two different working cases, preempt-resume case, and preempt-repeat case are considered under random breakdown. The proposed DGSO algorithm adopts the vector representation and several discrete operators, such as insert, swap, differential evolution, destruction, and construction in the producers, scroungers, and rangers phases. In addition, an orthogonal test is applied to configure the adjustable parameters in the DGSO algorithm. The computational results in both cases indicate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performances compared with other high performing algorithms in the literature.

  8. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomized control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    Despite, numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research on the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is limited. We studied the prevalence of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) (N = 458) and the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (n = 378) in a Danish national questionnaire survey...... of bank employees exposed to robbery (response rate: 73.6 %). Several related factors were also investigated including prior traumatic exposure, anxiety, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to robbery (N= 303......). The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41), and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). Both prevalence rates were limited by the avoidance diagnostic criteria. Preliminary results indicated that the control group scored significantly lower than the acute robbery group on general traumatization and anxiety...

  9. Behavioral and cognitive group treatment for fear of flying: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip; Van Dyck, Richard

    2006-12-01

    In a long-standing fear-of-flying program, persons with fear of flying (N=150) were after a diagnostic assessment and individual preparation phase randomly assigned to either a 1-day behavioral group treatment (BGT) program, a 2-day cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program or a waiting list (WL) control group. A post-treatment flight on a commercial airline measured participants' ability to fly. Different self-report flight anxiety questionnaires were completed before, during and after treatment at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that both treatments were superior to the WL, and equally effective on the flying test and later independent flying, but also that the 2-day CBGT program was significantly more effective than the 1-day BGT program on subjective measures of fear and self-efficacy.

  10. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  11. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  12. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  13. Personality disorder moderates outcome in short- and long-term group analytic psychotherapy: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Steinar; Ruud, Torleif; Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per A

    2015-06-01

    In a randomized clinical trial, short- and long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy (STG and LTG, respectively) schedules were equally effective for the 'typical' patient during a 3-year study period. Although several studies have reported good effects for patients with personality disorders (PD) in diverse forms of psychotherapy, the significance of treatment duration is unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PD patients would improve more during and after LTG than STG. A randomized, longitudinal, prospective study contrasting the outcomes during and after short- and long-term dynamic group psychotherapies. One hundred and sixty-seven outpatients with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, or PD were randomized to STG or LTG (respectively, 20 or 80 weekly sessions of 90 min each). Outcome measures are as follows: symptoms (SCL-90-R), interpersonal problems (IIP-C), and psychosocial functioning (GAF split version: GAF-Symptom and GAF-Function). PD pathology (number of PD criteria items) was selected a priori as a putative moderator of treatment effects. Change during the 3-year study period was assessed using linear mixed models. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT 00021417. Our hypothesis was supported, as patients with PD improved significantly more regarding all outcome variables in LTG than STG. For patients without PD, the rate of change was similar across 3 years; however, the rate of change in symptoms and interpersonal problems was higher in STG during the first 6 months. The effectiveness of LTG is higher for patients with co-morbid PD. Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from LTG. Clinical implications: LTG demonstrates better effectiveness than STG for patients with personality disorder co-morbidity (PD). Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from attending LTG. Correct initial allocation to treatment duration may prevent disruptive breaks in relationships and lead to both

  14. Reading group rehabilitation for patients with psychosis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Umberto; Torre, Fabiana; De Santis, Valeria; Perris, Francesco; Catapano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Group reading activities are often reported to be helpful in a variety of psychiatric conditions. However, data on the effects of structured reading rehabilitation activities, in both hospital and community settings for patients with psychosis, are still scarce. Our aim was to investigate the effects on clinical status, disability, psychosocial functioning and cognitive functioning of a structured group reading activity, in a sample of hospitalized patients with psychosis. We enrolled 41 consecutive patients with psychosis and randomly assigned them to a structured group reading programme. For all included patients, we psychometrically evaluated clinical symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and disability, as well as cognitive functioning. All evaluations were repeated at a 6-month follow-up. Repeated-measure multiple analyses of variance were used to test the effect of the group reading activities on the clinical, psychosocial and cognitive measures. We found that, after 6 months from discharge, structured group reading activities induced a statistically significant improvement of cognitive (p < 0.007) and psychosocial (p < 0.008) functioning in patients with psychosis and reduced their disability (p < 0.005), with respect to the control group. Furthermore, such programmes are easy to implement and were perceived as extremely 'interesting' and 'useful' by patients with psychosis. Rehabilitation programmes focusing on group reading activities should be regarded as a valid psychosocial rehabilitation tool for psychotic patients with severe mental disability. A structured group reading programme induced a significant symptomatological cognitive and psychosocial amelioration in hospitalized patients with psychosis. The improvement was sustained also at the 6-month follow-up, with respect to the control group. Structured group reading activities are perceived, by severely ill psychiatric patients, as highly useful, interesting and pleasant, while they are

  15. Improving insomnia in primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-led group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Christina; Hetta, Jerker; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Westman, Jeanette

    2017-07-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem, and most people who seek help for insomnia consult primary care. In primary care, insomnia treatment typically consists of hypnotic drugs, although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment. However, such treatment is currently available to few primary care patients. To evaluate the effects of a group treatment program for insomnia led by nurses in primary care. were the Insomnia Severity Index, a 2-week sleep diary, and a questionnaire on frequency of hypnotic drug use. A randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-treatment assessment and a 1-year post-treatment follow-up of the intervention group. Routine primary health care; 7 primary care centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Patients consulting primary care for insomnia were assessed for eligibility. To be included, patients had to have insomnia disorder and be 18 years or older. Patients were excluded if they if they worked night shifts or had severe untreated somatic and/or mental illness, bipolar disorder, or untreated sleep disorder other than insomnia. One-hundred and sixty-five patients 20 to 90 years were included. Most were women, and many had co-existing somatic and/or mental health problems. The post-treatment dropout rate was 20%. The intervention was a nurse-led group treatment for insomnia based on the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The nurses had 2days of training in how to deliver the program. Ninety patients were randomized to the intervention and 75 to the control group (treatment as usual). Data from 82 in the intervention and 71 in the control group were analyzed in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Fifty-four of the 72 in the intervention group who participated in the group treatment program were followed up after 1year. Mean Insomnia Severity Index score decreased significantly from 18.4 to 10.7 after group treatment but remained unchanged after treatment as usual (17.0 to 16.6). The effect

  16. Effect of physical training on urinary incontinence: a randomized parallel group trial in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinsnes, Anne G; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Nyrønning, Signe; Harkless, Gene E; Granbo, Randi; Seim, Arnfinn

    2012-01-01

    Residents in nursing homes (NHs) are often frail older persons who have impaired physical activity. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common complaint for residents in NHs. Reduced functional ability and residence in NHs are documented to be risk factors for UI. To investigate if an individualized training program designed to improve activity of daily living (ADL) and physical capacity among residents in nursing homes has any impact on UI. This randomized controlled trial was a substudy of a Nordic multicenter study. Participants had to be >65 years, have stayed in the NH for more than 3 months and in need of assistance in at least one ADL. A total of 98 residents were randomly allocated to either a training group (n = 48) or a control group (n = 50) after baseline registrations. The training program lasted for 3 months and included accommodated physical activity and ADL training. Personal treatment goals were elicited for each subject. The control group received their usual care. The main outcome measure was UI as measured by a 24-hour pad-weighing test. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups on this measure at baseline (P = 0.15). Changes were calculated from baseline to 3 months after the end of the intervention. Altogether, 68 participants were included in the analysis, 35 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. The average age was 84.3 years. The 3 months' postintervention adjusted mean difference between groups according to amount of leakage was 191 g (P = 0.03). This result was statistically significant after adjusting for baseline level, age, sex, and functional status. The leakage increased in residents not receiving the experimental intervention, while UI in the training group showed improvement. The intervention group had significant better results compared with the control group after an individualized training program designed to improve ADL and physical capacity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the

  17. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Triple P With Chinese Parents in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingchun; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Group Triple P with Chinese parents on parenting and child outcomes as well as outcomes relating to child academic learning in Mainland China. Participants were 81 Chinese parents and their children in Shanghai, who were randomly allocated to an intervention group or wait-list control group. Parents in the intervention condition received Group Triple P training, and parents and children were assessed at three/two time points. Compared with the control group, parents in the intervention group reported significant improvements in child adjustment problems, parenting practices, parental adjustment, and parenting self-efficacy at post-assessment. Moreover, there was a significant increase in parents' satisfaction with children's academic achievement and a reduction in children's academic problem behaviors at post-intervention. All these effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. There was also a significant increase in the child report of positive parenting at post-intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Headache: the placebo effects in the control groups in randomized clinical trials; an analysis of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Femke M; Voogt-Bode, Annieke; Passchier, Jan; Berger, Marjolein Y; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the effects in the placebo and "no treatment" arms in trials with headache patients. This is a secondary analysis of randomized controlled trials from 8 systematic reviews and selected trials with a "no treatment" or placebo control group. The different types of "no treatment" and placebo interventions were assessed and classified into 6 subgroups. The analyses were carried out according to type of outcome variable. In total, 119 studies were included (7119 participants). The mean recovery rate in all control groups was 35.7%. Significantly more participants recovered in control groups of pharmacological studies than in nonpharmacological studies: 38.5% vs 15.0%, respectively. Adults were more likely to recover in nonpharmacological studies and children in pharmacological studies. The mean recovery rate in the control groups was 36%. The recovery rate varied substantially between type of intervention and patients. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do randomized clinical trials with inadequate blinding report enhanced placebo effects for intervention groups and nocebo effects for placebo groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Frederik; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Singh, Kavita; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-02-21

    Studies suggest that expectations powerfully shape clinical outcomes. For subjective outcomes in adequately blinded trials, health improvements are substantial and largely explained by non-specific factors.The objective of this study was to investigate if unblinding in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is associated with enhanced placebo effects for intervention groups and nocebo effects for placebo groups. For these effects, a secondary objective was to explore potential moderating factors. We included RCTs that investigated the efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for male erectile dysfunction by comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor to placebo. In addition, to be included studies must have reported scores for change from baseline, or baseline and final International Index of Erectile Functioning-Erectile Functioning domain score (IIEF-EF), and be published in either English, French, Dutch, or German.We searched for both published and unpublished relevant trials using PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, a clinical trials register (clinicaltrials.gov) and the Food and Drug Administration clinical reviews through March 2012.We evaluated the blinding status of trials with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, using the domains of allocation sequence concealment, blinding of participants, healthcare providers and outcome assessors. Across these four domains, studies that scored low risk of bias were judged to be adequately blinded and studies that scored unclear or high risk of bias were judged to be inadequately blinded. We included 110 studies (205 journal publications and 2 unpublished sources) that involved 23,877 participants; 93 (85%), 51 (46%), 93 (85%) and 93 (85%) studies were assessed with an unclear risk of bias for allocation concealment, blinding of participant, blinding of caregiver and blinding of outcome assessor, respectively. None of the studies reported testing of blinding.None of the 205 journal publications

  1. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  2. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  3. A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøbli, John; Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje

    2013-03-01

    Group-based Parent Management Training, the Oregon model (PMTO, 12 sessions) was delivered by the regular staff of municipal child and family services. PMTO is based on social interaction learning theory and promotes positive parenting skills in parents of children with conduct problems. This study examined the effectiveness of the group-based training intervention in real world settings both immediately following and six months after termination of the intervention. One hundred thirty-seven children (3-12 years) and their parents participated in this study. The families were randomly assigned to group-based training or a comparison group. Data were collected from parents and teachers. The caregiver assessments of parenting practices and child conduct problems and caregiver and teacher reported social competence revealed immediate and significant intervention effects. Short- and long-term beneficial effects were reported from parents, although no follow-up effects were evident on teacher reports. These effectiveness findings and the potential for increasing the number of families served to support the further dissemination and implementation of group-based parent training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  5. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Exercises and Dry Needling for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Buría, José L; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, María; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Salom-Moreno, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of exercise versus exercise plus trigger point (TrP) dry needling (TrP-DN) in subacromial pain syndrome. A randomized parallel-group trial, with 1-year follow-up was conducted. Fifty subjects with subacromial pain syndrome were randomly allocated to receive exercise alone or exercise plus TrP-DN. Participants in both groups were asked to perform an exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice daily for 5 weeks. Further, patients allocated to the exercise plus TrP-DN group also received dry needling to active TrPs in the muscles reproducing shoulder symptoms during the second and fourth sessions. The primary outcome was pain-related disability assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included mean current pain and the worst pain experienced in the shoulder during the previous week. They were assessed at baseline, 1 week, and 3, 6, and 12 months after the end of treatment. Analysis was according to intention to treat with mixed analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline outcomes. At 12 months, 47 patients (94%) completed follow-up. Statistically larger improvements (all, P < .01) in shoulder disability was found for the exercise plus TrP-DN group at all follow-up periods (post: Δ -20.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) -23.8 to -17.4]; 3 months: Δ -23.2 [95% CI -28.3 to -18.1)]; 6 months: Δ -23.6 [95% CI -28.9 to -18.3]; 12 months: Δ -13.9 [95% CI -17.5 to -10.3]). Both groups exhibited similar improvements in shoulder pain outcomes at all follow-up periods. The inclusion of TrP-DN with an exercise program was effective for improving disability in subacromial pain syndrome. No greater improvements in shoulder pain were observed. This study found that the inclusion of 2 sessions of TrP-DN into an exercise program was effective for improving shoulder pain-related disability at short-, medium-, and long-term; however, no greater

  7. Effect of Facilitation of Local Maternal-and-Newborn Stakeholder Groups on Neonatal Mortality: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Åke Persson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cluster-randomized design 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Laywomen facilitated monthly meetings during 3 years in groups composed of health care staff and key persons in the communes. A problem-solving approach was employed. Births and neonatal deaths were monitored, and interviews were performed in households of neonatal deaths and of randomly selected surviving infants. A latent period before effect is expected in this type of intervention, but this timeframe was not pre-specified. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR from July 2008 to June 2011 was 16.5/1,000 (195 deaths per 11,818 live births in the intervention communes and 18.4/1,000 (194 per 10,559 live births in control communes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.73-1.25]. There was a significant downward time trend of NMR in intervention communes (p = 0.003 but not in control communes (p = 0.184. No significant difference in NMR was observed during the first two years (July 2008 to June 2010 while the third year (July 2010 to June 2011 had significantly lower NMR in intervention arm: adjusted OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.30-0.89. Women in intervention communes more frequently attended antenatal care (adjusted OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.07-4.8]. CONCLUSIONS: A randomized facilitation intervention with local stakeholder groups composed of primary care staff and local politicians working for three years with a perinatal problem-solving approach resulted in increased attendance to antenatal care and reduced

  8. Group music therapy for severe mental illness: a randomized embedded-experimental mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, D; Bloch, S; Castle, D; Thompson, G; Newton, R; Stewart, S; Gold, C

    2014-08-01

    Music therapy is an innovative approach to support people with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of the study was to determine whether group music therapy (GMT) positively impacted on quality of life (QoL), social enrichment, self-esteem, spirituality and psychiatric symptoms of participants with SMI and how they experienced the intervention. The primary outcome was QoL; secondary measures assessed social enrichment, self-esteem, spirituality and psychiatric symptoms. The 13-week intervention comprised singing familiar songs and composing original songs recorded in a professional studio. Qualitative data were generated from focus group interviews and song lyric analysis. Ninety-nine adults (57 female) were recruited, with an initial cohort (n = 75) randomized to either: weekly GMT followed by standard care (SC) or SC followed by GMT. Crossover occurred after 13 weeks. Measures were conducted at baseline, 13, 26 and 39 weeks. A second cohort (n = 24) could not be randomized and were assigned to GMT followed by SC. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a significant difference between GMT and SC on QoL and spirituality. This was robust to different assumptions about missing data (listwise deletion, last observation carried forward or multiple imputation). Per-protocol analysis suggested greater benefit for those receiving more sessions. Focus group interview and song lyric analyses suggested that GMT was enjoyable; self-esteem was enhanced; participants appreciated therapists and peers; and although challenges were experienced, the programme was recommended to others. Group music therapy may enhance QoL and spirituality of persons with SMI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C; Reinke, Wendy M

    2017-03-01

    For children with the most serious and persistent academic and behavior problems, parent involvement in education, particularly teacher perceptions of involvement, is essential to avert their expected long-term negative outcomes. Despite the widespread interest in and perceived importance of parent involvement in education, however, few experimental studies have evaluated programs and practices to promote it. In this group randomized trial, we examined the effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program (IY TCM) on teacher perceptions of contact and comfort with parents. One hundred five classrooms with 1818 students were randomly assigned to an IY TCM or to a control, business as usual condition. Measures of key constructs included teacher ratings of parent and student behaviors, direct observations in the classroom, and a standardized academic achievement test. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to identify patterns of involvement over time and to determine if intervention condition predicted postintervention patterns and transitions. Four patterns of involvement were identified at baseline and at follow-up; parents of students with academic and behavior problems were most likely to be in classes with the least adaptive involvement patterns. Intervention status predicted group membership at follow-up. Specifically, intervention classroom parents were significantly more likely to transition to more adaptive teacher-rated parenting profiles at follow-up compared to control classroom parents. This is the first randomized trial we are aware of that has found that teacher training can alter teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns. Clinical implications for students with behavior and academic problems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Brick tunnel randomization for unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2011-04-15

    Studies with unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups often require a large block size for permuted block allocation. This could present a problem in small studies, multi-center studies, or adaptive design dose-finding studies. In this paper, an allocation procedure, which generalizes the maximal procedure by Berger, Ivanova, and Knoll to the case of K≥2 treatment groups and any allocation ratio, is offered. Brick tunnel (BT) randomization requires the allocation path drawn in the k-dimensional space to stay close to the allocation ray that corresponds to the targeted allocation ratio. Specifically, it requires the allocation path to be confined to the set of the k-dimensional unitary cubes that are pierced by the allocation ray (the 'brick tunnel'). The important property of the BT randomization is that the transition probabilities at each node within the tunnel are defined in such a way that the unconditional allocation ratio is the same for every allocation step. This property is not necessarily met by other allocation procedures that implement unequal allocation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  12. Group Versus Individual Physical Therapy for Veterans With Knee Osteoarthritis: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelli D; Bongiorni, Dennis; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Datta, Santanu K; Edelman, David; Hall, Katherine S; Lindquist, Jennifer H; Oddone, Eugene Z; Hoenig, Helen

    2016-05-01

    Efficient approaches are needed for delivering nonpharmacological interventions for management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This trial compared group-based versus individual physical therapy interventions for management of knee OA. Three hundred twenty patients with knee OA at the VA Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, (mean age=60 years, 88% male, 58% nonwhite) were randomly assigned to receive either the group intervention (group physical therapy; six 1-hour sessions, typically 8 participants per group) or the individual intervention (individual physical therapy; two 1-hour sessions). Both programs included instruction in home exercise, joint protection techniques, and individual physical therapist evaluation. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; range=0-96, higher scores indicate worse symptoms), measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. The secondary outcome measure was the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range=0-12, higher scores indicate better performance), measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Linear mixed models assessed the difference in WOMAC scores between arms. At 12 weeks, WOMAC scores were 2.7 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% confidence interval [CI]=-5.9, 0.5; P=.10), indicating no between-group difference. At 24 weeks, WOMAC scores were 1.3 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% CI=-4.6, 2.0; P=.44), indicating no significant between-group difference. At 12 weeks, SPPB scores were 0.1 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% CI=-0.5, 0.2; P=.53), indicating no difference between groups. This study was conducted in one VA medical center. Outcome assessors were blinded, but participants and physical therapists were not blinded. Group physical therapy was not more effective

  13. Lipase-catalysed selective deacetylation of phenolic/enolic acetoxy groups in peracetylated benzyl phenyl ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, V S; Pati, H N; Azim, A; Kumar, R; Himanshu; Bisht, K S; Prasad, A K; Errington, W

    1998-01-01

    Highly chemo- and regioselective de-esterification has been observed in the deacetylation of peracetylated enolic forms of polyphenolic benzyl phenyl ketones by lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The enzyme selectively deacetylates the enolic acetoxy over the phenolic acetoxy group(s) and continuation of the reaction resulted, in addition the regioselective deacetylation of acetoxy function para to the nuclear carbonyl group.

  14. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  15. Multidisciplinary group rehabilitation versus individual physiotherapy for chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääpä, Eeva Helena; Frantsi, Kirsi; Sarna, Seppo; Malmivaara, Antti

    2006-02-15

    A randomized trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of a semi-intensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain in an outpatient setting. Systematic reviews have shown that there is strong evidence that intensive multidisciplinary treatment (>100 hours), which includes functional restoration, improves function among chronic patients with low back pain, and moderate evidence that it reduces pain but contradictory evidence regarding improvement of working ability. However, there is paucity of data whether semi-intensive outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation in groups is more effective than individual physiotherapy. A total of 120 women employed as healthcare and social care professionals with nonspecific chronic low back pain were recruited from two occupational healthcare centers. The patients were randomized into two intervention programs. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation (n = 59) was conducted in groups and comprised of physical training, workplace interventions, back school, relaxation training, and cognitive-behavioral stress management methods for 70 hours. The individual physiotherapy (n = 61) included physical exercise and passive treatment methods administered for 10 hours. Main outcome measures were: back pain and sciatic pain intensity, disability, sick leaves, healthcare consumption, symptoms of depression, and beliefs of working ability after 2 years. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups in main outcome measures just after rehabilitation, at 6-, at 12-, or 24-month follow-up. In both intervention arms, however, the before-and-after comparison showed favorable effects, and the effects were still maintained at 2 years follow-up. The results of this study indicate that semilight outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for female chronic low back pain patients does not offer incremental benefits when compared with rehabilitation carried out by a physiotherapist

  16. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  17. Effects of Group, Individual, and Home Exercise in Persons With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyi; Blehm, Ron; Nutt, John; Chen, Zunqiu; Serdar, Andrea; Horak, Fay B

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson disease (PD) rarely considered how one should deliver the intervention. The objective of this study was to compare the success of exercise when administered by (1) home exercise program, (2) individualized physical therapy, or (3) a group class. We examined if common comorbidities associated with PD impacted success of each intervention. Fifty-eight people (age = 63.9 ± 8 years) with PD participated. People were randomized into (1) home exercise program, (2) individual physical therapy, or (3) group class intervention. All arms were standardized and based on the Agility Boot Camp exercise program for PD, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 7-item Physical Performance Test. Other measures of balance, gait, mobility, quality of life, balance confidence, depressions, apathy, self-efficacy and UPDRS-Motor, and activity of daily living scores were included. Only the individual group significantly improved in the Physical Performance Test. The individual exercise showed the most improvements in functional and balance measures, whereas the group class showed the most improvements in gait. The home exercise program improved the least across all outcomes. Several factors effected success, particularly for the home group. An unsupervised, home exercise program is the least effective way to deliver exercise to people with PD, and individual and group exercises have differing benefits. Furthermore, people with PD who also have other comorbidities did better in a program directly supervised by a physical therapist.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A112).

  18. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  19. Tensile tests of specimens made of selected group of the filament materials manufactured with FDM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowik Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of tensile tests carried out for specimens made of the selected group of the filament materials. As a manufacturing technology FDM 3D printing method was chosen. The selected group of the filament materials involved the group of wood, PLA, ABS, PET, PMMA and ASA. Herein, it should be noticed, that technical data sheets that are delivered by filament materials producers include data that are valid for only one specific printing direction. This printing direction is deliberately selected, in such way that ensures the best material characteristics. Therefore, received during the research results allow to make comparison between a catalogue data and data obtained in the printing process. It aids both mechanical designer and product manufacturer at the stage of the printed product mechanical properties shaping.

  20. Supplier Selection Group Decision Making in Logistics Service Value Cocreation Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy information aggregation plays an important role in intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and is widely used in group decision making. In this paper, an induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator (I-IFEHA is investigated for supplier selection group decision making in logistics service value cocreation based on fuzzy measures. We first introduce some aggregation operators and Einstein operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and develop a new induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator to accommodate the environment in which the given arguments are intuitionistic fuzzy values. Then, we study the supplier selection group decision model in logistics service value cocreation based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets with the I-IFEHA operator. Finally, an example of 3PL supplier selection in logistics service value cocreation environment is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

  1. Effect of physical training on urinary incontinence: a randomized parallel group trial in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinsnes AG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anne G Vinsnes1, Jorunn L Helbostad2, Signe Nyrønning3, Gene E Harkless1,4, Randi Granbo5, Arnfinn Seim61Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 3Søbstad Community Hospital and Teaching Nursing Home, Trondheim, Norway; 4University of New Hampshire, College of Health and Social Services, Nursing Faculty, Durham, New Hampshire, USA; 5Department of Physiotherapy, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 6Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Residents in nursing homes (NHs are often frail older persons who have impaired physical activity. Urinary incontinence (UI is a common complaint for residents in NHs. Reduced functional ability and residence in NHs are documented to be risk factors for UI.Objective: To investigate if an individualized training program designed to improve activity of daily living (ADL and physical capacity among residents in nursing homes has any impact on UI.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was a substudy of a Nordic multicenter study. Participants had to be >65 years, have stayed in the NH for more than 3 months and in need of assistance in at least one ADL. A total of 98 residents were randomly allocated to either a training group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 50 after baseline registrations. The training program lasted for 3 months and included accommodated physical activity and ADL training. Personal treatment goals were elicited for each subject. The control group received their usual care. The main outcome measure was UI as measured by a 24-hour pad-weighing test. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups on this measure at baseline (P = 0.15. Changes were calculated from baseline to 3 months after the end of the intervention.Results: Altogether, 68 participants were included in the analysis

  2. Griffiths singularities in the random quantum Ising antiferromagnet: A tree tensor network renormalization group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ping; Kao, Ying-Jer; Chen, Pochung; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic Ising chain in both transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields is one of the paradigmatic models of a quantum phase transition. The antiferromagnetic system exhibits a zero-temperature critical line separating an antiferromagnetic phase and a paramagnetic phase; the critical line connects an integrable quantum critical point at zero longitudinal field and a classical first-order transition point at zero transverse field. Using a strong-disorder renormalization group method formulated as a tree tensor network, we study the zero-temperature phase of the quantum Ising chain with bond randomness. We introduce a new matrix product operator representation of high-order moments, which provides an efficient and accurate tool for determining quantum phase transitions via the Binder cumulant of the order parameter. Our results demonstrate an infinite-randomness quantum critical point in zero longitudinal field accompanied by pronounced quantum Griffiths singularities, arising from rare ordered regions with anomalously slow fluctuations inside the paramagnetic phase. The strong Griffiths effects are signaled by a large dynamical exponent z >1 , which characterizes a power-law density of low-energy states of the localized rare regions and becomes infinite at the quantum critical point. Upon application of a longitudinal field, the quantum phase transition between the paramagnetic phase and the antiferromagnetic phase is completely destroyed. Furthermore, quantum Griffiths effects are suppressed, showing z <1 , when the dynamics of the rare regions is hampered by the longitudinal field.

  3. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  4. Randomized comparative trial of a social cognitive skills group for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorya, Latha V; Siper, Paige M; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A Ting

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, Seaver-NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age, with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and 3 months posttreatment. Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ moderated the interaction effect on social behavior, with higher verbal IQ associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at 3-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n = 34). These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. Clinical trial registration information-Neural and Behavioral Outcomes of Social Skills Groups in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01190917. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reflecting peer-support groups in the prevention of stress and burnout: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ulla; Bergström, Gunnar; Samuelsson, Mats; Asberg, Marie; Nygren, Ake

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study to test the effect of participating in a reflecting peer-support group on self-reported health, burnout and on perceived changes in work conditions. Stress-related conditions are one of the most common causes for long-term sick-leave. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of person-directed interventions aimed at reducing stress levels in healthcare workers. Prior research in the relationship between support and burnout show somewhat inconsistent results. A randomized controlled trial with peer-support groups as the intervention was conducted with 660 healthcare workers scoring above the 75th percentile on the exhaustion dimension of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. One hundred and fifty-one (22.9%) agreed to participate. The intervention started in 2002 with 51 participants (96.1% were women), 80 of whom constituted the control group. Potential differences in outcome measures 12 months after the intervention were compared using ancova, and data collected was completed in 2004. Qualitative content analyses were used to analyse reported experiences from group participation. Statistically significant intervention effects were found for general health, perceived quantitative demands at work, participation and development opportunities at work and in support at work. Seven categories of experiences from participating were identified: talking to others in a similar situation, knowledge, sense of belonging, self-confidence, structure, relief of symptoms and behavioural change. Peer-support groups using a problem-based method could be a useful and comparatively inexpensive tool in alleviating work-related stress and burnout.

  6. Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Grant C; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-06-01

    A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioral information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection). Pre- and postcopulatory components of male reproductive success covaried positively; males with high mating success also had high paternity share. Two male phenotypes affected male pre- and postcopulatory performance: average aggressiveness toward rival males and age. Aggressive males mated with more females and more often with individual females, resulting in higher sexual exclusivity. Similarly, younger males mated with more females and more often with individual females, suffering less intense sperm competition than older males. Older males had a lower paternity share even allowing for their limited sexual exclusivity, indicating they may produce less competitive ejaculates. These results show that-in these populations-postcopulatory sexual selection reinforces precopulatory sexual selection, consistently promoting younger and more aggressive males. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Studies with staggered starts: multiple baseline designs and group-randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoda, Dale A; Murray, David M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Pennell, Michael L; Hade, Erinn M

    2011-11-01

    Multiple baseline designs (MBDs) have been suggested as alternatives to group-randomized trials (GRT). We reviewed structural features of MBDs and considered their potential effectiveness in public health research. We also reviewed the effect of staggered starts on statistical power. We reviewed the MBD literature to identify key structural features, recent suggestions that MBDs be adopted in public health research, and the literature on power in GRTs with staggered starts. We also computed power for MBDs and GRTs. The features that have contributed to the success of small MBDs in some fields are not likely to translate well to public health research. MBDs can be more powerful than GRTs under some conditions, but those conditions involve assumptions that require careful evaluation in practice. MBDs will often serve better as a complement of rather than as an alternative to GRTs. GRTs may employ staggered starts for logistical or ethical reasons, but this will always increase their duration and will often increase their cost.

  8. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  9. Who's a major? A novel approach to peer group selection: Empirical evidence from oil and gas companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asche, Frank; Misund, Bård

    2016-01-01

    .... A key aspect in valuation by multiples is peer group selection. In this paper, we examine the usefulness of econometric techniques in peer-group selection for the largest companies in the international oil and gas sector...

  10. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  11. Integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation efficacy in multiple sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilo, Oiane; Peña, Javier; Ojeda, Natalia; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Mendibe-Bilbao, Mar; Gómez-Gastiasoro, Ainara; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation programme, REHACOP, on improving cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Fourty-two MS patients were randomized to the treatment programme REHACOP (n = 21) or waiting list control condition (n = 21). The REHACOP group received cognitive rehabilitation in group format for three months focused on attention, processing speed, learning and memory, language, executive functioning, and social cognition. Patients completed a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and follow-up, which included tests of attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functioning. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine the efficacy of the cognitive rehabilitation programme. Group × Time interactions revealed significant improvements in the REHACOP group as compared with the control group for processing speed (p = 0.011, np2 = 0.16), working memory (p = 0.014, np2 = 0.15), verbal memory (p = 0.025, np2 = 0.13), and executive functioning (p = 0.024, np2 = 0.13), showing medium-large effect sizes. Patients receiving REHACOP showed improvements in several cognitive domains. This preliminary study thus provides evidence supporting the efficacy of this integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention in MS. Future research should confirm these findings, examine the impact of the treatment on everyday life functioning and explore the presence of brain changes associated with cognitive rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation This study provides initial evidence for integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation efficacy in MS patients through the implementation of the REHACOP cognitive rehabilitation programme. Patients received cognitive rehabilitation for three months (3 one-hour-sessions per week) focused on training attention

  12. Detection of Alzheimer's disease using group lasso SVM-based region selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuo; Fan, Yong; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van de Giessen, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent forms of dementia and an increasing challenging public health problem. In the last two decades, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly controls (CN). To obtain AD-specific biomarkers, previous research used either statistical testing to find statistically significant different regions between the two clinical groups, or l1 sparse learning to select isolated features in the image domain. In this paper, we propose a new framework that uses structural MRI to simultaneously distinguish the two clinical groups and find the bio-markers of AD, using a group lasso support vector machine (SVM). The group lasso term (mixed l1- l2 norm) introduces anatomical information from the image domain into the feature domain, such that the resulting set of selected voxels are more meaningful than the l1 sparse SVM. Because of large inter-structure size variation, we introduce a group specific normalization factor to deal with the structure size bias. Experiments have been performed on a well-designed AD vs. CN dataset1 to validate our method. Comparing to the l1 sparse SVM approach, our method achieved better classification performance and a more meaningful biomarker selection. When we vary the training set, the selected regions by our method were more stable than the l1 sparse SVM. Classification experiments showed that our group normalization lead to higher classification accuracy with fewer selected regions than the non-normalized method. Comparing to the state-of-art AD vs. CN classification methods, our approach not only obtains a high accuracy with the same dataset, but more importantly, we simultaneously find the brain anatomies that are closely related to the disease.

  13. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  14. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  15. Plant community development after 28 years in small group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Phillip E. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    Thirty openings, 9, 18, and 27 meters in diameter, were created by group-selection harvest on a high quality site in northern California in 1963. In 1991, or 28 years after site preparation, the plant community in the openings had stabilized at 55 species. A major shift was from annuals to perennials. New seedlings of ponderosa and sugar pine were able to become...

  16. Factors affecting temporal and spatial soil moisture variation in and adjacent to group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.H. McNab

    1991-01-01

    Soil moisture content was intensively sampled in three, 1-acre blocks containing an opening and surrounding mature upland hardwoods. Openings covering 0.19-0.26 ac were created by group-selection cutting, and they were occupied by 1-year-old trees and shrubs.

  17. Naturally seeded versus planted ponderosa pine seedlings in group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary Fiddler; Martin Ritchie; Paula Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to determine whether natural regeneration or planted seedlings should be used in group-selection openings. The answer dependson the survival and growth rate of both types of seedlings, and that could depend on the size of the openings and the effect of trees on their edge. In thisside-by-side study, the natural pine seedlings originated...

  18. Evaluation of sapling height and density after clearcutting and group selection in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerric T. Good; Benjamin O. Knapp; Lance A. Vickers; David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    Silvicultural decisions often affect the development and characteristics of a stand. Silvicultural regeneration events can have immediate and gradual impacts on stand development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two silvicultural regeneration methods, clearcutting and group selection, on the composition of trees that are likely to recruit to...

  19. The sketch is blank: No evidence for an explanatory role for cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    As evidence that cultural group selection has occurred, Richerson et al. simply retrodict that humans use language, punish each other, and have religion. This is a meager empirical haul after 30 years. This contrasts sharply with the adaptationist approach to human behavior - evolutionary psychology - which has produced scores of novel, specific, and empirically confirmed predictions.

  20. Highly selective nitroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of primary alcohol groups in water-soluble glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooy, A.E.J. de; Besemer, A.C.; Bekkum, H. van

    1995-01-01

    With catalytic amounts of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and hypochlorite/bromide as the regenerating oxidant in water, primary alcohol groups in glucans and derivatives thereof were rapidly and completely oxidised. For pyranosides, selectivity was higher than 95% and no side products

  1. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  2. Myofascial Release Therapy in the Treatment of Occupational Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Parallel Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Iván; De Toro, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Meijide-Faílde, Rosa; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac Manuel

    2016-07-01

    As myofascial release therapy is currently under development, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of myofascial release therapy with manual therapy for treating occupational mechanical neck pain. A randomized, single-blind parallel group study was developed. The sample (n = 59) was divided into GI, treated with manual therapy, and GII, treated with myofascial release therapy. Variables studied were intensity of neck pain, cervical disability, quality of life, craniovertebral angle, and ranges of cervical motion. At five sessions, clinical significance was observed in both groups for all the variables studied, except for flexion in GI. At this time point, an intergroup statistical difference was observed, which showed that GII had better craniovertebral angle (P = 0.014), flexion (P = 0.021), extension (P = 0.003), right side bending (P = 0.001), and right rotation (P = 0.031). A comparative analysis between therapies after intervention showed statistical differences indicating that GII had better craniovertebral angle (P = 0.000), right (P = 0.000) and left (P = 0.009) side bending, right (P = 0.024) and left (P = 0.046) rotations, and quality of life. The treatment of occupational mechanical neck pain by myofascial release therapy seems to be more effective than manual therapy for correcting the advanced position of the head, recovering range of motion in side bending and rotation, and improving quality of life.

  3. Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Pessin, Hayley; Poppito, Shannon; Nelson, Christian; Tomarken, Alexis; Timm, Anne Kosinski; Berg, Amy; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan

    2010-01-01

    An increasingly important concern for clinicians who care for patients at the end of life is their spiritual well-being and sense of meaning and purpose in life. In response to the need for short-term interventions to address spiritual well-being, we developed Meaning Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP) to help patients with advanced cancer sustain or enhance a sense of meaning, peace and purpose in their lives, even as they approach the end of life. Patients with advanced (stage III or IV) solid tumor cancers (N=90) were randomly assigned to either MCGP or a supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the 8-week intervention, and again 2 months after completion. Outcome assessment included measures of spiritual well-being, meaning, hopelessness, desire for death, optimism/pessimism, anxiety, depression and overall quality of life. MCGP resulted in significantly greater improvements in spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning. Treatment gains were even more substantial (based on effect size estimates) at the second follow-up assessment. Improvements in anxiety and desire for death were also significant (and increased over time). There was no significant improvement on any of these variables for patients participating in SGP. MCGP appears to be a potentially beneficial intervention for patients' emotional and spiritual suffering at the end of life. Further research, with larger samples, is clearly needed to better understand the potential benefits of this novel intervention. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:291-303, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A simple three step method for selective placement of organic groups in mesoporous silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Gerencia Química, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llave, Ezequiel de la; Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A., E-mail: galo.soler.illia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Nanosistemas, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. The first step consists in an outer surface functionalization, followed by washing off the structuring agent (second step), leaving the inner surface of the pores free to be functionalized in the third step. This reproducible method permits to anchor a volatile silane group in the outer film surface, and a second type of silane group in the inner surface of the pores. As a concept test we modified the outer surface of a mesoporous silica film with trimethylsilane (–Si–(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) groups and the inner pore surface with propylamino (–Si–(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}–NH{sub 2}) groups. The obtained silica films were characterized by Environmental Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EEP), EDS, XPS, contact angle and electron microscopy. The selectively functionalized silica (SF) shows an amount of surface amino functions 4.3 times lower than the one-step functionalized (OSF) silica samples. The method presented here can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides as functional groups, opening up a new route toward the synthesis of multifunctional mesoporous thin films with precisely localized organic functions. - Highlights: • Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. • A volatile silane group is anchored by evaporation on the outer film surface. • A second silane is deposited in the inner surface of the pores by post-grafting. • Contact angle, EDS and XPS measurements show different proportions of amino groups on both surfaces. • This method can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides functional groups.

  7. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  8. Comparison of tutored group with tutorless group in problem-based mixed learning sessions: a randomized cross-matched study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) involves discussions among students who resolve loosely-structured problems to facilitate learning. In the PBL curriculum, faculty tutors are employed as facilitators for small groups of students. Because of lack of time and staff shortage, the effectiveness of tutorless PBL has been discussed as an alternate option. Methods Sessions in which tutored and tutorless PBL groups are mixed were presented by 1st-year medical students, who experienced both tutored and tutorless groups alternately in the two sessions of a year. To examine the effectiveness of tutored and tutorless PBL, written examination scores (WES) and self-contentment scores (SCS) were statistically analysed. Results WES averages did not significantly differ between the tutored and tutorless groups; however, a significantly greater variation was observed in WES in the tutorless group. SCS averages tended to be higher in the tutored PBL than in tutorless PBL groups. Conclusions Students in these tutorless PBL groups performed well in their written examinations, whereas those in the tutored PBL groups, achieved this and reported better self-contentment with their learning experience. Tutorless PBL sessions were considered to be comparable to tutored PBL sessions at least in the early stages. PMID:24289490

  9. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Single- versus two-visit pulpectomy treatment in primary teeth with apical periodontitis: A double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharuka, Sneha Bharatkumar; Mandroli, Praveenkumar S

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of the bacterial populations to levels compatible with periradicular tissue healing is the primary microbiological goal of the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. The number of visits required to treat teeth with apical periodontitis represents one of the most debatable issues in endodontics. The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of single- versus two-visit pulpectomy treatment in primary teeth with apical periodontitis at the end of 6-month healing period. A parallel group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out in 64 children aged 4-8 years. Nonvital primary teeth with apical periodontitis with enough coronal structure were selected. Sixty-four children were assigned randomly into two groups (32 children each) by block randomization, and allocation concealment was done with closed envelop method. Group I underwent single-visit pulpectomy followed by obturation with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE). Group II underwent conventional two-visit pulpectomy with intracanal calcium hydroxide, followed by obturation with ZOE. Postoperative clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out at 1, 3, and 6 months after the end of the treatment. The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon's signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Friedman test. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical and radiographic outcomes in both the groups at the end of 6-month healing period. Single-visit pulpectomy can be considered as a viable option for the treatment of primary teeth with apical periodontitis.

  11. A Selective Group Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Medical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2017-04-01

    The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users. In this paper, we propose a selective group authentication scheme using Shamir's threshold technique. The property of selectivity gives the right of choice to users to form a group which consists of things users select and access. And users can get an access authority for those Things at a time. Thus, our scheme provides an efficient user authentication for multiple Things and conditional access authority for safe IoT-based medical information system. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first in which selectivity is combined with group authentication in IoT environments.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and tuina) in cerebral palsy: part 1--any increase in seizure in integrated acupuncture and rehabilitation group versus rehabilitation group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Li-Ping; Han, Tong-Li; Zheng, Hua; Caspi, Opher; Wong, Virginia; Su, Yani; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to observe for any change in baseline seizure frequency with acupuncture in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized controlled study was conducted: Group I consisted of integrated acupuncture, tuina, and rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks; and Group II consisted of rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, Group II then received acupuncture and tuina for 12 weeks. Each subject received 5 daily acupuncture sessions per week for 12 weeks (total = 60 sessions). All children were assessed for any change in seizure frequency during treatment. One hundred and sixteen (116) children were recruited and randomized into Group I (N = 58) and Group II (N = 58). Thirty-three (33) children withdrew (9 from Group I and 24 from Group II). Of the remaining 83 children, Group I consisted of 49 and Group II of 34 children. For baseline, 5 children (6%; 5/83) had seizures. During phase 1 (12 weeks) of integrative treatment and subsequent 4-week follow-up, 3 children in Group I had seizures. Among those 3 children with seizures, 1 child with prior history of recurrent febrile seizure had 3 more recurrent febrile seizures during acupuncture treatment and 2 children without any prior history of seizures had new-onset seizures (1 with 3 recurrent febrile seizures and 1 with afebrile seizure). For Group I, 2 children with epilepsy had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment. For Group II during the phase 2 acupuncture period, none had increase in seizure frequency. In both groups, 4 of 5 children (80%; 2 in Group I and 2 in Group II) with seizures had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment and follow-up. The risk of increasing seizure is not increased with acupuncture treatment for cerebral palsy.

  13. Selective memory retrieval in social groups: When silence is golden and when it is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that the selective remembering of a speaker and the resulting silences can cause forgetting of related, but unmentioned information by a listener (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Guided by more recent work that demonstrated both detrimental and beneficial effects of selective memory retrieval in individuals, the present research explored the effects of selective remembering in social groups when access to the encoding context at retrieval was maintained or impaired. In each of three experiments, selective retrieval by the speaker impaired recall of the listener when access to the encoding context was maintained, but it improved recall of the listener when context access was impaired. The results suggest the existence of two faces of selective memory retrieval in social groups, with a detrimental face when the encoding context is still active at retrieval and a beneficial face when it is not. The role of silence in social recall thus seems to be more complex than was indicated in prior work, and mnemonic silences on the part of a speaker can be "golden" for the memories of a listener under some circumstances, but not be "golden" under others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  16. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  17. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  18. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  19. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  20. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  1. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  3. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Manual Physical Therapy Versus Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Fahandezh-Saddi Díaz, Homid; Martínez-Martín, Javier; Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado-Pérez, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of surgery compared with physical therapy consisting of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The setting was a public hospital and 2 physical therapy practices in Madrid, Spain. One hundred twenty women with CTS were enrolled between February 2013 and January 2014, with 1-year follow-up completed in January 2015. Interventions consisted of 3 sessions of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system (physical therapy group, n = 60) or decompression/release of the carpal tunnel (surgical group, n = 60). The primary outcome was pain intensity (mean pain and the worst pain), and secondary outcomes included functional status and symptoms severity subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and the self-perceived improvement. They were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 12 months, 111 (92%) women completed the follow-up (55/60 physical therapy, 56/60 surgery). Adjusted analyses showed an advantage (all, P physical therapy at 1 and 3 months in mean pain (Δ -2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8 to -1.2]/-1.3 [95% CI -2.1 to -.6]), the worst pain (Δ -2.9 [-4.0 to -2.0]/-2.0 [-3.0 to -.9]), and function (Δ -.8 [-1.0 to -.6]/-.3 [-.5 to -.1]), respectively. Changes in pain and function were similar between the groups at 6 and 12 months. The 2 groups had similar improvements in the symptoms severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire at all follow-ups. In women with CTS, physical therapy may result in similar outcomes on pain and function to surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01789645. This study found that surgery and physical manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system were similarly effective at medium-term and long-term follow-ups for improving pain and

  5. School-based prevention of acute rheumatic fever: a group randomized trial in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Diana; Stewart, Joanna; Farrell, Elizabeth; Palmer, Anne; Mason, Henare

    2009-09-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and its sequela, rheumatic heart disease is the commonest cause of childhood cardiac morbidity globally. The current approach to the prevention of a primary attack of rheumatic fever in children using oral medication for streptococcal pharyngitis is poorly supported. The efficacy of injectable penicillin, in high rheumatic fever incidence military environments is indisputable. To evaluate school-based control of rheumatic fever in an endemic area. Fifty-three schools ( approximately 22,000 students) from a rheumatic fever high incidence setting ( approximately 60/100,000) in Auckland, New Zealand were randomized. The control group received routine general practice care. The intervention was a school-based sore throat clinic program with free nurse-observed oral penicillin treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The outcome measure was ARF in any child attending a study school. Analysis A defined ARF cases using criteria derived from Jones Criteria 1965 (definite) and 1956 (probable) with more precise definitions. Analysis B was based on 1992 Jones criteria but also included echocardiography to determine definite cases. In Analysis A, 24 (55/100,000) cases occurred in clinic schools and 29 (67/100,000) in nonclinic schools, a 21% reduction when adjusted for demography and study design (P = 0.47). Analysis B revealed a 28% reduction 26 (59/100,000) and 33 (77/100,000) cases, respectively (P = 0.27). This study involving 86,874 person-years showed a nonsignificant reduction in the school-based sore throat clinic programs.

  6. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: a Nordic Myeloma Study Group randomized phase 3 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsing, Peter; Hjertner, Oyvind; Lenhoff, Stig; Laane, Edward; Remes, Kari; Steingrimsdottir, Hlif; Abildgaard, Niels; Ahlberg, Lucia; Blimark, Cecilie; Dahl, Inger Marie; Forsberg, Karin; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Gregersen, Henrik; Gruber, Astrid; Guldbrandsen, Nina; Haukås, Einar; Carlson, Kristina; Kvam, Ann Kristin; Nahi, Hareth; Lindås, Roald; Andersen, Niels Frost; Turesson, Ingemar; Waage, Anders; Westin, Jan; Gregersen, Henrik; Frost Andersen, Niels; Gimsing, Peter; Toffner-Clausen, Nilsaage; Abildgaard, Niels; Laane, Edward; Silvennoinen, Raija; Remes, Kari; Steingrimsdottir, Hlif; Lindås, Roald; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Guldbrandsen, Nina; Kristin Kvam, Ann; Haukås, Einar; Marie Dahl, Inger; Hjertner, Oyvind; Waage, Anders; Blimark, Cecilie; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Westin, Jan; Ahlberg, Lucia; Lenhoff, Stig; Turesson, Ingemar; Linder, Olle; Gruber, Astrid; Nahi, Hareth; Forsberg, Karin; Carlson, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370 patients were centrally randomly assigned 3 months after ASCT to receive 20 doses of bortezomib given during 21 weeks or no consolidation. The hypothesis was that consolidation therapy would prolong progression-free survival (PFS). The PFS after randomization was 27 months for the bortezomib group compared with 20 months for the control group (P = .05). Fifty-one of 90 patients in the treatment group compared with 32 of 90 controls improved their response after randomization (P = .007). No difference in overall survival was seen. Fatigue was reported more commonly by the bortezomib-treated patients in self-reported quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires, whereas no other major differences in QOL were recorded between the groups. Consolidation therapy seemed to be beneficial for patients not achieving at least a very good partial response (VGPR) but not for patients in the ≥ VGPR category at randomization. Consolidation with bortezomib after ASCT in bortezomib-naive patients improves PFS without interfering with QOL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00417911. PMID:23616624

  7. Amino Acid Derivatives as New Zinc Binding Groups for the Design of Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Giustiniano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are important medicinal targets for conditions ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to cardiomyopathy, periodontal disease, liver cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer invasion and metastasis, where they showed to have a dual role, inhibiting or promoting important processes involved in the pathology. MMPs contain a zinc (II ion in the protein active site. Small-molecule inhibitors of these metalloproteins are designed to bind directly to the active site metal ions. In an effort to devise new approaches to selective inhibitors, in this paper, we describe the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of amino acid derivatives as new zinc binding groups (ZBGs. The incorporation of selected metal-binding functions in more complex biphenyl sulfonamide moieties allowed the identification of one compound able to interact selectively with different MMP enzymatic isoforms.

  8. Wavelength-selective cleavage of photoprotecting groups: strategies and applications in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mickel J; Velema, Willem A; Lerch, Michael M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-06-07

    Photocleavable protecting groups (PPGs) are extensively used in chemical and biological sciences. In their application, advantage is taken of using light as an external, non-invasive stimulus, which can be delivered with very high spatiotemporal precision. More recently, orthogonally addressing multiple PPGs, in a single system and with different wavelengths of light, has been explored. This approach allows one to independently control multiple functionalities in an external, non-invasive fashion. In this tutorial review, we discuss the design principles for dynamic systems involving wavelength-selective deprotection, focusing on the choice and optimization of PPGs, synthetic methods for their introduction and strategies for combining multiple PPGs into one system. Finally, we illustrate the design principles with representative examples, aiming at providing the reader with an instructive overview on how the wavelength-selective cleavage of photoprotecting groups can be applied in materials science, organic synthesis and biological systems.

  9. Colour blindness and natural selection: studies in four nomadic tribal groups from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, S

    1993-06-01

    438 males and 369 females from four endogamous nomadic groups of the Yerukala viz. Suvvi, Badda, Uppu and Kunchapuri of Andhra Pradesh (India) were examined for red-green colour blindness using the 15th edition of Isihara's colour blindness chart. The absence of defective colour vision in the Badda Yerukala and very low frequencies among the other groups agree not only with the hypotheses of Post (1962) and Pickford (1963) concerning the operation of natural selection, but corroborates, too, the opinion of Malhotra (1978) that nomads by virtue of their life-style demand good colour vision.

  10. Culturally appropriate health education for Type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: an updated Cochrane Review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, J; Attridge, M; Ramsden, M; Cannings-John, R; Hawthorne, K

    2016-02-01

    To give an updated perspective of interventions from additional data collected since our first review, conducted in 2008. This updated Cochrane Review incorporates new information from recent randomized controlled trials on culturally appropriate diabetes health education interventions. An electronic literature search of six databases was repeated, with databases of ongoing trials checked and three journals hand-searched. Meta-analysis was carried out for sufficiently homogeneous outcomes, and common themes among trials were highlighted. A total of 22 new trials were added to the original 11. Meta-analysis of 28 trials containing suitable data showed significant improvements in glycaemic control (HbA1c ) and diabetes knowledge over a period of 24 months, after the delivery of culturally appropriate education to participants, compared with those receiving 'conventional' care. There were no consistent benefits over the control group in other selected outcome measures, and lack of data continued to make analysis of several outcome measures difficult. Research activity in this field has increased considerably over the past 6 years, with culturally appropriate diabetes education showing consistent benefits over conventional care in terms of glycaemic control and diabetes knowledge, sustained in the short- to mid-term. Further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of these improvements and their cost-effectiveness. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  11. Landscape genomic approach to detect selection signatures in locally adapted Brazilian swine genetic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cesconeto, Robson Jose; Joost, Stéphane; McManus, Concepta Margaret; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samβada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in b...

  12. Enumeration of selected anaerobic bacterial groups in cecal and colonic contents of growing-finishing pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Butine, T J; Leedle, J A

    1989-01-01

    Selected anaerobic bacterial groups in cecal and colonic contents of clinically healthy pigs fed a corn-soybean meal production diet were determined at sacrifice after 4, 8, and 11 weeks on feed, corresponding to intervals within the growing-finishing growth period. By using ruminal fluid-based media, the densities of the culturable anaerobic population; the cellulolytic, pectin-fermenting, pectin-hydrolyzing, xylan-fermenting; and the xylan-hydrolyzing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bac...

  13. Designed nitrogen doping of few-layer graphene functionalized by selective oxygenic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Xie, Bingqiao; Ren, Yingtao; Yu, Mengying; Qu, Yang; Xie, Ting; Yong ZHANG; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Few-layer nitrogen doped graphene was synthesized originating from graphene oxide functionalized by selective oxygenic functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl etc.) under hydrothermal conditions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation evidenced few-layer feature of the graphene oxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed phase structure of the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Nitrogen doping content and bonding...

  14. Removable partial denture use among a selected group of Nigerian undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, C. C.; B Akinboboye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported prevalence of removable partial denture use among a selected group of Nigerian undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin recruited over four week′s period were studied. Results: The prevalence of removable partial denture use among the respondents was 1.8%. Denture use was more among those aged 17-25 years, females and right handed individuals. Removable partial denture users were less likely ...

  15. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  16. Attitudes about preconception sex selection: a focus group study with Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfoglou, A L; Scott, J; Hudson, K

    2008-12-01

    MicroSort, a sperm-sorting technology for sex selection, may eventually be approved by the Food and Drug Administration and marketed to the public. Data on US public attitudes about the morally appropriate uses and regulation of this technology are lacking. We conducted 20 focus groups in April 2003 with participants from five major US cities to identify the values that shape Americans' attitudes about the use and regulation of preconception sex selection (PSS) technology. One hundred and seventy-six individuals between the ages of 18 and 68 were assigned to groups ranging from 6 to 11 participants based on their location, sex, race/ethnicity, religion, age, education and parental status. Qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts was conducted using NVivo 2.0 software to determine beliefs and values that shape participants' opinions about the appropriate use and regulation of PSS. Most participants strongly favor using PSS to avoid X-linked genetic diseases. Although some participants were uncomfortable with the use of PSS for non-medical sex selection, believing it to be 'selfish' and inconsistent with parental love, they did not perceive the potential harms to be significant enough to warrant governmental intrusion into reproductive decisions. PSS should face little public opposition in the US if widely marketed.

  17. Sex, kings and serial killers and other group-selected human traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J T

    2000-06-01

    (Note: This unorthodox paper contains the first argument for heart disease being a programmed age change and promoted by the dramatic, post age-40 increases in the hormones FSH and hCG seen in some individuals.) A recent issue of Science suggests that the evolutionary purpose of sex is unknown. Surviving to adulthood implies a valuable gene combination which is destroyed by sexual recombination. This should be detrimental to offspring. PROPOSED: Sex is group-selected in prey to allow coalescence of beneficial, and disposal of detrimental, mutations in single individuals enabling rapid adaptation to novel predation. Group selection is a universal force driven by local inter-species (not intra-species) competition. Aging, metabolism, litter size, and fixed body size are directly linked. Sexual recombination and chromosomes destroy gene linkage and exist because mutations are usually detrimental, rarely positive, and occur in linked groups. In unevolving environments, sex is selected against and asexuality emerges. Periodic evolution of novel predators, like man, can explain the 'punctuated equilibria' fossil record. Genes inhibited by methylation or chromatin condensation, expressed at older ages in predation-minimized environments, allow for group selection. Stress increases mutation rates and beneficial mutation likelihood. Females select bigger, brighter, louder, or stronger males that can survive predator attention. Size approximates age and thus predator encounters; male traits represent predation-survival potential. Human male traits include, balding, acne, beard-length, wrinkling, graying, nose/ear growth. Progeria accelerates development of most male traits. Domination of groups by single males allows rapid predation-defense evolution: adolescent males are expelled, brave the wild, and expel another group's male to mate. If expelled and dominant males are culled by predation, males reaching puberty first will reproduce. Hormonal acceleration of puberty

  18. An Improved Test Selection Optimization Model Based on Fault Ambiguity Group Isolation and Chaotic Discrete PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor data-based test selection optimization is the basis for designing a test work, which ensures that the system is tested under the constraint of the conventional indexes such as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR. From the perspective of equipment maintenance support, the ambiguity isolation has a significant effect on the result of test selection. In this paper, an improved test selection optimization model is proposed by considering the ambiguity degree of fault isolation. In the new model, the fault test dependency matrix is adopted to model the correlation between the system fault and the test group. The objective function of the proposed model is minimizing the test cost with the constraint of FDR and FIR. The improved chaotic discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is adopted to solve the improved test selection optimization model. The new test selection optimization model is more consistent with real complicated engineering systems. The experimental result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  20. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David J; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12-month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta-regression was conducted in STATA v12. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty-nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was -0.8 kg (95% CI -1.1 to -0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of -0.53 kg (95% CI -0.96 to -0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh-in was associated with a weight change of -0.42 kg (95% CI -0.81 to -0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh-ins was associated with weight change. Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow-up. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Integrative Group Therapy for Children With Severe Mood Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter; Li, Tan; Babocsai, Lysett; Humphrey, Hugh; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Babinski, Dara E.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Mazzant, Jessica A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Fallahazad, Negar; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Non-episodic irritability is a common and impairing problem, leading to the development of the diagnoses severe mood dysregulation (SMD) and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). No psychosocial therapies have been formally evaluated for either, with medication being the most common treatment. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a joint parent–child intervention for SMD. Method Sixty-eight particpants ages 7–12 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SMD were randomly assigned to the 11-week therapy or community-based psychosocial treatment. All participants were first stabilized on psychostimulant medication by study physicians. Fifty-six still manifested impairing SMD symptoms and entered the therapy phase. Masked evaluators assessed participants at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint, with therapy participants reassessed 6 weeks later. Results All but two therapy participants attended the majority of sessions (n=29), with families reporting high levels of satisfaction. The primary outcome of change in mood symptoms using the Mood Severity Index (MSI) did not reach significance except in the subset attending the majority of sessions (effect size [ES]=0.53). Therapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in parent-rated irritability (ES=0.63). Treatment effects for irritability but not MSI diminished after therapy stopped. Little impact on ADHD symptoms was seen. Results may not be generalizable to youth with SMD and different comorbidities than seen in this sample of children with ADHD and are limited by the lack of a gold standard for measuring change in SMD symptoms. Conclusion While failing to significantly improve mood symptoms versus community treatment, the integrative therapy was found to be a feasible and efficacious treatment for irritability in participants with SMD and ADHD. Clinical trial registration information Group-Based Behavioral Therapy Combined With Stimulant Medication for

  2. Group CBT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R; Morrison, Amanda; Jazaieri, Hooria; Brozovich, Faith; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate treatment outcome and mediators of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) versus mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) versus waitlist (WL) in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD). One hundred eight unmedicated patients (55.6% female; mean age = 32.7 years, SD = 8.0; 43.5% Caucasian, 39% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 8.3% other) were randomized to CBGT versus MBSR versus WL and completed assessments at baseline, posttreatment/WL, and at 1-year follow-up, including the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (primary outcome; Liebowitz, 1987) as well as measures of treatment-related processes. Linear mixed model analysis showed that CBGT and MBSR both produced greater improvements on most measures compared with WL. Both treatments yielded similar improvements in social anxiety symptoms, cognitive reappraisal frequency and self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, mindfulness skills, attention focusing, and rumination. There were greater decreases in subtle avoidance behaviors following CBGT than MBSR. Mediation analyses revealed that increases in reappraisal frequency, mindfulness skills, attention focusing, and attention shifting, and decreases in subtle avoidance behaviors and cognitive distortions, mediated the impact of both CBGT and MBSR on social anxiety symptoms. However, increases in reappraisal self-efficacy and decreases in avoidance behaviors mediated the impact of CBGT (vs. MBSR) on social anxiety symptoms. CBGT and MBSR both appear to be efficacious for SAD. However, their effects may be a result of both shared and unique changes in underlying psychological processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. New moves-preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls a group-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Friend, Sarah E; Flattum, Colleen F; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary T; Bauer, Katherine W; Feldman, Shira B; Petrich, Christine A

    2010-11-01

    Weight-related problems are prevalent in adolescent girls. To evaluate New Moves, a school-based program aimed at preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls. School-based group-randomized controlled design. 356 girls (mean age=15.8±1.2 years) from six intervention and six control high schools. More than 75% of the girls were racial/ethnic minorities and 46% were overweight or obese. Data were collected in 2007-2009 and analyzed in 2009-2010. An all-girls physical education class, supplemented with nutrition and self-empowerment components, individual sessions using motivational interviewing, lunch meetings, and parent outreach. Percentage body fat, BMI, physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. New Moves did not lead to significant changes in the girls' percentage body fat or BMI but improvements were seen for sedentary activity, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. For example, in comparison to control girls, at 9-month follow-up, intervention girls decreased their sedentary behaviors by approximately one 30-minute block a day (p=0.050); girls increased their portion control behaviors (p=0.014); the percentage of girls using unhealthy weight control behaviors decreased by 13.7% (p=0.021); and improvements were seen in body image (p=0.045) and self-worth (p=0.031). Additionally, intervention girls reported more support by friends, teachers, and families for healthy eating and physical activity. New Moves provides a model for addressing the broad spectrum of weight-related problems among adolescent girls. Further work is needed to enhance the effectiveness of interventions to improve weight status of youth. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Model Selection and Hypothesis Testing for Large-Scale Network Models with Overlapping Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago P. Peixoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effort to understand network systems in increasing detail has resulted in a diversity of methods designed to extract their large-scale structure from data. Unfortunately, many of these methods yield diverging descriptions of the same network, making both the comparison and understanding of their results a difficult challenge. A possible solution to this outstanding issue is to shift the focus away from ad hoc methods and move towards more principled approaches based on statistical inference of generative models. As a result, we face instead the more well-defined task of selecting between competing generative processes, which can be done under a unified probabilistic framework. Here, we consider the comparison between a variety of generative models including features such as degree correction, where nodes with arbitrary degrees can belong to the same group, and community overlap, where nodes are allowed to belong to more than one group. Because such model variants possess an increasing number of parameters, they become prone to overfitting. In this work, we present a method of model selection based on the minimum description length criterion and posterior odds ratios that is capable of fully accounting for the increased degrees of freedom of the larger models and selects the best one according to the statistical evidence available in the data. In applying this method to many empirical unweighted networks from different fields, we observe that community overlap is very often not supported by statistical evidence and is selected as a better model only for a minority of them. On the other hand, we find that degree correction tends to be almost universally favored by the available data, implying that intrinsic node proprieties (as opposed to group properties are often an essential ingredient of network formation.

  5. Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls: the Girls in Sport group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cotton, Wayne; Peralta, Louisa; Miller, Judith; Batterham, Marijka; Janssen, Xanne

    2017-06-21

    Slowing the decline in participation in physical activity among adolescent girls is a public health priority. This study reports the outcomes from a multi-component school-based intervention (Girls in Sport), focused on promoting physical activity among adolescent girls. Group randomized controlled trial in 24 secondary schools (12 intervention and 12 control). Assessments were conducted at baseline (2009) and at 18 months post-baseline (2010). The setting was secondary schools in urban, regional and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. All girls in Grade 8 in 2009 who attended these schools were invited to participate in the study (N = 1769). Using a Health Promoting Schools and Action Learning Frameworks, each school formed a committee and developed an action plan for promoting physical activity among Grade 8 girls. The action plan incorporated strategies in three main areas - i) the formal curriculum, ii) school environment, and iii) home/school/community links - based on the results of formative data from target girls and staff and on individual needs of the school. A member of the research team supported each school throughout the intervention. The main outcome measure was accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) spent in physical activity. Data were analyzed from December 2011 to March 2012. 1518 girls (mean age 13.6y ±0.02) were assessed at baseline. There was a significant decline in TPA from baseline to 18-month follow-up with no differences between girls in the intervention and control schools. Only one-third of schools (4/12) implemented the intervention as per their action plan. Per-protocol analyses on these schools revealed a smaller decline in percentage of time spent in MVPA among girls in the intervention group (adjusted difference 0.5%, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.99, P = 0.05). The Girls in Sport intervention was not effective in reducing the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls. Lack of implementation by most

  6. structSSI: Simultaneous and Selective Inference for Grouped or Hierarchically Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Kris; Holmes, Susan

    The package structSSI provides an accessible implementation of two recently developed simultaneous and selective inference techniques: the group Benjamini-Hochberg and hierarchical false discovery rate procedures. Unlike many multiple testing schemes, these methods specifically incorporate existing information about the grouped or hierarchical dependence between hypotheses under consideration while controlling the false discovery rate. Doing so increases statistical power and interpretability. Furthermore, these procedures provide novel approaches to the central problem of encoding complex dependency between hypotheses. We briefly describe the group Benjamini-Hochberg and hierarchical false discovery rate procedures and then illustrate them using two examples, one a measure of ecological microbial abundances and the other a global temperature time series. For both procedures, we detail the steps associated with the analysis of these particular data sets, including establishing the dependence structures, performing the test, and interpreting the results. These steps are encapsulated by functions, and we explain their applicability to general data sets.

  7. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Aranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  8. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a randomly selected group of urban and rural women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlert, S.; Song, I. H.; Chang, C. -H.; Hartlage, S. A.

    Background. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) was included as a provisional diagnostic category in the appendices of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R (then called late luteal phase dysphoric disorder) and remained as an appendix in DSM-IV. Our study aimed to

  9. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or ho...

  10. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Helnæs, Ann Kathrine; Schultz, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  11. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    -dementia drugs (20.9%). Citizens treated with anti-dementia drugs were also prescribed antipsychotics (20.0%) and antidepressants (54.3%). Doses over 20 mg and 10 mg of citalopram and escitalopram, respectively, were given to 28.0% of the citizens treated with these antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Compared...

  12. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  13. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  14. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lin, Yu; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lee, Tso-Ying; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of group music therapy for improving depression and delaying the deterioration of cognitive functions in elderly persons with dementia. The study had a prospective, parallel-group design with permuted-block randomization. Older persons with dementia (N = 104) were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group music therapy (two 30-min sessions per week for 6 weeks), and the control group received usual care. Data were collected 4 times: (1) 1 week before the intervention, (2) the 6th session of the intervention, (3) the 12th session of the intervention, and (4) 1 month after the final session. Group music therapy reduced depression in persons with dementia. Improvements in depression occurred immediately after music therapy and were apparent throughout the course of therapy. The cortisol level did not significantly decrease after the group music therapy. Cognitive function significantly improved slightly at the 6th session, the 12th session, and 1 month after the sessions ended; in particular, short-term recall function improved. The group music therapy intervention had the greatest impact in subjects with mild and moderate dementia. The group music intervention is a noninvasive and inexpensive therapy that appeared to reduce elders' depression. It also delayed the deterioration of cognitive functions, particularly short-term recall function. Group music therapy may be an appropriate intervention among elderly persons with mild and moderate dementia.

  15. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  16. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  17. Attention bias modification augments cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Marom, Sofi; Yahalom, Naomi; Pine, Daniel S; Hermesh, Haggai; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-12-20

    Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo). Therapy groups took place in a large mental health center. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety and depression were acquired pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Attention bias was assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Patients randomized to the CBGT + ABM group, relative to those randomized to the CBGT + placebo group, showed greater reductions in clinician-rated SAD symptoms post-treatment, with effects maintained at 3-month follow-up. Group differences were not evident for self-report or attention-bias measures, with similar reductions in both groups. Finally, reduction in attention bias did not mediate the association between group and reduction in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Structured Interview (LSAS) scores. This is the first RCT to examine the possible augmenting effect of ABM added to group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult SAD. Training patients' attention away from threat might augment the treatment response to standard CBGT in SAD, a possibility that could be further evaluated in large-scale RCTs.

  18. A model for selecting project team members using multicriteria group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a project team is a complex multi-criteria decision-making problem. For this reason, one appropriate way to tackle such problems involves the use of multi-criteria decision aid methods. However, most of the decisions taken regarding the selection of project teams are made by a group of people. It is this which changes the focus of the problem by moving from one decision-maker (DM to a group of DMs. Analysis needs to be extended in order to consider the preference structure of each individual group member. In this paper, we present a group decision model for project team selection based on a multi-criteria evaluation of the preferences of a client's representatives. It could be applied to any decision problem since it involves a group of decision makers whose preferences diverge little. An application of the model in order to select consultants for a construction project is presented.A seleção da equipe em um projeto é um problema de decisão multicritério. Uma forma apropriada de tratar tais problemas envolve o uso de métodos de apoio multicritério a decisão. Grande parte desses problemas envolve um grupo de decisores. Dessa forma, há uma mudança no foco da decisão de um decisor para um grupo de decisores. A análise deve ser ampliada no intuito de considerar a estrutura de preferência de cada membro do grupo. Nesse artigo, apresentamos um modelo aplicado à seleção de equipe de um projeto baseado na avaliação multicritério das preferências dos representantes do cliente do projeto. Pode ser aplicado a qualquer problema de decisão desde que envolva um grupo de decisores que tenham pequena divergência em relação às suas preferências. Uma aplicação para seleção de parte da equipe de um projeto de construção é apresentada.

  19. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Target Temperature Management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest--a randomized, parallel-group, assessor-blinded clinical trial--rationale and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Wetterslev, Jørn; al-Subaie, Nawaf

    2012-01-01

    Experimental animal studies and previous randomized trials suggest an improvement in mortality and neurologic function with induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest. International guidelines advocate the use of a target temperature management of 32°C to 34°C for 12 to 24 hours after resuscitation...... from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A systematic review indicates that the evidence for recommending this intervention is inconclusive, and the GRADE level of evidence is low. Previous trials were small, with high risk of bias, evaluated select populations, and did not treat hyperthermia...... in the control groups. The optimal target temperature management strategy is not known....

  1. Group purchasing organizations: optimizing cardiac device selection, therapy delivery, and fiscal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweesy, Mark W; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Smith, Kerry W; Holland, James L

    2006-12-01

    Group purchasing organizations (GPOs) have played a major role in supporting health care delivery in recent years as the healthcare industry has faced stronger economic pressures. Consequently, a position statement was drafted to act as a guideline for a GPO in creating a fiscally responsible, yet unrestricted environment for physicians to select the most appropriate cardiac device for their patients. This cardiac device selection guideline is to be implemented in hundreds of member hospitals but may be of use in non-member hospitals as well. The guideline will only be effective when the physicians or cardiac device caregivers have the knowledge and skills to optimally program and match device therapies and algorithms to individual patient needs.

  2. A case-control investigation of adenomyosis: impact of control group selection on risk factor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Weiss, Noel S; Rudra, Carole B; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L

    2011-01-01

    Using a medical record abstraction-based case-control study with two control groups, we evaluated adenomyosis risk factors and investigated differences related to comparison group selection. Medical records of all female 18- to 49-year-old Group Health (GH) enrollees with ICD-9 code 617.0 were abstracted using a standard data collection form. Cases were enrollees diagnosed with adenomyosis (n = 174) between April 1996 and September 2001. For comparison, medical records of two control groups were selected from the GH population: An age-matched sample of female enrollees (population-based controls; n = 149) and all female 18- to 49-year-old enrollees undergoing a hysterectomy (hysterectomy controls; n = 106) during the same time without adenomyosis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusted for identified covariates. Compared with normal and underweight women, overweight and obese women had increased adenomyosis risk using hysterectomy controls (OR, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; obese: OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3) and population controls (overweight: OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; obese: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.0). Using population controls, women with at least one live birth were more likely to have adenomyosis than nulliparous women (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-6.2). Although some risk factors persisted in analyses using either control group, divergent results in relation to other risk factors for adenomyosis suggest that results of investigations of this disease may be affected by the choice of the comparison population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Azkhosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran.Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group. One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P<0.05 and that acceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  4. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment. PMID:28050185

  5. Chemo- and Regioselective Direct Functional Group Installation through Catalytic Hydroxy Group Selective Conjugate Addition of Amino Alcohols to α,β-Unsaturated Sulfonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Yazaki, Ryo; Ohshima, Takashi

    2016-07-15

    A chemoselective functional group installation through catalytic hydroxy group selective conjugate addition of amino alcohols to a variety of functionalized α,β-unsaturated sulfonyl derivatives was developed. Azide group installation for click chemistry and facile fluorescent labeling onto the less reactive hydroxy group demonstrated the synthetic utility of the present chemoselective catalysis. Moreover, chemo- and regioselective reaction of an unprotected amino diol was achieved for the first time.

  6. Comparison of Collaboration and Performance in Groups of Learners Assembled Randomly or Based on Learners' Topic Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Teachers and instructional designers frequently incorporate collaborative learning approaches into their e-learning environments. A key factor of collaborative learning that may affect learner outcomes is whether the collaborative groups are assigned project topics randomly or based on a shared interest in the topic. This is a particularly…

  7. Randomized Trial of Group Interventions to Reduce HIV/STD Risk and Change Theoretical Mediators among Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Broaddus, Michelle R.; Levin, Michael; Bryan, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Criminally involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior and alcohol use, and alcohol use may contribute to lack of condom use. Detained adolescents (n = 484) were randomized to (1) a theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention (GPI), (2) the GPI condition with a group-based alcohol risk reduction motivational enhancement…

  8. Improving the Design of Science Intervention Studies: An Empirical Investigation of Design Parameters for Planning Group Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westine, Carl; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of the field to conduct power analyses for group randomized trials (GRTs) of educational interventions has improved over the past decade (Authors, 2009). However, a power analysis depends on estimates of design parameters. Hence it is critical to build the empirical base of design parameters for GRTs across a variety of outcomes and…

  9. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was

  10. Effects of a comprehensive educational group intervention in older women with cognitive complaints: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhout, Esther; De Groot, Renate; Van der Elst, Wim; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Hoogenhout, E. M., De Groot, R. H. M., Van der Elst, W., Jolles J. (2012). Effects of a comprehensive educational group intervention in older women with cognitive complaints: a randomized controlled trial. Aging & Mental Health, 16, 135-144. doi:10.1080/13607863.2011.598846

  11. Improving the Transition Behavior of High School Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders Using a Randomized Interdependent Group Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; Denune, Hilary; Larkin, Wallace; Fite, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components on student behavior during the transition from lunch to class. The study was conducted in three high school classrooms in an alternative school setting for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and used an ABAB withdrawal design.…

  12. Determinants of Labour Force Participation for Selected Groups With Weak Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner...... income only seems to be exogenous to the participation decision for home-working housewives. We also estimate participationequations with own potential income gab from working, which in the case of recipients of social assistence are found to have signifcant positive effect. The elasticities fromchanging...

  13. Effective group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a randomized controlled trial with a non-randomized one-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyonne N L Zonneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailored to primary care patients and provided by a secondary community mental-health service reaching out into primary care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effectiveness of this training was explored in a randomized controlled trial. In this trial, 162 patients with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or as chronic pain disorder were randomized either to the training or a waiting list. Both lasted 13 weeks. The preservation of the training's effect was analyzed in non-randomized follow-ups, for which the waiting group started the training after the waiting period. All patients attended the training were followed-up after three months and again after one year. The primary outcomes were the physical and the mental summary scales of the SF-36. Secondary outcomes were the other SF-36-scales and the SCL-90-R. The courses of the training's effects in the randomized controlled trial and the follow-ups were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. In the randomized controlled trial, the training had a significantly positive effect on the quality of life in the physical domain (Cohen's d = 0.38;p = .002, but this overall effect was not found in the mental domain. Regarding the secondary outcomes, the training resulted in reporting an improved physical (Cohen's d = 0.43;p = 0.01, emotional (Cohen's d = 0.44;p = 0.01, and social (Cohen's d = 0.36;p = 0.01 functioning, less pain and better functioning despite pain (Cohen's d = 0.51;p =

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Group Support Decrease Stress in Adolescents with Cardiac Diagnoses: A Randomized Two-Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedenberg, Vicki A; Hinds, Pamela S; Friedmann, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with cardiac diagnoses face unique challenges that can cause psychosocial distress. This study compares a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to a video online support group for adolescents with cardiac diagnoses. MBSR is a structured psycho-educational program which includes yoga, meditation, cognitive restructuring, and group support. A published feasibility study by our group showed significant reduction in anxiety following this intervention. Participants were randomized to MBSR or video online support group, and completed measures of anxiety, depression, illness-related stress, and coping pre- and post-6-session interventions. Qualitative data were obtained from post-intervention interviews. A total of 46 teens participated (mean 14.8 years; 63% female). Participants had congenital heart disease and/or cardiac device (52%), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (48%). Illness-related stress significantly decreased in both groups. Greater use of coping skills predicted lower levels of depression in both groups post-study completion. Higher baseline anxiety/depression scores predicted improved anxiety/depression scores in both groups. Each group reported the benefits of social support. The MBSR group further expressed benefits of learning specific techniques, strategies, and skills that they applied in real-life situations to relieve distress. Both the MBSR intervention and video support group were effective in reducing distress in this sample. Qualitative data elucidated the added benefits of using MBSR techniques to manage stress and symptoms. The video group format is useful for teens that cannot meet in person but can benefit from group support. Psychosocial interventions with stress management techniques and/or group support can reduce distress in adolescents with cardiac diagnoses.

  15. Effects of Group Training on Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Type I Diabetes: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanaz Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression and anxiety can have a significant impact on prognosis in diabetic patients. In this study we evaluate how the effect of group learning on anxiety and depression in adolescents with type 1 diabetes at clinics of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods  This study was carried out via a pretest- posttest design on the adolescent 11-21 ages with type I diabetes. 74 patients were randomized in education group (n=37 either to the control group (n=37. Data collection tools included demographic and clinical status questionnaires, and the Beck anxiety and depression inventory. Group training intervention was done for intervention group and three months after study two groups filled questionnaires and inventories. Data analyzed using chi-square test and t-test using SPSS- 22 software. Results  Findings showed that there was a significant difference between patients mean of depression in intervention group before and after intervention (P

  16. A randomized clinical trial comparing general exercise, McKenzie treatment and a control group in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellman, Görel; Oberg, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Seventy-seven patients with neck pain in the primary health care were included in a prospective, randomized clinical trial and randomly assigned to general exercise, McKenzie treatment, or a control group. Seventy patients completed the treatment; response rate 93% at 12-month follow-up. All three groups showed significant improvement regarding the main outcomes, pain intensity and Neck Disability Index, even at 12-month follow-up, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In all, 79% reported that they were better or completely restored after treatment, although 51% reported constant/daily pain. In the McKenzie group compared with the control group, a tendency toward greater improvement was noted for pain intensity at 3 weeks and at 6-month follow-up, and for post-treatment Neck Disability Index. Significant improvement in Distress and Risk Assessment Method scores was shown in the McKenzie group only. The three groups had similar recurrence rates, although after 12 months the McKenzie group showed a tendency toward fewer visits for additional health care. The study did not provide a definite evidence of treatment efficacy in patients with neck pain, however, there was a tendency toward a better outcome with the two active alternatives compared with the control group.

  17. Resolving a Reactive Organometallic Intermediate from Dynamic Directing Group Systems by Selective C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufelberger, Fredrik; Timmer, Brian J J; Ramström, Olof

    2017-11-17

    Catalyst discovery from systems of potential precursors is a challenging endeavor. Herein, a new strategy applying dynamic chemistry to the identification of catalyst precursors from C-H activation of imines is proposed and evaluated. Using hydroacylation of imines as a model reaction, the selection of an organometallic reactive intermediate from a dynamic imine system, involving many potential directing group/metal entities, is demonstrated. The identity of the amplified reaction intermediate with the best directing group could be resolved in situ via ESI-MS, and coupling of the procedure to an iterative deconvolution protocol generated a system with high screening efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Role of laccase from Coriolus versicolor MTCC-138 in selective oxidation of aromatic methyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Bharati, Shashi Lata

    2014-01-01

    Now a day, laccases are the most promising enzymes in the area of biotechnology and synthesis. One of the best applications of laccases is the selective oxidation of aromatic methyl group to aldehyde group. Such transformations are valuable because it is difficult to stop the reaction at aldehyde stage. Chemical methods used for such biotransformations areexpensive and give poor yields. But, the laccase-catalyzed biotransformations of such type are non-expensive and yield is excellent. Authors have used crude laccase obtained from the liquid culture growth medium of fungal strain Coriolus versicolor MTCC-138 for the biotransformations of toluene, 3-nitrotoluene, and 4-chlorotoluene to benzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, respectively, instead of purified laccase because purification process requires much time and cost. This communication reports that crude laccase can also be used in the place of purified laccase as effective biocatalyst.

  19. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Selecting instruments for assessing psychological wellbeing in Afghan and Kurdish refugee groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman-Hill Cheryl MR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghan and Iraqi refugees comprise nearly half of all those currently under United Nations protection. As many of them will eventually be resettled in countries outside the region of origin, their long term health and settlement concerns are of relevance to host societies, and will be a likely focus for future research. Since Australia and New Zealand have both accepted refugees for many years and have dedicated, but different settlement and immigration policies, a study comparing the resettlement of two different refugee groups in these countries was undertaken. The purpose of this article is to describe the instrument selection for this study assessing mental health and psychological well being with Afghan and Kurdish former refugees, in particular to address linguistic considerations and translated instrument availability. A summary of instruments previously used with refugee and migrant groups from the Middle East region is presented to assist other researchers, before describing the three instruments ultimately selected for the quantitative component of our study. Findings The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSE, and Personal Well-Being Index (PWI all showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.83 respectively for combined language versions and ease of use even for pre-literate participants, with the sample of 193 refugees, although some concepts in the GPSE proved problematic for a small number of respondents. Farsi was the language of choice for the majority of Afghan participants, while most of the Kurds chose to complete English versions in addition to Farsi. No one used Arabic or Turkish translations. Participants settled less than ten years were more likely to complete questionnaires in Farsi. Descriptive summary statistics are presented for each instrument with results split by gender, refugee group and language version completed. Conclusion

  1. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  2. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  3. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leclercq

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  4. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ) by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group) and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group). Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  5. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. Materials and methods. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group. Results. Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. Conclusions. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  6. Differences Among Czech Local Action Groups In Using Selected Principles Of Leader*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechrová M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local Action Groups (LAGs are implementing LEADER principles in rural development. The aim of the paper is to create a typology of LAGs in the Czech Republic according to the factors linked to the individual features of LAG and to its organizational background. Four different groups of LAGs emerged: ‘stabilized’, ‘experienced’, ‘absorbing’, and ‘well-informed’. In the second step, it is assessed how particular groups fullfil selected features of the LEADER: knowledge transfer and bottomup approach. We conclude that ‘stabilized’ and ‘experienced’ LAGs, which are functioning for longer time and LAGs’ manager has longer experiences with LAG operation, have better knowledge transfer than those ‘absorbing’ or ‘well-informed’. This suggests that the rural development is realized by the so-called ‘project class’. On the other hand, the most active people cooperating with LAG management are in ‘experienced’ and ‘absorbing’ groups.

  7. Drivers within natural drinking groups: an exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E; Johnson, Mark B; Reed, Mark B

    2006-01-01

    Young people consume alcohol almost exclusively in social contexts, but natural drinking group dynamics are poorly understood. Our research focuses on the drivers' role within natural drinking groups. We conducted breath-test surveys of existing groups of young people at the US/Mexico border crossing before they headed to Tijuana bars, and surveyed them again upon their return. Results indicated an individual's perception of other group member's drinking plans predicts drinking intentions to a greater degree for passengers than drivers. Additionally, drivers who anticipated heavy drinking among other group members returned to the United States with BACs nearly identical to drivers who reported that other group members would not drink at all. This suggests drivers were resistant to normative pressures to drink. Evidence that group-dynamic variables may impact drinking behavior underscores the importance of systematic exploration of natural drinking groups. Furthermore, the knowledge gleaned from studying the dynamics and decision making processes of natural drinking groups could be used to design intervention designed to increase designated driver use and to reduce drinking among designated drivers.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  9. The contribution of influence and selection to adolescent peer group homogeneity: the case of adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, S T; Bauman, K E

    1994-10-01

    Understanding the homogeneity of peer groups requires identification of peer groups and consideration of influence and selection processes. Few studies have identified adolescent peer groups, however, or examined how they become homogeneous. This study used social network analysis to identify peer groups (cliques), clique liaisons, and isolates among adolescents in 5 schools at 2 data collection rounds (N = 926). Cigarette smoking was the behavior of interest. Influence and selection contributed about equally to peer group smoking homogeneity. Most smokers were not peer group members, however, and selection provided more of an explanation than influence for why isolates smoke. The results suggest the importance of using social network analysis in studies of peer group influence and selection.

  10. Comparison of group counseling with individual counseling in the comprehension of informed consent: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Anuradha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on different methods to supplement the traditional informed consent process have generated conflicting results. This study was designed to evaluate whether participants who received group counseling prior to administration of informed consent understood the key components of the study and the consent better than those who received individual counseling, based on the hypothesis that group counseling would foster discussion among potential participants and enhance their understanding of the informed consent. Methods Parents of children participating in a trial of nutritional supplementation were randomized to receive either group counseling or individual counseling prior to administration of the informed consent. To assess the participant's comprehension, a structured questionnaire was administered approximately 48-72 hours afterwards by interviewers who were blinded to the allocation group of the respondents. Results A total of 128 parents were recruited and follow up was established with 118 (90.2% for the study. All respondents were aware of their child's participation in a research study and the details of sample collection. However, their understanding of study purpose, randomization and withdrawal was poor. There was no difference in comprehension of key elements of the informed consent between the intervention and control arm. Conclusions The results suggest that the group counseling might not influence the overall comprehension of the informed consent process. Further research is required to devise better ways of improving participants' understanding of randomization in clinical trials. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI: CTRI/2009/091/000612

  11. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups 05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    CERN Document Server

    Nechaev, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B sub 3 , and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B sub 3 can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z).

  12. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups[05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechaev, Sergei [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Voituriez, Raphael [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-01-10

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B{sub 3}, and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B{sub 3} can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z)

  13. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  14. Selection of Reference Group. Perceived Reference Group Permissiveness, and Personal Permissiveness Attitudes and Behavior: A Study of Two Consecutive Panels (1967-1971; 1970-1974)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Measurement was made (Both longitudinally and cross-sectionally) of reference group selection with regard to sexual standards, perceived reference group norms with respect to premarital sexual permissiveness and the relationship of these variables to premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results are discussed. (Author)

  15. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  16. Programming a randomized dependent group contingency and common stimuli to promote durable behavior change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cariveau, Tom; Kodak, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of academic engagement may impede students’ acquisition of skills. Intervening on student behavior using group contingencies may be a feasible way to increase academic engagement during group instruction...

  17. Single- versus two-visit pulpectomy treatment in primary teeth with apical periodontitis: A double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Bharatkumar Bharuka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduction of the bacterial populations to levels compatible with periradicular tissue healing is the primary microbiological goal of the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. The number of visits required to treat teeth with apical periodontitis represents one of the most debatable issues in endodontics. Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of single- versus two-visit pulpectomy treatment in primary teeth with apical periodontitis at the end of 6-month healing period. Settings and Design: A parallel group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out in 64 children aged 4-8 years. Nonvital primary teeth with apical periodontitis with enough coronal structure were selected. Sixty-four children were assigned randomly into two groups (32 children each by block randomization, and allocation concealment was done with closed envelop method. Methods and Materials: Group I underwent single-visit pulpectomy followed by obturation with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE. Group II underwent conventional two-visit pulpectomy with intracanal calcium hydroxide, followed by obturation with ZOE. Postoperative clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out at 1, 3, and 6 months after the end of the treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon′s signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Friedman test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in clinical and radiographic outcomes in both the groups at the end of 6-month healing period. Conclusion: Single-visit pulpectomy can be considered as a viable option for the treatment of primary teeth with apical periodontitis.

  18. Analysis of consumer behaviour when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is consumer behaviour analysis when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics. Analysis proceed from the Czech household marketing research, where 726 households were electronically questioned. As mentioned above, selected factors for the analysis were habit, products‘ characteristics, price and discount actions.Primary aim is to measure the correspondence of selected factors influence on consumer behaviour during purchase decision making process of selected commodity groups. Interpretation is based on two-tier evaluation. First level represents commodity groups distinction by the character of goods and subsequent evaluation of goods characteristics correspondence in accordance with each influencing factor. Second one represents behaviour of commodity group in cross-section of selected factors. For consumer behaviour analysis chi-square test was used. Before its application the data set (responses was divided according to the ten-point scale into three interval’ groups.

  19. Group exercise training for balance, functional status, spasticity, fatigue and quality of life in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakci, Ela; Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu E; Zenginler, Yonca; Eraksoy, Mefkure

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of group exercise training on balance, functional status, spasticity, fatigue and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. A randomized single-blind controlled study. University hospital, outpatient physical therapy department. Ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. Exercise group completed a 12-week group exercise programme under the physical therapists' supervision. Control group was included in the waiting list. The primary outcome measures were the Berg Balance Scale, 10-metre walk test, 10-steps climbing test and secondary outcome measures were the Modified Ashworth Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life. Ninety-nine patients completed the study. There were statistically significant improvements for all outcome measures in the group exercise group (n = 51) (p exercise group, while a decreased of 2.33 in control group. The 10-metre walk test duration (second) was decreased 2.72 in exercise group, while increased 1.44 in control group. In comparing inter-groups changes, both primary and secondary outcome mesures showed significant improvements in favour of the exercise group after the training (p exercise training is effective in improving balance, functional status, spasticity, fatigue and quality of life in moderately affected people with multiple sclerosis, with no worsening of their clinical status.

  20. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhanova O.S.; Nesterova T.V.; Gnutova N.P.; Gnutov E.I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams an...

  1. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  2. Friendship and Choosing Groupmates: Preferences for Teacher-Selected vs. Student-Selected Groupings in High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sidney N.; Reilly, Rosemary; Bramwell, F. Gillian; Solnosky, Anthony; Lilly, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This study represents a collaborative school university partnership. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors report on the motivational and psychological consequences of students choosing their groupmates in cooperative learning triads. 139 students in five science classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to condition:…

  3. Support System Model for Value based Group Decision on Roof System Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A group decision support system is required on a value-based decision because there are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. It is to enable each decision-maker to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with other decision-makers. Stakeholder of multi-criteria decision making problems usually evaluates the alternative solution from different perspective, making it possible to have a dominant solution among the alternatives. Each stakeholder needs to identify the goals that can be optimized and those that can be compromised in order to reach an agreement with other stakeholders. This paper presents group decision model involving three decision-makers on the selection of suitable system for a building’s roof. The objective of the research is to find an agreement options model and coalition algorithms for multi person decision with two main preferences of value which are function and cost. The methodology combines value analysis method using Function Analysis System Technique (FAST; Life Cycle Cost analysis, group decision analysis method based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in a satisfying options, and Game theory-based agent system to develop agreement option and coalition formation for the support system. The support system bridges theoretical gap between automated design in construction domain and automated negotiation in information technology domain by providing a structured methodology which can lead to systematic support system and automated negotiation. It will contribute to value management body of knowledge as an advanced method for creativity and analysis phase, since the practice of this knowledge is teamwork based. In the case of roof system selection, it reveals the start of the first negotiation round. Some of the solutions are not an option because no individual stakeholder or coalition of stakeholders desires to select it. The result indicates

  4. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral motivational intervention in a group versus individual format for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2009-12-01

    Although group therapy is widely used for individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the same treatment in a group versus individual format are rare. This paper presents the results of a RCT comparing guided self-change (GSC) treatment, a cognitive-behavioral motivational intervention, conducted in a group versus individual format with 212 alcohol abusers and 52 drug abusers who voluntarily sought outpatient treatment. Treatment outcomes demonstrated significant and large reductions in clients' alcohol and drug use during treatment and at the 12-month follow-up, with no significant differences between the group and individual therapy conditions. A therapist time ratio analysis found that it took 41.4% less therapist time to treat clients using the group versus the individual format. Participants' end-of-treatment group cohesion scores characterized the groups as having high engagement, low levels of interpersonal conflict, and low avoidance of group work, all desirable group characteristics. These findings suggest that the GSC treatment model was effectively integrated into a brief group treatment format. Health care cost containment compels further evaluations of the efficacy of group treatments for SUDs. Copyright 2009 APA

  6. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  7. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The effect of group counseling based on self-awareness skill on sexual risk-taking among girl students in Gorgan, Iran: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Golnoosh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Aval, Masumeh Rezaei; Vakili, Mohammad Ali

    2017-09-15

    Background Sexual puberty in adolescents occurs before their mental and emotional maturity and exposes them to high-risk sexual behaviors. Because sexual risk-taking occurs before adolescents become involved in a sexual relationship, this study was conducted to identify the effect of group counseling based on self-awareness skill on sexual risk-taking among female high school students in Gorgan in order to suggest some preventative measures. Methods The present parallel study is a randomized field trial conducted on 96 girl students who were studying in grades 10, 11 and 12 of high school with an age range of 14-18 years old. Sampling was done based on a multi-stage process. In the first stage, through the randomized clustering approach, four centers among six health centers were selected. In the second stage, 96 samples were collected through consecutive sampling. Finally, the samples were divided into two intervention and control groups (each one having 48 subjects) through the simple randomized approach. It has to be noted that no blinding was done in the present study. The data were collected using a demographic specifications form and the Iranian Adolescents Risk-Taking Scale (IARS). The consultation sessions based on self-awareness skill were explained to an intervention group through 60-min sessions over 7 weeks. The pretest was conducted for both groups and the posttest was completed 1 week and 1 month after the intervention by the intervention and control groups. Finally, after the loss of follow-up/drop out, a total of 80 subjects remained in the study; 42 subjects in the intervention group and 38 subjects in the control group. Data analyses were done using SPSS v.16 along with the Freidman non-parametric test and the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results The results showed that the sexual risk-taking mean scores in the intervention group (10.54 ± 15.64) were reduced by applying 1-week (8.03 ± 12.82) and 1-month (4.91 ± 10.10) follow-ups after the

  9. Network-based group variable selection for detecting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuegong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL aims to identify the genetic loci associated with the expression level of genes. Penalized regression with a proper penalty is suitable for the high-dimensional biological data. Its performance should be enhanced when we incorporate biological knowledge of gene expression network and linkage disequilibrium (LD structure between loci in high-noise background. Results We propose a network-based group variable selection (NGVS method for QTL detection. Our method simultaneously maps highly correlated expression traits sharing the same biological function to marker sets formed by LD. By grouping markers, complex joint activity of multiple SNPs can be considered and the dimensionality of eQTL problem is reduced dramatically. In order to demonstrate the power and flexibility of our method, we used it to analyze two simulations and a mouse obesity and diabetes dataset. We considered the gene co-expression network, grouped markers into marker sets and treated the additive and dominant effect of each locus as a group: as a consequence, we were able to replicate results previously obtained on the mouse linkage dataset. Furthermore, we observed several possible sex-dependent loci and interactions of multiple SNPs. Conclusions The proposed NGVS method is appropriate for problems with high-dimensional data and high-noise background. On eQTL problem it outperforms the classical Lasso method, which does not consider biological knowledge. Introduction of proper gene expression and loci correlation information makes detecting causal markers more accurate. With reasonable model settings, NGVS can lead to novel biological findings.

  10. MR urography of obstructive uropathy: diagnostic value of the method in selected clinical groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielonko, J.; Studniarek, M. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki 7, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Markuszewski, M. [Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital No. 3, Kieturakisa 1, 80-742 Gdansk (Poland)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of MR urography (MRU) in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy in selected groups of patients. The groups involved following pathologies: calculi; strictures of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ); benign and malignancy-induced ureterostenosis. Sixty patients with clinical diagnosis of obstructive uropathy were subjected to static fluid MRU (sMRU) with the use of 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence in a 0.5-T magnet. The examination was completed with conventional MR sequences and in 12 cases additionally with sequences after the administration of Gd-DTPA and excretory MRU. The results were compared with intravenous urography (IVU), CT, US, clinical and histopathological data. The degree of the urinary tract dilatation as well as the level and type of obstruction were estimated. In patients with urolithiasis sMRU correctly depicted the degree of ureterohydronephrosis in 85%, in cases of UPJ stenosis and malignancy-induced ureterostenosis in 100% and in the group of benign ureterostenosis in 91% of patients. Determination of obstruction level in patients with stones was adequate in 92% and in cases of non-calculous ureteral strictures in 100% of patients. The sMRU sequence alone could not specify the nature of obstruction except 1 case of bladder carcinoma. Filling defects in ureters visible on MR urograms were verified with IVU or CT to exclude intrinsic tumours. Completed with conventional MR sequences sMRU enabled the depiction of solid mass or infiltration in 83% cases of malignancy-induced ureterostenosis, and in the remaining groups of patients neoplastic process was excluded in 91%. In conjunction with excretory MRU and conventional MR images sMRU appears to be a highly useful technique in assessment of obstructive uropathy, especially that of non-calculous origin. Among different clinical applications MRU is superior in the evaluation of dilated urinary tract in altered anatomical conditions (e.g. in patients with ileal

  11. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  12. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  13. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  14. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  15. Fast Neutron Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer. Final Report of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G. E. [Washington U.; Krall, J. M. [Unlisted, US, PA; Thomas, F. J. [Unlisted, US, OH; Russell, K. J. [Washington U.; Maor, M. H. [Unlisted, US, TX; Hendrickson, F. R. [Fermilab; Martz, K. L. [Unlisted, US, PA; Griffin, T. W. [Washington U.

    1993-01-01

    Between June 1977 and April 1983 the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) sponsored a Phase III randomized trial investigating the use of fast neutron radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced (Stages C and D1) adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. Patients were randomized to receive either conventional photon radiation or fast neutron radiation used in a mixed-beam (neutron/photon) treatment schedule. A total of 91 analyzable patients were entered into the study, and the two patient groups were balanced with respect to the major prognostic variables. Actuarial curves are presented for local/regional control and "overall" survival. Ten-year results for clinically assessed local control are 70% for the mixed-beam group versus 58% for the photon group (p = 0.03) and for survival are 46% for the mixed-beam group versus 29% for the photon group (p = 0.04). This study suggests that a regional method of treatment can influence both local tumor control and survival in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland.

  16. Mechanisms of Winner-Take-All and Group Selection in Neuronal Spiking Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    A major function of central nervous systems is to discriminate different categories or types of sensory input. Neuronal networks accomplish such tasks by learning different sensory maps at several stages of neural hierarchy, such that different neurons fire selectively to reflect different internal or external patterns and states. The exact mechanisms of such map formation processes in the brain are not completely understood. Here we study the mechanism by which a simple recurrent/reentrant neuronal network accomplish group selection and discrimination to different inputs in order to generate sensory maps. We describe the conditions and mechanism of transition from a rhythmic epileptic state (in which all neurons fire synchronized and indiscriminately to any input) to a winner-take-all state in which only a subset of neurons fire for a specific input. We prove an analytic condition under which a stable bump solution and a winner-take-all state can emerge from the local recurrent excitation-inhibition interactions in a three-layer spiking network with distinct excitatory and inhibitory populations, and demonstrate the importance of surround inhibitory connection topology on the stability of dynamic patterns in spiking neural network.

  17. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brandon; Kurz, Daniel; Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-05-06

    Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner's degree of presence in the online media. Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based-high presence, group dynamics-based-low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based-low presence and group dynamics-based-high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based-high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based-low presence (overall mean 5.81, SD 1.04) condition compared to the

  18. Comparison between group and personal rehabilitation for dementia in a geriatric health service facility: single-blinded randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Honda, Shin; Nakano, Hajime; Sato, Yuko; Araya, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour. After a baseline assessment, participants were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group intervention; (ii) personal intervention; and (iii) control. The 1-h group intervention (3-5 subjects) and 20-min personal intervention (one staff member per participant) were performed twice a week for 12 weeks (24 total sessions). The cognitive rehabilitation programme consisted of reminiscence, reality orientation, and physical exercise, and it was based on five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation; (i) pleasant atmosphere; (ii) communication; (iii) social roles; (iv) praising; and (v) errorless support. Data were analyzed after the second assessment. Outcome measures were analyzed in 43 participants-14 in the control group, 13 in group intervention, and 16 in personal intervention. Repeated measure ancova showed a significant interaction for cognitive function score (Mini-Mental State Examination) between group intervention and controls ( F  = 5.535, P = 0.029). In the post-hoc analysis, group intervention showed significant improvement (P = 0.016). Global severity of dementia tended to improve (P = 0.094) in group intervention compared to control (Mann-Whitney U -test). There were no significant interactions or improvements for other measurements. Group rehabilitation for dementia is more effective for improving cognitive function and global severity of dementia than personal rehabilitation in Roken. © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhanova O.S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.

  20. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  1. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  2. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  3. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores Depression Scale. Both conditions resulted in significant improvements over time on all diagnostic, symptom and wellbeing measures. Significant group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  4. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  5. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  6. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  7. Increasing adherence to obstructive sleep apnea treatment with a group social cognitive therapy treatment intervention: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Delwyn; Wong, Keith; Richards, Dianne; Moy, Emma; Espie, Colin A; Cistulli, Peter A; Grunstein, Ronald

    2013-11-01

    To examine whether a social cognitive therapy (SCT) intervention increases continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use compared to equivalent social interaction (SI) time. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred for CPAP therapy. Participants received a 30-min group education session regarding OSA and CPAP. Groups of three to four participants were then randomly assigned to an SCT session or social interaction. CPAP usage was assessed at 7 nights, then 1, 3, and 6 months. The two primary outcomes were adherence, usage ≥ 4 h per night at 6 months, and uptake of CPAP. Questionnaires were given pretreatment and posttreatment. Two hundred six individuals were randomized to SI (n = 97) or SCT (n = 109). CPAP uptake was not different between groups (82% in SI, 88% in SCT groups, P = 0.35). There were no differences between groups in adherence: 63-66% at 1 week, and at 6 months 55-47% (P = 0.36). Higher pretreatment apnea-hypopnea index, higher baseline self-efficacy, and use of CPAP (≥ 4 h) at 1 week were independent predictors of CPAP adherence at 6 months. CPAP adherence increased by a factor of 1.8 (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0) for every one-unit increase in self-efficacy. There was no difference between groups postintervention in self-efficacy scores, sleepiness, mood, or sleep quality. In this randomized trial, a single SCT application did not increase adherence when compared with SI time. Although self-efficacy scores prior to CPAP predicted adherence, self-efficacy was not increased by the interventions. Increasing intensity and understanding of SCT interventions may be needed to improve CPAP adherence. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12607000424404.

  8. Landscape genomic approach to detect selection signatures in locally adapted Brazilian swine genetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesconeto, Robson Jose; Joost, Stéphane; McManus, Concepta Margaret; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini, Jose

    2017-11-01

    Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as F ST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samβada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in both methods, with a Kappa value of 0.073 (95% CI: 0.011-0.134). The frequency of these markers indicated a clear north-south country division that reflects Brazilian environmental differences in temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation. Global spatial territory correlation for environmental variables corroborates this finding (average Moran's I = 0.89, range from 0.55 to 0.97). The distribution of alleles over the territory was not strongly correlated with the breed/genetic groups. These results are congruent with previous mtDNA studies and should be used to direct germplasm collection for the National gene bank.

  9. A Social Media Peer Group for Mothers To Prevent Obesity from Infancy: The Grow2Gether Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiks, Alexander G; Gruver, Rachel S; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Shults, Justine; Virudachalam, Senbagam; Suh, Andrew W; Gerdes, Marsha; Kalra, Gurpreet K; DeRusso, Patricia A; Lieberman, Alexandra; Weng, Daniel; Elovitz, Michal A; Berkowitz, Robert I; Power, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have addressed obesity prevention among low-income families whose infants are at increased obesity risk. We tested a Facebook peer-group intervention for low-income mothers to foster behaviors promoting healthy infant growth. In this randomized controlled trial, 87 pregnant women (Medicaid insured, BMI ≥25 kg/m2) were randomized to the Grow2Gether intervention or text message appointment reminders. Grow2Gether participants joined a private Facebook group of 9-13 women from 2 months before delivery until infant age 9 months. A psychologist facilitated groups featuring a curriculum of weekly videos addressing feeding, sleep, parenting, and maternal well-being. Feasibility was assessed using the frequency and content of participation, and acceptability using surveys. Maternal beliefs and behaviors and infant growth were assessed at birth, 2, 4, 6, and 9 months. Differences in infant growth between study arms were explored. We conducted intention-to-treat analyses using quasi-least-squares regression. Eighty-eight percent (75/85) of intervention participants (42% (36/85) food insecure, 88% (75/85) black) reported the group was helpful. Participants posted 30 times/group/week on average. At 9 months, the intervention group had significant improvement in feeding behaviors (Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire) compared to the control group (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.45). Intervention group mothers were significantly less likely to pressure infants to finish food and, at age 6 months, give cereal in the bottle. Differences were not observed for other outcomes, including maternal feeding beliefs or infant weight-for-length. A social media peer-group intervention was engaging and significantly impacted certain feeding behaviors in families with infants at high risk of obesity.

  10. Monitoring growth in finishers by weighing selected groups of pigs - A dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R

    2016-03-01

    Application of BW monitoring methods for the whole batch of pigs is not common in commercial herds. Instead, farm managers may regularly weigh a chosen subset of pigs (observed group) and use the obtained information for monitoring, forecasting, and decision support. The objective of this study was to construct a model for growth monitoring and forecasting in pig fattening herds and use the developed model framework to quantify the value of information on BW. The dynamic process of pig growing was described by means of a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. For this study, data from 9 fattening cycles with the total registration for 9,800 pigs were used. The variance components were estimated by fitting a mixed-effects linear model on selected BW measurements. The obtained model was evaluated on its performance in forecasting the number of pigs ready to deliver from the whole batch and from a particular pen given the level of information on a reference data set consisting of 2 batches (Batch 3 [B1] and Batch 4 [B2]). Scenarios with a different frequency of observations (only 1 selected week, every second week, or weekly) on individual and aggregated levels for an observed group comprising 1 pen (36 pigs, which constitute 7.5% of pigs in a batch) or 2 pens (15.5% of pigs) were analyzed. Moreover, results with only initial herd information and insertion BW at the batch, pen, and pig level were presented. The model can be used for growth monitoring of the batch and for prediction of the number of pigs ready for slaughter in a given week (i.e., with a BW exceeding a threshold, which, in this study, is set to 105 kg). With an increased level of information, both accuracy (measured by the mean absolute deviation [MAD] of actual number of pigs above 105 kg from predicted number) and precision (measured by CV) of the model continue to improve. When monitoring all pigs at insertion and the observed groups every week (15.5% of pigs) compared with predictions

  11. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  12. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A. D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method. In this

  13. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  14. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  15. The effects of a group-based cognitive behavioral therapy on people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Federica; Calandri, Emanuela; Borghi, Martina; Bonino, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group-based intervention aimed at reducing depression and fostering quality of life and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis patients through the promotion of identity redefinition, sense of coherence, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial. Non-medical setting, external to the Multiple Sclerosis Clinic Centre. Eighty-two patients: 64% women; mean age 40.5, SD = 9.4; 95% with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) between 1 and 5.5 were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five cognitive behavioral group-based sessions, n = 41) or to a control group (three informative sessions, n = 41). Depression (CES-D), Quality of life (MSQOL revised), Psychological well-being (PANAS), Identity Motives Scale, Sense of Coherence (SOC), and Self Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis. Quality of life increased in the intervention group compared with the control at 6-months follow-up (mean change 0.72 vs. -1.76, p < 0.05). Well-being in the intervention group increased for males and slightly decreased for females at 6-months follow-up (mean change 6.58 vs. -0.82, p < 0.05). Contrasts revealed an increase in self-efficacy in the intervention group at posttreatment compared with the control (mean change 2.95 vs. -0.11, p < 0.05). Depression tended to lower, while identity and coherence increased in the intervention group compared with the control, though the differences were not significant. Preliminary evidence suggests that intervention promotes patients' quality of life and has an effect on psychological well-being and self-efficacy.

  16. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  17. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  18. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  19. Reducing Delusional Conviction through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Dieben, Karen; Huguelet, Philippe; Boucherie, Maria; Monney, Gregoire; Lecardeur, Laurent; Salamin, Virginie; Bretel, Fethi; Azoulay, Silke; Pesenti, Elodie; Krychowski, Raoul; Costa Prata, Andreia; Bartolomei, Javier; Brazo, Perrine; Traian, Alexei; Charpeaud, Thomas; Murys, Elodie; Poupart, Florent; Rouvière, Serge; Zullino, Daniele; Parabiaghi, Alberto; Saoud, Mohamed; Favrod, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    "Michael's game" (MG) is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters delusions inventory (PDI-21). Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Beck cognitive insight scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley assessment of delusions schedule (MADS). We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU) in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. The 172 participants were randomized, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline), at 3 months (T2: post-treatment), and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up). At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p = 0.005). At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p = 0.002). Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p = 0.002) and preoccupation subscales (p = 0.001), as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility ("anything against the belief") (p = 0.001). The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG.

  20. New 4-Functionalized Glutamate Analogues Are Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 or Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Group III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tri H. V.; Erichsen, Mette N.; Tora, Amelie S.

    2016-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in modulating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In all, eight subtypes have been identified and divided into three groups, group I (mGlu1,5), group II (mGlu2,3), and group III (mGlu4,6–8). In this article, we present a L-...... a selective agonist activity profile at mGlu2 (EC50 in the micromolar range), whereas 2c/2d were both selective agonists at group III, subtypes mGlu4,6,8. In general, 2d was 20-fold more potent than 2c and potently activated mGlu4,6,8 in the low–mid nanomolar range.......The metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in modulating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In all, eight subtypes have been identified and divided into three groups, group I (mGlu1,5), group II (mGlu2,3), and group III (mGlu4,6–8). In this article, we present a L-2......,4-syn-substituted Glu analogue, 1d, which displays selective agonist activity at mGlu2 over the remaining mGluR subtypes. A modeling study and redesign of the core scaffold led to the stereoselective synthesis of four new conformationally restricted Glu analogues, 2a–d. Most interestingly, 2a retained...

  1. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  2. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2016. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  3. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  4. Multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for self-management of fibromyalgia: a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bourgault

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number

  5. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  6. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  7. Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen H Jafar

    Full Text Available Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE and trained general practitioner (GP intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. However, it was not clear whether the effect would be sustained after the cessation of intervention. We conducted 7 years follow-up inclusive of 5 years of post intervention period of COBRA trial participants to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on BP during extended follow-up.A total of 1341 individuals 40 years or older with hypertension (systolic BP 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, or already receiving treatment were followed by trained research staff masked to randomization status. BP was measured thrice with a calibrated automated device (Omron HEM-737 IntelliSense in the sitting position after 5 minutes of rest. BP measurements were repeated after two weeks. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to analyze the primary outcome of change in systolic BP from baseline to 7- year follow-up. The multivariable model was adjusted for clustering, age at baseline, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, and presence of diabetes.After 7 years of follow-up, systolic BP levels among those randomised to combined HHE plus trained GP intervention were significantly lower (2.1 [4.1-0.1] mm Hg compared to those randomised to usual care, (P = 0.04. Participants receiving the combined intervention compared to usual care had a greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol (2.7 [4.8 to 0.6] mg/dl.The benefit in systolic BP reduction observed in the original cohort assigned to the combined intervention was attenuated but still evident at 7- year follow-up. These

  8. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial of individually tailored, multidisciplinary, palliative rehabilitation for patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Lise; Groenvold, Mogens; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn

    2017-01-01

    is the primary outcome measure of the study. Secondary outcome measures include survival and economic consequences. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge the Pal-Rehab study is the first randomized, controlled, phase III trial to evaluate individually tailored, palliative rehabilitation in standard oncology care......BACKGROUND: The effect of early palliative care and rehabilitation on the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer has been only sparsely described and needs further investigation. In the present trial we combine elements of early, specialized palliative care with cancer rehabilitation....... The patients are randomized to a specialized palliative rehabilitation intervention integrated in standard oncology care or to standard oncology care alone. The intervention consists of a multidisciplinary group program, individual consultations, or a combination of both. At baseline and after six and 12 weeks...

  9. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  10. Using selective chromogenic plates to optimize isolation of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS remains the leading cause of severe bacterial infections (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia in neonates. We compared the detection of GBS from recto-vaginal swabs on blood agar and two chromogenic media and evaluated their antibiotic susceptibility. A total of 1351 swabs were taken from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth + nalidixic acid and colistin, the samples were plated on Columbia CNA agar (CNA, chromID Strepto B agar (STRB and Granada Agar (GRAN, respectively. GBS were found in 22.4% of recto-vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of GBS detection were 88%, 88%, 81% and 96% for CNA, 99%, 97%, 90% and 99% for STRB and 94%, 99%, 98% e 99% for GRAN; Cohen’s k index concordances for CNA, STREB and GRAN were 0.68, 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas resistances of erythromycin and clindamycin were 40% and 42%, respectively. To conclude, selective broth enrichment combined with chromogenic plates is recommended for GBS screening in pregnant women.

  11. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  12. The analysis of individual Visegrad group members’ agrarian export sensitivity in relation to selected macroeconomic aggregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the development of agricultural trade of the countries of the Visegrad Group with emphasis on development of the value of agricultural exports of the individual countries. The subject matter of the analysis is the sensitivity of the commodity structure of agricultural exports of individual countries and the identification of aggregations that are the least and the most sensitive to changes to the external and internal economic environment. From the conducted research, agricultural trade in the V4 countries was found to have developed very dynamically from 1993 to 2008, while the commodity structure of exports has constantly narrowed as the degree of specialization of the individual countries has increased (this applies especially to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. From the results of analysis of sensitivity to changes of selected variables relating to the development of the value of agricultural exports of the individual V4 countries, it appears that the aggregations that react most sensitively to changes are those that are the subject of re-exports, followed by the aggregations that are characterized by a high degree of added value. In general it can be said that products of agricultural primary production exhibit less sensitivity in comparison with grocery industry products. This is confirmed by the general trend arising from the very nature of consumer behaviour.

  13. Tailoring of ZnO with selected group-II elements for LED materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Murtaza; Manzoor, Adnan; Zaffar, Mohammed; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Anwar, M. Sabieh

    2016-06-01

    The semiconductor ZnO is a promising candidate for its applications in light-emitting diodes. In this study ZnO nanostructures tailored with selected group-II elements were synthesized using sol-gel-based fuel-agent-assistive chemical technique. Structural studies from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure in all compositions confirming the stability of the Mg-doped structure while indicating presence of some traces of un-reacted and oxides of Sr and Ba in other compositions. Lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density, and cell volume were extracted from X-ray diffraction data. Morphology and elemental composition analysis showed exact correlation with structural arrangements. The size of particles was also observed with dynamic light-scattering measurements. Absorbance and electrical transport studies were performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and four-probe measurements, respectively; the former was used to estimate the band gap of nanostructures. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was employed for confirming the substitution of Mg, Sr, and Ba atoms at Zn and O sites. Band gap values show strong dependence upon the tailored ZnO compositions.

  14. Gibbs Free Energy of Formation for Selected Platinum Group Minerals (PGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Olivotos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic data for platinum group (Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd and Pt minerals are very limited. The present study is focused on the calculation of the Gibbs free energy of formation (ΔfG° for selected PGM occurring in layered intrusions and ophiolite complexes worldwide, applying available experimental data on their constituent elements at their standard state (ΔG = G(species − ΔG(elements, using the computer program HSC Chemistry software 6.0. The evaluation of the accuracy of the calculation method was made by the calculation of (ΔGf of rhodium sulfide phases. The calculated values were found to be ingood agreement with those measured in the binary system (Rh + S as a function of temperature by previous authors (Jacob and Gupta (2014. The calculated Gibbs free energy (ΔfG° followed the order RuS2 < (Ir,OsS2 < (Pt, PdS < (Pd, PtTe2, increasing from compatible to incompatible noble metals and from sulfides to tellurides.

  15. Analyzing indirect effects in cluster randomized trials. The effect of estimation method, number of groups and group sizes on accuracy and power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop eHox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.

  16. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  17. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, David; Ruhe, Mary; Weyer, Sharon; Stange, Kurt C

    2008-05-16

    The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD), we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2-8; mean 4.8 +/- 1.6). Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  18. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyer Sharon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. Methods In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD, we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Results Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2–8; mean 4.8 ± 1.6. Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p Conclusion Greater capacity for change is associated with a higher probability that a practice will attain and sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  19. Comparing physical exercise in groups to group cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of panic disorder in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Sjøbø, Trond; Gjestad, Bente A; Birknes, Birthe; Martinsen, Egil W; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical exercise can reduce symptoms for subjects suffering from panic disorder (PD). The efficacy of this intervention has so far not been compared to an established psychotherapy, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Assessment of controlled long-term effects and the clinical significance of the treatment are also lacking. To compare physical exercise to CBT as treatment for PD, and assess controlled long-term and clinically significant effects. PD-patients were randomized to either three weekly sessions of physical exercise (n = 17), or one weekly session of CBT (n = 19). Both treatments ran for 12 weeks, were manualized and administered in groups. Patients were assessed twice before the start of treatment, at post-treatment and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Primary outcome-measures consisted of the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Agoraphobia Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ). A two-way repeated measures MANOVA of these measures demonstrated a significant effect of time, F(16, 544) = 7.28, p < .01, as well as a significant interaction effect, F(16, 544) = 1.71, p < .05, in favour of CBT. This finding was supported by the assessment of clinically significant changes of avoidant behaviour and of treatment-seeking one year later. Group CBT is more effective than group physical exercise as treatment of panic disorder, both immediately following treatment and at follow-up assessments.

  20. Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowcroft Natasha S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents

  1. Efficacy of aliskiren and valsartan in hypertensive patients with albuminuria: a randomized parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Georgios; Kalaitzidis, Rigas; Karasavvidou, Despina; Pappas, Kosmas; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

    2013-12-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical approach to the management of hypertension, especially in proteinuric patients. It is well proven that the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren shows comparable clinical efficacy to the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan on blood pressure control and albuminuria. However, there is only limited data on the hand-to-hand effectiveness of these two RAS blockers in improving arterial stiffness. We tested whether aliskiren or valsartan would improve arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with albuminuria who are already on antihypertensive therapy. Thirty-four patients with hypertension and albuminuria Albuminuria was significantly reduced in both groups (56% for the aliskiren group, p < 0.05, and 38% for the valsartan group, p < 0.05). Only valsartan but not aliskiren significantly reduced carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (-1.1 ± 0.8 m/s (p = 0.02) for valsartan and +0.1 ± 0.7 m/s (ns) for aliskiren). The results of our study showed that valsartan improves arterial stiffness to a significantly greater extent than aliskiren, despite a similar antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effect.

  2. The efficacy of lymphatic drainage and traditional massage in the prophylaxis of migraine: a randomized, controlled parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Svenja; Peikert, Andreas; Siegert, Rudolf; Evers, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at examining the efficacy of lymphatic drainage (LD) and traditional massage (TM) in the prophylactic treatment of migraine using controlled prospective randomized clinical trial of 64 patients (57 women, 45 ± 10 years) with migraine with and without aura. Patients were randomized into three groups: LD (n = 21); TM (n = 21); waiting group (WG, n = 22). After a 4-week-baseline, a treatment period of 8 weeks was applied followed by a 4-week observation period. The patients filled in a headache diary continuously; every 4 weeks they filled in the German version of the CES-D and the German version of the Headache Disability Inventory. The main outcome measure was migraine frequency per month. At the end of the observation period, the number of migraine attacks and days decreased in the LD group by 1.8 and 3.1, respectively, in the TM group by 1.3 and 2.4, and in the WG by 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. The differences between LD and WG were significant (p = 0.006 and p = 0.015, respectively) as well as the differences between TM und WG (p = 0.042 and p = 0.016, respectively). There was a significant decrease in the amount of analgesic intake in the LD group compared to the two other groups (p = 0.004). TM and LD resulted in a reduction of migraine attack frequency. The analgesic intake only decreased significantly during LD intervention. Useful effects were identified for LD and TM as compared to WG for the prophylaxis of migraine. LD was more efficacious in some parameters than TM.

  3. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat; Wilson, Amy T

    2008-09-01

    To determine whether participation in a mind-body skills group program based on psychological self-care, mind-body techniques, and self-expression decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eighty-two adolescents meeting criteria for PTSD according to the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (which corresponds with 16 of the 17 diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to a 12-session mind-body group program or a wait-list control group. The program was conducted by high school teachers in consultation with psychiatrists and psychologists and included meditation, guided imagery, and breathing techniques; self-expression through words, drawings, and movement; autogenic training and biofeedback; and genograms. Changes in PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The study was conducted from September 2004 to May 2005 by The Center for Mind-Body Medicine at a high school in the Suhareka region of Kosovo. Students in the immediate intervention group had significantly lower PTSD symptom scores following the intervention than those in the wait-list control group (F = 29.8, df = 1,76; p < .001). Preintervention and postintervention scores (mean [SD]) for the intervention group were 2.5 (0.3) and 2.0 (0.3), respectively, and for the control group, 2.5 (0.3) and 2.4 (0.4), respectively. The decreased PTSD symptom scores were maintained in the initial intervention group at 3-month follow-up. After the wait-list control group received the intervention, there was a significant decrease (p < .001) in PTSD symptom scores compared to the preintervention scores. Mind-body skills groups can reduce PTSD symptoms in war-traumatized high school students and can be effectively led by trained and supervised schoolteachers. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  5. Effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention during the clinical practicum of nursing students: a parallel group randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Saarikoski, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salminen, Leena; Suomi, Reima; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a study protocol for a study evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention to improve students' competence level, self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum has a vital role in promoting the learning of students. Despite an increasing interest in using mobile technologies to improve the clinical practicum of students, there is limited robust evidence regarding their effectiveness. A multicentre, parallel group, randomized, controlled, pragmatic, superiority trial. Second-year pre-registration nursing students who are beginning a clinical practicum will be recruited from one university of applied sciences. Eligible students will be randomly allocated to either a control group (engaging in standard cooperation) or an intervention group (engaging in mobile cooperation) for the 5-week the clinical practicum. The complex mobile cooperation intervention comprises of a mobile application-assisted, nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation and a training in the functions of the mobile application. The primary outcome is competence. The secondary outcomes include self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Moreover, a process evaluation will be undertaken. The ethical approval for this study was obtained in December 2014 and the study received funding in 2015. The results of this study will provide robust evidence on mobile cooperation during the clinical practicum, a research topic that has not been consistently studied to date. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Sandvik, Leiv; Strand, Elin Bolle; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Sveen, Unni

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Four mid-sized towns in southern Norway and two suburbs of Oslo. A total of 137 adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. A self-management program including eight biweekly meetings of 2.5 hours duration. The control group received usual care. Primary outcome measure: Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale. Fatigue severity scale, self-efficacy scale, physical and mental component summary of the Short Form-36, and the illness cognition questionnaire (acceptance subscale). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at six-month and one-year follow-ups. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference between the two groups was found concerning fatigue severity ( p = 0.039) in favor of the control group, and concerning self-efficacy in favor of the intervention group ( p = 0.039). These significant differences were not sustained at the one-year follow-up. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning physical functioning, acceptance, and health status at any of the measure points. The drop-out rate was 13.9% and the median number of sessions attended was seven (out of eight). The evaluated self-management program did not have any sustained effect, as compared with receiving usual care.

  7. Exercise intervention in childhood obesity: a randomized controlled trial comparing hospital-versus home-based groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan Francisco; Real-Montes, José María; Torró, Isabel; Arguisuelas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Pitti, Julio; Martínez-Gramage, J; Aguilar, Francisco; Lurbe, Empar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a hospital clinic group- versus home-based combined exercise-diet program for the treatment of childhood obesity. One hundred ten overweight/obese Spanish children and adolescents (6-16 years) in 2 intervention groups (hospital clinic group-based [n = 45] and home-based [n = 41]) and a sex-age-matched control group (n = 24) were randomly assigned to participate in a 6-month combined exercise (aerobic and resistance training) and Mediterranean diet program. Anthropometric values (including body weight, height, body mass index, BMI-Z score, and waist circumference) were measured pre- and postintervention for all the participants. Percentage body fat was also determined with a body fat analyzer (TANITA TBF-410 M). Our study showed a significant reduction in percentage body fat and body mass index Z-score among both intervention-group participants (4%, 0.16, hospital clinic group-based; 4.4%, 0.23, home-based; P exercise and Mediterranean diet program may be effective among overweight and obese children and adolescents, because it improves body composition, is feasible and can be adopted on a large scale without substantial expenses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Silyl-protective groups influencing the reactivity and selectivity in glycosylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Silyl groups such as TBDPS, TBDMS, TIPS or TMS are well-known and widely used alcohol protective groups in organic chemistry. Cyclic silylene protective groups are also becoming increasingly popular. In carbohydrate chemistry silyl protective groups have frequently been used primarily...... as an orthogonal protective group to the more commonly used acyl and benzyl protective groups. However, silyl protective groups have significantly different electronic and steric requirements than acyl and alkyl protective groups, which particularly becomes important when two or more neighboring alcohols are silyl...

  9. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, P.; Crown, J.; Di, Leo A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is more effective than doxorubicin for patients with advanced breast cancer. The Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial tested the effect of incorporating docetaxel into anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy and compared sequential vs concurrent administration...... of doxorubicin at 50 mg/m2 plus docetaxel at 75 mg/m2, followed by three cycles of CMF). The primary comparison evaluated the efficacy of including docetaxel regardless of schedule and was planned after 1215 disease-free survival (DFS) events (ie, relapse, second primary cancer, or death from any cause...

  10. Crestal Bone Loss under Delayed Loading of Full Thickness Versus Flapless Surgically Placed Dental Implants in Controlled Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Parallel Group Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rohit; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor; Rao, Jitendra; Anwar, Mohd; Alvi, Habib Ahmed; Singh, Kalpana; Himanshu, D

    2016-10-12

    To compare crestal bone loss around dental implants using a delayed loading protocol. Bone loss was compared in patients following conventional full thickness flap and flapless surgery in controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty-eight type 2 diabetic patients satisfying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for this single center, parallel group study after obtaining institutional review board approval and informed consent. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group I consisted of patients undergoing full thickness flap surgery for implant placement, and group II consisted of patients undergoing flapless surgery for implant placement. The mean age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and male-to-female ratio in both groups were matched and compared statistically. Dental implants were placed followed by delayed loading (4 months) in both groups. Crestal bone loss was assessed with intraoral periapical radiographs with the help of computer software (DBSWIN viewer). Actual implant length acted as the radiographic index, and implant-abutment junctions were used as a reference point for all measurements. Mesial and distal bone levels at baseline, 6, and 12 months post implant placement of the two groups were determined. Mesial and distal crestal bone loss from baseline to 6 and 12 months were calculated and compared with Tukey test using SPSS v15.0 statistical analysis software. Tukey test revealed similar (not statistically different) mean mesial crestal bone loss between the two groups after 6 months (0.47 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.36 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.576) and after 12 months (1.56 ± 0.25 mm vs. 1.50 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.891). The mean distal bone loss resulting between the two groups was not statistically different at 6 months (0.44 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.35 ± 0.12 mm, p = 0.687) and at 12 months (1.57 ± 0.23 mm vs. 1.61 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.947). The results of this clinical randomized control trial indicated that in

  11. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Takanobu Okamoto,1 Ryota Kobayashi,1 Midori Natsume,2 Koichi Nakazato1 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Food Sciences Research Laboratories, Meiji Co Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13, and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13. These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05. However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Keywords: flavanol-enriched cocoa, pulse-wave velocity, intake frequency, endothelin 1

  12. A randomized controlled trial of a manual-based psychosocial group intervention for young people with epilepsy [PIE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Liam; Broome, Helen; Wilson, Margaret; Grant, Cathy; Young, David; Baker, Gus; Balloo, Selina; Bruce, Susan; Campbell, Jo; Concannon, Bernie; Conway, Nadia; Cook, Lisa; Davis, Cheryl; Downey, Bruce; Evans, Jon; Flower, Diane; Garlovsky, Jack; Kearney, Shauna; Lewis, Susan; Stephens, Victoria; Turton, Stuart; Wright, Ingram

    2017-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory RCT to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy for a manual-based psychosocial group intervention aimed at improving epilepsy knowledge, self-management skills, and quality of life in young people with epilepsy. Eighty-three participants (33:50m/f; age range 12-17years) were randomized to either the treatment or control group in seven tertiary paediatric neuroscience centres in the UK, using a wait-list control design. Participants were excluded if they reported suicidal ideation and/or scored above the cut off on mental health screening measures, or if they had a learning disability or other neurological disorder. The intervention consisted of six weekly 2-hour sessions using guided discussion, group exercises and role-plays facilitated by an epilepsy nurse and a clinical psychologist. At three month follow up the treatment group (n=40) was compared with a wait-list control group (n=43) on a range of standardized measures. There was a significant increase in epilepsy knowledge in the treatment group (p=0.02). Participants receiving the intervention were also significantly more confident in speaking to others about their epilepsy (p=0.04). Quality of life measures did not show significant change. Participants reported the greatest value of attending the group was: Learning about their epilepsy (46%); Learning to cope with difficult feelings (29%); and Meeting others with epilepsy (22%). Caregiver and facilitator feedback was positive, and 92% of participants would recommend the group to others. This brief psychosocial group intervention was effective in increasing participants' knowledge of epilepsy and improved confidence in discussing their epilepsy with others. We discuss the qualitative feedback, feasibility, strengths and limitations of the PIE trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  14. Group parent-child interaction therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N; Barnett, Miya L; Prewett, Matthew S; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R

    2016-08-01

    Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mineral and Rock Physics Focus Group Selects Kantor for 2008 Graduate Research Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    The Mineral and Rock Physics focus group has selected Innokenty Kantor as the recipient of the 2008 Graduate Research Award. Kantor pursued his Ph.D. in high-pressure mineral physics at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Germany, under the supervision of Leonid Dubrovinsky and Catherine McCammon, and he successfully defended his thesis, entitled “High-pressure and high-temperature structural and electronic properties of (Mg, Fe)O and FeO,” in July 2007. Kantor came to Germany with a strong theoretical background after gaining a master's diploma with honors at Moscow State University, Russia. At the University of Bayreuth, he developed experimental experience by mastering the challenging techniques of diamond anvil cell experimentation, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Highlights of Kantor's thesis research include the discovery that the rhombohedral distortion in iron oxide (FeO) and magnesium iron oxide ((Mg, Fe)O) does not coincide with the magnetic ordering transition (contrary to what had been assumed for many years); a full description of spin crossover in (Mg, Fe)O above 50 gigapascals including the effect of short-range order; and a new high-pressure monoclinic modification of FeO that may change the interpretation of the B1 → B8 (rock salt to nickel arsenide structure) transition at high pressure and temperature. All of these results have had a significant impact on the research field and influenced models for the behavior of FeO and (Mg, Fe)O at high pressure. Kantor's achievements have been recognized by a number of other awards, most recently the E.ON Bayern Kulturpreis, awarded for one of the best doctoral theses in Bavaria across all research fields.

  16. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  17. Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Baker, Julie A; Moysich, Kirsten B; Rivera, Ruqayyah; Brasure, John R; McCann, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, smoking status, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and spermicides, family history of cervical cancer, year questionnaire completed, and energy intake. Significant reductions in risk of approximately 40-60% were observed for women in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of dietary fiber (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), vitamin C (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.80), vitamin E (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.27-0.72), vitamin A (OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.30-0.73), alpha-carotene (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.63), beta-carotene (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.29-0.68), lutein (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.33-0.79), folate (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.34-0.88), and total fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.77). Our findings suggest that a diet rich in plant-based nutrients may be important in reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

  18. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Ara Ainuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Results. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. 84.9% patients in metformin group required add-on insulin therapy at mean gestational age of 26.58 ± 3.85 weeks. Less maternal weight gain (P24 hours in metformin group (P<0.01. Significant reduction in cost of treatment was found in metformin group. Conclusion. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials.gov NCT01855763.

  19. Effectiveness of a psycho-educational group program for major depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, sleep) together with cognitive-behavioral techniques in psychoeducation are proven to be effective. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program, which includes aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle, in patients with mild/moderate depression symptoms in Primary Care (PC). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 246 participants over 20 years old with ICD-10 major depression were recruited through nurses/general practitioners at 12 urban Primary Care Centers (PCCs) in Barcelona. The intervention group (IG) (n=119) received a group psychoeducational program (12 weekly, 1.5 h sessions led by two nurses) and the control group (CG) (n=112) received usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at, 3, 6 and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the BDI, EQ-5D and remission based upon the BDI. Results 231 randomized patients were included, of whom 85 had mild depression and 146 moderate depression. The analyses showed significant differences between groups in relation to remission of symptoms, especially in the mild depression group with a high rate of 57% (p=0.009) at post-treatment and 65% (p=0.006) at 9 month follow up, and only showed significant differences on the BDI at post-treatment (p=0.016; effect size Cohen’s d’=.51) and at 6 and 9 month follow-up (p= 0.048; d’=.44). In the overall and moderate sample, the analyses only showed significant differences between groups on the BDI at post-treatment, p=0.02 (d’=.29) and p=0.010 (d’=.47), respectively. The psychoeducation group improved significantly on the EQ-5D at short and long-term. Conclusions This psychoeducational intervention is a short and long-term effective treatment for patients with mild

  20. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Group Selection and Learning for a Lab-Based Construction Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Pranshoo; Kothari, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    In construction industries' projects, working in groups is a normal practice. Group work in a classroom is defined as students working collaboratively in a group so that everyone can participate on a collective task. The results from literature review indicate that group work is more effective method of learning as compared to individual work.…

  2. Sulawesi Onthophagus: seven new species in select groups (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J; Huijbregts, J

    2017-03-05

    Eleven species in five small operational groups of the scarab genus Onthophagus Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are treated, all from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi and nearby smaller islands. These groups are defined, and their species are keyed, described, and illustrated, including the following seven new species: Onthophagus bisscrutator (O. scrutator group); O. bongkudai (O. holosericus group); O. sopu (O. manguliensis group); O. hollowayi, O. seseba, and O. annulopunctatus (O. seseba group); and O. begoniophilus (O. deflexicollis group). Lectotypes are designated for Onthophagus scrutator Harold, 1877 and O. holosericus Harold, 1877.

  3. Comparison of two different starting multiple dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols in a selected group of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Ernesto; Bosch, Ernesto; Crespo, Juana; Simón, Carlos; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of two starting protocols of multiple dose GnRH antagonists (GnRH-a). Prospective randomized controlled study. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. One hundred nine patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with recombinant gonadotropins and GnRH-a (0.25 mg/d). Patients started GnRH-a administration on stimulation day 6 (group 1) or when the leading follicle reached a mean diameter of 14 mm (group 2). Implantation and pregnancy rates; serum E(2) and LH levels during ovarian stimulation; days of stimulation and GnRH-a administration. Days needed for ovarian stimulation were similar in both groups but there was a significant difference when comparing days of GnRH-a administration. Serum E(2) and LH followed similar curves in both groups. Implantation and pregnancy rates were 23.7% and 44.4 % in group 1 and 28.6% and 50.9 % in group 2 (P=not significant [NS]). The efficacy of the two starting protocols of the multiple dose GnRH-a evaluated in this study is similar; however, this remark can only be drawn for a selected group of patients.

  4. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  5. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  6. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. What Makes Group MET Work? A Randomized Controlled Trial of College Student Drinkers in Mandated Alcohol Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChance, Heather; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. College students (N = 206; 88% Caucasian; 63% male; M age = 18.6) mandated to a university alcohol diversion program were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the standard-of-care two-session ‘Focus on Alcohol Concerns’ education group (FAC), a single group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET), or a single Alcohol Information-only control group (AI) to evaluate the role of five putative mediators: readiness to change, self-efficacy, perceived risk, norm estimates, and positive drinking expectancies. At three and six month follow-ups, GMET students demonstrated greater reductions in problem drinking outcomes (drinks per drinking day, hazardous drinking symptoms, and alcohol-related problems). Of the five mediators proposed, only self-efficacy emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:20025366

  8. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  9. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  10. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M; Goetz, Monika; Holl, Maria; Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Staudinger, Susanne; Langguth, Berthold

    2012-11-28

    Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend) and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22). Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ). ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010). Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p < 0.001; control group: t = 2.5; df = 16; p = 0.023), but the intervention group improved more than the control group. Groups differed at week 7 and 9, but not at week 24 as far as the TQ score was concerned. Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes.The study is

  11. A Comprehensive Lifestyle Peer Group-Based Intervention on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled Fifty-Fifty Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pardo, Emilia; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Vilanova, Marta; Haro, Domingo; Martínez, Ramona; Carvajal, Isabel; Carral, Vanesa; Rodríguez, Carla; de Miguel, Mercedes; Bodega, Patricia; Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Peñalvo, Jose Luis; Marina, Iñaki; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re, Marian; Villar, Carmen; Robledo, Teresa; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Fuster, Valentin

    2016-02-09

    Cardiovascular diseases stem from modifiable risk factors. Peer support is a proven strategy for many chronic illnesses. Randomized trials assessing the efficacy of this strategy for global cardiovascular risk factor modification are lacking. This study assessed the hypothesis that a peer group strategy would help improve healthy behaviors in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 543 adults 25 to 50 years of age with at least 1 risk factor were recruited; risk factors included hypertension (20%), overweight (82%), smoking (31%), and physical inactivity (81%). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to a peer group-based intervention group (IG) or a self-management control group (CG) for 12 months. Peer-elected leaders moderated monthly meetings involving role-play, brainstorming, and activities to address emotions, diet, and exercise. The primary outcome was mean change in a composite score related to blood pressure, exercise, weight, alimentation, and tobacco (Fuster-BEWAT score, 0 to 15). Multilevel models with municipality as a cluster variable were applied to assess differences between groups. Participants' mean age was 42 ± 6 years, 71% were female, and they had a mean baseline Fuster-BEWAT score of 8.42 ± 2.35. After 1 year, the mean scores were significantly higher in the IG (n = 277) than in the CG (n = 266) (IG mean score: 8.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.37 to 9.32; CG mean score: 8.17; 95% CI: 7.55 to 8.79; p = 0.02). The increase in the overall score was significantly larger in the IG compared with the CG (difference: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.18; p = 0.02). The mean improvement in the individual components was uniformly greater in the IG, with a significant difference for the tobacco component. The peer group intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, with significant improvements in the overall score and specifically on tobacco cessation. A follow-up assessment will be performed 1 year after the final assessment

  12. Discrimination of the Bacillus cereus group members by pattern analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, Ritsuko; Imamura, Daisuke; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2012-06-01

    We tried to discriminate 16 strains of the Bacillus cereus group including B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, and B. weihenstephanensis strains by the pattern analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) -PCR. Eight oligonucleotides primers were prepared and the polymorphic patterns of the DNA of each strain were compared with those of others. The primers E and F gave different patterns of RAPD-PCR products in all strains of the B. cereus group, so these primers are effective tools for the discrimination of closely related strains. All eight primers showed different polymorphic patterns of DNA for the four strains of B. cereus isolated from the kitchen of a private home, which verifies the advantage of the RAPD-PCR analysis for the discrimination of isolated strains of B. cereus from the environment.

  13. A group-delivered self-management program reduces spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugos, Cinda L; Bourdette, Dennis; Chen, Yiyi; Chen, Zunqiu; Cameron, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Spasticity affects more than 80% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting activity, participation, and quality of life. Based on an international guideline, an MS spasticity group education and stretching program, MS Spasticity: Take Control (STC), has been developed. The objective of this paper is to determine whether STC with home stretching is associated with greater changes in spasticity than usual care (UC), consisting of an illustrated stretching booklet and home stretching but without group instruction or support, in people with MS. Ambulatory MS patients with self-reported spasticity interfering with daily activities were randomized to STC or UC. Individuals completed questionnaires regarding MS, spasticity, walking, fatigue and mood, and physical measures of spasticity and walking. Thirty-eight of 40 participants completed both assessments. Mean total score and scores on two subscales of the MS Spasticity Scale-88 improved more with STC than with UC (p spasticity more than UC and provided encouraging improvements in other measures.

  14. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  15. The effect of grouping of laboratory students on selected educational outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Munch, Theodore W.

    The purpose of this study was to discover if grouping students in the laboratory on the basis of their formal reasoning ability affected (1) their science content achievement, (2) their formal reasoning ability, (3) the learning environment in the laboratory, and (4) the relationships between individuals in a particular group. The laboratory groups for three physical science classes for preservice elementary teachers were arranged as follows: (1) one class with students of unequal reasoning ability grouped together, i.e., one highly developed formal reasoner per group (the heterogeneous group), (2) one class with students of similar reasoning ability grouped together (the homogeneous group), and (3) one class arranged in groups according to the desires of the class members (the student choice group). The three classes were compared using pre-and post-scores on content and formal reasoning instruments and scores for classroom environment and social relationships. Results indicated that the groupings as described had significantly different effects on science content achievement but not on any of the other questions posed above. The students in the class with laboratory teams grouped by student choice had significantly lower science content scores than the students in the classes with teams formed using either the heterogeneous or homogeneous grouping procedures. The difference between the heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped classes was not significant at the 0.05 level.

  16. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  17. Optimized between-group classification: a new jackknife-based gene selection procedure for genome-wide expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culhane Aedín C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent publication described a supervised classification method for microarray data: Between Group Analysis (BGA. This method which is based on performing multivariate ordination of groups proved to be very efficient for both classification of samples into pre-defined groups and disease class prediction of new unknown samples. Classification and prediction with BGA are classically performed using the whole set of genes and no variable selection is required. We hypothesize that an optimized selection of highly discriminating genes might improve the prediction power of BGA. Results We propose an optimized between-group classification (OBC which uses a jackknife-based gene selection procedure. OBC emphasizes classification accuracy rather than feature selection. OBC is a backward optimization procedure that maximizes the percentage of between group inertia by removing the least influential genes one by one from the analysis. This selects a subset of highly discriminative genes which optimize disease class prediction. We apply OBC to four datasets and compared it to other classification methods. Conclusion OBC considerably improved the classification and predictive accuracy of BGA, when assessed using independent data sets and leave-one-out cross-validation. Availability The R code is freely available [see Additional file 1] as well as supplementary information [see Additional file 2]. Additional File 1 R code of the OBC algorithm. Click here for file Additional File 2 Further description of the sarcoidosis and tumour data. This files gives details about the optimal subset of genes obtained after OBC. Click here for file

  18. Future oriented group training for suicidal patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkhof Ad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In routine psychiatric treatment most clinicians inquire about indicators of suicide risk, but once the risk is assessed not many clinicians systematically focus on suicidal thoughts. This may reflect a commonly held opinion that once the depressive or anxious symptoms are effectively treated the suicidal symptoms will wane. Consequently, many clients with suicidal thoughts do not receive systematic treatment of their suicidal thinking. There are many indications that specific attention to suicidal thinking is necessary to effectively decrease the intensity and recurrence of suicidal thinking. We therefore developed a group training for patients with suicidal thoughts that is easy to apply in clinical settings as an addition to regular treatment and that explicitly focuses on suicidal thinking. We hypothesize that such an additional training will decrease the frequency and intensity of suicidal thinking. We based the training on cognitive behavioural approaches of hopelessness, worrying, and future perspectives, given the theories of Beck, McLeod and others, concerning the lack of positive expectations characteristic for many suicidal patients. In collaboration with each participant in the training individual positive future possibilities and goals were challenged. Methods/Design We evaluate the effects of our program on suicide ideation (primary outcome measure. The study is conducted in a regular treatment setting with regular inpatients and outpatients representative for Dutch psychiatric treatment settings. The design is a RCT with two arms: TAU (Treatment as Usual versus TAU plus the training. Follow up measurements are taken 12 months after the first assessment. Discussion There is a need for research on the effectiveness of interventions in suicidology, especially RCT's. In our treatment program we combine aspects and interventions that have been proven to be useful in the treatment of suicidal thinking and behavior

  19. Group IV all-semiconductor spintronics. Materials aspects and optical spin selection rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Narayan

    2012-04-03

    In the scope of the present thesis various aspects for the realization of spintronic applications based on group IV semiconductors are discussed. This work comprises a refined material characterization of the magnetic semiconductor GeMn. We furthermore present efforts to utilize this material as spin injector for a Si-based optical spintronic device. Applying transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we are able to resolve a vertical anisotropy in the self-assembly, leading to the stacking of well-defined clusters in the growth direction. Three-dimensional atom distribution maps confirm that clusters are built from a nonstoichiometric GeMn alloy and exhibit a high-Mn-concentration core with a decreasing Mn concentration toward a shell. An amorphous nature of the cluster cores as well as the crystallinity of the shells, coherent with the surrounding Ge lattice, are revealed in scanning transmission electron microscopy. We localize a strain field surrounding each GeMn cluster by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The importance of strain to the stacking phenomenon of the clusters becomes clear in studies of Ge/GeMn superlattice structures, where a vertical spatial correlation of clusters over 30 nm-thick Ge spacer layers is observed. We present evidence that electrical transport properties of the p-type GeMn thin films fabricated on high-resistivity Ge substrates are severely influenced by parallel conduction through the substrate. It is shown that substrate conduction persists also for wellconducting degenerate p-type reference thin films, giving rise to an effective two-layer conduction scheme. GeMn thin films fabricated on these substrates exhibit only a negligible magnetoresistance effect. Before integrating GeMn in an optical spintronic device, some key aspects important for an understanding of the optical injection and detection of carrier spins in Si and Si-based heterostructures are clarified in the second part of this thesis. In

  20. APPLICABILITY OF SELECTED GROUPS OF ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS FOR DESCRIPTION OF SURFACE LAYER OF FLAT - TOP “PLATEAU” STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kowalski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of selected 2D roughness parameters for detecting changes of geometric features and the rate the quality of the surface generated in the process of honing combustion engines sleeves. The paper presents the importance of mathematical modeling of virtual surface topography with different participation of determined and random factor. The possibilities of modeling the flat-top “plateau” surface roughness characteristic for honed surface was showed. Suitability of application of the roughness parameter for description of the selected variable characteristics of roughness profiles were determined using the correlation coefficient and the additional evaluation index designated as t. Indicator t was used for comparing the percentage change of the tested value of modeled profile characteristics with changes selected for evaluation of the roughness parameters 2D.

  1. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  2. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljé, Astrid; Greeven, Anja; van Giezen, Anne; Korrelboom, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-10-08

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders. Since ST addresses underlying personality characteristics and maladaptive coping strategies developed in childhood, this treatment might be particularly effective for patients with SAD and comorbid APD. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing CBT with ST in this particular group of patients. This superiority trial aims at comparing the effectiveness of these treatments. As an additional goal, predictors and underlying mechanisms of change will be explored. The design of the study is a multicentre two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the treatment effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) will be compared to that of group schema therapy (GST) in a semi-open group format. A total of 128 patients aged 18-65 years old will be enrolled. Patients will receive 30 sessions of GCBT or GST during a period of approximately 9 months. Primary outcome measures are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report (LSAS-SR) for social anxiety disorder and the newly developed Avoidant Personality Disorder Severity Index (AVPDSI) for avoidant personality disorder. Secondary outcome measures are the MINI section SAD, the SCID-II section APD, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI-2), the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Acceptance and Action

  3. The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS): A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label, Parallel-group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Naohisa; Nagai, Yoji; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Ohtsuki, Toshiho; Aoki, Shiro; Nezu, Tomohisa; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Sunami, Norio; Yokota, Chiaki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Terayama, Yasuo; Takagi, Makoto; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Nakamura, Masakazu; Origasa, Hideki; Fukushima, Masanori; Mori, Etsuro; Minematsu, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shinohara, Yukito; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Although statin therapy is beneficial for the prevention of initial stroke, the benefit for recurrent stroke and its subtypes remains to be determined in Asian, in whom stroke profiles are different from Caucasian. This study examined whether treatment with low-dose pravastatin prevents stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients. Methods This is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group study of patients who experienced non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. All patients had a total cholesterol level between 4.65 and 6.21 mmol/L at enrollment, without the use of statins. The pravastatin group patients received 10 mg of pravastatin/day; the control group patients received no statins. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), with the onset of each stroke subtype set to be one of the secondary endpoints. Finding Although 3000 patients were targeted, 1578 patients (491 female, age 66.2 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to pravastatin group or control group. During the follow-up of 4.9 ± 1.4 years, although total stroke and TIA similarly occurred in both groups (2.56 vs. 2.65%/year), onset of atherothrombotic infarction was less frequent in pravastatin group (0.21 vs. 0.64%/year, p = 0.0047, adjusted hazard ratio 0.33 [95%CI 0.15 to 0.74]). No significant intergroup difference was found for the onset of other stroke subtypes, and for the occurrence of adverse events. Interpretation Although whether low-dose pravastatin prevents recurrence of total stroke or TIA still needs to be examined in Asian, this study has generated a hypothesis that it may reduce occurrence of stroke due to larger artery atherosclerosis. Funding This study was initially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. After the governmental support expired, it was conducted in collaboration between Hiroshima University and the Foundation for Biomedical Research and

  4. Introduction of 5'-terminal functional groups into synthetic oligonucleotides for selective immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Coull, J.M.; Regnier, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides terminating in a 5'-primary amine group are synthesized using solid-phase supported phosphoramidite chemistry. The 5'-terminal amine group in the deprotected oligomers is further derivatized with either succinic anhydride to give 5'-carboxylic acid or with

  5. Can a Back Pain E-mail Discussion Group improve health status and lower health care costs?: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Kate R; Laurent, Diana D; Deyo, Richard A; Marnell, Margaret E; Minor, Marian A; Ritter, Philip L

    2002-04-08

    Given the high health care utilization, limited evidence for the effectiveness of back pain interventions, and the proliferation of e-mail health discussion groups, this study seeks to determine if the Internet can be used to improve health status and health care utilization for people with chronic back pain. Randomized controlled trial. Participants included 580 people from 49 states with chronic back pain having at least 1 outpatient visit in the past year, no "red-flag" symptoms, and access to e-mail. Major exclusion criteria included continuous back pain for more than 90 days causing major activity intolerance and/or receiving disability payments. Closed, moderated, e-mail discussion group. Participants also received a book and videotape about back pain. Controls received a subscription to a non-health-related magazine of their choice. Pain, disability, role function, health distress, and health care utilization. At 1-year treatment, subjects compared with controls demonstrated improvements in pain (P =.045), disability (P =.02), role function (P =.007), and health distress (P =.001). Physician visits for the past 6 months declined by 1.5 visits for the treatment group and by 0.65 visits for the control group (P =.07). Mean hospital days declined nearly 0.20 days for the treated group vs and increased 0.04 days for the control group (P =.24). An e-mail discussion group can positively affect health status and possibly health care utilization. It may have a place in the treatment of chronic recurrent back pain.

  6. GrOup based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) randomized controlled trial: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Harden, Samantha M; Wolf, Svenja A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Liu, Yan; Dunlop, William L; Schmader, Toni; Sheel, Andrew W; Zumbo, Bruno D; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-06-27

    Physical activity has health benefits across the lifespan, yet only 13 % of Canadian older adults are sufficiently active. Results from a number of observational studies indicate that adults display positive preferences for exercising with others of a similar age and same gender, and that intra-group age- and gender-similarity are associated with elevated exercise adherence. However, research has yet to experimentally examine the extent to which intra-group age- and gender-related similarity affect exercise adherence behaviors. The GrOup-based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) trial is a three-arm randomized control trial that will examine the efficacy of two different group-based exercise programs for older adults (informed by the tenets of self-categorization theory) in relation to a standard group-based exercise program. Within this manuscript we outline the design and proposed evaluation of the GOAL trial. The first arm is comprised of exercise groups made up of participants of a similar-age and of the same gender; the second arm consists of groups with similar-aged mixed gender participants; the control arm is comprised of mixed-aged mixed gender participants. We aim to compare the adherence rates of participants across conditions, as well as potential moderation effects and mediating mechanisms. Results from this trial will inform intervention designs to improve the exercise adherence behaviors of older adult. At a systems-level, should support be derived for the efficacy of the interventions tested in this trial, changing group composition (i.e., age, gender) represents a feasible program adaptation for physical activity centers. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02023632 . Registered December 13, 2013.

  7. CBT4BN: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Chat and Face-to-Face Group Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie C.; Watson, Hunna J.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Levine, Michele D.; Hamer, Robert M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Peat, Christine M.; Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moessner, Markus; Kordy, Hans; Marcus, Marsha D.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the first-line evidence-based psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa (BN), most individuals seeking treatment do not have access to this specialized intervention. We compared an Internet-based manualized version of CBT group therapy for BN conducted via a therapeutic chat group (CBT4BN) to the same treatment conducted via a traditional face-to-face group therapy (CBTF2F). Method In a two-site, randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial, we tested the hypothesis that CBT4BN would not be inferior to CBTF2F. One hundred forty-nine adult patients with BN (2.6% males) received up to 16 sessions of group CBT over 20 weeks in either CBT4BN or CBTF2F and outcomes were compared at the end of treatment and 12-month follow-up. Results At the end of treatment, CBT4BN was inferior to CBTF2F in producing abstinence from binge eating and purging and in leading to reductions in the frequency of binge eating and purging. However, by 12-month follow-up, CBT4BN was mostly not inferior to CBTF2F. Participants in the CBT4BN condition, but not CBTF2F, continued to reduce their binge-eating and purging frequency from end of treatment to 12-month follow-up. Conclusions CBT delivered online in a group chat format appears to be an efficacious treatment for BN although the trajectory of recovery may be slower than face-to-face group therapy. Online chat groups may increase accessibility of treatment and represent a cost-effective approach to service delivery. However, barriers in service delivery such as state-specific license and ethical guidelines for online therapists need to be addressed. PMID:27883997

  8. Extensive purifying selection acting on synonymous sites in HIV-1 Group M sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Darren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive selection pressure acting on protein-coding sequences is usually inferred when the rate of nonsynonymous substitution is greater than the synonymous rate. However, purifying selection acting directly on the nucleotide sequence can lower the synonymous substitution rate. This could result in false inference of positive selection because when synonymous changes at some sites are under purifying selection, the average synonymous rate is an underestimate of the neutral rate of evolution. Even though HIV-1 coding sequences contain a number of regions that function at the nucleotide level, and are thus likely to be affected by purifying selection, studies of positive selection assume that synonymous substitutions can be used to estimate the neutral rate of evolution. Results We modelled site-to-site variation in the synonymous substitution rate across coding regions of the HIV-1 genome. Synonymous substitution rates were found to vary significantly within and between genes. Surprisingly, regions of the genome that encode proteins in more than one frame had significantly higher synonymous substitution rates than regions coding in a single frame. We found evidence of strong purifying selection pressure affecting synonymous mutations in fourteen regions with known functions. These included an exonic splicing enhancer, the rev-responsive element, the poly-purine tract and a transcription factor binding site. A further five highly conserved regions were located within known functional domains. We also found four conserved regions located in env and vpu which have not been characterized previously. Conclusion We provide the coordinates of genomic regions with markedly lower synonymous substitution rates, which are putatively under the influence of strong purifying selection pressure at the nucleotide level as well as regions encoding proteins in more than one frame. These regions should be excluded from studies of positive

  9. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aviation Selection Test Battery Component Predictiveness of Primary Flight Training Outcomes Among Diverse Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    selection process is an early step in determining the best applicants for positions in given career fields ( Aamodt , 2004). It is an important process...safety, and security requirements. Among them are physical exams, drug screening, and background checks ( Aamodt , 2004). C. EFFECTIVENESS AND FAIRNESS...degree to which a measure accurately predicts job performance ( Aamodt , 2004). The classical validity approach to personnel selection places primary

  11. Selective polymerization catalysis: controlling the metal chain end group to prepare block copolyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-09-30

    Selective catalysis is used to prepare block copolyesters by combining ring-opening polymerization of lactones and ring-opening copolymerization of epoxides/anhydrides. By using a dizinc complex with mixtures of up to three different monomers and controlling the chemistry of the Zn-O(polymer chain) it is possible to select for a particular polymerization route and thereby control the composition of block copolyesters.

  12. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  13. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  14. Group versus Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is defined as a voluntarily delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay, and is considered a persistent behavior pattern that can result in major psychological suffering. About one-fifth of the adult population and half of the student population are presumed having substantial difficulties due to recurrent procrastination in their everyday lives. However, chronic and severe procrastinators seldom receive adequate care due to preconceptions and the lack of understanding regarding procrastination and the treatment interventions that are assumed beneficial. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often deemed a treatment of choice, although the evidence supporting its use is scarce, and only one randomized controlled trial has been performed. The primary aim of the proposed study is therefore to test the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered as either a group intervention or via the Internet. Participants will consist of students recruited through the Student Health Centre at Karolinska Institutet. A randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 100 participants divided into blocks of thirty will be used, comparing an eight-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention, and an eight-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy based intervention. It is believed that the proposed study will result in two important findings. First, different treatment interventions in cognitive-behavioral therapy are assumed to be helpful for people suffering from problems caused by procrastination. Second, both an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention and a group intervention are presumed suitable for administering treatment for procrastination, which is considered important as the availability of adequate care is limited, particularly among students. The proposed study will increase the knowledge regarding the efficacy of different treatments of procrastination, as well

  15. Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogerbrugge Nicoline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs. A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90. Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared

  16. Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Kerstin; Tarkian Tillgren, Hanna; Wiklund, Tobias; Danlycke, Ewa; Forssén, Mattias; Söderström, Alexandra; Johansson, Robert; Hesser, Hugo; Jernelöv, Susanna; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Gerhard; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohen's d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups post-treatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction > 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linköping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  19. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilde, T; Coates, K S; Birkhofer, K; Bird, T; Maklakov, A A; Lubin, Y; Avilés, L

    2007-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly in phylogenetically distant families and appears to be accompanied by a transition to a system of continuous intra-colony mating and extreme inbreeding. The benefits of group living in such systems should therefore be substantial. We investigated the effect of group size on fitness components of reproduction and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival decreased with increasing group size. Mean individual fitness, estimated as LRS and calculated from five components of reproduction and survival, was maximized for intermediate- to large-sized colonies. Group living in these spiders thus entails a net reproductive cost, presumably because of an increase in intra-colony competition with group size. This cost is traded off against survival benefits at the colony level, which appear to be the major factor favouring group living. In the field, many colonies occur at smaller size than expected from the fitness curve, suggesting ecological or life history constraints on colony persistence which results in a transient population of relatively small colonies.

  20. The effectiveness of a Housing First adaptation for ethnic minority groups: findings of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Stergiopoulos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. Methods This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada. Participants were 237 adults from ethnic minority groups experiencing mental illness and homelessness, who met study criteria for moderate needs for mental health services. Participants were randomized to either adapted HF (n = 135 or usual care (n = 102 and followed every 3 months for 24 months. The primary study outcome was housing stability; secondary outcomes included physical and mental health, social functioning, quality of life, arrests and health service use. Intention to treat statistical analyses examined the effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care. Results During the 24-month study period, HF participants were stably housed a significantly greater proportion of time compared to usual care participants, 75 % (95 % CI 70 to 81 vs. 41 % (95 % CI 35 to 48, respectively, for a difference of 34 %, 95 % CI 25 to 43. HF also led to improvements in community integration over the course of the study: the change in the mean difference between treatment groups from baseline to 24-months was significantly greater among HF participants compared to those in usual care (change in mean difference = 2.2, 95 % CI 0.06 to 4.3. Baseline diagnosis of psychosis was associated with reduced likelihood of being housed ≥ 50 % of the study period (OR = 0.37, 95 % CI 0.18 to 0.72. Conclusion Housing First enhanced with anti-racism and anti-oppression practices can

  1. Importance of control group selection for evaluating antimicrobial use as a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Erika J; Raley, George; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the importance of control group selection during an evaluation of antimicrobial use as a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at our institution. We performed a case-control study. A case was defined as any patient admitted between January 1997 and May 2001 who developed nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. We used two control groups; control group I consisted of patients with nosocomial methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia and control group II included only patients without bacteremia. We matched control-patients to case-patients using age, gender, time at risk, and hospital ward. Data collected on all patients included demographics, comorbidities, antibiotic use, time at risk, length of stay, severity of illness, and outcome. We evaluated 63 patients (21 in each group). The three groups were well matched regarding age, gender, underlying diseases, and severity of illness. Patients in the MRSA group were more likely to have received a fluoroquinolone and had a higher mean number of days of fluoroquinolone use than did patients in the MSSA group (P = .027 and P = .015, respectively). However, all measures of fluoroquinolone use were similar for case-patients and for control-patients who did not have nosocomial bloodstream infection. Control group selection is important in evaluating antimicrobial use as a risk factor for MRSA bacteremia. Using control-patients infected with MSSA, rather than uninfected control-patients, may overestimate the association between antimicrobial use and MRSA infection.

  2. Design and rationale of the medical students learning weight management counseling skills (MSWeight) group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K; Ashe, Karen M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Churchill, Linda C; Crawford, Sybil L; Geller, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Denise; Olendzki, Barbara C; Basco, Maria Theresa; Pendharkar, Jyothi A; Ferguson, Kristi J; Guck, Thomas P; Margo, Katherine L; Okuliar, Catherine A; Shaw, Monica A; Soleymani, Taraneh; Stadler, Diane D; Warrier, Sarita S; Pbert, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Physicians have an important role addressing the obesity epidemic. Lack of adequate teaching to provide weight management counseling (WMC) is cited as a reason for limited treatment. National guidelines have not been translated into an evidence-supported, competency-based curriculum in medical schools. Weight Management Counseling in Medical Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial (MSWeight) is designed to determine if a multi-modal theoretically-guided WMC educational intervention improves observed counseling skills and secondarily improve perceived skills and self-efficacy among medical students compared to traditional education (TE). Eight U.S. medical schools were pair-matched and randomized in a group randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multi-modal education (MME) intervention compared to traditional education (TE) improves observed WMC skills. The MME intervention includes innovative components in years 1-3: a structured web-course; a role play exercise, WebPatientEncounter, and an enhanced outpatient internal medicine or family medicine clerkship. This evidence-supported curriculum uses the 5As framework to guide treatment and incorporates patient-centered counseling to engage the patient. The primary outcome is a comparison of scores on an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) WMC case among third year medical students. The secondary outcome compares changes in scores of medical students from their first to third year on an assessment of perceived WMC skills and self-efficacy. MSWeight is the first RCT in medical schools to evaluate whether interventions integrated into the curriculum improve medical students' WMC skills. If this educational approach for teaching WMC is effective, feasible and acceptable it can affect how medical schools integrate WMC teaching into their curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Group and Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Eduard J; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2016-08-01

    To investigate cost-effectiveness of adolescent cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in group- and Internet-delivered formats, from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 y. Costs and effects data up to 1-y follow-up were obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing Internet CBTI to face-to-face group CBTI. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam, and the academic youth mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam. Sixty-two participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for insomnia were randomized to face-to-face group CBTI (GT; n = 31, age = 15.6 y ± 1.8, 71.0% girls) or individual Internet CBTI (IT; n = 31, age = 15.4 y ± 1.5, 83.9% girls). The intervention consisted of six weekly sessions and a 2-mo follow up booster-session of CBTI, consisting of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT sessions were held in groups of six to eight adolescents guided by two trained sleep therapists. IT consisted of individual Internet therapy with preprogrammed content similar to GT, and guided by trained sleep therapists. Outcome measures were subjective sleep efficiency (SE) ≥ 85%, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Analyses were conducted from a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using bootstrap sampling, and presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Primary analysis showed costs over 1 y were higher for GT but effects were similar for IT and GT. Bootstrapped ICERs demonstrated there is a high probability of IT being cost-effective compared to GT. Secondary analyses confirmed robustness of results. Internet CBTI is a cost-effective treatment compared to group CBTI for adolescents, although effects were largely similar for both formats

  4. Effectiveness of Inclusion of Dry Needling in a Multimodal Therapy Program for Patellofemoral Pain: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Vicent-Ferrando, Juan; Sánchez-Moreno-Giner, Miguel; Arias-Buría, Jose L; Cleland, Joshua; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-06-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Evidence suggests that multimodal interventions that include exercise therapy may be effective for patellofemoral pain (PFP); however, no study has investigated the effects of trigger point (TrP) dry needling (DN) in people with PFP. Objectives To compare the effects of adding TrP DN to a manual therapy and exercise program on pain, function, and disability in individuals with PFP. Methods Individuals with PFP (n = 60) recruited from a public hospital in Valencia, Spain were randomly allocated to manual therapy and exercises (n = 30) or manual therapy and exercise plus TrP DN (n = 30). Both groups received the same manual therapy and strengthening exercise program for 3 sessions (once a week for 3 weeks), and 1 group also received TrP DN to active TrPs within the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles. The pain subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS; 0-100 scale) was used as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included other subscales of the KOOS, the Knee Society Score, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC), and the numeric pain-rating scale. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 15-day (posttreatment) and 3-month follow-ups. Analysis was conducted with mixed analyses of covariance, adjusted for baseline scores. Results At 3 months, 58 subjects (97%) completed the follow-up. No significant between-group differences (all, P>.391) were observed for any outcome: KOOS pain subscale mean difference, -2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.6, 0.4); IKDC mean difference, 2.3 (95% CI: -0.1, 4.7); knee pain intensity mean difference, 0.3 (95% CI: -0.2, 0.8). Both groups experienced similar moderate-to-large within-group improvements in all outcomes (standardized mean differences of 0.6 to 1.1); however, only the KOOS function in sport and recreation subscale surpassed the prespecified minimum important change. Conclusion The current

  5. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  7. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  8. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  9. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  10. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  11. Selection and Storage of Perceptual Groups Is Constrained by a Discrete Resource in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E.; Vogel, Edward K.; Awh, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual grouping can lead observers to perceive a multielement scene as a smaller number of hierarchical units. Past work has shown that grouping enables more elements to be stored in visual working memory (WM). Although this may appear to contradict so-called discrete resource models that argue for fixed item limits in WM storage, it is also…

  12. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  13. Minority Groups in Anglo-America: An Introduction and Bibliography of Selected Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Gordon

    As a result of a resolution of the Association of Christian School Administrators this paper was produced on minorities in the United States and Canada. The groups considered here are not only the racial groups, but the various religious sects in both countries. Major emphasis, in terms of numbers of resources discussed or listed, is on the…

  14. A Combined group EA-PROMETHEE method for a supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rezaee Kelidbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important decisions which impacts all firms’ activities is the supplier selection problem. Since the 1950s, several works have addressed this problem by treating different aspects and instances. In this paper, a combined multiple criteria decision making (MCDM technique (EA-PROMETHEE has been applied to implement a proper decision making. To this aim, after reviewing the theoretical background regarding to supplier selection, the extension analysis (EA is used to determine the importance of criteria and PROMETHEE for appraisal of suppliers based on the criteria. An empirical example illustrated the proposed approach.

  15. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Efficacy of Trunk Regimes on Balance, Mobility, Physical Function, and Community Reintegration in Chronic Stroke: A Parallel-Group Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikbabu, Suruliraj; Chakrapani, Mahabala; Ganesan, Sailakshmi; Ellajosyula, Ratnavalli; Solomon, John M

    2018-01-17

    The study objective was to examine the efficacy of plinth and Swiss ball-based trunk exercise regimes on balance, mobility, physical function, and community reintegration compared with standard physiotherapy in chronic stroke. This observer-blinded parallel-group randomized trial was conducted in outpatient stroke units. People with chronic stroke aged between 30 and 75 years, first onset of unilateral cortical lesion, poor trunk performance, 10 m independent walking ability with or without walking aids, and absence of pusher syndrome were included. Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0, Brunel Balance Assessment, Tinetti scale, gait speed, Stroke Impact Scale-16, and Reintegration to Normal Living Index were the measures. Experimental interventions involved the practice of selective upper and lower trunk movements using either plinth or Swiss ball. Control group received standard physiotherapy. All the patients practiced 1 hour exercise session, 3 sessions a week over a duration of 6 weeks and followed up after 3 and 12 months. Of 108 patients allocated into 3 groups, baseline characteristics were similar. Postintervention compared with control group, the plinth, and Swiss ball groups showed significant mean changes in the outcome measures: trunk impairment scale 2.0 (3.6;4.1 points), Brunel Balance Assessment (1-level), Tinetti scale (5;5.2 points), gait speed (.06;.08 m/s), Stroke Impact Scale-16 (8.7;7.2 points), and community reintegration (7.6;8.8 points). These improvements were retained during 3-12 months' follow-up. Statistical significant was set at P reintegration in chronic stroke as against standard physiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intranasal Midazolam versus Rectal Diazepam for the Management of Canine Status Epilepticus: A Multicenter Randomized Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, M; Bhatti, S F M; Van Ham, L; Platt, S; Jeffery, N D; Tipold, A; Siedenburg, J; Volk, H A; Hasegawa, D; Gallucci, A; Gandini, G; Musteata, M; Ives, E; Vanhaesebrouck, A E

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has shown superiority over rectal administration for terminating emergency epileptic seizures in human trials. No such clinical trials have been performed in dogs. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intranasal midazolam (IN-MDZ), via a mucosal atomization device, as a first-line management option for canine status epilepticus and compare it to rectal administration of diazepam (R-DZP) for controlling status epilepticus before intravenous access is available. Client-owned dogs with idiopathic or structural epilepsy manifesting status epilepticus within a hospital environment were used. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with IN-MDZ (n = 20) or R-DZP (n = 15). Randomized parallel-group clinical trial. Seizure cessation time and adverse effects were recorded. For each dog, treatment was considered successful if the seizure ceased within 5 minutes and did not recur within 10 minutes after administration. The 95% confidence interval was used to detect the true population of dogs that were successfully treated. The Fisher's 2-tailed exact test was used to compare the 2 groups, and the results were considered statistically significant if P < .05. IN-MDZ and R-DZP terminated status epilepticus in 70% (14/20) and 20% (3/15) of cases, respectively (P = .0059). All dogs showed sedation and ataxia. IN-MDZ is a quick, safe and effective first-line medication for controlling status epilepticus in dogs and appears superior to R-DZP. IN-MDZ might be a valuable treatment option when intravenous access is not available and for treatment of status epilepticus in dogs at home. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Criterion-related validity op Dutch police-selection measures and differences between ethnic groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); G. Terlouw (Gert); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability as well as non-cognitive ability measures and differences between ethnic majority (N = 2,365) and minority applicants (N = 682) in Dutch police officer selection. Findings confirmed the relatively low predictive

  19. Determinants of Individual Academic Achievement - Group Selectivity Effects Have Many Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic

  20. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  1. Estimating Future Adverse Impact Using Selection Ratios and Group Differences in Test Score Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Michael G.; And Others

    Estimating the validity of a test is only one concern for the human resources professional developing a personnel selection battery. An equally important concern is whether the test will result in adverse impact against a member of a protected class. It would be useful if the probability of adverse impact could be estimated prior to spending time…

  2. Estimating group size: effects of category membership, differential construal and selective exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, W.; Koomen, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of category membership, differential construal, and selective exposure in consensus estimation concerning the social categorization of religion. 54 involved and less involved Christians and 40 non-believers were asked to estimate the percentage of Christians in the Netherlands

  3. Determinants of individual academic achievement - Group selectivity effects have many dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic

  4. Using the Nominal Group Technique to Select the Most Appropriate Topics for Postgraduate Research Students' Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Faculty of Health & Behavioural Sciences at our university offered a series of postgraduate research seminars. The series of seminars, selected by a three-person faculty team, received a mixed reaction--some seminars attracted a large proportion of the students whereas others were poorly attended. Thus, it was decided to continue…

  5. Selective auditory grouping by zebra finches: testing the iambic-trochaic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Ten Cate, Carel

    2017-07-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals. In the current study, we explore to which extent these perceptual biases are present in a songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finches were trained to discriminate between short strings of pure tones organized as iambs and as trochees. One group received tones that alternated in pitch, a second group heard tones alternating in duration, and for a third group, tones alternated in intensity. Those zebra finches that showed sustained correct discrimination were next tested with longer, ambiguous strings of alternating sounds. The zebra finches in the pitch condition categorized ambiguous strings of alternating tones as trochees, similar to humans. However, most of the zebra finches in the duration and intensity condition did not learn to discriminate between training stimuli organized as iambs and trochees. This study shows that the perceptual bias to group tones alternating in pitch as trochees is not specific to humans and rats, but may be more widespread among animals.

  6. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Dakhale; Yogesh Tathod; Seema Patel; Sonali Pimpalkhute; Latesh Raghute; Ajita Khamkar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). Materials and Methods: A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal ...

  7. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  8. The Effects of Visible Cheese on the Selection and Consumption of Food Groups to Encourage in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Smith, Bryan K.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Mayo, Matt; Lee, Robert; Lynch, Anthony; Sallee, Tara; Cook-Weins, Galen; Washburn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of visible cheese on selection and consumption of food groups to encourage (FGTE) in middle school students. Methods: Study 1 was conducted in three middle schools with 145 students (Boys=67, Girls=78, 30% minorities). The regular monthly menus were altered to…

  9. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  10. Why kin and group selection models may not be enough to explain human other-regarding behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Models of kin or group selection usually feature only one possible fitness transfer. The phenotypes are either to make this transfer or not to make it and for any given fitness transfer, Hamilton's rule predicts which of the two phenotypes will spread. In this article we allow for the possibility

  11. Gender-Related Processes and Drug Use: Self-Expression with Parents, Peer Group Selection, and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzino, Brian E.; Ribordy, Sheila C.; Grant, Kathryn; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bowden, Blake S.; Zeisz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in communication with parents, peer group selection, and academic motivation as related to drug use among adolescents (290 girls, 237 boys; age range = 12-19 years). For girls, increased self-expression with parents was associated with greater academic motivation, more academically motivated friends,…

  12. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  13. Zinc-Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Evaluation of the Complex Role Played by the Zinc-Binding Group on Potency and Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouanet-Mehouas, Cecile; Czarny, Bertrand; Beau, Fabrice; Cassar-Lajeunesse, Evelyne; Stura, Enrico A; Dive, Vincent; Devel, Laurent

    2017-01-12

    The most exploited strategy to develop potent zinc-metalloprotease inhibitors relies on a core zinc chelator and a peptidic or nonpeptidic scaffold that provides supplementary interactions for optimized potency and selectivity. Applied to matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) with highly conserved catalytic domains, this strategy failed to identify inhibitors with the desired selectivity profiles. To question the precise role of the zinc-binding group (ZBG), we have carried out a study on MMP-12 inhibitors with a common peptidic core but different ZBGs. We find that exchanging the ZBG modifies inhibitor positioning and affects its dynamics and selectivity. The binding properties of these compounds were compared through biochemical, structural, and calorimetric studies, showing a complex interplay between cooperative interactions and dynamics dictated by the ZBG. Improving selectivity will require expanding the ZBG repertoire within inhibitor libraries, since relying on a single ZBG significantly decreases our chance to identify effective inhibitors.

  14. Effect of mental imagery on performance elite athletes’ in youth and adult age groups: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Seif-Barghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.

  15. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of meaning-centered group psychotherapy in cancer survivors: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joël; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Breitbart, William; Cuijpers, Pim; Knipscheer-Kuipers, Kitty; Willemsen, Vincent; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; van Asperen, Christi J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2014-01-28

    Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-CS. Survivors diagnosed with cancer in the last 5 years and treated with curative intent, are recruited via several hospitals in the Netherlands. After screening, 168 survivors are randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: 1. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP-CS) 2. Supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) 3. Care as usual (CAU). Baseline assessment takes place before randomisation, with follow up assessments post-intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Primary outcome is meaning making (PMP, PTGI, SPWB). Secondary outcome measures address quality of life (EORTC-30), anxiety and depression (HADS), hopelessness (BHS), optimism (LOT-R), adjustment to cancer (MAC), and costs (TIC-P, EQ-5D, PRODISQ). Meaning-focused coping is key to adjustment to life after cancer, however, there is a lack of evidence based psychological interventions in this area. Many cancer survivors experience feelings of loneliness and alienation, and have a need for peer support, therefore a group method in particular, can be beneficial for sustaining or enhancing a sense of meaning. If this MCGP-CS is effective for cancer survivors, it can be implemented in the practice of psycho-oncology care. Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3571.

  16. Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of triple p group for parent and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Nina; Kliem, Sören; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 15-20% of children experience behavioral and/or emotional difficulties. Evidence-based treatment will likely not be sufficient to reduce the prevalence of these difficulties in children and adolescents. Effective prevention programs are therefore also needed to enable families access to support at multiple points across the lifecourse. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the 4-year efficacy of the group-based Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) as a prevention program administered universally. Seventeen preschools were randomly assigned to Triple P (n = 11 preschools, 186 families) or a no parenting intervention control group (n = 6 preschools, 94 families). Long-term efficacy was analyzed with hierarchical linear models using maternal and paternal self-report measures. Mothers and fathers from the intervention preschool group reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior (d = 0.24 and 0.19, respectively). Mothers also reported a less steep decline from pre- to post-intervention in positive parenting behavior, which was maintained 4 years later (d = 0.38). Fathers from intervention preschools reported a delayed less steep decline in positive parenting during the follow-up (d = 0.33). In addition, mothers from intervention preschools reported immediate improvement in child behavior problems during the program while mothers from control preschools did not report this immediate change. However, with mothers from intervention preschools reporting more child behavior problems at baseline, the effect disappeared by the fourth year (d = 0.19). The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P-group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior while there was little evidence for maintenance of change in behavior problems.

  17. Breastfeeding preterm infants - a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet-based peer-support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Melender, Hanna-Leena; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salanterä, Sanna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether an Internet-based peer-support intervention has an effect on the duration of breastfeeding or breast milk expression or maternal breastfeeding attitude compared with routine care in the mothers of preterm infants. In addition, the feasibility of the intervention was examined. A few peer-support interventions conducted face-to-face or by telephone have given promising results in promoting breastfeeding in preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up was conducted in one hospital in Finland in 2011-2015. Altogether 124 mothers of preterm (group. The intervention was a closed peer-support group in social media. Data were collected by structured questionnaires. Neonatal and breastfeeding data were collected from patient records. The duration of overall breastfeeding was on average 3·0 and 4·3 months, in the experimental and control groups respectively. The intervention had no effect on breastfeeding or expressing the breast milk or maternal breastfeeding attitude. A breastfeeding-favourable attitude and at least two previous children predicted longer duration of breastfeeding. Attitude-score decreased during the follow-up. The mothers in the experimental group enjoyed peer support, but only a few reported it as having some impact on breastfeeding. Although the Internet-based peer-support intervention had no effect, the importance of breastfeeding attitude for the duration of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants was shown. In future, interventions in social media should be studied more and attitude-focused interventions be developed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  19. Determinants of individual academic achievement - Group selectivity effects have many dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic achievement, such as differences between average student grades during tertiary education or cognitive skills. This paper is based on a large and representative graduate survey of g...

  20. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  2. A group-delivered self-management program reduces spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, controlled pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdette, Dennis; Chen, Yiyi; Chen, Zunqiu; Cameron, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasticity affects more than 80% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting activity, participation, and quality of life. Based on an international guideline, an MS spasticity group education and stretching program, MS Spasticity: Take Control (STC), has been developed. Objective The objective of this paper is to determine whether STC with home stretching is associated with greater changes in spasticity than usual care (UC), consisting of an illustrated stretching booklet and home stretching but without group instruction or support, in people with MS. Methods Ambulatory MS patients with self-reported spasticity interfering with daily activities were randomized to STC or UC. Individua