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Sample records for randomly selected composite

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Composite continuous time random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Random walks in composite continuous time are introduced. Composite time flow is the product of translational time flow and fractional time flow [see Chem. Phys. 84, 399 (2002)]. The continuum limit of composite continuous time random walks gives a diffusion equation where the infinitesimal generator of time flow is the sum of a first order and a fractional time derivative. The latter is specified as a generalized Riemann-Liouville derivative. Generalized and binomial Mittag-Leffler functions are found as the exact results for waiting time density and mean square displacement.

  4. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  5. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  6. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. RANDOM VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH COMPOSITE BEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ravindranath Tagore, Rachumalla Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a sandwich composite for Semi-monocoque construction in aircraft fuselage is analyzed for its strength under different loading conditions using different materials for Stringers balsa wood, syntactic foams, and honeycombs and Carbon Fiber reinforced thermoplastics is used as skin material. 3D modeling is done in Pro/Engineer. Static, Modal and Random Vibration analysis is done on the beam using finite element analysis software Ansys.

  8. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  9. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  10. Random Network Coding over Composite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Random network coding is a method that achieves multicast capacity asymptotically for general networks [1, 7]. In this approach, vertices in the network randomly and linearly combine incoming information in a distributed manner before forwarding it through their outgoing edges. To ensure success...

  11. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  12. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  13. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  14. Mass selection in maize composites by means of selection indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, de F.

    1972-01-01

    General considerations

    A selection index may be applied to selection based either upon the performance of single plants or upon the performance of progenies. In the latter case however, index selection should only result in a modest gain in selection efficiency, when

  15. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  16. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  17. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  18. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Carbon-in-silica composite selective solar absorbers: a determination of composition and dielectric properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bruggeman and Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximations have been used widely to investigate optical properties of many different composite materials. In most cases, the effective medium approximation assumptions are based on random unit...

  20. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Homogeneous and Composite Random Fiber Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Ali

    systems with large multiscale heterogeneity, which controls their mechanical behavior. This pronounced heterogeneity leads to a pronounced size and boundary condition effects on their mechanical behavior. To emphasize the source of the size effect, the network heterogeneity is characterized by analyzing the geometry of the network (density distribution), the strain field and the strain energy distribution. It is shown that the heterogeneity of the mechanical fields depends not only on the network topology, but also on the ratio between the bending and axial stiffness of fibers. In this study, the size effect is quantified and the minimum model size needed to eliminate the size effect for a given set of system parameters, is determined. The results are also used for the selection of the size of representative volume elements useful for multiscale models of fiber networks such as the sequential approach. The elastic response of composite random fiber networks in which two types of fibers are used, is studied. This analysis is performed by adding stiff fibers to a relatively softer base while considering two cases: cross-linked and non-cross-linked added fibers. The linear elastic modulus of the network is determined in terms of the system parameters, including the density of added fibers. The results are compared to the case of adding stiff fibers to a homogeneous continuum base. It is shown that there is a threshold of added fiber density, above which the axial stiffens of the base filaments controls the mechanics. In this regime, the elastic response of the composites that have network bases mimics the behavior of those with continuum bases. The results presented in this thesis are relevant for many biological and engineering fibrous materials, including connective tissue, the cellular cytoskeleton, special clothing, consumer products, filters, and dampers. It is shown that the overall behavior of the material is very sensitive to several system parameters (power law

  2. Generalisability of a composite student selection programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The reliability of individual non-cognitive admission criteria in medical education is controversial. Nonetheless, non-cognitive admission criteria appear to be widely used in selection to medicine to supplement the grades of qualifying examinations. However, very few studies have exam...

  3. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  4. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  5. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating......Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...

  6. Natural fibre selection for composite eco-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Madsen, Bo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    for composite production, it is crucial to identify the most appropriate applications, and determine the optimal fibre/matrix ratio. A methodology is proposed for early-stage decisions support on selection of bio-composite materials. Results help identify the application with the largest reduction......Natural fibre composites (NFC) are gaining interest in manufacturing because they address some of the environmental problems of traditional composites: use of non-renewable resources, and large impacts related to their production and disposal. Since natural fibres are not yet optimized...

  7. Selecting winter wheat lines from a composite cross population

    OpenAIRE

    Fradgley, Nick; Wolfe, Martin; Howlett, Sally; Creissen, Henry; Girling, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    The extremely diverse genetic variation in wheat Composite Cross Populations (CCP) represents a valuable source of breeding material. Such material could be selected as part of a participatory breeding programme with the potential advantage of selecting adaptation targeted for particular environments. For example, selections could be made aimed at producing lines that would thrive under the wide range of management practices conducted as part of organic and low input farming systems. Ear...

  8. Mineral Composition of Selected Serbian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosic Snezana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the content of 22 macro- and microelements in ten raw Serbian propolis samples which differ in geographical and botanical origin as well as in polluted agent contents by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES. The macroelements were more common and present Ca content was the highest while Na content the lowest. Among the studied essential trace elements Fe was the most common element. The levels of toxic elements (Pb, Cd, As and Hg were also analyzed, since they were possible environmental contaminants that could be transferred into propolis products for human consumption. As and Hg were not detected in any of the analyzed samples but a high level of Pb (2.0-9.7 mg/kg was detected and only selected portions of raw propolis could be used to produce natural medicines and dietary supplements for humans. Obtained results were statistically analyzed, and the examined samples showed a wide range of element content.

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Composite Payload Fairing Structural Architecture Assessment and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Yount, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the structural architecture assessments conducted and a recommendation for an affordable high performance composite structural concept to use on the next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS). The Structural Concepts Element of the Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) project and its follow on the Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials (LSSM) project was tasked with evaluating a number of composite construction technologies for specific Ares V components: the Payload Shroud, the Interstage, and the Core Stage Intertank. Team studies strived to address the structural challenges, risks and needs for each of these vehicle components. Leveraging off of this work, the subsequent Composites for Exploration (CoEx) effort is focused on providing a composite structural concept to support the Payload Fairing for SLS. This paper documents the evaluation and down selection of composite construction technologies and evolution to the SLS Payload Fairing. Development of the evaluation criteria (also referred to as Figures of Merit or FOMs), their relative importance, and association to vehicle requirements are presented. A summary of the evaluation results, and a recommendation of the composite concept to baseline in the Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project is presented. The recommendation for the SLS Fairing is a Honeycomb Sandwich architecture based primarily on affordability and performance with two promising alternatives, Hat stiffened and Fiber Reinforced Foam (FRF) identified for eventual program block upgrade.

  12. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  13. Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality. M Bhattacharjee, JO Othira, JK Wanjama, JO Maina. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 98-103. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Recurrent selection of popcorn composites UEMCO1 and UEM-CO2 based on selection indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection indices were applied to data sets of 169 half-sib families of the popcorn composites UEM-Co1 and UEM-Co2 in four cycles of recurrent selection. From 2005 to 2008, the experiments were arranged in a 13 by 13 lattice square design, with two replications per cycle and composite. Genetic gains for popping expansion (PE and grain yield (GY were estimated based on several selection indices and truncation selection. The magnitude and balance of gains estimated for each trait by the indices were compared by an auxiliary statistical value (Ci. This value Ci consists of an arbitrary value, resulting from differences between the gains estimated for n traits by truncation selection and by index i. The indices of Subandi and Mulamba and Mock were the most promising to estimate high and balanced genetic gains for PE and GY in recurrent selection of half-sib popcorn families.

  15. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  16. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  17. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  18. Materials selection for carbon nanotube composites in power transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolov K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays designers and producers implement non-metallic gears in power transmissions because of their better mechanical properties, like high elastic modulus, tensile strength and high wear resistance. In order to examine these properties we need to get familiarized with the most common materials used to make composites, like POM, PEEK, PA 6, PA 6/6, UHMWPE and one of newest materials in this area – carbon nanotubes (CNTs. This paper describes how to select the best materials in order to create the composite we need for the necessary applications. The article also gives information about the polymers and a comparison between them and CNTs.

  19. Inspection of bonded composites using selectively excited ultrasonic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gordon Gustav

    Improved methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of multi-layered composites are vital for fundamental research in composites fabrication and performance. Fast, accurate NDT methods can also be used to predict catastrophic in-use failure and to reduce costly rejects during the manufacture of composite parts. Commercial normal incidence inspection techniques have generally yielded reliable detection of large areas of delamination and damage. They fail, however, to detect defects within thin bonded regions, such as disbonds, debonds, kissing bonds, and porosity. We have developed and studied a nondestructive testing technique designed to be sensitive to flaws in the bond area of adhesively bonded anisotropic materials. The technique utilizes specific ultrasonic modes which are selected through a priori modeling of the composite as a single anisotropic elastic layer. The displacement and stress profiles of the modes within the fluid loaded layer are evaluated. A propagating mode that is predicted to be highly sensitive to the bond area is then utilized in the inspection. The inspection is carried out with an apparatus designed and constructed to excite and detect the selected ultrasonic mode. The apparatus uses transducers oriented at the theoretically optimal incident angle to excite the desired mode, using a tone burst between 0.5 and 10.0 MHz. We monitor with a second transducer changes in the amplitude of the leaky component of the mode propagating in the plate. By using this apparatus we have experimentally distinguished changes in the bond areas of adhesively bonded aluminum plates and carbon-epoxy composite plates of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic lay-up, The radiated leaky wave amplitudes from poorly bonded plates were less than 50% of those from corresponding well bonded plates. We observed no significant changes in the amplitudes of normal incidence pulse-echo signals for these specimens. These results demonstrate that selective mode excitation can

  20. Characterization of selected LDEF polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composite materials which received 5 years and 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. Resin loss and a decrease in mechanical performance as well as dramatic visual effects were observed. However, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymeric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure. The potential effect of a silicon-containing molecular contamination of these specimens is addressed.

  1. Identification and Selection of Major Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    2011-06-30

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of CO2 is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs due to rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents selected for co-sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g. density, viscosity, interfacial tension) behavior of CO2 in the deep subsurface. These impurities and concentrations are a function of both the industrial source(s) of the CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for geologic sequestration. This report summarizes the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon-capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, we selected four test fluid compositions for use in geochemical experiments. These included: 1) a pure CO2 stream representative of food grade CO2 used in most enhanced oil recovery projects: 2) a test fluid composition containing low concentrations (0.5 mole %) SO2 and NOx (representative of that generated from cement production), 3) a test fluid composition with higher concentrations (2.5 mole %) of SO2, and 4) and test fluid composition containing 3 mole % H2S.

  2. Voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition depend on genetic selection history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected for rapid weight gain), Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) (randomly bred as control for M16), M16i (an inbred line derived from M16), HE (selected for high percentage of body fat while holding body weight constant), LF (selected for low percentage of body fat), C57BL/6J (common inbred line), and the F1 between HR and C57BL/6J. Body weight and body fat were recorded before and after 6 days of free access to running wheels in males and females that were individually caged. Total food intake was measured during this 6-day period. All pre- and postexercise measures showed significant strain effects. While HR mice predictably exercised at higher levels, all other selection lines had decreased levels of wheel running relative to ICR. The HR x B6 F1 ran at similar levels to HR demonstrating complete dominance for voluntary exercise. Also, all strains lost body fat after exercise, but the relationships between exercise and changes in percent body were not uniform across genotypes. These results indicate that there is significant genetic variation for voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition. It is important to carefully consider genetic background and/or selection history when using mice to model effects of exercise on body composition, and perhaps, other complex traits as well.

  3. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test...... generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability of a composite selection to a chiropractic program, consisting of: application form information, a written motivational essay, a common knowledge...... test, and an admission interview. METHODS: Data from 105 Chiropractic applicants from the 2007 admission at the University of Southern Denmark were available for analysis. Each admission parameter was double scored using two random, blinded, and independent raters. Variance components for applicant...

  4. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap E/sub g1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap E/sub g2/, wherein E/sub g2/>E/sub g1/. The second semiconductor material is not substantially etched during the method, comprising subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where the etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material where the photons are not present, the photons being of an energy greater than E/sub g1/ but less than E/sub g2/, whereby the first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and the second material is substantially not etched.

  5. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  6. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  7. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  8. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte D; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability of a composite selection to a chiropractic program, consisting of: application form information, a written motivational essay, a common knowledge test, and an admission interview. Data from 105 Chiropractic applicants from the 2007 admission at the University of Southern Denmark were available for analysis. Each admission parameter was double scored using two random, blinded, and independent raters. Variance components for applicant, rater and residual effects were estimated for a mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood method. The reliability of obtained applicant ranks (generalizability coefficients) was calculated for the individual admission criteria and for the composite admission procedure. Very good generalizability was found for the common knowledge test (G=1.00) and the admission interview (G=0.88). Good generalizability was found for application form information (G=0.75) and moderate generalizability (G=0.50) for the written motivation essay. The generalizability of the final composite admission procedure, which was a weighted composite of all 4 admission variables was good (G(c) = 0.80). Good generalizability for a composite admission to a chiropractic program was found. Optimal weighting and adequate sampling are important for obtaining optimal generalizability. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  9. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  10. Selective Catalysis in Nanoparticle Metal-Organic Framework Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Casey Justin

    The design of highly selective catalysts are becoming increasingly important, especially as chemical and pharmaceutical industries seek to improve atom economy and minimize energy intensive separations that are often required to separate side products from the desired product. Enzymes are among the most selective of all catalysts, generally operating through molecular recognition whereby an active site analogous to a lock and the substrate is analogous to a key. The assembly of a porous, crystalline material around a catalytically active metal particle could serve as an artificial enzyme. In this vein, we first synthesized the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated nanoparticles of interest and then encapsulated them within zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 or ZIF-8. 2.8 nm Pt-PVP nanoparticles, which were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Pt ZIF-8 composite. Pt ZIF-8 was inactive for the hydrogenation of cyclic olefins such as cis-cyclooctene and cis-cyclohexene while the composite proved to be a highly selective catalyst for the hydrogenation of terminal olefins, hydrogenating trans-1,3-hexadiene to 3-hexene in 95% selectivity after 24 hours under 1 bar H2. We extended our encapsulation method to sub-2 nm Au nanoparticles to form Au ZIF-8. Au ZIF-8 served as a highly chemoselective catalyst for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, to crotyl alcohol an alpha,beta-unsaturated alcohol, in 90-95% selectivity. In order to investigate nanoparticle size effects on selectivity, 6-10 nm Au nanoparticles were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Au6 ZIF-8. Control catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the surface of ZIF-8 were synthesized as well, Au/ZIF-8 and Au6/ZIF-8. Au6 ZIF-8 hydrogenated crotonaldehyde in 85% selectivity towards the unsaturated alcohol. Catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the exterior of ZIF-8 were far less selective towards the unsaturated alcohol. Post-catalysis transmission electron microscopy analysis of Au ZIF

  11. Recommended Minimum Test Requirements and Test Methods for Assessing Durability of Random-Glass-Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides recommended minimum test requirements are suggested test methods for establishing the durability properties and characteristics of candidate random-glass-fiber polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The recommendations and suggestions are based on experience and results developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a US Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures,'' which is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The report is intended as an aid to suppliers offering new structural composites for automotive applications and to testing organizations that are called on to characterize the composites.

  12. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  13. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  14. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  15. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  16. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  17. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  18. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations. A 5-year randomized controlled clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in a randomized controlled study the 5-year clinical durability of a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in Class I and Class II restorations. Material and methods: 38 pairs Class I and 62 pairs Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female (mean age 52.......4 years). Each patient received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class I or Class II restorations. In all cavities, a 1-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V+) was applied. Randomized, one of the cavities of each pair received the flowable bulk-filled resin composite (SDR), in increments up to 4...... mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly...

  19. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  20. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  1. Composite load spectra for select space propulsion structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H. W.; Kurth, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed to develop composite load spectra (CLS) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) using probabilistic methods. The three methods were implemented to be the engine system influence model. RASCAL was chosen to be the principal method as most component load models were implemented with the method. Validation of RASCAL was performed. High accuracy comparable to the Monte Carlo method can be obtained if a large enough bin size is used. Generic probabilistic models were developed and implemented for load calculations using the probabilistic methods discussed above. Each engine mission, either a real fighter or a test, has three mission phases: the engine start transient phase, the steady state phase, and the engine cut off transient phase. Power level and engine operating inlet conditions change during a mission. The load calculation module provides the steady-state and quasi-steady state calculation procedures with duty-cycle-data option. The quasi-steady state procedure is for engine transient phase calculations. In addition, a few generic probabilistic load models were also developed for specific conditions. These include the fixed transient spike model, the poison arrival transient spike model, and the rare event model. These generic probabilistic load models provide sufficient latitude for simulating loads with specific conditions. For SSME components, turbine blades, transfer ducts, LOX post, and the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) discharge duct were selected for application of the CLS program. They include static pressure loads and dynamic pressure loads for all four components, centrifugal force for the turbine blade, temperatures of thermal loads for all four components, and structural vibration loads for the ducts and LOX posts.

  2. Fatigue Damage Accumulation Under Quasi-Random Loading of Composite Airframe Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhius, V.

    2016-09-01

    To perform engineering estimations of the fatigue life of quasi-randomly loaded layered composites, with geometric concentrators, representing the longitudinal elements of composite wing of a transport airplane, a special rule of fatigue damage accumulation is suggested. The main propositions of the method for calculating the fatigue life of these elements by using this rule are formulated. The examples of estimations presented show a good agreement between analytical results and experimental data. A number of important conclusions about the effect of different levels of cyclic loading and "GAG" cycles of different flight types of the quasi-random "TWIST" program on the total fatigue life are made.

  3. Nanotube/Polymer Composites: Materials Selection and Process Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winey, Karen

    2004-01-01

    ...) define processing methods most appropriate for the materials identified. Our study of SWNT-polymer composites focuses on thermoplastics, because these materials can be readily drawn into fibers...

  4. Genetic grouping strategies in selection efficiency of composite beef cattle ( × ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, J; Pertile, S F N; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G; Mourão, G B

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of genetic groups in sire evaluation has been widely used to represent genetic differences among animals not accounted for by the absence of parentage data. However, the definition of these groups is still arbitrary, and studies assessing the effects of genetic grouping strategies on the selection efficiency are rare. Therefore, the aim in this study was to compare genetic grouping strategies for animals with unknown parentage in prediction of breeding values (EBV). The total of 179,302 records of weaning weight (WW), 29,825 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 70,302 records of muscling score (MUSC) from Montana Tropical animals, a Brazilian composite beef cattle population, were used. Genetic grouping strategies involving year of birth, sex of the unknown parent, birth farm, breed composition, and their combinations were evaluated. Estimated breeding values were predicted for each approach simulating a loss of genealogy data. Thereafter, these EBV were compared to those obtained in an analysis involving a real relationship matrix to estimate selection efficiency and correlations between EBV and animal rankings. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups and class of the dam age at calving, the covariates of additive and nonadditive genetic effects, and age, and the additive genetic effect of animal as random effects. A second model also included the fixed effects of genetic group. The use of genetic groups resulted in means of selection efficiency and correlation of 70.4 to 97.1% and 0.51 to 0.94 for WW, 85.8 to 98.8% and 0.82 to 0.98 for SC, and 85.1 to 98.6% and 0.74 to 0.97 for MUSC, respectively. High selection efficiencies were observed for year of birth and breed composition strategies. The maximum absolute difference in annual genetic gain estimated through the use of complete genealogy and genetic groups were 0.38 kg for WW, 0.02 cm for SC, and 0.01 for MUSC, with lower differences obtained when year of birth

  5. Natural fibre selection for composite eco-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Madsen, Bo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites (NFC) are gaining interest in manufacturing because they address some of the environmental problems of traditional composites: use of non-renewable resources, and large impacts related to their production and disposal. Since natural fibres are not yet optimized for compos...

  6. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  7. Carbon-in-silica composite selective solar absorbers: a determination of composition and dielectic properties - SAIP Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bruggeman and Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximations (EMAs) have been used to investigate optical properties of composite materials. The EMA assumptions are based on random unit cell models in which metal particles are embedded in a...

  8. Crown vs. composite for post-retained restorations: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skupien, J.A.; Cenci, M.S.; Opdam, N.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Huysmans, M.C.; Pereira-Cenci, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This randomized clinical trial compared the survival of composite resin restorations and metal-ceramic crowns on endodontically treated teeth that received a glass fiber post using 2 different cementation methods. METHODS: Forty-seven patients (age 42.5+/-11.5) with fifty-seven

  9. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco M M; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-09-01

    This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in combination with two adhesive resins (Ena-Bond-Enamel HFO: n=48, Clearfil SE Bond-Miris2: n=48). Enamel was selectively etched with 38% H(3)PO(4) for 30s, rinsed 30s and the corresponding adhesive resin was applied accordingly. Existing resin composite restorations in good conditions (small or big) were not removed but conditioned using silica coating (CoJet) and silanized (ESPE-Sil). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and thereafter every 6 months. Additional qualitative analysis was performed using modified USPHS criteria. Mean observation period was 41.3 months. Altogether, 12 absolute failures were observed [survival rate: 87.5%] (Kaplan-Meier). The survival rates with the two resin composites did not show significant differences [Enamel HFO: 81.2%, Miris2: 93.8%] (p>0.05). The presence of existing composite restorations on the prepared teeth did not affect the survival rate significantly (intact teeth: 100%, small restorations: 90.6%, big restorations: 82.7%) (p>0.05). Surface roughness and marginal discolouration were the main qualitative deteriorations observed until the final recall. Secondary caries and endodontic complications did not occur in any of the teeth. Early findings of this clinical study with the two micro-hybrid composite laminate veneers showed similar survival rate and their clinical performance was not significantly influenced when bonded onto intact teeth or onto teeth with existing restorations with the protocol applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crown vs. composite for post-retained restorations: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Opdam, Niek Johannes; Kreulen, C M; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared the survival of composite resin restorations and metal-ceramic crowns on endodontically treated teeth that received a glass fiber post using 2 different cementation methods. Forty-seven patients (age 42.5 ± 11.5) with fifty-seven endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronal damage but always with one intact surface were randomly allocated according to the type of coronal restoration: metal-ceramic crown or composite resin. In case of crown restoration, a core buildup was performed with microhybrid composite resin. The dentin bonding agent and composite resin used were the same for both direct and indirect restorations. Descriptive analysis was performed using FDI clinical criteria and survival of restorations/teeth analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and log-rank tests. 57 restorations (30 composite resin and 27 crowns) were made in 47 patients. The recall rate was 100% and follow up time ranged between 1 and 5 years. One tooth was extracted 11 months post-restoration due to root fracture (composite group). Eight composite restorations and one crown had reparable failures, all due to secondary caries or restoration fracture. The overall annual failure rate (AFR) was 0.92% after 50 months for success of the restorations, with 1.83% for the composite group and 0.26% for the metal-ceramic crown group. The log-rank test showed no difference for survival according to the type of restoration (p=0.344). However, for success rates, metal-ceramic crowns demonstrated better performance (p=0.022). Indirect restorations provided higher acceptable clinical performance and lower need for re-intervention, but both types of restorations presented good survival rates. (NCT01461239). When endodontically treated teeth with at least one intact surface must be restored, composite resin restorations and metal-ceramic crows are acceptable alternatives to achieve good survival and success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  12. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  13. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  14. Impact of exercise changes on body composition during the college years--a five year randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias; Bauer, Julia

    2016-01-19

    Observational studies have consistently reported severe weight gains during the college years; information about the effect on body composition is scarce, however. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on body composition during 5 years at university. Sixty-one randomly selected male and female dental (DES; 21 ± 3 years., 22 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and 53 sport (physical education) students (SPS; 20 ± 2 years., 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were accompanied over their 5-year study program. Body mass and body composition as determined via Dual-Energy x-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and follow-up were selected as primary study endpoints. Confounding parameters (i.e., nutritional intake, diseases, medication) that may affect study endpoints were determined every two years. Endpoints were log-transformed to stabilize variance and achieve normal distributed values. Paired t-tests and unpaired Welch-t-tests were used to check intra and inter-group differences. Exercise volume decreased significantly by 33% (p effect on fatness and fitness in young college students was the pronounced decreases in exercise volume and particularly exercise intensity. NCT00521235; "Effect of Different Working Conditions on Risk Factors in Dentists Versus Trainers. A Combined Cross sectional and Longitudinal Trial with Student and Senior Employees."; August 24, 2007.

  15. Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Statistically Equivalent Random Fiber Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the random fiber distribution of a fiber-reinforced composite is of great importance for studying the progressive failure behavior of the material on the micro scale. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for generating random representative volume elements (RVEs with statistical equivalent fiber distribution against the actual material microstructure. The realistic statistical data is utilized as inputs of the new method, which is archived through implementation of the probability equations. Extensive statistical analysis is conducted to examine the capability of the proposed method and to compare it with existing methods. It is found that the proposed method presents a good match with experimental results in all aspects including the nearest neighbor distance, nearest neighbor orientation, Ripley’s K function, and the radial distribution function. Finite element analysis is presented to predict the effective elastic properties of a carbon/epoxy composite, to validate the generated random representative volume elements, and to provide insights of the effect of fiber distribution on the elastic properties. The present algorithm is shown to be highly accurate and can be used to generate statistically equivalent RVEs for not only fiber-reinforced composites but also other materials such as foam materials and particle-reinforced composites.

  16. Composition of Air Pollutants in Selected Areas of Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of air pollutants in Ojuelegba Motor Park, Oshodi Motor Park and Festac Town Residence was carried out within 24 hours each using an automated gas detector of Crowcon Gasman models 89/336/EEC (handheld) with operating temperature of between 200C to 500C. The results obtained showed ...

  17. Mineral Composition Of Selected Tree Species Used For Chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral analysis revealed that the percentage composition of Sodium ion, Potassium ion, Calcium ion, and Zinc ion, in Massularia accumiinata (Pako-Ijebu) is higher than the others. Hence, it is most commonly used in the society. It was also found that chewing sticks contain little or no amount of lead, which is a heavy ...

  18. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions and physical properties of five different maize grain varieties, Oba Supa, DMR, Popcorn, local Tiv and SWAM 1 were determined in accordance with established methods. Significant differences (P≤ 0.05) were found in the moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat contents among the varieties.

  19. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amino acid composition of l4 different feed ingredients used in a local feed millwere determined on replicate samples drawn from the mill at intervals over a period of .... this tube, 6 mol dm -t - hydrochloric acid (3 cm.r) was added. The mixture was ... standardised to present results as g amino acid residuell00 g sample.

  20. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  1. Effect of Processing on the Elemental Composition of Selected Leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental composition of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum africana, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum subjected to different processing methods were investigated. Processing methods employed include oven drying, sun drying, fresh milling, steaming and a combination of these while the mineral ...

  2. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  3. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, M.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objectives: This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. Methods: A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in

  4. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  5. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  6. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Banerjee, Debasis [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jian [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Fernandez, Carlos A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nie, Zimin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Motkuri, Radha K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hayes, James C. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Silvers, Kurt L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Krishna, Rajamani [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam The Netherlands; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Liu, Jun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-03-08

    A redox-active metal-organic composite material shows improved and selective O-2 adsorption over N-2 with respect to individual components (MIL-101 and ferrocene). The O-2 sensitivity of the composite material arises due to the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with the pore of the metal-organic framework material.

  7. Cast net design characteristics, catch composition and selectivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast net design characteristics, construction, operational techniques and selectivity in Lagos lagoon, Nigeria was examined between September and December 2005. Netting materials for cast net construction in Lagos lagoon were monofilament nylon, poly-ethylene (PE) and polyester (PES). The conventional ratio 1:2 of ...

  8. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  9. Random-network simulation of an ultracapacitor based on metal-solid-electrolyte composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, J.; Kornyshev, A. A.

    1996-09-01

    A random-network model of a dense (pore-free) metal-solid-electrolyte composite is developed. Real and imaginary parts of admittance are simulated as a function of frequency and composition by means of the transfer matrix algorithm on a cubic lattice. For a composite without a solid-electrolyte membrane in the middle (insulating with respect to electronic current) the results predict the capacity maximum at the percolation threshold in three dimensions and two maxima in two dimensions as a function of composition; they are compared with the predictions of the effective medium theory. For a composite with an insulating membrane in the middle, typical for ultracapacitors, the maximum of capacitance in three dimensions is at equal portion of metal and solid-electrolyte particles. In contrast to metal dielectric mixtures there are no giant enhancement effects in static capacitance as a function of composition: the upper estimates of the enhancement factor are proportional to the ratio of the size of the sample to the size of the grains.

  10. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  11. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  12. Stochastic finite element method for random harmonic analysis of composite plates with uncertain modal damping parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, K.

    2017-07-01

    Damping parameters of fiber-reinforced composite possess significant uncertainty due to the structural complexity of such materials. Considering the parameters as random variables, this paper uses the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion to capture the uncertainty in the damping and frequency response function of composite plate structures. A spectral stochastic finite element formulation for damped vibration analysis of laminate plates is employed. Experimental modal data for samples of plates is used to identify and realize the range and probability distributions of uncertain damping parameters. The constructed gPC expansions for the uncertain parameters are used as inputs to a deterministic finite element model to realize random frequency responses on a few numbers of collocation points generated in random space. The realizations then are employed to estimate the unknown deterministic functions of the gPC expansion approximating the responses. Employing modal superposition method to solve harmonic analysis problem yields an efficient sparse gPC expansion representing the responses. The results show while the responses are influenced by the damping uncertainties at the mid and high frequency ranges, the impact in low frequency modes can be safely ignored. Utilizing a few random collocation points, the method indicates also a very good agreement compared to the sampling-based Monte Carlo simulations with large number of realizations. As the deterministic finite element model serves as black-box solver, the procedure can be efficiently adopted to complex structural systems with uncertain parameters in terms of computational time.

  13. Tunneling Conductivity and Piezoresistivity of Composites Containing Randomly Dispersed Conductive Nano-Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Biabangard Oskouyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-dimensional continuum percolation model was developed based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach to investigate the percolation behavior of an electrically insulating matrix reinforced with conductive nano-platelet fillers. The conductivity behavior of composites rendered conductive by randomly dispersed conductive platelets was modeled by developing a three-dimensional finite element resistor network. Parameters related to the percolation threshold and a power-low describing the conductivity behavior were determined. The piezoresistivity behavior of conductive composites was studied employing a reoriented resistor network emulating a conductive composite subjected to mechanical strain. The effects of the governing parameters, i.e., electron tunneling distance, conductive particle aspect ratio and size effects on conductivity behavior were examined.

  14. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  15. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  16. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  17. Effect of SiC Nano powder on Multiaxial Woven and Chopped Randomly Oriented Flax/Sisal Fiber Reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalagi Ganesh R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out to investigate effect of SiC Nano powder on tensile and impact properties of Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites. It has been observed that tensile strength and impact strength were improved using 6% of SiC Nanopowder into Multiaxial layer (+45º/-45º, 0º/90º of Flax and Sisal where as randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites are improved in its stiffnes for the same composition of fiber, epoxy and SiC Nano powder. SEM Analysis are done to analyse the distribution of SiC in both Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites.

  18. Development of a low expansion, composite antenna subreflector with a frequency selective surface. [for Voyager spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonier, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A Kevlar-49 epoxy, composite frequency-selective-surface subreflector was developed for the high gain antenna used on the Voyager spacecraft. The Kevlar-49 material was selected for this sandwich structure because a dielectric material was required, and the use of Kevlar-49 resulted in a composite sandwich with a low thermal coefficient of expansion and reduced weight over an equivalent fiberglass construction. A detailed description and the results of the development program are given and include the design requirements for the structure, the development testing of the materials that led to the final design configuration, and the processes used to fabricate this advanced composite spacecraft antenna component.

  19. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  20. Study of Selected Composites Copper Concentrate-Plastic Waste Using Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents thermal analysis of selected composites (copper concentrate, plastic waste) in two stages. The first stage consisted in thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis on the applied plastic waste and copper concentrate, and subsequently, a comparative study has been carried out on products obtained, constituting composites of those materials. As a result of analyses, it was found that up to ca. 400 °C composites show high thermal stability, whereas above that temperature, a thermal decomposition of the composite occurs, resulting in emissions of organic compounds, i.e. hydrocarbon compounds and organic oxygenate derivatives.

  1. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2015-07-31

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  2. Effect of processing on composition changes of selected spices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Hua Jia

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to study the true retentions of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols and β-carotene in crown daisy, unripe hot pepper, onion, garlic, and red pepper as affected by various domestic cooking methods, those were, boiling, baking, stir-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving. Fatty acid compositions were determined by GC, and HPLC were used for quantification of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and β-carotene. True retentions of α-tocopherol in cooked foods were as follows: boiling (77.74-242.73%, baking (85.99-212.39%, stir-frying (83.12-957.08%, deep-frying (162.48-4214.53%, steaming (45.97-179.57%, roasting (49.65-253.69%, and microwaving (44.67-230.13%. Similarly for true retention of β-carotene were: boiling (65.69-313.75%, baking (71.46-330.16%, stir-frying (89.62-362.46%, deep-frying (178.22-529.16%, steaming (50.39-240.92%, roasting (73.54-361.47%, and microwaving (78.60-339.87%.

  3. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition.

  4. Rapid and selective manipulation of milk fatty acid composition in mice through the maternal diet during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition in early postnatal life can modulate growth and development and later metabolic health. Investigating programming effects of early dietary FA manipulations in rodents may be stressful and complicated due to the need of artificial feeding techniques. It is largely unknown to what extent breast milk (BM) FA composition can be directly manipulated by the diet. We exposed dams to different dietary FA compositions from postnatal day (PN) 2 until PN28. Dams with litters were randomly assigned to control (CTRL), high-medium-chain FA (MCFA), low-linoleic acid (LowLA), high-n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3LCP) or high-n-3LCP and MCFA (n-3LCP/MCFA) diets, and diets were continued after weaning until PN28. FA compositions were determined in feeds, milk and in erythrocytes. BM MCFA content was independent from dietary MCFA intake. In contrast, the LowLA diet reduced BM LA content by about 50 % compared with the CTRL diet at PN7. BM of dams fed the n-3LCP or n-3LCP/MCFA diet contained about 6-fold more n-3 LCP than BM of the dams fed the CTRL diet at PN7. These changes in milk FA composition established after 5 d of dietary exposure did not further change over the lactation period. At PN28, the erythrocyte FA composition of the male pups correlated with analysed milk FA profiles. In conclusion, manipulation of the diet of lactating mice can strongly and rapidly affect BM FA composition, in particular of n-6 LA and n-3 LCP. Our present findings will facilitate mechanistic studies on the programming of adult metabolic health by dietary FA in the early postnatal period via direct and selective manipulation of the maternal diet.

  5. Body chemical composition, tissue deposition rates and gain composition of young Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Figueiredo Martins Bonilha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empty body and carcass chemical composition were determined in 67 Nellore bulls from Selection Nellore (NeS and Control Nellore (NeC herds of an animal breeding program for growth, slaughtered at 570 days of average age, after 100 days of feedlot. Selection Nellore animals had, respectively, 360 and 430 kg of initial and slaughter body weight, and NeC animals had 318 and 373 kg for the same traits. Animals were slaughtered and empty body composition was determined by chemical analysis of the components blood, hide, head and feet, viscera and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and gain chemical composition were also determined based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. Significant differences were detected between NeS and NeC animals for slaughter body weight, empty body weight, empty body gain rate, and contents of water, protein, ash and retained energy in empty body, showing that selected animals had greater body sizes and growth rates. There were no significant differences in fat contents in empty body and carcass, suggesting that selected animals had higher growth rates as compared with the control, and were slaughtered with good body and carcass fat contents in the same feedlot time. Control Nellore animals showed a 10% higher gain in fat percentage than NeS in the period. This shows that the growth of bone and muscle ceased earlier and NeC group accumulated more fat. Animals selected for growth have heavier carcasses and greater tissue deposition rates with proportional composition similar to unselected animals.

  6. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  7. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  8. Selective removal of esthetic composite restorations with spectral guided laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ivana; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tsuji, Grant H.; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Dental composites are used for a wide range of applications such as fillings for cavities, adhesives for orthodontic brackets, and closure of gaps (diastemas) between teeth by esthetic bonding. Anterior restorations are used to replace missing, diseased and unsightly tooth structure for both appearance and function. When these restorations must be replaced, they are difficult to remove mechanically without causing excessive removal or damage to enamel because dental composites are color matched to teeth. Previous studies have shown that CO2 lasers have high ablation selectivity and are well suited for removal of composite on occlusal surfaces while minimizing healthy tissue loss. A spectral feedback guidance system may be used to discriminate between dental composite and dental hard tissue for selective ablation of composite material. The removal of composite restorations filling diastemas is more challenging due to the esthetic concern for anterior teeth. The objective of this study is to determine if composite spanning a diastema between anterior teeth can be removed by spectral guided laser ablation at clinically relevant rates with minimal damage to peripheral healthy tissue and with higher selectivity than a high speed dental handpiece.

  9. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  10. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  11. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  12. Randomized Clinical Trial of Indirect Resin Composite and Ceramic Veneers : Up to 3-year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the short-term survival rate of indirect resin composite and ceramic laminate veneers. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients (mean age: 48.6 years) received 46 indirect resin composite (Estenia; n = 23) and ceramic

  13. Analytical Hierarchy Process for Natural Fiber Composites Automotive Armrest Thermoset Matrix Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli M.U

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is currently shifting to a ‘green’ outlook since that the popularity of natural fibers in composites plastics is accelerating in many areas and particularly the automotive industry. Nowadays, consumers are looking for vehicles more environmentally friendly and lighter in weight. For this reason, the engineers are now focusing to substitute the metal parts on utilizing the natural fiber composites. Selecting the right material in product development is a crucial decision. Imprecise decision can cause the product to be remanufactured and not in optimized condition. One of the methods that can be employed is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. This paper illustrates the implementation of AHP method in order to select the most appropriate thermoset matrix for natural fiber composites automotive armrest. The selection is based on the weight reduction as the major aim of the study.

  14. Composition of diets selected by Sitka black-tailed deer on Channel Island, central southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Michael P. Gillingham; Katherine L. Parker

    2014-01-01

    Composition of diets selected by tame but free-ranging deer in a natural forest environment was studied throughout a 24-month period and summarized by mean monthly percentage composition on the basis of dry-matter intake. A modifi cation of the standard bite-count method of diet determination was used. All forages were identifi ed by species and plant part (leaf, twig...

  15. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, J; Dagher, S; El Osta, N; Souhaid, P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05). The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system.

  16. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05. The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system.

  17. Improving selectivity in methanol fuel cell membranes: A study of a polymer-zeolite composite membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Brett

    Direct methanol fuel cells require membranes with the dual properties of high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover. New membranes need improved selectivity: i.e., a higher ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability. The approach taken in this research involves a proton conducting polymer membrane loaded with proton conducting, methanol impermeable zeolites. In this scenario, protons travel a direct path through both the polymer and zeolite phases, while methanol has a more tortuous path around the zeolite particles. The composite membranes consisted of mordenite particles embedded in a PVA matrix. The hydrophilic nature of both materials prevents the formation of non-selective voids at the PVA-mordenite interface. These membranes were tested for both methanol permeability and proton conductivity. Methanol permeability was determined using a diaphragm diffusion cell interfaced with a differential refractometer for tracking concentration change. Proton conductivity was measured in the traverse direction of the membrane using a two-point probe technique. Composite membranes, consisting of 50% mordenite by volume, represent up to a 20-fold improvement in selectivity over Nafion. The improved behavior is a result of the proper tailoring of diffusion properties for methanol and protons between the polymer and dispersed phase. Predictions using Maxwell's theory for diffusion in composite media are in good agreement with the experimental selectivity values. Thus, the experimentally determined increase in selectivity, correlated with simple membrane theory, demonstrates the feasibility of the composite membrane approach for direct methanol fuel cell membranes.

  18. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  19. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  20. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  1. Method for selection of optimal road safety composite index with examples from DEA and TOPSIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosić, Miroslav; Pešić, Dalibor; Kukić, Dragoslav; Antić, Boris; Božović, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Concept of composite road safety index is a popular and relatively new concept among road safety experts around the world. As there is a constant need for comparison among different units (countries, municipalities, roads, etc.) there is need to choose an adequate method which will make comparison fair to all compared units. Usually comparisons using one specific indicator (parameter which describes safety or unsafety) can end up with totally different ranking of compared units which is quite complicated for decision maker to determine "real best performers". Need for composite road safety index is becoming dominant since road safety presents a complex system where more and more indicators are constantly being developed to describe it. Among wide variety of models and developed composite indexes, a decision maker can come to even bigger dilemma than choosing one adequate risk measure. As DEA and TOPSIS are well-known mathematical models and have recently been increasingly used for risk evaluation in road safety, we used efficiencies (composite indexes) obtained by different models, based on DEA and TOPSIS, to present PROMETHEE-RS model for selection of optimal method for composite index. Method for selection of optimal composite index is based on three parameters (average correlation, average rank variation and average cluster variation) inserted into a PROMETHEE MCDM method in order to choose the optimal one. The model is tested by comparing 27 police departments in Serbia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 37 CFR 251.6 - Composition and selection of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition and selection of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.6 Section 251.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT...

  3. Select aspects of FEM analysis for bonded joints of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, A.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents selected aspects of modelling bonded joints of polymer composite materials by finite element method. The shear-loaded adhesive lap joints made of epoxy-graphite and epoxy-glass composite materials were investigated. The research objective was to determine correct modelling of adhesive layers using cohesive elements and of bonded joints for selected epoxy composite materials with different mechanical properties (e.g. Young's modulus) and geometrical dimensions, using, however, the same type of adhesive. The numerical analysis was performed based on experimental tests. A comparison is made between the distribution of reduced stress in the examined joint models according to the H-M- H hypothesis and that determined according to the maximum principal stress hypothesis. The finite elements analysis was performed in ABAQUS software and the traction-separation failure criterion was used for the damage onset and growth in the adhesive layer.

  4. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  5. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  6. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  8. Quantitative analysis of mutation and selection pressures on base composition skews in bacterial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carton W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bacterial chromosomes exhibit asymmetry of base composition with respect to leading vs. lagging strands (GC and AT skews. These skews reflect mainly those in protein coding sequences, which are driven by asymmetric mutation pressures during replication and transcription (notably asymmetric cytosine deamination plus subsequent selection for preferred structures, signals, amino acid or codons. The transcription-associated effects but not the replication-associated effects contribute to the overall skews through the uneven distribution of the coding sequences on the leading and lagging strands. Results Analysis of 185 representative bacterial chromosomes showed diverse and characteristic patterns of skews among different clades. The base composition skews in the coding sequences were used to derive quantitatively the effect of replication-driven mutation plus subsequent selection ('replication-associated pressure', RAP, and the effect of transcription-driven mutation plus subsequent selection at translation level ('transcription-associate pressure', TAP. While different clades exhibit distinct patterns of RAP and TAP, RAP is absent or nearly absent in some bacteria, but TAP is present in all. The selection pressure at the translation level is evident in all bacteria based on the analysis of the skews at the three codon positions. Contribution of asymmetric cytosine deamination was found to be weak to TAP in most phyla, and strong to RAP in all the Proteobacteria but weak in most of the Firmicutes. This possibly reflects the differences in their chromosomal replication machineries. A strong negative correlation between TAP and G+C content and between TAP and chromosomal size were also revealed. Conclusion The study reveals the diverse mutation and selection forces associated with replication and transcription in various groups of bacteria that shape the distinct patterns of base composition skews in the chromosomes during

  9. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  10. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  11. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  12. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  13. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  14. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  16. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of composites fabricated from discontinuous random carbon fiber thermoplastic matrix sheets produced by a paper making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducote, Martin Paul, Jr.

    In this thesis, a papermaking process was used to create two randomly oriented, high performance composite material systems. The primary objective of this was to discover the flexural properties of both composite systems and compare those to reported results from other studies. In addition, the process was evaluated for producing quality, randomly oriented composite panels. Thermoplastic polymers have the toughness and necessary strength to be alternatives to thermosets, but with the promise of lower cycle times and increased recyclability. The wet-lay papermaking process used in this study produces a quality, randomly oriented thermoplastic composite at low cycle times and simple production. The materials chosen represent high performance thermoplastics and carbon fibers. Short chopped carbon fiber filled Nylon 6,6 and PEEK composites were created at varying fiber volume fractions. Ten nylon based panels and five PEEK based panels were subjected to 4-point flexural testing. In several of the nylon-based panels, flexural testing was done in multiple direction to verify the in-plane isotropy of the final composite. The flexural strength performance of both systems showed promise when compared to equivalent products currently available. The flexural modulus results were less than expected and further research should be done into possibly causes. Overall, this research gives good insight into two high performance engineering composites and should aid in continued work.

  18. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate size.After cavity preparation, the three cavities were chosen at random to be restored with twochemical-cured (P10, Miradapt) and one light-cured resin composite (P30). A chemical-curedenamel bonding agent was applied after etching...... of the enamel. The chemical-cured resincomposites were placed in bulk and the light-cured in increments. One operator placed 99restorations (33 sets). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS crite-ria at baseline, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 years. Statistical analyses were performed by the......Kaplan–Meier, log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results. After 30 years, 5 participants with 15 restorations (15%) could not be evaluated duringthe whole evaluation. Seven participants were considered as caries risk and eight partici-pants as having active parafunctional habits. Postoperative sensitivity...

  19. Selective Metallization Induced by Laser Activation: Fabricating Metallized Patterns on Polymer via Metal Oxide Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang

    2017-03-15

    Recently, metallization on polymer substrates has been given more attention due to its outstanding properties of both plastics and metals. In this study, the metal oxide composite of copper-chromium oxide (CuO·Cr 2 O 3 ) was incorporated into the polymer matrix to design a good laser direct structuring (LDS) material, and the well-defined copper pattern (thickness =10 μm) was successfully fabricated through selective metallization based on 1064 nm near-infrared pulsed laser activation and electroless copper plating. We also prepared polymer composites incorporated with CuO and Cr 2 O 3 ; however, these two polymer composites both had very poor capacity of selective metallization, which has no practical value for LDS technology. In our work, the key reasons causing the above results were systematically studied and elucidated using XPS, UV-vis-IR, optical microscopy, SEM, contact angle, ATR FTIR, and so on. The results showed that 54.0% Cu 2+ in the polymer composite of CuO·Cr 2 O 3 (the amount =5 wt %) is reduced to Cu 0 (elemental copper) after laser activation (irradiation); however, this value is only 26.8% for the polymer composite of CuO (the amount =5 wt %). It was confirmed that to achieve a successful selective metallization after laser activation, not only was the new formed Cu 0 (the catalytic seeds) the crucial factor, but the number of generated Cu 0 catalytic seeds was also important. These two factors codetermined the final results of the selective metallization. The CuO·Cr 2 O 3 is very suitable for applications of fabricating metallic patterns (e.g., metal decoration, circuit) on the inherent pure black or bright black polymer materials via LDS technology, which has a prospect of large-scale industrial applications.

  20. Randomized clinical trial comparing a polypropylene with a poliglecaprone and polypropylene composite mesh for inguinal hernioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    śmietański, M

    2008-12-01

    : The aim was to assess whether a partially absorbable monofilament mesh could influence postoperative pain and time to return to normal activity after Lichtenstein hernioplasty. : The study randomized patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair in 15 centres into two groups according to mesh type: lightweight (poliglecaprone-polypropylene composite) and heavyweight (polypropylene). A modified suture technique was used in the lightweight group. Follow-up on day 7 and at 3, 6 and 12 months evaluated the incidence of early and late complications, recurrence rate, quality of life, postoperative pain and return to physical activity. : A total of 600 patients were randomized and, after monitoring visits (leading to the exclusion of seven hospitals), 392 qualified for assessment. At 12 months, the recurrence rate did not differ (1.9 versus 0.6 per cent; P = 0.493). The lightweight group reported less pain on day 7 (55.2 versus 36.2 per cent; P health and physical activity according to Short Form 36 scores increased in both groups. : Use of partially absorbable mesh reduced postoperative pain in the short term. No difference in pain or recurrence rates were observed at 12 months. CCT-NAPN-17412 (http://www.controlled-trials.com) Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeng; Wang, Lianfeng; Jia, Min; Cheng, Lingyu; Yan, Biao

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO3 particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO3 precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320-722MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250HV and 215GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO3 composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Selective laser melting of carbon/AlSi10Mg composites: Microstructure, mechanical and electronical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao; Song, Bo, E-mail: bosong@hust.edu.cn; Fan, Wenrui; Zhang, Yuanjie; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-04-25

    Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites has drawn lots of attention in structural engineering and functional device applications due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength as well as excellent electrical and thermal conductivities. In this study, the CNTs/AlSi10Mg composites was firstly prepared and then processed by selective laser melting. The powder preparation, SLM process, and microstructure evolution, properties were clarified. The results showed that CNTs were decomposed due to the direct interaction with the laser beam. The SLMed composites displayed a similar microstructure to that of SLMed AlSi10Mg. The common brittleness phase Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} didn't form, and the carbon dispersion strengthening was observed. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced significantly and the hardness was improved. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg powder were prepared by slurry ball milling process. • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites were firstly prepared by SLM. • The electrical resistivity of the composites was significantly reduced and hardness was improved.

  3. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  4. Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Foley, Louise; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Hohepa, Maea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2011-07-01

    Sedentary activities such as video gaming are independently associated with obesity. Active video games, in which players physically interact with images on screen, may help increase physical activity and improve body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of active video games over a 6-mo period on weight, body composition, physical activity, and physical fitness. We conducted a 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 322 overweight and obese children aged 10-14 y, who were current users of sedentary video games, were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either an active video game upgrade package (intervention, n = 160) or to have no change (control group, n = 162). The primary outcome was the change from baseline in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Secondary outcomes were changes in percentage body fat, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, video game play, and food snacking. At 24 wk, the treatment effect on BMI (-0.24; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.05; P = 0.02) favored the intervention group. The change (±SE) in BMI from baseline increased in the control group (0.34 ± 0.08) but remained the same in the intervention group (0.09 ± 0.08). There was also evidence of a reduction in body fat in the intervention group (-0.83%; 95% CI: -1.54%, -0.12%; P = 0.02). The change in daily time spent playing active video games at 24 wk increased (10.03 min; 95% CI: 6.26, 13.81 min; P time spent playing nonactive video games (-9.39 min; 95% CI: -19.38, 0.59 min; P = 0.06). An active video game intervention has a small but definite effect on BMI and body composition in overweight and obese children. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12607000632493.

  5. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  6. In vitro biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-reinforced polymeric composites manufactured by selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Hao, L; Savalani, M M; Harris, R A; Di Silvio, L; Tanner, K E

    2009-12-15

    The selective laser sintering (SLS) technique was used to manufacture hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene and polyamide composites as potential customized maxillofacial implants. In vitro tests were carried out to assess cellular responses, in terms of cell attachment, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralized nodule formation, using primary human osteoblast cells. This study showed that the SLS composite processed was biocompatible, with no adverse effects observed on cell viability and metabolic activity, supporting a normal metabolism and growth pattern for osteoblasts. Positive von Kossa staining demonstrated the presence of bone-like mineral on the SLS materials. Higher hydroxyapatite content composites enhanced cell proliferation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and produced more osteocalcin. The present findings showed that SLS materials have good in vitro biocompatibility and hence demonstrated biologically the potential of SLS for medical applications.

  7. Networked Pd (core) @ polyaniline (shell) composite: Highly electro-catalytic ability and unique selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youyi; Liu, Ning; Sun, Ling; Xu, Hao; Gao, Hong; Lu, Taofeng

    2018-01-01

    A networked composite (Pd@PANI), which is self-assemblied freely from Pd (core) @polyaniline (shell) nanoparticles, has been prepared successfully by a facilely one-step approach. Owing to the conductive environment and acid-doped behavior provided by PANI, the composite exhibits highly catalytic ability in the reaction involving acidic reactants. For instance, in the HCOOH electro-oxidation, 9.16 times of specific activity (comparing with that when using commercial Pd/C catalyst) is observed. Meanwhile, the as-prepared product is unable to catalyze some other systems like the electro-oxidation of C2H5OH, showing novel and unique selectivity. Those would open up new routes for synthesizing high-performance Pd-based catalysts, and could also shed some light on synthesizing new types of selective catalysts.

  8. In Arabidopsis thaliana codon volatility scores reflect GC3 composition rather than selective pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Mary J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synonymous codon usage bias has typically been correlated with, and attributed to translational efficiency. However, there are other pressures on genomic sequence composition that can affect codon usage patterns such as mutational biases. This study provides an analysis of the codon usage patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana in relation to gene expression levels, codon volatility, mutational biases and selective pressures. Results We have performed synonymous codon usage and codon volatility analyses for all genes in the A. thaliana genome. In contrast to reports for species from other kingdoms, we find that neither codon usage nor volatility are correlated with selection pressure (as measured by dN/dS, nor with gene expression levels on a genome wide level. Our results show that codon volatility and usage are not synonymous, rather that they are correlated with the abundance of G and C at the third codon position (GC3. Conclusions Our results indicate that while the A. thaliana genome shows evidence for synonymous codon usage bias, this is not related to the expression levels of its constituent genes. Neither codon volatility nor codon usage are correlated with expression levels or selective pressures but, because they are directly related to the composition of G and C at the third codon position, they are the result of mutational bias. Therefore, in A. thaliana codon volatility and usage do not result from selection for translation efficiency or protein functional shift as measured by positive selection.

  9. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  10. [Utility of composite and multiple criteria measuring discriminative efficiency in personnel selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Izquierdo, Mariano; García Izquierdo, Antonio León

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the utility of decision making in personnel selection comparing multiple and composite criteria by discriminative efficiency, in a bricklaying training program. We have found valid predictors (aptitudes, personality and experience) with different forms of the criterion, the ERPF scale, in logistic and multiple regression analysis. Results seem indicate that there is not a better criterion, so it depends on different conditions and different aims to reach. We proposed criteria as combining measures but not opposed.

  11. Neon transport in selected organic composites. [stopping power of Kapton and polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    An energy-dependent, perturbation expansion solution for heavy-ion transport in one dimension was used to calculate the dose from Ne-20 beams at incident kinetic energies of 350, 670, and 2000 MeV/amu onto selected organic composites. Transport coefficients, applicable to arbitrary ion beams over a broad range of energies, are presented. Polyethylene and Kapton were tested as constituents of multilayered shielding for spacecraft and astronauts.

  12. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program

    OpenAIRE

    O?Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Spring PURPOSE: Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability ...

  13. MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, Raghu; Rajaputra, Suresh; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polymer composite-based hybrid sensors were fabricated and integrated into a resistive sensor design for gas sensing applications. Thin films of MWCNTs were grown onto Si/SiO2 substrates via xylene pyrolysis using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Polymers like PEDOT:PSS and polyaniline (PANI) mixed with various solvents like DMSO, DMF, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol were used to synthesize the composite films. These sensors exhibited excellent response and selectivity at room temperature when exposed to low concentrations (100 ppm) of analyte gases like NH3 and NO2. The effect of various solvents on the sensor response imparting selectivity to CNT-polymer nanocomposites was investigated extensively. Sensitivities as high as 28% were observed for an MWCNT-PEDOT:PSS composite sensor when exposed to 100 ppm of NH3 and - 29.8% sensitivity for an MWCNT-PANI composite sensor to 100 ppm of NO2 when DMSO was used as a solvent. Additionally, the sensors exhibited good reversibility.

  14. Facile synthesis of Bi/BiOCl composite with selective photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongling; Zhang, Min; Lu, Qiuju; Chen, Junfang [Research Institute for New Material Technology, Department of Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Science, Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Liu, Bitao, E-mail: liubitao007@163.com [Research Institute for New Material Technology, Department of Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Science, Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng, E-mail: zhaofeng.wang@uconn.edu [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel and facile method to fabricate Bi/BiOCl composites with dominant (001) facets in situ via a microwave reduction route. Different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), cathodoluminescence spectrum (CL), and lifetime, have been employed to investigate the structure, optical and electrical properties of the Bi/BiOCl composites. The experimental results show that the introduction of Bi particles can efficiently enhance the photocatalytic performance of BiOCl for the degradation of several dyes under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, especially for negative charged methyl orange (MO). Unlike the UV photocatalytic performance, such Bi/BiOCl composite shows higher degradation efficiency towards rhodamine B (RhB) than MO and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. This special photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the synergistic effect between oxygen vacancies and Bi particles. This work provides new insights about the photodegradation mechanisms of MO, MB and RhB under UV and visible light irradiation, which would be helpful to guide the selection of an appropriate catalyst for other pollutants. - Highlights: • Bi/BiOCl composites were synthesized via a microwave reduction. • Tunable selectivity photocatalytic activity can be achieved. • Photodegradation mechanism under UV and visible light were proposed.

  15. Selected mechanical properties of aluminum composite materials reinforced with SiC particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurzawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of research concerning influence of ceramic particles’ content of silicon carbide on selected mechanical properties of type AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn - SiC composite materials. Composites produced of SiC particles with pressure infiltration method of porous preform and subject to hot plastic forming in the form of open die forging were investigated. The experimental samples contained from 5% up to 45% of reinforcing SiC particles of 8÷10μm diameter. Studies of strength properties demonstrated that the best results, in case of tensile strength as well as offset yield strength, might be obtained while applying reinforcement in the amount of 20-25% vol. of SiC. Application of higher than 25% vol. contents of reinforcing particles leads to gradual strength loss. The investigated composites were characterized by very high functional properties, such as hardness and abrasive wear resistance, whose values increase strongly with the increase of reinforcement amount. The presented results of the experiments shall allow for a more precise component selection of composite materials at the stage of planning and design of their properties.

  16. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  17. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  18. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  20. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  1. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  2. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  3. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  4. Selective laser sintering of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyethylene composites for bioactive implants and tissue scaffold development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L; Savalani, M M; Zhang, Y; Tanner, K E; Harris, R A

    2006-05-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) has been investigated for the production of bioactive implants and tissue scaffolds using composites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) with the aim of achieving the rapid manufacturing of customized implants. Single-layer and multilayer block specimens made of HA-HDPE composites with 30 and 40 vol % HA were sintered successfully using a CO2 laser sintering system. Laser power and scanning speed had a significant effect on the sintering behaviour. The degree of particle fusion and porosity were influenced by the laser processing parameters, hence control can be attained by varying these parameters. Moreover, the SLS processing allowed exposure of HA particles on the surface of the composites and thereby should provide bioactive products. Pores existed in the SLS-fabricated composite parts and at certain processing parameters a significant fraction of the pores were within the optimal sizes for tissue regeneration. The results indicate that the SLS technique has the potential not only to fabricate HA-HDPE composite products but also to produce appropriate features for their application as bioactive implants and tissue scaffolds.

  5. Raloxifene and body composition and muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D.E.; Samson, M.M.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.H.; Verhaar, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of raloxifene and placebo on body composition and muscle strength. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 198 healthy women aged 70 years or older conducted between July 2003 and January 2008 at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht,

  6. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  7. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  8. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  9. Gender saturation in the Southern Caucasus: family composition and sex-selective abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garenne, Michel; Hohmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    The study investigates the complex relationships between sex-selective abortion and family composition in two countries of the Southern Caucasus: Armenia and Azerbaijan. Data were drawn from maternity histories recorded in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs). In both countries, the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of girls already born changed from negative to positive after 1992, when sex-selective abortion became prevalent. In Azerbaijan, but not in Armenia, a similar change was noticed for the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of boys already born, this time from positive to negative. All changes in slopes were highly statistically significant. These findings indicate that sex-selective abortion was prevalent in both countries, and could work both ways in Azerbaijan. The results are interpreted in terms of 'gender saturation', that is a desire of families to better balance the composition of the family when too many children of the same sex are already born, which is consistent with opinion surveys indicating a preference for balanced families.

  10. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  11. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Carbon dioxide selective mixed matrix composite membrane containing ZIF-7 nano-fillers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Mixed matrix materials made from selective inorganic fillers and polymers are very attractive for the manufacturing of gas separation membranes. But only few of these materials could be manufactured into high-performance asymmetric or composite membranes. We report here the first mixed matrix composite membrane made of commercially available poly (amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax®1657, Arkema) mixed with the nano-sized zeolitic imidazole framework ZIF-7. This hybrid material has been successfully deposited as a thin layer (less than 1μm) on a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support. An intermediate gutter layer of PTMSP was applied to serve as a flat and smooth surface for coating to avoid polymer penetration into the porous support. Key features of this work are the preparation and use of ultra-small ZIF-7 nano-particles (around 30-35nm) and the membrane processability of Pebax®1657. SEM pictures show that excellent adhesion and almost ideal morphology between the two phases has been obtained simply by mixing the as-synthesized ZIF-7 suspension into the Pebax®1657 dope, and no voids or clusters can be observed. The performance of the composite membrane is characterized by single gas permeation measurement of CO2, N2 and CH4. Both, permeability (PCO2 up to 145barrer) and gas selectivity (CO2/N2 up to 97 and CO2/CH4 up to 30) can be increased at low ZIF- loading. The CO2/CH4 selectivity can be further increased to 44 with the filler loading of 34wt%, but the permeability is reduced compared to the pure Pebax®1657 membrane. Polymer chain rigidification at high filler loading is supposed to be a reason for the reduced permeability. The composite membranes prepared in this work show better performance in terms of permeance and selectivity when compared with asymmetric mixed matrix membranes described in the recent literature. Overall, the ZIF 7/Pebax mixed matrix membranes show a high performance for CO2 separation from methane and other gas streams. They are easy to

  13. Methods for the selective detection of alkyne-presenting molecules and related compositions and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Vu, Alexander K.

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are methods for selectively detecting an alkyne-presenting molecule in a sample and related detection reagents, compositions, methods and systems. The methods include contacting a detection reagent with the sample for a time and under a condition to allow binding of the detection reagent to the one or more alkyne-presenting molecules possibly present in the matrix to the detection reagent. The detection reagent includes an organic label moiety presenting an azide group. The binding of the azide group to the alkyne-presenting molecules results in emission of a signal from the organic label moiety.

  14. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites with Size-selected Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Cluster Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Hanif; Juluri, Raghavendra R.; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    An embedment of metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes in thin polymer films is of significant interest for a number of practical applications, in particular, for preparing materials with tunable plasmonic properties. In this article, we present a fabrication route for metal–polymer composites...... particles partly or fully embedded into the film. Good size selection and rather homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in the thin polymer film lead to excellent plasmonic properties characterized by the narrow band and high quality factor of localized surface plasmon resonance....

  15. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  16. Influence of aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected resin-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Basa, Katarzyna; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Malara, Piotr; Nowak, Agnieszka J; Kasperski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different plasticizing aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected universal resin-based dental composites. Three light cured (one nanofilled, two microhybride) and one hybride chemical cured composites were aged at 37 °C for 48 h in distillated water, ethyl alcohol solution or Listerine mouthwash. After aging the microhardness tests were carried out and then tribological tests were performed in the presence of aging solution at 37 °C. During wear testing coefficients of friction were determined. The maximal vertical loss in micrometers was determined with profilometer. Aging in all liquids resulted in a significant decrease in hardness of the test materials, with the largest values obtained successively in ethanol solution, mouthwash and water. The effect of the liquid was dependent on the particular material, but not the type of material (interpreted as the size of filler used). Introduction of mouthwash instead of water or ethanol solution resulted in a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction. The lowest wear resistance was registered after aging in ethanol and for the chemical cured hybrid composite, but the vertical loss was strongly material dependent. The effect of different aging solution, including commercial mouthrinse, on hardness and wear was material dependent, and cannot be deduced from their category or filler loading. There is no simple correlation between hardness of resin-based dental composites and their wear resistance, but softening of particular composites materials during aging leads to the reduction of its wear resistance.

  17. New food composition data on selected ethnic foods consumed in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, S; Marletta, L; Shahar, D R; Farre, R; Ireland, J D; Jansen-van der Vliet, M; De Henauw, S; Finglas, P

    2010-11-01

    Reliable data on the composition of foods is needed to better understand individual diets, measure nutrient intakes and provide nutritional guidance for improving the health of the populations. Ethnic foods are becoming increasingly popular among all European consumers, and are the main source of nutrients in the diets of ethnic groups. However, there is limited information on the nutrient composition of ethnic foods in Europe. The objective of this study therefore was to generate new and reliable data on ethnic foods using harmonised methods for chemical analyses. New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence through participants from France, Israel, Spain, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. In each selected country, the list of prioritized foods and key nutrients, methods of analyses and quality assurance procedure were harmonised. This paper presents the nutrient composition of 40 ethnic foods consumed in Europe. The nutrient composition of the foods varied widely because of the nature and variety of foods analysed, with energy content (kcal) ranging between 24 (biteku-teku, Blegium) and 495 (nachos, Italy) per 100 g of edible food. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were generally higher in most ethnic foods consumed in Italy and Spain compared with ethnic foods of other countries. The new data were scrutinised and fully documented for inclusion in the national food composition databases. The data will aid effective diet and disease interventions, and enhance the provision of dietary advice, in all European consumers.

  18. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  19. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  20. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    P B Rshikesan; Pailoor Subramanya; Deepeshwar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yog...

  1. Effects of LDEF flight exposure on selected polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemp, Wayne S.; Young, Philip R.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composites materials which received over five years and nine months of exposure to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment in experiment AO134 on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. The changes in mechanical properties of ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus for exposed flight specimens are compared to the three sets of control specimens. Marked changes in surface appearance are discussed, and resin loss is reported. The chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymetric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure.

  2. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure of item pools, the population distribution of the simulees, the number of items selected, and the content area. The existing procedures such as Volume (Segall in Psychometrika, 61:331-354, 1996), Kullback-Leibler information (Veldkamp & van der Linden in Psychometrika 67:575-588, 2002), Minimize the error variance of the linear combination (van der Linden in J. Educ. Behav. Stat. 24:398-412, 1999), and Minimum Angle (Reckase in Multidimensional item response theory, Springer, New York, 2009) are compared to a new procedure, Minimize the error variance of the composite score with the optimized weight, proposed for the first time in this study. The intent is to find an item selection procedure that yields higher precisions for both the domain and composite abilities and a higher percentage of selected items from the item pool. The comparison is performed by examining the absolute bias, correlation, test reliability, time used, and item usage. Three sets of item pools are used with the item parameters estimated from real live CAT data. Results show that Volume and Minimum Angle performed similarly, balancing information for all content areas, while the other three procedures performed similarly, with a high precision for both domain and overall scores when selecting items with the required number of items for each domain. The new item selection procedure has the highest percentage of item usage. Moreover, for the overall score, it produces similar or even better results compared to those from the method that selects items favoring the general dimension using the general model (Segall in Psychometrika 66:79-97, 2001); the

  3. Optimal Electrode Selection for Electrical Resistance Tomography in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona Galvis, Luis Waldo; Diaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) offers a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that takes advantage of the inherent electrical properties in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites for internal damage characterization. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of sensing configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERT. Reduction in the number of sensing locations and measurements is necessary to minimize hardware and computational effort. The present work explores the use of an effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations resulting from selecting sensing electrode pairs. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate for subsequent EI based reduction to take place. The electrical potential field in a CFRP laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) applied on models for two different laminate layouts considering a set of specified delamination sizes and locations with two different sensing arrangements. The effectiveness of the EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of damage using the full set and the reduced set of resistance measurements. This investigation shows that the EI measure is effective for optimally selecting the electrode pairs needed for resistance measurements in ERT based damage detection. PMID:28772485

  4. A micromechanical model of tension-softening and bridging toughening of short random fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Victor C.; Wang, Youjiang; Backer, Stanley

    A MICROMECHANICAL model has been formulated for the post-cracking behavior of a brittle matrix composite reinforced with randomly distributed short fibers. This model incorporates the mechanics of pull-out of fibers which are inclined at an angle to the matrix crack plane and which undergo slip-weakening or slip-hardening during the pull-out process. In addition, the random location and orientation of fibers are accounted for. Comparisons of model predictions of post-cracking tension-softening behavior with experimental data appear to support the validity of the model. The model is used to examine the effects of fiber length, snubbing friction coefficient and interfacial bond behavior on composite post-cracking tensile properties. The scaling of the bridging fracture toughening with material parameters is discussed.

  5. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  6. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  7. Development of shrinkage and fracture parameters in selected fine-grained cement-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucharczyková Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of a pilot study aimed at the evaluation of an experimental investigation focused on determination of the material characteristics development of selected fine-grained cement-based composites during their ageing. The composition of composites being investigated differed only in a water to cement (w/c ratio and in amount of superplasticizer. Quite extensive experiments were performed with the aim to determine shrinkage, dynamic a static modulus of elasticity and fracture properties on test specimens exposed to free drying during the whole time of its ageing (including the early stage of setting and hardening. The article presents especially results (including their statistical evaluation of shrinkage and fracture parameters development within 90 days of composites’ ageing. Experimental results show the dependence of the investigated characteristics on the value of w/c ratio. The most visible effect was observed in the case of shrinkage development. The curing conditions were reflected especially in high variability of the test results.

  8. Thermomechanical Behavior of Polymer Composites Based on Edge-Selectively Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Ho Nam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate an effective approach based on a simple processing method to improve the thermomechanical properties of graphene polymer composites (GPCs. Edge-selectively functionalized graphene (EFG was successfully obtained through simple ball milling of natural graphite in the presence of dry ice, which acted as the source of carboxyl functional groups that were attached to the peripheral basal plane of graphene. The resultant EFG is highly dispersible in various organic solvents and contributes to improving their physical properties because of its unique characteristics. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA were used as monomers for constructing the polyimide (PI backbone, after which PI/EFG composites were prepared by in situ polymerization. A stepwise thermal imidization method was used to prepare the PI films for comparison purposes. The PI/EFG composite films were found to exhibit reinforced thermal and thermo-mechanical properties compared to neat PI owing to the interaction between the EFG and PI matrix.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  10. Standard Practice for Steel Bars, Selection Guide, Composition, and Mechanical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 This practice is intended as a guide for the selection of steel bars according to section and to the mechanical properties desired in the part to be produced. This is not a specification for the procurement of steel. Applicable procurement specifications are listed in Section 5. 1.2 Several steel compositions intended for various sections and mechanical property requirements are presented in Tables 2 to 7. The criteria for placing a steel composition in one of the three general class designations, Classes P, Q, and R (described in Section 3) are as follows: 1.2.1 Classes P and Q should be capable of developing the mechanical properties shown in Tables 2 to 5 by liquid quenching from a suitable austenitizing temperature, and tempering at 800°F (427°C) or higher. A hardness indicated by tests made at a location shown in Fig. 1, A, B, or C, is taken as evidence that a composition is capable of meeting other equivalent mechanical properties shown in the tables. Normal good shop practices are assumed, with c...

  11. Synthesis of Au microwires by selective oxidation of Au–W thin-film composition spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hamann, Hayo Brunken, Steffen Salomon, Robert Meyer, Alan Savan and Alfred Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the stress-induced growth of Au microwires out of a surrounding Au–W matrix by selective oxidation, in view of a possible application as 'micro-Velcro'. The Au wires are extruded due to the high compressive stress in the tungsten oxide formed by oxidation of elemental W. The samples were fabricated as a thin-film materials library using combinatorial sputter deposition followed by thermal oxidation. Sizes and shapes of the Au microwires were investigated as a function of the W to Au ratio. The coherence length and stress state of the Au microwires were related to their shape and plastic deformation. Depending on the composition of the Au–W precursor, the oxidized samples showed regions with differently shaped Au microwires. The Au48W52 composition yielded wires with the maximum length to diameter ratio due to the high compressive stress in the tungsten oxide matrix. The values of wire length (35 μm and diameter (2 μm achieved at the Au48W52 composition are suitable for micro-Velcro applications.

  12. Relationship of selected body composition and training variables to 17 B-estradiol in eumenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, J

    1991-09-01

    Although the relationships among body composition, training, and physical characteristics and 17 B-estradiol (estradiol) have been described in active amenorrheic women, little is known about these relationships in eumenorrheic women. This study examined the relationship between selected body composition and training variables, physical characteristics, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in eumenorrheic runners. Fifteen women (25.8 +/- 0.8 years) running 19.8 +/- 1.8 miles per week were studied during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Estradiol and LH were determined by radioimmunoassay. Body composition was measured by hydrostatic weighing. Age, Ponderal Index, and menstrual cycle length (days) were inversely related to estradiol (r = -0.56, r = -0.55, r = -0.52, respectively, p less than 0.05). A significant relationship (R2 = 0.91; p less than 0.05) was found among age, menstrual cycle length, LH (mIU/ml), VO2max (ml/kg/min), weight training (hr/wk), miles run per week, height (cm), additional aerobic training (hr/wk), relative body fat (%), and Ponderal Index and estradiol (pg/ml). These data suggest the midluteal concentration of estradiol in moderately trained eumenorrheic runners is the result of a complex interaction of many factors.

  13. Selective control of reformed composition of n-heptane via plasma chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Manoj Kumar Reddy, P.

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents experimental results for reforming n-heptane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor to show detailed chemical composition in the products and to propose a potential method to control the product composition. Reformed products of n-heptane and water mixture in an inert Ar feed could be identified as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygenates, and various hydrocarbons, having a wide range of carbon numbers. To selectively increase production of short-chain hydrocarbons, Ar was replaced by CH4. An increased pool of methyl radicals, via plasma chemistry of CH4, might facilitate to stabilize intermediate alkyls (R) into RCH3, which successfully increased short-chain hydrocarbon concentration. When CO2 was supplied instead of Ar (to provide enriched OH and O radicals), significantly higher oxygenate concentrations were obtained through the stabilization of alkyls as ROH (alcohol), and RC([Formula presented])R′ (ketone). The use of methane and carbon dioxide as feed to tailor the products of plasma-assisted reforming of n-heptane with methyl (CH3), or O radicals, is successfully demonstrated in the presence of water vapor. Detailed product analysis, such as product selection, rates and energy efficiency using a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography mass spectrometer, will be elaborated upon. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Banerjee, Debasis [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jian [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Fernandez, Carlos A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nie, Zimin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Motkuri, Radha K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hayes, James C. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Silvers, Kurt L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Krishna, Rajamani [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam The Netherlands; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Liu, Jun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-03-08

    Incorporating, a redox active organometallic molIncorporating, a redox active organometallic molecule within a porous matrix is a useful strategy to form redox active composite materials for emerging applications such as energy storage, electro-catalysis and electro-magnetic separation. Herein we report a new class of stable, redox active metal organic composites for oxygen/air separation with exceptional efficiency. In particular, Ferrocene impregnated in a thermally stable hierarchical porous framework showed a saturation uptake capacity of >51 mg/g for oxygen at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.06. The material shows excellent O2 selectivity from air as evident from experimental and simulated breakthrough experiments. In detail structural analysis using 57Fe-Mössbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis show that of O2 adsorption affinity and selectivity originates by the formation Fe3+-O oxide due to the highly reactive nature of the organometallics imbedded in the porous matrix.

  15. Silica-Copper Oxide Composite Thin Films as Solar Selective Coatings Prepared by Dipping Sol Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barrera-Calva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica-copper oxide (silica-CuO composite thin films were prepared by a dipping sol-gel route using ethanolic solutions comprised TEOS and a copper-propionate complex. Sols with different TEOS/Cu-propionate (Si/Cu molar ratios were prepared and applied on stainless steel substrates using dipping process. During the annealing process, copper-propionate complexes developed into particulate polycrystalline CuO dispersed in a partially crystallized silica matrix, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. The gel thermal analysis revealed that the prepared material might be stable up to 400°C. The silica-CuO/stainless steel system was characterized as a selective absorber surface and its solar selectivity parameters, absorptance (α, and emittance (ε were evaluated from UV-NIR reflectance data. The solar parameters of such a system were mostly affected by the thickness and phase composition of the SiO2-CuO film. Interestingly, the best solar parameters (α = 0.92 and ε = 0.2 were associated to the thinnest films, which comprised a CuO-Cu2O mixture immersed in the silica matrix, as indicated by XPS.

  16. Impact of exercise changes on body composition during the college years--a five year randomized controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias; Bauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    .... Sixty-one randomly selected male and female dental (DES; 21 ± 3 years., 22 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and 53 sport (physical education) students (SPS; 20 ± 2 years., 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were accompanied over their 5-year study program...

  17. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  18. Divergent selection-induced obesity alters the composition and functional pathways of chicken gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinmei; Zhao, Lele; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; He, Chuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Heping; Li, Hui; Meng, He

    2016-11-28

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive. To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the fat line compared to the lean line. Our analysis revealed that the proportions of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two lines (8 vs. 18% and 33 vs. 24%, respectively) at the phylum level. Eight bacterial genera and 11 species were also substantially influenced by the host genotype. Differences between the two lines in the frequency of host alleles at loci that influence accumulation of abdominal fat were associated with differences in the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. Moreover, microbial genome functional analysis showed that the gut microbiota was involved in pathways that are associated with fat metabolism such as lipid and glycan biosynthesis, as well as amino acid and energy metabolism. Interestingly, citrate cycle and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways that play important roles in lipid storage and metabolism were more prevalent in the fat line than in the lean line. Our study demonstrates that long-term divergent selection not only alters the composition of the gut microbiota, but also influences its functional performance by enriching its relative abundance in microbial taxa. These results support the hypothesis that the host and gut microbiota interact at the

  19. Randomized clinical trial of indirect resin composite and ceramic veneers: up to 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco M; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-04-01

    This randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the short-term survival rate of indirect resin composite and ceramic laminate veneers. A total of 10 patients (mean age: 48.6 years) received 46 indirect resin composite (Estenia; n = 23) and ceramic laminate veneers (IPS Empress Esthetic; n = 23) on the maxillary anterior teeth. Veneer preparations with incisal overlap were performed and existing resin composite restorations of good quality were not removed but conditioned using silica coating (CoJet) and silanization (ESPE-Sil). Enamel and dentin were etched and rinsed; adhesive resin (ExciTE) was then applied. After cementation (Variolink Veneer), restorations were evaluated at baseline and thereafter every 6 months for up to 3 years using modified USPHS criteria. Seventeen laminate veneers were bonded onto intact teeth and 29 on teeth having existing resin composite restorations. In total, 3 failures were observed in the form of debonding (n = 1) and fracture (n = 2) in the group of resin composite laminate veneers. No significant difference was observed between the survival rates of composite and ceramic laminate veneers (Estenia: 87%, IPS Empress Esthetic: 100%; p > 0.05). The overall survival rate was 93.5% (Kaplan-Meier). Of the 43 laminate veneers, minor voids and defects were observed in 6 of the composite and 3 of the ceramic veneers. Slight staining at the margins (n = 3) and slightly rough surfaces were more frequently observed for the resin composite laminate veneers (n = 18) up to the final recall. Early findings of this clinical trial on two veneer materials showed statistically similar survival rates. Surface quality changes were more frequent in the composite veneer material.

  20. Effect of selection for intramuscular fat on the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvaro, M; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2017-12-26

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and composition are relevant for the meat industry due to their effect on human health and meat organoleptic properties. A divergent selection experiment for IMF of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was performed in rabbits during eight generations. The aim of this study is to estimate the correlated responses to selection for IMF on the fatty acid composition of LD. Response to selection for IMF was 0.34 g/100 g of LD, representing 2.4 phenotypic SD of the trait. High-IMF line showed 9.20% more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 0.39%, 9.97% and 10.3% less n-3, n-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively, than low-IMF line. The main MUFA and PUFA individual fatty acids followed a similar pattern, except for C18:3n-3 that was greater in the high-IMF line. We did not observe differences between lines for the percentage of total saturated fatty acids, although high-IMF line showed greater C14:0 and C16:0 and lower C18:0 percentages than low-IMF line. Heritability estimates were generally high for all fatty acids percentages, ranging from 0.43 to 0.59 with a SD around 0.08, showing an important genetic component on these traits. Genetic correlations between IMF and LD fatty acid percentages were strong and positive for C14:0, C16:1, C18:1n-9, and MUFA, ranging from 0.88 to 0.97, and strong and negative for C18:0, C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, n-6 and PUFA, ranging from -0.83 to -0.91. These correlations were accurately estimated, with SD ranging from 0.02 to 0.06. The genetic correlations between IMF and other fatty acids were estimated with lower accuracy. In general, phenotypic and genetic correlations were of the same order. Our experiment shows that selection for IMF strongly affects the fatty acid composition of meat, due the high heritabilities of fatty acids and their high genetic correlations with IMF.

  1. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  2. Selected the Casting Properties of the Composites AlMg10+Cgr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łągiewka M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the previous investigations concerning the influence of graphite particles both on the casting properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs. The work presents the examination results of casting properties (i.e. castability and shrinkage of the MMCs with matrices of a selected aluminium alloy reinforced with graphite particles. There is also presented the influence of graphite particles on the surface tension and viscosity of the flowing and filling the mould composite suspension. The suspensions containing various percentages of graphite particles (namely 5%, 10%, or 15% in volume were prepared in order to perform the above mentioned examinations. Castability (fluidity of these suspensions was measured in two ways, i.e. by means of both the spiral test and the rod test, while their shrinkage was determined with the use of a device designed and assembled in the Department of Foundry Engineering, CUT. The device enables to determine changes in the length of a casting during its solidification with respect to the specified length of the test rod. The surface tension was determined by the wedge casting method consisting in the pouring of metal into an open shell mould with the cavity of wedge geometry, the sharp edge being perpendicular to the free metal surface. The change in viscosity corresponding to the change in graphite particles percentage was calculated from Einstein’s equation. The results of examinations show that the introduction of reinforcing graphite particles results in both a significant increase in the viscosity of the flowing suspension and a considerable decrease in its castability. The greater dimensional stability of castings was observed, i.e. the shrinkage of composite castings was smaller than the shrinkage of matrix alloy itself. An increase in surface tension index value with an increase in volume percentage of graphite particles in composite was also noticed.

  3. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  4. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P residual feed intake was not influenced by energy content of the diet the pigs were fed.

  5. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  6. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  7. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Lusk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of transcription factor binding sites in developmental enhancers and the apparent preferential conservation of clustered sites have been widely interpreted as proof that spatially constrained physical interactions between transcription factors are required for regulatory function. However, we show here that selection on the composition of enhancers alone, and not their internal structure, leads to the accumulation of clustered sites with evolutionary dynamics that suggest they are preferentially conserved. We simulated the evolution of idealized enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster constrained to contain only a minimum number of binding sites for one or more factors. Under this constraint, mutations that destroy an existing binding site are tolerated only if a compensating site has emerged elsewhere in the enhancer. Overlapping sites, such as those frequently observed for the activator Bicoid and repressor Krüppel, had significantly longer evolutionary half-lives than isolated sites for the same factors. This leads to a substantially higher density of overlapping sites than expected by chance and the appearance that such sites are preferentially conserved. Because D. melanogaster (like many other species has a bias for deletions over insertions, sites tended to become closer together over time, leading to an overall clustering of sites in the absence of any selection for clustered sites. Since this effect is strongest for the oldest sites, clustered sites also incorrectly appear to be preferentially conserved. Following speciation, sites tend to be closer together in all descendent species than in their common ancestors, violating the common assumption that shared features of species' genomes reflect their ancestral state. Finally, we show that selection on binding site composition alone recapitulates the observed number of overlapping and closely neighboring sites in real D. melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into

  8. Multi-surface composite vs stainless steel crown restorations after mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Candice; Seale, N Sue; McWhorter, Alton; Kerins, Carolyn; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Parents increasingly request esthetic restorations for their children's teeth. This split mouth, randomized controlled trial compared primary molars treated with white MTA pulpotomies and restored with either multi-surface composites (MSC) or stainless steel crowns (SSC). Forty matched, contra-lateral pairs of molars received MTA pulpotomies and were randomly assigned to MSC or SSC restorations and evaluated clinically and radiographically at 6 and 12 months. Two calibrated, blinded examiners evaluated and scored radiographs. Thirty-seven matched pairs were evaluated at 6 months, and 31 were available at 12 months. All teeth in both groups were radiographically and clinically successful at 6 and 12 months. Dentin bridge formation was noted in 20% of the primary molars by 12 months. Although not significant, the composite group exhibited fewer intact clinical margins than the SSC group. The vast majority (94%) of teeth restored with composite displayed gray discoloration at follow-up exams, which did not appear to affect the quality of the restoration and is believed to be associated with the white MTA. The white MTA pulpotomies succeeded over 12 months regardless of the restoration; however, the teeth restored with composite were not as durable nor considered an esthetic alternative to the SSC.

  9. One Year Clinical Evaluation of a Low Shrinkage Composite Compared with a Packable Composite Resin: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Hoseinifar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of a packable and a low shrinkage methacrylate-based composite after one year.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 50 class I or II restorations were placed in 25 patients. Each patient received two restorations. The tested materials were: (I Filtek P60 + Single Bond 2 and (II Kalore GC + Single Bond 2. The restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners after one week (baseline, six months and one year according to the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS criteria. The evaluated parameters included color match, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, retention, surface texture, postoperative sensitivity, marginal staining and secondary caries. Data were then analyzed using Friedman and conditional (matched logistic regression tests at P<0.05 level of significance. Results: P60 and Kalore performed similarly at six months and one year (P>0.05. When each composite resin was evaluated independently at baseline and after one year, no statistically significant differences were found except for marginal adaptation (P60 where four restorations were rated Bravo (clinically acceptable. In 8% of restorations, patients expressed postoperative sensitivity.Conclusions: Kalore GC and Filtek P60 showed acceptance clinical performance after one year of service.Keywords: Composite Resins; Dental Marginal Adaptation; Patients

  10. Classification of archaeological sherds across the southeast United States based on variable selection from compositional fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, C; González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-del-Notario, Nuria; Sáenz-González, C

    2009-07-30

    The transfer of advances in chemometrics into archaeometric research opens a wide range of new application possibilities in this rapidly developing field. The present research represents a feasibility study aimed at showing how the huge potential that multivariate analysis and feature selection techniques have demonstrated for classification purposes can be extrapolated to archaeological provenance studies, thus pursuing an enhancement of the resulting classification performance. The classification problem studied here was related to the discrimination of pottery sherds from different sources across the southeast of the United States from their compositional fingerprints. The sample elemental concentrations were analyzed using the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) method, thus simultaneously performing feature selection and classification. Several approaches, more or less restrictive according to the geographical scope and the number of considered classes, were explored, following a hierarchical classification approach. In contrast to previous studies on the same data set, the reliable and unequivocal classification strategy presented here did not merely focus on developing a large-scale classification into broad geographical areas, but finer classifications were also successively obtained until samples were assigned into individual regions. The great discrimination ability and effectiveness of the classification methodology proposed are promising and encourage its application to new samples of unknown provenance and the feasibility of using similar approaches in other archaeological studies. The high quality results obtained were even more remarkable considering the relatively small number of discriminant variables selected in each case by the stepwise procedure.

  11. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  12. Fracture resistance of short, randomly oriented, glass fiber-reinforced composite premolar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of posterior composite crowns made of experimental composite resin (FC) with short fiber fillers and a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) matrix. In addition, we wanted to investigate how load-bearing capacity of surface composite resins was affected by substructures of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) and FC, and by different curing systems. Five groups of crowns were fabricated (n=6). The crowns were either polymerized with a hand-light curing unit (LCU) or cured in a vacuum curing device (VLC) before they were statically loaded at a speed of 1mm min(-1) until fracture. Failure modes were visually examined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. ANOVA revealed that crowns made from the FC had a statistically significant higher load-bearing capacity than the control PFC composite. Crowns with FRC substructure and PFC covering gave force values of 348N (LCU) and 1199N (VLC), respectively, which were lower than the values of FC composite. No statistically significant difference was found between crowns made from plain FC composite and those made from FC composite with a surface layer of PFC (P=0.892 and 1.00). Restorations made from short glass fiber-containing composite resin with IPN-polymer matrix showed better load bearing capacity than those made with either plain PFC or PFC reinforced with FRC substructure.

  13. Heterogeneous Configuration of a Ag Nanowire/Polymer Composite Structure for Selectively Stretchable Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Jun, Sungwoo; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important aspects that we need to consider in the design of intrinsically stretchable electrodes is that most electronic devices that can be formed on them are not stretchable themselves. This discrepancy can induce severe stress singularities at the interfaces between stiff devices and stretchable electrodes, leading to catastrophic device delamination when the substrate is stretched. Here, we suggest a novel solution to this challenge which involves introducing a photolithography-based rigid-island approach to fabricate the heterogeneous configuration of a silver nanowire (AgNW)/polymer composite structure. For this, we designed two new transparent polymers: a photopatternable polymer that is rigid yet flexible, and a stretchable polymer, both of which have identical acrylate functional groups. Patterning of the rigid polymer and subsequent overcoating of the soft polymer formed rigid island disks embedded in the soft polymer, resulting in a selectively stretchable transparent film. Strong covalent bonds instead of weak physical interactions between the polymers strengthened the cohesive force at the interface of the rigid/soft polymers. Inverted-layer processing with a percolated AgNW network was used to form a heterogeneous AgNW/polymer composite structure that can be used as a selectively stretchable transparent electrode. An optimized structural configuration prevented the resistance of the rigid electrode from varying up to a lateral strain of 70%. A repeated stretch/release test with 60% strain for 5000 cycles did not cause any severe damage to the structure, revealing that the fabricated structure was mechanically stable and reliable.

  14. Harvesting polysulfides by sealing the sulfur electrode in a composite ion-selective net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yazhou; Li, Zhong; Li, Xuekui; Zeng, Danli; Xu, Guodong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Sun, Yubao; Ke, Hanzhong; Cheng, Hansong

    2017-11-01

    A cathode was prepared by sealing a carbon supported sulfur electrode inside a composite ion-selective net made of carbon, binder and lithiated ionomer to restrict shuttling of polysulfide anionic species. As a result, the soluble polysulfide anions become unable to escape from the composite ion-selective films due to the electrostatic repulsion between the immobilized single ion conducting ionomers and the polysulfides with no dead angles. Experimentally, lithiated 4,4‧-difluoro bis(benzene sulfonyl)imide and PEG200 were copolymerized to form a polyether based single ion conducting polymer. The ionic conductivity of the blend film made of ionomer and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) at a mass ratio of 1:1 is 0.57 mS cm-1 at room temperature. The battery capacity with the sealed sulfur electrode is 1412 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C, 1041 mAh g-1 at 1.0 C, 873 mAh g-1 at 2.0 C and 614 mAh g-1 at 5.0 C, significantly better than the results with lithiated Nafion especially at high C rates. In addition, a long cycling test at 2 C for 500 cycles gives rise to a stable capacity of 800 mAh g-1. The intrinsic electrostatic repulsion between polysulfide anions and the negatively charged electrolyte film, together with the overall sealed electrode configuration, is responsible for blocking the shuttling of polysulfides effectively.

  15. Diet composition and terrestrial prey selection of the Laysan teal on Laysan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M.H.; Slotterback, J.W.; Walters, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Laysan teal (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago but currently restricted to a single breeding population on Laysan Island. We studied its diet using fecal analysis and behavioral observations. Laysan teal fecal samples (N=118) contained prey items in 15 primary prey categories with a mean of 2.9 (range 0-7) taxa per sample. Sixty-two of these fecal samples were quantified with 2,270 prey items identified (mean items per sample 37; range 0-205). Based on fecal analysis and behavioral observations, we learned that the Laysan teal is not strictly a macroinsectivore as previously reported, but consumed seeds, succulent leaves, and algae, in addition to adult and larval diptera, ants, lepidoptera, coleoptera, and Artemia. We compared abundance of invertebrates from two terrestrial foraging substrates, soil and standing vegetation, to the abundance of invertebrate prey items counted in fecal samples collected from these habitats for the same period. In the soil substrate, Laysan teal selected two of the most abundant invertebrates, lepidoptera larvae and coleoptera. In the standing vegetation, Laysan teal selected the most abundant taxa: coleoptera. Amphipods were consumed in proportion to their abundance, and small gastropods (Tornatellides sp.), isopods, and arachnids were avoided or were identified in fecal matter in disproportion to their abundance in the foraging habitat. We compared fecal composition of samples collected in aquatic and terrestrial habitats and detected significant differences in samples' species compositions. The conservation implications of the adult Laysan teal's diet are positive, since results indicate that the Laysan teal are opportunistic insectivores, and exhibit dietary flexibility that includes seeds and other food. Dietary flexibility improves the possibility of successfully reestablishing populations on other predator-free islands.

  16. Effect of selective logging on floristic and structural composition in a forest fragment from Amazon Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Janones da Rocha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in one region of a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest located in Tapurah (Mato Grosso State, Brazil with the aim of studying its floristic and structural composition. The fixed area method was applied to 10 × 250 m clusters, allocating and measuring five clusters with five subunits of 500 m² each. Species with a diameter at breast height greater than or equal to 10 cm were considered, and the sample sufficiency of the floristic survey was verified by a species accumulation curve. The similarities between the sample subunits were calculated by the Jaccard Similarity Index, and the species diversity with the Shannon Diversity Index and Pielou Evenness Index. The horizontal vegetation structure was characterized by density, frequency, dominance and the values of ecological importance, and diametric distribution were assessed by the Spiegel procedure. The families Vochysiaceae, Fabaceae and Sapindaceae were highly represented, and Qualea paraensis, Aspidosperma discolor and Matayba arborescens were the most important species. A high diversity and low ecological dominance were found, and the diametric structure of the trees presented a negative exponential distribution. In general, the structure, floristic composition and richness of vegetation correspond to a forest with stable and autoregenerative community after selective logging.

  17. Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents of selected Kuwaiti composite dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiri, H A; Al-Hamad, N M; Al-Awadhi, F A; Al-Foudari, M Y; Al-Otaibi, J A; Binheji, A H

    2011-03-01

    Total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) contents of 37 composite dishes commonly consumed in the State of Kuwait were determined by the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky et al. Levels (g/100 g) of SDF ranged over 0.3-0.5 in fish-based dishes, 0.3-2.6 in meat-based dishes, 0.1-1.4 in rice dishes, 3.2-4.6 in vegetable dishes, 0.3-0.7 in soup dishes, 0 in dairy dishes, 0.7-0.8 in sandwiches, and 0.1-5.0 in sweet dishes. IDF levels ranged over 1.1-1.8 in fish-based, 0.9-3.2 in meat-based, 0.6-2.7 in rice, 2.1-4.0 in vegetables, 0.6-3.4 in soup, 0 in dairy, 0.2-0.3 in sandwiches, and 0.2-11.6 in sweets. TDF values ranged over 1.4-2.3 in fish-based, 1.2-3.7 in meat-based, 0.3-4.1 in rice, 3.2-4.6 in vegetables, 0.9-3.8 in soup, 0 in dairy, 0.7-0.8 in sandwiches and 0.3-15.4 in sweets. This work attempts to provide new data on TDF, IDF and SDF of selected commonly consumed Kuwaiti composite dishes.

  18. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  19. Characterization and dynamic mechanical analysis of selective laser sintered hydroxyapatite-filled polymeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Hao, L; Savalani, M M; Harris, R A; Tanner, K E

    2008-09-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a manufacturing technique which enables the final product to be made directly and rapidly, without tooling or additional machining. For biomedical applications, SLS permits the fabrication of implants and scaffolds with complex geometry accurately and economically. In this study, hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene and polyamide composites were fabricated using SLS. The SLS samples were characterized in terms of their internal structure, morphology, and porosity. The mechanical properties were examined by dynamic mechanical analysis. The effects of SLS processing conditions, including particle size and laser power, were investigated, and the results were compared with conventional compression-molded and machined specimens. The internal structure of sintered samples was porous, with open interconnected pores, and the pore size was up to 200 microm. Particle size and laser energy play a key role in the final density and mechanical properties of the sintered components. In the parameter range used, the use of smaller particles produced higher density and stiffness, and the laser-induced energy could also be varied to optimize the manufacturing process. This study demonstrated that high-HA-content reinforced polymer composite can be successfully manufactured by SLS with controlled porosity features.

  20. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (α=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-WAdhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-Wcement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  1. Selection of grapevine leaf varieties for culinary process based on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano; Bento, Albino; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Grapevine leaves are an abundant sub-product of vineyards which is devalued in many regions. The objective of this work is to study the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of ten grapevine leaf varieties (four red varieties: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, and Touriga Nacional; and six white varieties: Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, and Viosinho) to select varieties to be used as food ingredients. White grapevine leaves revealed higher antioxidant potential. Malvasia Fina reported better antioxidant properties contrasting with Touriga Franca. Phenolic content varied between 112 and 150mgGAEg(-1) of extract (gallic acid equivalents), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols varied between 76 and 108mgCAEg(-1) of extract (caffeic acid equivalents) and 39 and 54mgQEg(-1) of extract (quercetin equivalents). Malvasia Fina is a good candidate for culinary treatment due to its antioxidant properties and composition in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18-50-Year-Old Adults-A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stonehouse, Welma; Wycherley, Thomas; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Taylor, Pennie; Brinkworth, Grant; Riley, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18-50-year-old. RCTs...

  3. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Influence of temperature and chemical composition on phase transformations of selected oxide melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobrovská

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with structural changes of solid phase of selected oxide systems during their transition into liquid state. Analyses concerned poly-component systems forming basis of casting powders for CCM mould. Industrially used oxide system with prevailing contents of CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 components and with numerous accompanying admixtures was tested. Investigation was focused on temperatures, during which individual phases disappear and precipitate, as well as on influence of CaO content on phase composition at selected temperatures. The experiments were realised with use of original methodology consisting of shock cooling of the tested melt in liquid nitrogen. Thus obtained samples were further investigated by X-ray diffraction phase analyses at ambient temperatures. The obtained results provide additional data on physical-chemical properties of oxide systems, such as surface tension, viscosity, sintering intervals, etc., which can be used in technological practice for appropriate lubrication effect of casting powders in the mould.

  5. Outer-selective thin film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-01-14

    The pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process is a green technique for power generation to respond the world\\'s need of energy sustainability. In this study, we have developed the vital component of the process, i.e. membrane, in the configuration of the outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber, which is more practical than other configurations in the real applications. The support layer morphology and the formation of the selective polyamide layer have been optimized for a good PRO performance. The results show that the bore fluid with higher amount of the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone leads to full finger-like hollow fibers, which provide higher flux but lower pressure tolerance. The addition of higher amount of diethylene glycol into the dope solution, improves the pore formation and suppresses the macrovoid formation, while properly lowering the take-up speed increases their wall thickness and pressure tolerance. A simple alcohol-pre-wetting approach on the fiber support leads to a smooth and thin polyamide layer, which is favorable for a high water flux and power density. Its efficiency follows this order: n-propanol>ethanol>methanol>water. The n-propanol pre-wetted TFC membrane can tolerate 17 bar with a peak power density of 9.59 W/m2 at room temperature, using 1 M NaCl solution as the draw solution and DI water as feed. This work demonstrates the potential of outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for energy conversion via PRO process, provides useful database to fabricate suitable support morphology and raise a simple technique to practically form a thin and smooth polyamide layer.

  6. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feed intake on growth performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference in the observed and expected feed intake while accounting for growth and backfat, has gained much attention, but little is known about why pigs selected for reduced RFI are more efficient. To this end, a line of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced RFI was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 5th generation of this select line against a randomly selected control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition, and overall efficiency toward the later part of the growth phase. Eighty barrows, 40 from each line, were paired by age (~132 d, P intake to keep BW constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and on treatment for 6 wk. Initial BW did not differ between the lines (P energy (P energy retention (P energy utilization (P intake with no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth performance, reduced backfat, increased dressing percentage, and reduced maintenance requirements. All of these traits are appealing to the producer and result in increased profits in the production setting.

  7. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  8. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  9. Chemical composition separation of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer by high temperature solvent gradient interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Phiri, Mohau Justice; Ndiripo, Anthony; Pasch, Harald

    2017-11-03

    A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution. These components can only be detected after being separated and enriched by TREF followed by HPLC analysis. Chemical composition separations were achieved for TREF fractions with average ethylene contents between 2.1 and 22.0mol%, showing that copolymers with higher ethylene contents were adsorbed stronger in the Hypercarb column and eluted later. All TREF fractions, except the 40°C fraction, were relatively homogeneous in both molar mass and chemical composition. The 40°C fraction was rather broad in both molar mass and chemical composition distributions. 2D HPLC showed that the molar masses of the components containing more ethylene units were getting lower for the 40°C fraction. HPLC revealed and confirmed that co-crystallization influences the separation in TREF of the studied propylene-ethylene copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rate, composition and efficiency of growth in mice selected for large and small body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, B J; Legates, J E

    1969-01-01

    Mice selected for high (H6) and low (L6) 6-week body weight and a randombred control population (C1) were characterized for rate, composition and efficiency of growth. Individual body weights were obtained from birth to 8 weeks of age on 682 mice representative of the three lines. Individual whole carcass determinations of water, fat, ash and protein (residual) were obtained for 180 mice sampled weekly from 3-8 weeks of age. Efficiency of feed utilization was estimated from individual body weight and feed consumption data obtained on 189 mice from 3-8 weeks of age. Growth curves for body weight and gain in body weight, constructed by line and sex, showed a temporary retardation of maximum growth rate in the L6 line, which was attributed in part to an extended depression in growth following weaning. The composition of growth yielded no evidence that the more rapid growth rate in the H6 line resulted from an increase in fat deposition relative to the other carcass components. A decrease in fat percent at 7 weeks of age in the H6 and C1 lines was not evident in the L6 line until 8 weeks of age. Females had a higher percentage carcass fat than did males during the 4-7 weeks growth period, but this difference was essentially reduced to zero by 8 weeks of age. Percentage water was highly correlated negatively with percentage fat. Percentages protein and ash were essentially constant across lines and ages. A positive relation between rate and efficiency of growth was observed between lines. Consistent sex differences, males more efficient than females, were observed prior to 6 weeks of age, but were not evident in the later (6-8 week) data.

  11. Stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of laminated composite plates via a higher order theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Librescu, Liviu; Cederbaum, Gabriel

    1990-01-01

    Higher order shear deformation theory is utilized to study he weakly stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of cross-ply laminated plates. Normal mode method, in conjunction with the biorthogonality condition, for the nonsymmetric differential equations is applied. Detailed derivation is given for the governing equations, biorthogonality condition, the generalized mass and the generalized forces. Results are listed for a plate which is simply supported at all the edges, and subjected to a point load which is either timewise stationary or nonstationary random process.

  12. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  13. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  14. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  15. Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Selected in-Situ Composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C System

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczerzak K.; Bala P.; Dziurka R.; Stepien M.; Tokarski T.; Cios G.; Gorecki K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize the selected in-situ composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C system, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds. The project of the alloys was supported by thermodynamic simulations using Calculation of Phase Diagram approach via Thermo-Calc. Selected alloys were synthesized in an arc furnace in a high purity argon atmosphere using a suction casting unit. The studies involved a range of experimental techniques to characterize the all...

  16. Development of Novel Composite and Random Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noginov, Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative model explaining sharp spectral peaks in emission of solid-state random laser materials with broad-band gain is proposed. The suggested mechanism of coherent emission relies on synchronization of phases in an ensemble of emitting centers, via time delays provided by a network of random scatterers, and amplification of spontaneous emission that supports the spontaneously organized coherent state. Laser-like emission from powders of solid-state luminophosphors, characterized by dramatic narrowing of the emission spectrum and shortening of emission pulses above the threshold, was first observed by Markushev et al. and further studied by a number of research groups. In particular, it has been shown that when the pumping energy significantly exceeds the threshold, one or several narrow emission lines can be observed in broad-band gain media with scatterers, such as films of ZnO nanoparticles, films of pi-conjugated polymers or infiltrated opals. The experimental features, commonly observed in various solid-state random laser materials characterized by different particle sizes, different values of the photon mean free path l*, different indexes of refraction, etc.. can be described as follows. (Liquid dye random lasers are not discussed here.)

  17. Which patients benefit most from adjuvant aromatase inhibitors? Results using a composite measure of prognostic risk in the BIG 1-98 randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Dell'Orto, P.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Maiorano, E.; Rasmussen, B. B.; MacGrogan, G.; Forbes, J. F.; Paridaens, R. J.; Colleoni, M.; Láng, I.; Thürlimann, B.; Mouridsen, H.; Mauriac, L.; Gelber, R. D.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Coates, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: On average, aromatase inhibitors are better than tamoxifen when used as initial or sequential therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Because there may be contraindications to their use based on side-effects or cost, we investigated subgroups in which aromatase inhibitors may be more or less important. Patients and methods: Breast International Group 1-98 trial randomized 6182 women among four groups comparing letrozole and tamoxifen with sequences of each agent; 5177 (84%) had centrally confirmed estrogen receptor (ER) positivity. We assessed whether centrally determined ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki-67 labeling index, alone or in combination with other prognostic features, predicted the magnitude of letrozole effectiveness compared with either sequence or tamoxifen monotherapy. Results: Individually, none of the markers significantly predicted differential treatment effects. Subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis of a composite measure of prognostic risk revealed three patterns. Estimated 5-year disease-free survival for letrozole monotherapy, letrozole→tamoxifen, tamoxifen→letrozole, and tamoxifen monotherapy were 96%, 94%, 93%, and 94%, respectively, for patients at lowest risk; 90%, 91%, 93%, and 86%, respectively, for patients at intermediate risk; and 80%, 76%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, for patients at highest risk. Conclusion: A composite measure of risk informs treatment selection better than individual biomarkers and supports the choice of 5 years of letrozole for patients at highest risk for recurrence. PMID:21335417

  18. Biocompatible PEDOT:Nafion composite electrode coatings for selective detection of neurotransmitters in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Richard F; Atcherley, Christopher W; Russell, Wilfred S; Xie, Jennifer Y; Lu, Dong; Laude, Nicholas D; Porreca, Frank; Heien, Michael L

    2015-03-03

    A Nafion and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) containing composite polymer has been electropolymerized on carbon-fiber microelectrodes with the goal of creating a mechanically stable, robust, and controllable electrode coating that increases the selectivity and sensitivity of in vivo electrochemical measurements. The coating is deposited on carbon-fiber microelectrodes by applying a triangle waveform from +1.5 V to -0.8 V and back in a dilute solution of ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and Nafion in acetonitrile. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the coating is uniform and ∼100 nm thick. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that both sulfur and fluorine are present in the coating, indicating the incorporation of PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Nafion. Two types of PEDOT:Nafion coated electrodes were then analyzed electrochemically. PEDOT:Nafion-coated electrodes made using 200 μM EDOT exhibit a 10-90 response time of 0.46 ± 0.09 s versus 0.45 ± 0.11 s for an uncoated fiber in response to a 1.0 μM bolus of dopamine. The electrodes coated using a higher EDOT concentration (400 μM) are slower with a 10-90 response time of 0.84 ± 0.19 s, but display increased sensitivity to dopamine, at 46 ± 13 nA/μM, compared to 26 ± 6 nA/μM for the electrodes coated in 200 μM EDOT and 13 ± 2 nA/μM for an uncoated fiber. PEDOT:Nafion-coated electrodes were lowered into the nucleus accumbens of a rat, and both spontaneous and electrically evoked dopamine release were measured. In addition to improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, the coating dramatically reduces acute in vivo biofouling.

  19. Optical and thermal properties of PTh-co-PANI-Ti random copolymer composite for photovoltaic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R. Takpire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In thе present work, a polythiophene (PTh-co-polyaniline (PANI-titanium (Ti copolymer has been synthesized as a novel copolymeric composite material for photovoltaic (PV application. The focus of the study was to evaluate optical and thermal properties of the PTh-co-PANI-Ti copolymer containing different types of monomers. The optical conductivity was determined from the UV–VIS spectra that were used to calculate the extinction coefficients. The structure and morphology of composite was analyzed through field emission-electron microscopy (FESEM. The PTh-co-PANI-Ti copolymer composite exhibited significant photovoltaic (PV response to light intensity. J–V analysis showed an increase in conversion efficiency from 0.21 to 1.5 of PTh-co-PANi-Ti with illumination light intensity. PV properties demonstrated that the PTh-co-PANI-Ti exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency ɳ=1.5, with a short circuit current Isc=0.72mA, an open circuit voltage Voc=0.9V and a fill factor FF=0.51. Thermo-gravimetric (TG and differential thermal (DTA analyses were carried out for the thermal stability of the PTh-co-PANI-Ti copolymer composite. The results obtained from the characterization of PTh-co-PANI-Ti showed that many properties of PV action are present in as-synthesized material.

  20. Biodegradation Resistance and Bioactivity of Hydroxyapatite Enhanced Mg-Zn Composites via Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijun Shuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mg-Zn alloys have attracted great attention as implant biomaterials due to their biodegradability and biomechanical compatibility. However, their clinical application was limited due to the too rapid degradation. In the study, hydroxyapatite (HA was incorporated into Mg-Zn alloy via selective laser melting. Results showed that the degradation rate slowed down due to the decrease of grain size and the formation of protective layer of bone-like apatite. Moreover, the grain size continually decreased with increasing HA content, which was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation and increased number of nucleation particles in the process of solidification. At the same time, the amount of bone-like apatite increased because HA could provide favorable areas for apatite nucleation. Besides, HA also enhanced the hardness due to the fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, some pores occurred owing to the agglomerate of HA when its content was excessive, which decreased the biodegradation resistance. These results demonstrated that the Mg-Zn/HA composites were potential implant biomaterials.

  1. Selective laser sintering scaffold with hierarchical architecture and gradient composition for osteochondral repair in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingying; Liu, Haoming; Yang, Qin; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jianglin; Ma, Jun; Noh, Insup; Mikos, Antonios G; Zhang, Shengmin

    2017-08-01

    Osteochondral defects cannot be adequately self-repaired due to the presence of the sophisticated hierarchical structure and the lack of blood supply in cartilage. Thus, one of the major challenges remaining in this field is the structural design of a biomimetic scaffold that satisfies the specific requirements for osteochondral repair. To address this hurdle, a bio-inspired multilayer osteochondral scaffold that consisted of the poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and the hydroxyapatite (HA)/PCL microspheres, was constructed via selective laser sintering (SLS) technique. The SLS-derived scaffolds exhibited an excellent biocompatibility to support cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. The repair effect was evaluated by implanting the acellular multilayer scaffolds into osteochondral defects of a rabbit model. Our findings demonstrated that the multilayer scaffolds were able to induce articular cartilage formation by accelerating the early subchondral bone regeneration, and the newly formed tissues could well integrate with the native tissues. Consequently, the current study not only achieves osteochondral repair, but also suggests a promising strategy for the fabrication of bio-inspired multilayer scaffolds with well-designed architecture and gradient composition via SLS technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatina, Kallithraka; Yorgos, Kotseridis; Maria, Kyraleou; Niki, Proxenia; Argirios, Tsakiris; Garifalia, Karapetrou

    2015-06-01

    The Hellenic vineyard embraces a large number of native cultivars, which are mostly unexploited for their ageing potential. Therefore, it was thought that analyzing some quality parameters of 14 red wines produced by rare native varieties would be of great importance in obtaining a general picture of their potential for commercial use. Various analytical methods were applied to the selected wines, at bottling and after 8 years of ageing, in an attempt to provide reliable answers to this issue. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the alteration of the phenolic content and color parameters of the wines after extended bottle storage and to evaluate the overall changes with respect to their sensory properties. Most of the oligomeric phenolic compounds identified in the wines studied diminished after 8 years of bottle storage, while significant correlations were obtained between wine chemical composition and sensory data. After 8 years of bottle storage some of the unexploited varieties (Vitis vinifera) were found to be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines. Wines with the best sensory characteristics were those made by Limniona, Mavrotragano, Bakouri, Thrapsa and Mavrothiriko, in accordance (more or less) with the results of chemical analyses. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  4. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  5. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  6. Ion-Selective Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuator Based on Crown Ether Containing Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem; Zoetebier, Bram; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    This study introduces the concept of ion selective actuation in polymer metal composite actuators, employing crown ether bearing aromatic polyether materials. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) and crown ether containing SPAEK with molar masses suitable for membrane

  7. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all...

  8. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  9. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  10. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  11. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Rshikesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga group (n = 40; age; 40.03 ± 8.74 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.7 ± 2.35 kg/m2 and control group (age; 42.20 ± 12.06 years, BMI 27.70 ± 2.05 kg/m2. The IAYT was imparted to yoga group for 1½ hour for 5 days in a week for 14 weeks. The control group continued their regular activities. The body composition by InBody R20 and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were assessed. Statistical analysis was done for within and between groups using SPSS version 21. The correlation analysis was done on the difference in pre-post values. Results: The results showed that weight (P = 0.004, BMI (P = 0.008, bone mass (P = 0.017, obesity degree (P = 0.005, and mineral mass (P = 0.046 were improved in yoga group and no change in control group (P > 0.05. The global score of PSQI improved (P = 0.017 in yoga group alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the beneficial effects of IAYT on body composition and sleep quality in obese males. The yoga practice may reduce obesity with the improvement in quality of life.

  12. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  13. Near field heat transfer between random composite materials. Applications and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Eva Yazmin; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the limits and bounds of using effective medium approximations in the calculation of the near field radiative heat transfer between a composite system made of Au nanoparticles in a SiC host and an homogeneous SiC slab. The effective dielectric function of the composite slab is calculated using three different approximations: Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga's. In addition, we considered an empirical fit to the effective dielectric function by Grundquist and Hunderi. We show that the calculated value of the heat flux in the near field is dependent on the model, and the difference in the effective dielectric function is larger around the plasmonic response of the Au nanoparticles. This, in turn, accounts for the difference in the near field radiative heat flux. For all values of filling fractions, the Looyenga approximation gives a lower bound for the heat flux.

  14. Impact of Selection for Digestive Efficiency on Microbiota Composition in the Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Narcy, Agnès; Rideau, Nicole; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault, Marie; Konsak-Ilievski, Barbara; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Gabriel, Irène

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency and its digestive component, digestive efficiency, are key factors in the environmental impact and economic output of poultry production. The interaction between the host and intestinal microbiota has a crucial role in the determination of the ability of the bird to digest its food and to the birds' feed efficiency. We therefore investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationships between birds' efficiency and the composition of the cecal microbiota in a F2 cross between broiler lines divergently selected for their high or low digestive efficiency. Analyses were performed on 144 birds with extreme feed efficiency values at 3 weeks, with feed conversion values of 1.41±0.05 and 2.02±0.04 in the efficient and non-efficient groups, respectively. The total numbers of Lactobacillus, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, C. coccoides, C. leptum and E. coli per gram of cecal content were measured. The two groups mainly differed in larger counts of Lactobacillus, L. salivarius and E. coli in less efficient birds. The equilibrium between bacterial groups was also affected, efficient birds showing higher C. leptum, C. coccoides and L. salivarius to E. coli ratios. The heritability of the composition of microbiota was also estimated and L. crispatus, C. leptum, and C. coccoides to E. coli ratios were moderately but significantly heritable (0.16 to 0.24). The coefficient of fecal digestive use of dry matter was genetically and positively correlated with L. crispatus, C. leptum, C. coccoides (0.50 to 0.76) and negatively with E. coli (-0.66). Lipid digestibility was negatively correlated with E. coli (-0.64), and AMEn positively correlated with C. coccoides and with the C. coccoides to Lactobacillus ratio (0.48 to 0.64). We also detected 14 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for microbiota on the host genome, mostly on C. leptum and Lactobacillus. The QTL for C. leptum on GGA6 was close to genome-wide significance. This region mainly includes genes involved in anti

  15. Impact of Selection for Digestive Efficiency on Microbiota Composition in the Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency and its digestive component, digestive efficiency, are key factors in the environmental impact and economic output of poultry production. The interaction between the host and intestinal microbiota has a crucial role in the determination of the ability of the bird to digest its food and to the birds' feed efficiency. We therefore investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationships between birds' efficiency and the composition of the cecal microbiota in a F2 cross between broiler lines divergently selected for their high or low digestive efficiency.Analyses were performed on 144 birds with extreme feed efficiency values at 3 weeks, with feed conversion values of 1.41±0.05 and 2.02±0.04 in the efficient and non-efficient groups, respectively. The total numbers of Lactobacillus, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, C. coccoides, C. leptum and E. coli per gram of cecal content were measured.The two groups mainly differed in larger counts of Lactobacillus, L. salivarius and E. coli in less efficient birds. The equilibrium between bacterial groups was also affected, efficient birds showing higher C. leptum, C. coccoides and L. salivarius to E. coli ratios. The heritability of the composition of microbiota was also estimated and L. crispatus, C. leptum, and C. coccoides to E. coli ratios were moderately but significantly heritable (0.16 to 0.24. The coefficient of fecal digestive use of dry matter was genetically and positively correlated with L. crispatus, C. leptum, C. coccoides (0.50 to 0.76 and negatively with E. coli (-0.66. Lipid digestibility was negatively correlated with E. coli (-0.64, and AMEn positively correlated with C. coccoides and with the C. coccoides to Lactobacillus ratio (0.48 to 0.64. We also detected 14 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL for microbiota on the host genome, mostly on C. leptum and Lactobacillus. The QTL for C. leptum on GGA6 was close to genome-wide significance. This region mainly includes genes involved in

  16. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern

  17. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  19. A randomized trial of functional electrical stimulation for walking in incomplete spinal cord injury: effects on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, Lora; Craven, Catharine; Richards, Kieva; Kapadia, Naaz; Hitzig, Sander L; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted walking on body composition, compared to a non-FES exercise program in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Individuals with chronic (≥ 18 months) incomplete SCI (level C2 to T12, AIS C or D) were recruited and randomized to FES-assisted walking (intervention), or aerobic and resistance training (control) sessions thrice-weekly for 16 weeks. Whole body and leg lean mass and whole body fat mass, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and lower-limb muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat CSA, measured with peripheral computed tomography were assessed at baseline, 4 months, and 12 months. Intention-to-treat analyses using repeated measures general linear models were used to assess between-group differences. Thirty-four individuals were randomized (17 per group); 27 remained at 12 months. There were no significant main effects of FES-assisted walking on body composition variables in intention-to-treat analyses with group means. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for muscle area from baseline to 12 months (P = 0.04). Intention-to-treat analysis of muscle area change scores between baseline and 12 months revealed a significant difference between groups (mean (SD) muscle area change score 212 (517) mm(s) for FES, -136 (268) mm(s) for control, P = 0.026). There were 13 side effects or adverse events deemed related to study participation (7 intervention, 5 control); most were resolved with modifications to the protocol. One fainting episode resulted in a hospital visit and study withdrawal. Thrice-weekly FES-assisted walking exercise over 4 months did not result in a change in body composition in individuals with chronic, motor incomplete C2 to T12 SCI (AIS classification C and D). However, longer-term follow-up revealed that it might maintain muscle area.

  20. Controlling the size and morphology of precipitated calcite particles by the selection of solvent composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2017-11-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate is used as an additive in the manufacture of many products. Particles with specific characteristics can be obtained by the selection of precipitation conditions, including temperature and the composition of solvent. In this work, calcium carbonate particles were obtained in the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide at 65 °C. Initial Ca(OH)2 suspensions were prepared in pure water and aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol or glycerol of the concentration range up to 20% (vol.). The course of reaction was monitored by conductivity measurements. Precipitated solids were analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM and the particles size distribution was determined by a laser diffraction method. The adsorption of ethylene glycol or glycerol on the surface of scalenohedral and rhombohedral calcite was testes by a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The addition of organic solvents changed the viscosity of reaction mixtures, the rate of carbon dioxide absorption and the solubility of inorganic components and therefore influence calcium carbonate precipitation conditions. All synthesized calcium carbonate products were in a calcite form. Scalenohedral calcite crystals were produced when water was a liquid phase, whereas addition of organic solvents resulted in the formation of rhombo-scalenohedral particles. The increase in organic compounds concentration resulted in the decrease of mean particles size from 2.4 μm to 1.7 μm in ethylene glycol solutions and to 1.4 μm in glycerol solutions. On the basis of adsorption tests, it was confirm that calcite surface interact stronger with glycerol than ethylene glycol. The interaction between scalenohedral calcite and used organic additives was higher in comparison to the pure rhombohedral form applied as a stationary phase.

  1. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  2. Corrosive effect of environmental change on selected properties of polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovičová, L.; Zatkalíková, V.

    2017-11-01

    The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors. The present article deals with monitoring the changes in the mechanical properties of composites with polymer matrix. The composite was formed from the PA matrix and glass fibers (GF). The composite contains 10, 20 and 30 % of glass fibers. The mechanical properties were evaluated on samples of the composite before and after UV radiation on the sample. Light microscopy was evaluated distribution of glass fibers in the polymer matrix and the presence of cracks caused by UV radiation.

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Composite Restorations in Primary Teeth: Effect of Adhesive System after Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Bektaş Donmez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of composite restorations placed with different adhesive systems in primary teeth. In 32 patients, 128 composite restorations were placed using a split-mouth design as follows (4 groups/patient: three-step etch-and-rinse (Group 1, two-step etch-and-rinse (Group 2, two-step self-etch (Group 3, and one-step self-etch (Group 4. The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 18, and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. There was no significant difference between the adhesive systems in retention of the restorations (p>0.05. Over time, there was a statistically significant decrease in marginal adaptation in all groups, whereas surface and marginal staining significantly increased in Groups 3 and 4 (p<0.05. The etch-and-rinse adhesive systems resulted in better marginal adaptation than the self-etch adhesive systems (p<0.05. It was concluded that preetching of the primary enamel might help improve the clinical performance of the self-etch adhesive systems in primary teeth.

  4. Selecting Soldiers and Civilians into the U.S. Army Officer Candidate School : Developing Empirical Selection Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    enlistment option applicants for OCS include (a) an Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) General Technical (GT) score of 110 or above, (b) a...DB scores . Rational Biodata Inventory (RBI) The RBI is a non-cognitive self-report instrument measuring aspects of individual personality and...items used in SelectOCS Phase 2 (see Table 2.5). TAPAS uses multidimensional pairwise preference (MDPP) personality items scored using item response

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  6. Axial shear modulus of a fiber-reinforced composite with random fiber cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bose

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the effective axial shear modulus of a fiber reinforced material with random fiber cross-sections so that the micromechanics is governed by stochastic differential equations. A coarse-graining procedure is adopted to investigate the macroscopic behavior of the material. This analysis leads to the formula for the effective axial shear modulus μ∗=μ1/{1−2c(μ2−μ1/(μ2+μ1},where μ1 and μ2 are the shear modulus of the matrix and fibers respectively and c is the concentration of the fibers less that 0.5. For c>0.5, the fiber and matrix moduli are to be interchanged and c is to be replaced by 1−c. The results of this study are compared with those of the theory of fibre reinforced materials. Finally, a numerical example is presented with graphical representation.

  7. Influence of melt structure on the crystallization behavior and polymorphic composition of polypropylene random copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 Rue Lhomond, Paris 75005 (France); Chen, Zhengfang [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Kang, Jian, E-mail: jiankang@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yang, Feng; Chen, Jinyao; Cao, Ya; Xiang, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We prepared β-PPR and studied its crystallization behavior with different melt structures. • We observed surprising synergetic effect between β-NA and the ordered structures. • We explored the nature of ordered structures by calculating the equilibrium temperature. - Abstract: Polypropylene random copolymer (PPR) is one of important polypropylene types for the application fields. However, due to the random copolymer chain configuration, it is difficult to obtain high proportion of β-phase even under the influence of β-nucleating agent (β-NA). In this study, the melt structure (namely, the content of ordered structures in the melt) of β-nucleated ethylene-copolymerized PPR (β-PPR) was controlled by tuning the fusion temperature (T{sub f}), and its impact on the crystallization and polymorphic behavior of β-PPR was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (PLM) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The result revealed that compared with the β-nucleated iPP homo-polymer, it is more difficult for β-PPR to form β-crystals; interestingly, when T{sub f} is in the temperature range of 162–173 °C, the ordered structures survived in melt exhibit high β-nucleation efficiency under the influence of β-NA, resulting in significant increase of β-phase proportion and evident variation of crystalline morphology, which is called the Ordered Structure Effect (OSE). Moreover, through investigating the self-nucleation behavior and equilibrium melting temperature of pure PPR (non-nucleated PPR), the physical nature of the lower and upper limiting T{sub f} temperatures for the occurrence of OSE in β-PPR was explored; the role of ethylene co-monomer in the occurrence of OSE was discussed.

  8. Musical Preferences for Compositions by Selected Students Aged 9-15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joi

    1997-01-01

    Explores the factors that may influence the decisions made by students aged 9-15 years old as they chose musical sounds and constructed compositions. Indicates that age, formal music training, and aesthetic response to musical sounds are the primary factors affecting specific choices made in the compositional process. (CMK)

  9. Variability of Fiber Elastic Moduli in Composite Random Fiber Networks Makes the Network Softer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Picu, Catalin

    2015-03-01

    Athermal fiber networks are assemblies of beams or trusses. They have been used to model mechanics of fibrous materials such as biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Elasticity of these networks has been studied in terms of various microstructural parameters such as the stiffness of their constituent fibers. In this work we investigate the elasticity of composite fiber networks made from fibers with moduli sampled from a distribution function. We use finite elements simulations to study networks made by 3D Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The resulting data collapse to power laws showing that variability in fiber stiffness makes fiber networks softer. We also support the findings by analytical arguments. Finally, we apply these results to a network with curved fibers to explain the dependence of the network's modulus on the variation of its structural parameters.

  10. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  11. COMPOSITE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective medium theory of ferroelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials which treats both components symmetrically has been investigated to demonstrate the role played by the microgeometry of inclusions on dielectric, mechanical and piezoelectric properties of 0-3 composites. The limits of the various theoretical ...

  12. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  13. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Tue H; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-05-10

    The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration in composition of overall fecal microbiota structure assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, or phylogenetic microarray methods were included. Independent collection and quality assessment of studies were performed by two authors using predefined criteria including methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review. The quality of the studies was assessed as medium to high. Still, no effects were observed on the fecal microbiota composition in terms of α-diversity, richness, or evenness in any of the included studies when compared to placebo. Only one study found that probiotic supplementation significantly modified the overall structure of the fecal bacterial community in terms of β-diversity when compared to placebo. This systematic review of the pertinent literature demonstrates a lack of evidence for an impact of probiotics on

  15. Randomized trial reveals that physical activity and energy expenditure are associated with weight and body composition after RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Houmard, Joseph A; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of both physical activity time (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) with weight and fat mass (FM) loss in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Ninety-six nondiabetic patients were included in this analysis. Post-RYGB patients were randomized in one of two treatments: A 6-month exercise training program (RYBG+EX) or lifestyle educational classes (RYGB). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Components of PA and EE were quantified by a multisensory device. Dose-response relationships of both PA and EE with weight loss and body composition were explored according to quartiles of change in steps per day. Patients in the highest quartiles of steps per day change lost more FM (3rd = -19.5 kg and 4th = -22.7 kg, P muscle mass (3rd = -3.1 cm2 and 4th = -4.5 cm2 , P weight and FM, while maintaining higher skeletal muscle mass. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Six-month bracket failure rate with a flowable composite: A split-mouth randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja Krishnan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The use of flowable composites as an orthodontic bonding adhesive merits great attention because of their adequate bond strength, ease of clinical handling and reduced number of steps in bonding. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Randomized Controlled Trial was to comparatively evaluate over a 6-month period the bond failure rate of a flowable composite (Heliosit Orthodontic, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan and a conventional orthodontic bonding adhesive (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek. METHODS: 53 consecutive patients (23 males and 30 females who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. A total of 891 brackets were analyzed, where 444 brackets were bonded using Heliosit Orthodontic and 447 brackets were bonded using Transbond XT. The survival rates of brackets were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Bracket survival distributions for bonding adhesives, tooth location and dental arch were compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The failure rates of the Transbond XT and the Heliosit Orthodontic groups were 8.1% and 6% respectively. No significant differences in the survival rates were observed between them (p= 0.242. There was no statistically significant difference in the bond failure rates when the clinical performance of the maxillary versus the mandibular arches and the anterior versus the posterior segments were compared. CONCLUSIONS: Both systems had clinically acceptable bond failure rates and are adequate for orthodontic bonding needs.

  17. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  18. Microstructure and property evolutions of titanium/nano-hydroxyapatite composites in-situ prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjun; Wang, Qian; Song, Bo; Li, Wei; Wei, Qingsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-07-01

    Titanium (Ti)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have the potential for orthopedic applications due to their favorable mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this work, the pure Ti and nano-scale HA (Ti-nHA) composites were in-situ prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) for the first time. The phase, microstructure, surface characteristic and mechanical properties of the SLM-processed Ti-nHA composites were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope and tensile tests, respectively. Results show that SLM is a suitable method for fabricating the Ti-nHA composites with refined microstructure, low modulus and high strength. A novel microstructure evolution can be illustrated as: Relatively long lath-shaped grains of pure Ti evolved into short acicular-shaped and quasi-continuous circle-shaped grains with the varying contents of nHA. The elastic modulus of the Ti-nHA composites is 3.7% higher than that of pure Ti due to the effect of grain refinement. With the addition of 2% nHA, the ultimate tensile strength significantly reduces to 289MPa but still meets the application requirement of bone implants. The Ti-nHA composites exhibit a remarkable improvement of microhardness from 336.2 to 600.8 HV and nanohardness from 5.6 to 8.3GPa, compared to those of pure Ti. Moreover, the microstructure and property evolution mechanisms of the composites with the addition of HA were discussed and analyzed. It provides some new knowledge to the design and fabrication of biomedical material composites for bone implant applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ischemic flap survival improvement by composition-selective fat grafting with novel adipose tissue derived product - stromal vascular fraction gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Feng, Jingwei; Liao, Yunjun; Cai, Junrong; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Mingliang; Gao, Jianhua; Gao, Kai

    2017-11-30

    Flap necrosis due to insufficient blood supply is a common postoperative complication in random pattern flaps. Stem cell therapies have emerged as promising biologics for tissue ischemia. A novel fat derived product, stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), can be prepared with lipoaspirate through simple mechanical processing, removing only the lipid content. SVF-gel enriches adipose-derived stem cells and potentially beneficial for flap necrosis. Nude mice ischemic flaps were treated with human SVF-gel, stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell suspension or saline (n = 10). They were injected to the flap recipient beds, and necrosis and vascularization was assessed on postoperative day 14. We harvested the necrosis-free distal to evaluated skin healthiness and neovasculogenesis by Masson's trichrome stain and immunofluorescence, etc. Pro-angiogenic factors were assessed with tissue qRT-PCR. Finally, we traced the grafted human tissue with immunofluorescence. SVF-gel-treated flaps have the smallest necrotic zones (22.05% ± 0.0438) compared with the saline controls (53.78% ± 0.1412) or SVF-treated ones (35.54% ± 0.0850, p = 0.039). Numerous functional musculocutaneous perforators were developed around SVF-gel grafts. The SVF-gel-treated skin had the best fat restoration (231.3 ± 48.1 μm) among three groups (F = 10.83, p = 0.0102) while saline-treated flap distal appeared fibrotic. SVF-gel-treated flaps also had ∼43% more CD31 + capillaries (p = 0.0152) with ∼3 folds more gene expression of angiogenic cytokines of VEGF and bFGF (p = 0.0310 and 0.0303, respectively) than saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we found hSVF-gel cells (hGolgi+) had directly engrafted as vessel component (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA+) to the flap. Adipose cellular matrix enhanced flap neovascularization partly by direct incorporation, improved flap survival and fat restoration. The composition-selective fat grafting with SVF-gel demonstrated efficacy

  20. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  1. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  2. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  3. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  4. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor.......The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  5. Method for Selective Cleaning of Mold Release from Composite Honeycomb Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Honeycomb structures are commonly employed as load- and force-bearing structures as they are structurally strong and lightweight. Manufacturing processes for heat-molded composite honeycomb structures commence with the placement of pre-impregnated composite layups over metal mandrels. To prevent permanent bonding between the composite layup and the metal mandrels, an agent, known as a mold release agent, is used. Mold release agents allow the molded composite material to be removed from mandrels after a heat-forming process. Without a specific removal process, mold release agents may continue to adhere to the surface of the composite material, thereby affecting the bonding of other materials that may come into contact with the composite surface in later stages of processing A constituent common to commercially available household cleaning agents is employed for the removal of mold release agents common to the manufacturing of heat-formed composite materials. The reliability of the solvent has been proven by the longevity and reliability of commercial household cleaners. At the time of this reporting, no one has attempted using constituent for this purpose. The material to be cleaned is immersed in the solution, vertically removed so that the solution is allowed to drain along cell walls and into a solvent bath, and then placed on a compressed airflow table for drying.

  6. Fabrication of COF-MOF Composite Membranes and Their Highly Selective Separation of H2/CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingru; Das, Saikat; Xing, Guolong; Ben, Teng; Valtchev, Valentin; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-06-22

    The search for new types of membrane materials has been of continuous interest in both academia and industry, given their importance in a plethora of applications, particularly for energy-efficient separation technology. In this contribution, we demonstrate for the first time that a metal-organic framework (MOF) can be grown on the covalent-organic framework (COF) membrane to fabricate COF-MOF composite membranes. The resultant COF-MOF composite membranes demonstrate higher separation selectivity of H2/CO2 gas mixtures than the individual COF and MOF membranes. A sound proof for the synergy between two porous materials is the fact that the COF-MOF composite membranes surpass the Robeson upper bound of polymer membranes for mixture separation of a H2/CO2 gas pair and are among the best gas separation MOF membranes reported thus far.

  7. Improvement of Microwave Absorbance of Polymer Composites of W-Type Hexaferrite Powders by Attachment of Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho H.-S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of a frequency selective surface (FSS composed of a regular array of square loop elements on the absorption properties of grounded ferrite composites. Polymer matrix composites of CoZnW hexaferrite powders having small magnetic loss were used as the substrate material. Computational tools were used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and materials and determine the reflection coefficient. Reflection loss and bandwidth were greatly improved by attaching an FSS with controlled electrical resistance (R onto the grounded ferrite composites. For the FSS with R = 800 Ω, the minimum reflection loss decreased to −25 dB at 10 GHz and the bandwidth was broadened to 7.5-12.5 GHz with respect to −10 dB reflection loss.

  8. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during

  9. Materials selection and evaluation of Copper-Tungsten particulate composites for extreme electrical contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bobby Gene, II

    2011-12-01

    Materials for extreme electrical contacts need to have high electrical conductivity coupled with good structural properties. Potential applications include motor contacts, high power switches, and the components of electromagnetic launch (EML) systems. The lack of durability experienced with these contact materials limits service life. Due to extreme current densities coupled with the local sliding, electrical contact surfaces can degrade due to a one or more wear mechanisms, including adhesive wear and thermally-assisted wear associated with extreme local Joule heating. A systematic materials selection procedure was developed to identify and compare candidate materials that would be more durable for these types of applications. The most promising materials identified on the Pareto frontier are tungsten alloys. Moreover, several possible candidate monolithic materials as well as hybrid materials that could potentially be even better, filling the "white spaces" on the material property charts, were identified. A couple of these potential candidate materials were obtained and evaluated. These included copper-tungsten W-Cu, "self-lubricating" graphite-impregnated Cu, and Gr-W-Cu composites with different volume fractions of the constituents. The structure-property relations were determined through mechanical and electrical resistivity testing. A unique test protocol for exposing mechanical test specimens to extreme current densities up to 1.2 GA/m2 was developed and used to evaluate these candidate materials. The design of materials including optimizing the microstructure attributes for these applications can potentially be accelerated by using micromechanics modeling and other materials design tools coupled with systematic mechanical and tribological experiments. In this study, physics- and micromechanics-based models were used to correlate properties to the volume fraction of the tungsten. These properties included elastic modulus, hardness, tensile strength, and

  10. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity. Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition

  11. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected minerals content

    OpenAIRE

    Kapadiya, Dhartiben B.; Darshna B. Prajapati; Amit Kumar Jain; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Kishorkumar D. Aparnathi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Materials and Methods: Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Statio...

  12. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  13. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  14. Global blending optimization of laminated composites with discrete material candidate selection and thickness variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren N.; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    A method capable of simultaneous topology and thickness optimization of laminated composites has previously been published by one of the authors. Mass constrained compliance minimization subject to certain manufacturing constraints was solved on basis of interpolation schemes with penalization...

  15. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  16. Influence of Selected Alkoxysilanes on Dispersive Properties and Surface Chemistry of Titanium Dioxide and TiO2–SiO2 Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Siwińska-Stefańska; Filip Ciesielczyk; Magdalena Nowacka; Teofil Jesionowski

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on characterisation of titanium dioxide and coprecipitated TiO2–SiO2 composite material functionalised with selected alkoxysilanes. Synthetic composite material was obtained by an emulsion method with cyclohexane as the organic phase, titanium sulfate as titanium precursor, and sodium silicate solution as precipitating agent were applied. Structures of titania and composite material samples were studied by the wide angle X-ray scattering method. The chemical composition of T...

  17. Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis. The study included acute baseline testing, a 6-week progressive resistance training and supplementation intervention, and post-intervention testing. Laboratory assessments included resting energy expenditure responses to acute supplement ingestion, evaluation of body composition and muscular performance, and analysis of blood variables (metabolic panel, testosterone, estrogen and cortisol. Dependent variables were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures. No unfavorable effects of supplementation were reported, and the supplement did not adversely affect safety markers. However, the supplement did not reduce fat mass or increase lean mass relative to placebo. In the supplement group, lower body maximal strength was increased relative to placebo (+18%, d=1.1 vs. +10%, d=0.5, and cortisol concentrations were decreased relative to placebo (-16%; d=-0.4 vs. +15%, d=.75. However, no differences were observed for upper body maximal strength or muscular endurance. REE increased in response to both supplement and placebo ingestion (placebo: +5%; supplement: +11.5%, but the difference between conditions was not statistically significant. Overall, some select parameters may have been beneficially modified by supplementation, but this did not result in superior weight or fat loss over 6 weeks of supplementation and resistance training.

  18. Preparation and characterization of novel PA6/SiO2 composite microsphere applied for selective laser sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost and less variety of raw materials has greatly restricted the wide application of selective laser sintering (SLS technology. In order to make the material cheaper and more diverse, PA6 is the most preferable material. In this work, a new PA6/SiO2 composite microsphere used for SLS was designed and fabricated. To construct the material, PA6 porous microspheres with diameters of 20–80 µm and a certain pore volume were firstly prepared by the dissolution precipitation method. Then, SiO2 was generated in situ in the PA6 porous microsphere framework, thus achieving a special structured PA6/SiO2 composite microsphere. These microspheres with much well dispersed SiO2 in PA6 matrices formed a powder with high bulk density and good electron conductivity. The particle size and weight fraction of the two components can be well controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC data showed that the composite powder had a larger sintering window, which would be beneficial for SLS processing. The introduction of SiO2 reduced the rate of water absorption in the composite powder, which could improve the accuracy of SLS forming. This work has certain significance as a reference for the design and development of SLS polymer-based composite materials.

  19. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  20. Effects of scFOS on the composition of fecal microbiota and anxiety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, F; Dubray, C; Bernalier-Donadille, A; Cardot, J-M; Accarino, A; Serra, J; Wagner, A; Respondek, F; Dapoigny, M

    2017-02-01

    Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) have beneficial effects in subjects with minor digestive complaints, but the potential mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in rectal sensitivity related to the clinical effects of scFOS in a selected group of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and rectal hypersensitivity. In 79 IBS patients (defined by Rome III criteria) with rectal hypersensitivity (defined as discomfort threshold ≤44 g) a parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation (5 g d -1 ) with scFOS vs placebo for 4 weeks on rectal sensitivity (primary outcome: tolerance to increasing wall tension applied by a tensostat), clinical outcomes (IBS, anxiety/depression and quality of life scores) and composition of fecal microbiota. Rectal discomfort threshold, and IBS and quality of life scores, significantly improved during treatment, but in a similar manner in both scFOS and placebo groups; a post-hoc analysis showed that the effect of scFOS on rectal sensitivity was more pronounced in constipation-predominant-IBS patients (P=.051 vs placebo). Contrary with placebo, scFOS significantly reduced anxiety scores and increased fecal Bifidobacteria (Pmicrobiota; demonstration of effects of scFOS on rectal sensitivity may require higher doses and may depend on the IBS subgroup. © 2016 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  2. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  3. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  4. Dynamic Characters of Stiffened Composite Conoidal Shell Roofs with Cutouts: Design Aids and Selection Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite conoidal shells with cutout are analyzed in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight-noded curved shell element with a three-noded curved beam element. The code is validated by solving benchmark problems available in the literature and comparing the results. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite conoids. The effects of these parametric variations on the fundamental frequencies and mode shapes are considered in details. The results furnished here may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite conoids with cutouts central or eccentric.

  5. Randomized controlled clinical trial of the 24-months survival of composite resin restorations after one-step incomplete and complete excavation on primary teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franzon, R.; Opdam, N.J.; Guimaraes, L.F.; Demarco, F.F.; Casagrande, L.; Haas, A.N de; Araujo, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the 24-months survival of composite restorations in primary molars after partial caries removal (PCR) and total caries removal (TCR). METHODS: Forty-eight children aged 3-8 years with at least one molar with a deep carious lesion were

  6. A prospective randomized clinical trial of one bis-GMA-based and two ormocer-based composite restorative systems in class II cavities: five-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, P.; Jacquet, W.; Alaerts, M.; Keulemans, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Ormocer composites, consisting of a silicon-based polymer, have been developed recently as a tooth-colored restorative material. The purpose of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the performance of two small-particle hybrid ormocer-based restorative systems (AD,

  7. Scale-dependent effects of landscape structure and composition on diurnal roost selection by forest bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; David M. Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Forest management affects the quality and availability of roost sites for forest-dwelling bats, but information on roost selection beyond the scale of individual forest stands is limited. We evaluated effects of topography (elevation, slope, and proximity of roads and streams), forest habitat class, and landscape patch configuration on selection of summer diurnal oosts...

  8. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2003-01-01

    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  9. On optimization of a composite bone plate using the selective stress shielding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-02-01

    Bone fracture plates are used to stabilize fractures while allowing for adequate compressive force on the fracture ends. Yet the high stiffness of conventional bone plates significantly reduces compression at the fracture site, and can lead to subsequent bone loss upon healing. Fibre-reinforced composite bone plates have been introduced to address this drawback. However, no studies have optimized their configurations to fulfill the requirements of proper healing. In the present study, classical laminate theory and the finite element method were employed for optimization of a composite bone plate. A hybrid composite made of carbon fibre/epoxy with a flax/epoxy core, which was introduced previously, was optimized by varying the laminate stacking sequence and the contribution of each material, in order to minimize the axial stiffness and maximize the torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffness. The initial 14×4(14) possible configurations were reduced to 13 after applying various design criteria. A comprehensive finite element model, validated against a previous experimental study, was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of each composite configuration in terms of its fracture stability, load sharing, and strength in transverse and oblique Vancouver B1 fracture configurations at immediately post-operative, post-operative, and healed bone stages. It was found that a carbon fibre/epoxy plate with an axial stiffness of 4.6 MN, and bending and torsional stiffness of 13 and 14 N·m(2), respectively, showed an overall superiority compared with other laminate configurations. It increased the compressive force at the fracture site up to 14% when compared to a conventional metallic plate, and maintained fracture stability by ensuring the fracture fragments' relative motions were comparable to those found during metallic plate fixation. The healed stage results revealed that implantation of the titanium plate caused a 40.3% reduction in bone stiffness

  10. Optimum electrode configuration selection for electrical resistance change based damage detection in composites using an effective independence measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Luis; Díaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2016-04-01

    Laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace structures due to their superior mechanical properties and reduced weight. Assessing the health and integrity of these structures requires non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and measure interlaminar delamination and intralaminar matrix cracking damage. The electrical resistance change (ERC) based NDE technique uses the inherent changes in conductive properties of the composite to characterize internal damage. Several works that have explored the ERC technique have been limited to thin cross-ply laminates with simple linear or circular electrode arrangements. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of electrode configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERC. Inverse identification of damage requires numerical optimization of the measured response with a model predicted response. Here, the electrical voltage field in the CFRP composite laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) models for different specified delamination size and locations, and location of ground and current electrodes. Reducing the number of sensor locations and measurements is needed to reduce hardware requirements, and computational effort needed for inverse identification. This paper explores the use of effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations of selecting a pair of electrodes among the n electrodes. To enable use of EI to ERC required, it is proposed in this research a singular value decomposition SVD to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate. The effectiveness of EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of

  11. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  12. [Energy dispersive spectrum analysis of surface compositions of selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by different processing parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liang; Zeng, Li; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2015-06-01

    To fabricate selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples by different processing parameters, and to analyze the changes of energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) on their surface. Nine groups were set up by orthogonal experimental design according to different laser powers,scanning speeds and powder feeding rates(laser power:2500-3000 W, scanning speed: 5-15 mm/s, powder feeding rate: 3-6 r/min). Three cylinder specimens(10 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness) were fabricated in each group through Rofin DL 035Q laser cladding system using cobalt-chromium alloy powders which were developed independently by our group.Their surface compositions were then measured by EDS analysis. Results of EDS analysis of the 9 groups fabricated by different processing parameters(Co:62.98%-67.13%,Cr:25.56%-28.50%,Si:0.49%-1.23%) were obtained. They were similar to the compositions of cobalt-chromium alloy used in dental practice. According to EDS results, the surface compositions of the selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples are stable and controllable, which help us gain a preliminary sight into the range of SLM processing parameters. Supported by "973" Program (2012CB910401) and Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (12441903001 and 13140902701).

  13. Cation selectivity and cation-anion balance as factors governing the mineral composition of pasture herbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, I.M.

    1959-01-01

    The ability was investigated of two grasses Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne to take up K, Na, Mg, Ca, F, S and N from solutions, from soil and from fertilizers. The ratio of the cations and anions in the herbage was estimated. The difference in cation composition of grass

  14. Nutrient composition of selected newly bred and established mung bean varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Grewal, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Seven newly bred and three established varieties of mung bean were analysed for proximate composition, minerals, anti-nutrients and in vitro mineral accessibility. They contained 18–23 g protein, 4.0–5.6 g crude fibre and 2.5–4.1 g ash per 100 g dry sample. Iron, zinc, calcium, sodium and potassium

  15. Selection of a food classification system and a food composition database for future food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ireland, J.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J.; Charrondière, U.R.; Moller, A.; Smithers, G.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To harmonize food classification and food composition databases, allowing comparability of consumption at both food and nutrient levels in Europe. Design: To establish the level of comparability at the food level, the EFCOSUM group benefited from the work already carried out within other

  16. High-permeance crosslinked PTMSP thin-film composite membranes as supports for CO2 selective layer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan D. Bazhenov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of the composite gas separation membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture, little attention is focused on the optimization of the membrane supports, which satisfy the conditions of this technology. The primary requirements to the membrane supports are concerned with their high CO2 permeance. In this work, the membrane supports with desired characteristics were developed as high-permeance gas separation thin film composite (TFC membranes with the thin defect-free layer from the crosslinked highly permeable polymer, poly[1-(trimethylsilyl-1-propyne] (PTMSP. This layer is insoluble in chloroform and can be used as a gutter layer for the further deposition of the СО2-selective materials from the organic solvents. Crosslinking of PTMSP was performed using polyethyleneimine (PEI and poly (ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE as crosslinking agents. Optimal concentrations of PEI in PTMSP and PEGDGE in methanol were selected in order to diminish the undesirable effect on the final membrane gas transport characteristics. The conditions of the kiss-coating technique for the deposition of the thin defect-free PTMSP-based layer, namely, composition of the casting solution and the speed of movement of the porous commercial microfiltration-grade support, were optimized. The procedure of post-treatment with alcohols and alcohol solutions was shown to be crucial for the improvement of gas permeance of the membranes with the crosslinked PTMSP layer having thickness ranging within 1–2.5 μm. The claimed membranes showed the following characteristics: CO2 permeance is equal to 50–54 m3(STP/(m2 h bar (18,500–20,000 GPU, ideal CO2/N2 selectivity is 3.6–3.7, and their selective layers are insoluble in chloroform. Thus, the developed high-permeance TFC membranes are considered as a promising supports for further modification by enhanced CO2 selective layer formation. Keywords: Thin-film composite membrane

  17. Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Considers how photography is more than just pointing a camera in the right direction. Explains that good pictures use elements of composition such as the Rule of Thirds, leading lines, framing and repetition of shapes. Presents 16 photographs from college and secondary school publications, and describes the techniques that makes them effective.…

  18. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs made by selective laser sintering (SLS approach of 3D printing offer many advantages over single polymer materials, such as low cost, sustainability, and better sintering accuracy. However, WPCs made via SLS are too weak to have widespread applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of WPCs, a novel type of WPCs containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNT, 14 wt % wood fibers, 86 wt % polyether sulfone (PES was manufactured via SLS. The experimental results showed that the addition of small amount of CNTs can significantly increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composite material. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9%, and 128.7% higher with 0.1 wt % CNTs than those without CNTs. The mechanical properties of specimens first increased and then decreased with the addition of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicate that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons why the composites possessed superior mechanical properties: CNTs facilitate the laser sintering process of WPCs due to their thermal conductivities, and CNTs directly reinforce WPCs.

  20. Composite Selection Signals for Complex Traits Exemplified Through Bovine Stature Using Multibreed Cohorts of European and African Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and molecular architecture of complex traits is important in domestic animals. Due to phenotypic selection, genomic regions develop unique patterns of genetic diversity called signatures of selection, which are challenging to detect, especially for complex polygenic traits. In this study, we applied the composite selection signals (CSS) method to investigate evidence of positive selection in a complex polygenic trait by examining stature in phenotypically diverse cattle comprising 47 European and 8 African Bos taurus breeds, utilizing a panel of 38,033 SNPs genotyped on 1106 animals. CSS were computed for phenotypic contrasts between multibreed cohorts of cattle by classifying the breeds according to their documented wither height to detect the candidate regions under selection. Using the CSS method, clusters of signatures of selection were detected at 26 regions (9 in European and 17 in African cohorts) on 13 bovine autosomes. Using comparative mapping information on human height, 30 candidate genes mapped at 12 selection regions (on 8 autosomes) could be linked to bovine stature diversity. Of these 12 candidate gene regions, three contained known genes (i.e., NCAPG-LCORL, FBP2-PTCH1, and PLAG1-CHCHD7) related to bovine stature, and nine were not previously described in cattle (five in European and four in African cohorts). Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of CSS coupled with strategies of combining multibreed datasets in the identification and discovery of genomic regions underlying complex traits. Characterization of multiple signatures of selection and their underlying candidate genes will elucidate the polygenic nature of stature across cattle breeds. PMID:25931611

  1. Partial relay selection based on shadowing side information over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, in contrast to the relay selection protocols available in the literature, we propose a partial relay selection protocol utilizing only the shadowing side information of the relays instead of their full channel side information in order to select a relay in a dual-hop relaying system through the available limited feedback channels and power budget. We then presented an exact unified performance expression combining the average bit error probability, ergodic capacity, and moments-generating function of the proposed partial relay selection over generalized fading channels. Referring to the unified performance expression introduced in [1], we explicitly offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. Finally, as an illustration of the mathematical formalism, some numerical and simulation results are generated for an extended generalized-K fading environment, and these numerical and simulation results are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. RESULTS OF THE SELECTION OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF CARROT BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Cherkasova; O. N. Shabetya

    2014-01-01

    12 samples of carrot were analyzed for biochemical components in roots. 5 genotypes with high content of vitamin C, β-carotene, and total sugar were selected as genetic sources of high biochemical components.

  3. Description of selected structural elements of composite foams using statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawdzińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of images from a computer tomograph for the description of selected structure elements of metal and compositefoams by means of statistical methods. Besides, compression stress of the tested materials has been determined.

  4. On-Site Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting of Composite Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateri, M.; Khosravi, M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for cost reduction of future space missions by manufacturing parts on foreign planets. The suitability of Selective Laser Melting process for on-site production of metallic, ceramic and glass products on mars is examined.

  5. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m2, age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24th Dec 2009.

  6. Optimization of individualized graft composition: CD3/CD19 depletion combined with CD34 selection for haploidentical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenecke, Sabine; Bremm, Melanie; Cappel, Claudia; Esser, Ruth; Quaiser, Andrea; Bonig, Halvard; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Koehl, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Excessive T-cell depletion (TCD) is a prerequisite for graft manufacturing in haploidentical stem cell (SC) transplantation by using either CD34 selection or direct TCD such as CD3/CD19 depletion. To optimize graft composition we compared 1) direct or indirect TCD only, 2) a combination of CD3/CD19-depleted with CD34-selected grafts, or 3) TCD twice for depletion improvement based on our 10-year experience with 320 separations in graft manufacturing and quality control. SC recovery was significantly higher (85%, n = 187 vs. 73%, n = 115; p CD3/CD19 depletion compared to CD34 selection, respectively. For end products with less than -2.5 log TCD, a second depletion step led to a successful improvement in TCD. Thawing of grafts showed a high viability and recovery of SCs, but low NK-cell yield. To optimize individualized graft engineering, a calculator was developed to estimate the results of the final graft based on the content of CD34+ and CD3+ cells in the leukapheresis product. Finally, calculated splitting of the starting product followed by CD3/19 depletion together with CD34+ graft manipulation may enable the composition of optimized grafts with high CD34+-cell and minimal T-cell content. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Selective analysis of the elemental composition of InGaAs/GaAs nanoclusters by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, M. N.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Khrykin, O. I.; Yunin, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    New possibilities of the method of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in application to quantitative analysis of the atomic composition of InGaAs nanoclusters in GaAs matrix are considered. Using In x Ga1- x As test structures, nonlinear calibration dependences of the yield of secondary In2As and InAs ions on the concentration of indium have been determined, which do not involve normalization to the matrix elements (Ga or As) and make possible selective analysis of the composition of nanoclusters. Using these relations, quantitative depth profiles of indium concentration were measured and statistical characteristics of the arrays of nanoclusters in InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures were determined.

  8. Chemical composition and inhibitory activity of selected essential oils against fungi isolated from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stević, Tatjana; Stanković, Slaviša; Šavikin, Katarina; Gođevac, Dejan; Dimkić, Ivica; Soković, Marina; Berić, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In recent years great attention was paid to biological control, the application of natural products in order to protect crops and medicinal plants against contamination with phytopathogenic and saprophytic fungi. Essential oils have been evaluated as a potentially safe replacement for chemicals used for that purpose. In this regard, antifungal potential of six essential oils was examined coupled with determination of the complete qualitative and quantitative chemical composition by GC-FID and...

  9. Role of selected polymorphisms in determining muscle fiber composition in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Tobina, Takuro; Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Kakigi, Ryo; Tsuzuki, Takamasa; Zempo, Hirofumi; Shiose, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Kumahara, Hideaki; Ayabe, Makoto; Higaki, Yasuki; Yamada, Ryo; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Naito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fuku, Noriyuki

    2018-01-18

    Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in Japanese population. The present study included 211 healthy Japanese individuals (102 men and 109 women). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine the proportion of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC-I, MHC-IIa, and MHC-IIx). Moreover, we analysed polymorphisms in ACTN3 (rs1815739), ACE (rs4341), HIF1A (rs11549465), VEGFR2 (rs1870377), and AGTR2 (rs11091046) by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. The proportion of MHC-I was 9.8% lower in men than in women, whereas the proportion of MHC-IIa and MHC-IIx was higher in men than in women (5.0% and 4.6%, respectively). Men with ACTN3 RR+RX genotype had 4.8% higher proportion of MHC-IIx than those with ACTN3 XX genotype. Moreover, men with ACE ID+DD genotype had 4.7% higher proportion of MHC-I than those with ACE II genotype. Furthermore, combined genotype of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D was significantly correlated with proportion of MHC-I (r = -0.23) and MHC-IIx (r = 0.27) in men. In contrast, no significant correlation was observed between the examined polymorphisms and muscle fiber composition in women. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms independently affect the proportion of human skeletal muscle fibers MHC-I and MHC-IIx in men but not in women.

  10. Humic substances elemental composition of selected taiga and tundra soils from Russian European North-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodygin Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of Russian European North were investigated in terms of stability and quality of organic matter as well as in terms of soils organic matter elemental composi­tion. Therefore, soil humic acids (HAs, extracted from soils of different natural zones of Russian North-East were studied to characterize the degree of soil organic matter stabilization along a zonal gradient. HAs were extracted from soil of different zonal environments of the Komi Republic: south, middle and north taiga as well as south tundra. Data on elemental composition of humic acids and fulvic acids (FAs extracted from different soil types were obtained to assess humus formation mechanisms in the soils of taiga and tundra of the European North-East of Russia. The specificity of HAs elemental composition are discussed in relation to environmental conditions. The higher moisture degree of taiga soils results in the higher H/C ratio in humic substances. This reflects the reduced microbiologic activity in Albeluvisols sods and subsequent conser­vation of carbohydrate and amino acid fragments in HAs. HAs of tundra soils, shows the H/C values decreasing within the depth of the soils, which reflects increasing of aromatic compounds in HA structure of mineral soil horizons. FAs were more oxidized and contains less carbon while compared with the HAs. Humic acids, extracted from soil of different polar and boreal environments differ in terms of elemental composition winch reflects the climatic and hydrological regimes of humification.

  11. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ultra-selective defect-free interfacially polymerized molecular sieve thin-film composite membranes for H2 purification

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zain

    2017-10-10

    Purification is a major bottleneck towards generating low-cost commercial hydrogen. In this work, inexpensive high-performance H2 separating membranes were fabricated by modifying the commercially successful interfacial polymerization production method for reverse osmosis membranes. Defect-free thin-film composite membranes were formed demonstrating unprecedented mixed-gas H2/CO2 selectivity of ≈ 50 at 140 °C with H2 permeance of 350 GPU, surpassing the permeance/selectivity upper bound of all known polymer membranes by a wide margin. The combination of exceptional separation performance and low manufacturing cost makes them excellent candidates for cost-effective hydrogen purification from steam cracking and similar processes.

  13. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  14. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  15. RESULTS OF THE SELECTION OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF CARROT BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Cherkasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 samples of carrot were analyzed for biochemical components in roots. 5 genotypes with high content of vitamin C, β-carotene, and total sugar were selected as genetic sources of high biochemical components.

  16. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...

  17. Kinetic study of the selective hydrogenation of styrene over a Pd egg-shell composite catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Betti,Carolina; Badano,Juan; Lederhos,Cecilia; Maccarrone, María; Carrara, Nicolás; Coloma, Fernando; Quiroga, Mónica; Vera, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This is a study on the kinetics of the liquid-phase hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene over a catalyst of palladium supported on an inorganic–organic composite. This support has a better mechanical resistance than other commercial supports, e.g. alumina, and yields catalysts with egg-shell structure and a very thin active Pd layer. Catalytic tests were carried out in a batch reactor by varying temperature, total pressure and styrene initial concentration between 353–393 K, 10–30 bar, an...

  18. Selective confinement of vibrations in composite systems with alternate quasi-regular sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalban, A. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Division de Optica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Velasco, V.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: vrvr@icmm.csic.es; Tutor, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Velicia, F.J. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the atom displacements and the vibrational frequencies of 1D systems formed by combinations of Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro quasi-regular stacks and their alternate ones. The materials are described by nearest-neighbor force constants and the corresponding atom masses, particularized to the Al, Ag systems. These structures exhibit differences in the frequency spectrum as compared to the original simple quasi-regular generations but the most important feature is the presence of separate confinement of the atom displacements in one of the sequences forming the total composite structure for different frequency ranges.

  19. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  20. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  1. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  2. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-02

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element.

  4. Photocatalysis oxidation activity regulation of Ag/TiO2 composites evaluated by the selective oxidation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huijun; Jia, Zhichao; Zhang, Hucheng; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Jianji

    2017-11-01

    With the aid of TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 composites with ultrahigh specific surface areas (about 400 m2 g-1), we demonstrated a facile controlled strategy to adjust the photooxidation activity of Ag/TiO2 in the photocatalysis degradation process of Rhodamine B (RhB). A series of photocatalysis experiment results indicated that the selective oxidation of RhB could be performed through changing irradiation light. When the as-prepared unannealed Ag/TiO2 was used as photocatalyst, Rh-110 was produced only under visible light irradiation. Instead, RhB would be oxidized completely under ultraviolet irradiation or using the annealing Ag/TiO2. Although there were many photocatalysis degradation mechanisms of RhB in previous literatures, we have not found an appropriate mechanism to explain this phenomenon. Radical-trapping tests indicated that the effect of superoxide anion radical was more important than hydroxyl radical in the forming process of Rh-110, and hence the selective oxidation mechanism of Ag/TiO2 was suggested according to the role changing of Ag nanoparticles on the composites under visible and ultraviolet irradiation.

  5. Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Selected in-Situ Composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczerzak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize the selected in-situ composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C system, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds. The project of the alloys was supported by thermodynamic simulations using Calculation of Phase Diagram approach via Thermo-Calc. Selected alloys were synthesized in an arc furnace in a high purity argon atmosphere using a suction casting unit. The studies involved a range of experimental techniques to characterize the alloys in the as-cast state, including optical emission spectrometry, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests. These experimental studies were compared with the Thermo-Calc data and high resolution dilatometry. The results of investigations presented in this paper showed that there is a possibility to introduce intermetallic compounds, such as χ and σ, through modification of the chemical composition of the alloy with respect to Nieq and Creq. It was found that the place of intermetallic compounds precipitation strongly depends on matrix nature. Results presented in this paper may be successfully used to build a systematic knowledge about the group of alloys with a high volume fraction of complex carbides, and high physicochemical properties, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds.

  6. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Kemmler; Marc Teschler; Anja Weißenfels; Michael Bebenek; Michael Fröhlich; Matthias Kohl; Simon von Stengel

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30?50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS g...

  7. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  9. Chemical Composition and Labeling of Substances Marketed as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators and Sold via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Eichner, Amy; Bhasin, Shalender; Deuster, Patricia A; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-11-28

    Recent reports have described the increasing use of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators, which have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to enhance appearance and performance. The composition and purity of such products is not known. To determine the chemical identity and the amounts of ingredients in dietary supplements and products marketed and sold through the internet as selective androgen receptor modulators and compare the analyzed contents with product labels. Web-based searches were performed from February 18, 2016, to March 25, 2016, using the Google search engine on the Chrome and Internet Explorer web browsers to identify suppliers selling selective androgen receptor modulators. The products were purchased and the identities of the compounds and their amounts were determined from April to August 2016 using chain-of-custody and World Anti-Doping Association-approved analytical procedures. Analytical findings were compared against the label information. Products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Chemical identities and the amount of ingredients in each product marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Among 44 products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators, only 23 (52%) contained 1 or more selective androgen receptor modulators (Ostarine, LGD-4033, or Andarine). An additional 17 products (39%) contained another unapproved drug, including the growth hormone secretagogue ibutamoren, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ agonist GW501516, and the Rev-ErbA agonist SR9009. Of the 44 tested products, no active compound was detected in 4 (9%) and substances not listed on the label were contained in 11 (25%). In only 18 of the 44 products (41%), the amount of active compound in the product matched that listed on the label. The amount of the compounds listed on the label differed substantially from that found by analysis in 26 of 44 products

  10. The determination of residual perchlorate after the controlled ignition of selected fireworks compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, K.; Ridley, W.; Guilbeault, R.; Duff, B.

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated perchlorate releases into the atmosphere caused by fireworks displays. Five perchlorate-based compositions were ignited in a sealed stainless steel vessel. The interior of the vessel and the exhaust filters were then washed with hot de-ionized water. Ion chromatography was then used to analyzed the water solutions. Amounts of perchlorate ion measured in the solution were then used to calculate the percentage of residual perchlorate based on the original mass of perchlorate contained within the samples. The study showed that 99.98 to 99.999 per cent of the initial mass of perchlorate in the samples was consumed during ignition. It was concluded that the incomplete combustion of fireworks caused by defective article construction will cause higher amounts of perchlorate releases into the environment. Stricter quality controls are needed to reduce the environmental impacts of fireworks. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. A Selection of Composites Simulation Practices at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major areas of study at NASA Langley Research Center is the development of technologies that support the use of advanced composite materials in aerospace applications. Amongst the supporting technologies are analysis tools used to simulate the behavior of these materials. This presentation will discuss a number of examples of analysis tools and simulation practices conducted at NASA Langley. The presentation will include examples of damage tolerance analyses for both interlaminar and intralaminar failure modes. Tools for modeling interlaminar failure modes include fracture mechanics and cohesive methods, whilst tools for modeling intralaminar failure involve the development of various progressive failure analyses. Other examples of analyses developed at NASA Langley include a thermo-mechanical model of an orthotropic material and the simulation of delamination growth in z-pin reinforced laminates.

  12. Producing Gas-selective Electrochemical Microsensors by Tuning Solid Electrolyte Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Erika SHOEMAKER ELLIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Monolithic gas sensors, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, employed cyclic voltammetry measurement techniques, YSZ solid electrolyte electrochemical cells and K-nearest neighbor (neural chemometrics techniques to sense multiple components in a gas mixture. These voltammetry-based devices detected most hydrocarbons, displayed no saturation effects and were functional from < 1 ppm to 100 % oxygen concentrations, but were not sensitive to carbon dioxide due to the lack of reactivity within the Pt electrodes. Investigations revealed that specific CO2 sensitivity could be introduced by adding tungsten stabilized bismuth oxide (WBO to the solid electrolyte composition while maintaining the same basic sensor geometry and electrode configuration. The YSZ/WBO sensors are functional in a range of CO2 concentrations from low ppm to 100 %.

  13. Examination of coagulant additives on qualitative composition of selected thermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Ewelina; Rząsa, Mariusz

    2017-10-01

    On the territory of Poland occur rich deposits of thermal waters. Although the utilisation of these waters is continuously extending, Poland is not exploiting their full geothermal potential due to high investment costs. Thermal waters industry in Poland to date indicates operations within mainly balneology as well as recreation objectives. Higher temperature values of these waters foster a washout in the surrounding rocks resulting in a high concentration of diluted substances which must be often removed. The following study investigates thermal waters from three intakes for which coagulation processes were conducted. Research clearly shows that coagulant additives not impact on the qualitative composition of thermal water, what is very important according to medicinal properties of water. The study results may be further applied as a valuable piece of information for further exploitation in balneology or within the heating sector and other installations.

  14. Mesoporous TiO2 Micro-Nanometer Composite Structure: Synthesis, Optoelectric Properties, and Photocatalytic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous anatase TiO2 micro-nanometer composite structure was synthesized by solvothermal method at 180°C, followed by calcination at 400°C for 2 h. The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The specific surface area and pore size distribution were obtained from N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and the optoelectric property of the mesoporous TiO2 was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and surface photovoltage spectra (SPS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of sole rhodamine B (RhB and sole phenol aqueous solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation and compared with that of Degussa P-25 (P25 under the same conditions. The photodegradation preference of this mesoporous TiO2 was also investigated for an RhB-phenol mixed solution. The results show that the TiO2 composite structure consists of microspheres (∼0.5–2 μm in diameter and irregular aggregates (several hundred nanometers with rough surfaces and the average primary particle size is 10.2 nm. The photodegradation activities of this mesoporous TiO2 on both RhB and phenol solutions are higher than those of P25. Moreover, this as-prepared TiO2 exhibits photodegradation preference on RhB in the RhB-phenol mixture solution.

  15. Impact of macronutrient composition and palatability in wet diets on food selection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, F; Blanchard, G; Le Paih, L; Roberti, F; Niceron, C

    2017-04-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores adapted to high-protein diets, but are commonly fed diets rich in carbohydrate. The aim of this study was to examine the food intake choices of cats when diets with different protein and carbohydrate contents were offered. Thirty-nine cats participated in voluntary dietary intake studies. Four foods were formulated to provide between 24% and 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, between 43% and 11% as carbohydrate and holding dietary fat constant with a contribution of approximately 36%. Foods were offered either singly to evaluate voluntary food intake or in pairs to compare food intake between pairs of diets. Cats regulated their macronutrient intake to attain an overall diet composition that provided 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, 11% as carbohydrate and 36% as fat. The protein contribution corresponded to approximately 6 g of protein/kg body weight/day. High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets were always eaten preferentially over low-protein/high-carbohydrate foods. When low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered, cats limited their food intake to limit daily carbohydrate intake to less than 3 g of carbohydrate/kg body weight. This carbohydrate ceiling may limit protein and even energy intake when only low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered. The inclusion of palatability enhancer in the diets increased food intake but did not change protein or carbohydrate intake patterns, indicating that macronutrient intake can be regulated regardless of the use of palatability enhancers in cats. We conclude that cats can discriminate between diets based on macronutrient composition and regulate their intake to maintain maximal protein intake but limit carbohydrate intake. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Three-year randomized controlled clinical study of a one step universal adhesive and a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II resin composite restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive bonding system and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Materials and Methods: Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 yr......) received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class II restorations. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage resin......) success rates (p>0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively.The main reason for failure was resin composite fracture. Conclusion: Class II resin composite restorations placed with a one-step universal adhesive showed good short time effectiveness....

  17. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  18. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  19. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  20. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 1 summary report: Shear web design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced composite shear web design concept was developed for the Space Shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. Various web concepts were synthesized by a computer-aided adaptive random search procedure. A practical concept is identified having a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web plate with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The boron-epoxy laminate contributes to the strength and stiffness efficiency of the basic web section. The titanium-cladding functions to protect the polymeric laminate parts from damaging environments and is chem-milled to provide reinforcement in selected areas. Detailed design drawings are presented for both boron/epoxy reinforced and all-metal shear webs. The weight saving offered is 24% relative to all-metal construction at an attractive cost per pound of weight saved, based on the detailed designs. Small scale element tests substantiate the boron/epoxy reinforced design details in critical areas. The results show that the titanium-cladding reliably reinforces the web laminate in critical edge load transfer and stiffener fastener hole areas.

  1. Integrated ion imprinted polymers-paper composites for selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Chen, Ying [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Zhao, Xiaoya [Hubei Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of PRC, No.588 Qingtaidadao Road, Hubei, 430022, Wuhan (China); Liu, Jiafa [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Jing, Tao, E-mail: jingtao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • IIPs are first grafted on the low-cost A4 print paper to develop an integrated paper-based device. • As an imprinted composite, the adsorption capacity is 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor is more than 3.0. • As an analytical method, the limit of detection is 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. • Based on the water quality standards, it could be used to determine Cd(II) ions in drinking water. - Abstract: Paper-based sensor is a new alternative technology to develop a portable, low-cost, and rapid analysis system in environmental chemistry. In this study, ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) using cadmium ions as the template were directly grafted on the surface of low-cost print paper based on the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. It can be applied as a recognition element to selectively capture the target ions in the complex samples. The maximum adsorption capacity of IIPs composites was 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor was more than 3.0. Then, IIPs-paper platform could be also applied as a detection element for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions without complex sample pretreatment and expensive instrument, due to the selective recognition, formation of dithizone-cadmium complexes and light transmission ability. Under the optimized condition, the linear range was changed from 1 to 100 ng mL{sup –1} and the limit of detection was 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. The results were in good agreement with the classic ICP-MS method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be developed for detection of other heavy metals by designing of new IIPs.

  2. Growth, livability, feed consumption, and carcass composition of the Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chicken versus the 2012 high-yielding Cobb 500 broiler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, K E; Kiepper, B H; Ritz, C W; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-01-01

    A flock of the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), a 1955 meat-type chicken control strain, was raised alongside a flock of 2012 Cobb 500 fast feathering high-yielding broilers to determine selection changes over the past 57 yr...

  3. Selective Excitation of Lamb-Waves for Damage Detection in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, G.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors based on periodic arrays of coherent piezoelectric sources (comb design) are used to selectively excite and detect Lamb waves in aluminum and AS4/3601 unidirectional carbon-epoxy plates. 110 μm PVDF film poled in the thickness direction is used as piezoelectric material. An algorithm to eliminate the effect of coupling in amplitude measurements, using individual Lamb modes excited/detected by the same transducer pair, is described. A multiple-impact test showing a decrease in amplitude and group velocity as damage progresses is used as an example.

  4. SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED COMPOSITES TYPE OF POROUS PVC-METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies of selected physical and mechanical properties of hybrid materials type of polymer-metal. In the frame of this work modification of PVC with the iron and copper powder in amount of 0, 1.5 and 3% and blowing agent in amount of 0, 0.5, 1% was done. Extrudates in a form of pipe were tested to determine density, porosity, maximum tensile stress, stress at break, modulus of elasticity and elongation with break. The samples were also observed in a microscope. The studies have shown significant influence of the added components on the properties tested.

  5. The Composition Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Selected SAARC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish MALIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the most promising economic variables i.e., foreign direct investment (FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth in selected South Asian Association of Regional Co-corporation (SAARC countries. In addition, this study argued that whether FDI, Exports and financial development fosters or hinder economic growth in SAARC countries, for this purpose, panel data set of selected five SAARC countries namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka considered for empirical consideration over a period of 1975 to 2011. By using two-stage least square (2SLSL technique, empirical evidence on the effects of FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth is mix in terms of apriori expectations. In case of Bangladesh, exports and broad money supply (M2 is the positive and significant contributor to increase economic growth, whereas, M2 increases India’s GDP. FDI is the only significant contributor to increase Pakistan’s economic growth. In case of Nepal and Srilanka, broad money supply increases economic growth, whereas, due to high dependency on imports, exports could not considerably increases economic growth in those regions.

  6. Molecular diversity of Annona species and proximate fruit composition of selected genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuragi, Hirdayesh; Dhaduk, Haresh L; Kumar, Sushil; Dhruve, Jitendra J; Parekh, Mithil J; Sakure, Amar A

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the genetic variation in germplasm is of utmost importance for crop improvement. Therefore, efforts were made to analyse the molecular marker based genetic diversity of 20 Annona genotypes from five different species of family Annonaceae. During analysis, a set of 11 RAPD primers yielded a total of 152 bands with 80.01 % polymorphism and PIC for RAPD ranged from 0.86 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.89. With 93.05 % polymorphism, 12 SSR primers produced 39 amplicons. The PIC for SSRs ranged from 0.169 to 0.694 with of average of 0.339. The dendrogram produced from pooled molecular data of 11 RAPD and 12 SSR primers showed seven clusters at a cutoff value of 0.78. The dendrogram discriminated all the Annona genotypes suggesting that significant genetic diversity was present among the genotypes. Proximate fruit composition study of nine fruiting genotypes of Annona revealed that A. squamosa possessed significantly higher amount of most of studies biochemical which gives an opportunity to fruit breeders to improve the other Annona species. Likewise, A. muricata being rich in seed oil content can be exploited in oil industries.

  7. Interesterification reaction activity, fatty acid composition and selectivity ratio of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The interesterification reaction was carried out by adding oleic acid to soybean oil by ratio 1:2 w/w under different conditions of temperature, stirring and catalyst percentages. Assessment of the interesterification of oils was reported by determination of saponification value, iodine value and fatty acids composition. This study showed that linolenic acid which is responsible for flavour instability of soybean oil and consider as primary factor contributing to deterioration of this oil could be reduced to less than or equals 3%.

    Se han llevado a cabo reacciones de interesterificación mediante la adición de ácido oleico a aceite de soja en la relación 1:2 w/w bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura, agitación y porcentaje de catalizador. La evaluación de la interesterificación de los aceites se realizó por determinación del índice de saponificación, el índice de iodo y la composición en ácidos grasos. Este estudio mostró que el ácido linolénico, que es responsable de la inestabilidad del flavor del aceite de soja y considerado como factor primario que contribuye a la deterioración de este aceite, podría ser reducido a cantidades menores o iguales al 3%.

  8. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  9. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  10. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  11. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  12. A composite material based on nanoparticles of yttrium (III) oxide for the selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay [Department of Medical Laboratory, Vocational School of Health Services, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey)

    2016-09-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of yttrium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the determination of acetaminophen (ACT). Compared with a bare GCE and CNTs/GCE, the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a well-defined redox couple for ACT and highly enhanced the current response. The separations in the anodic and cathodic peak potentials (ΔE{sub p}) for ACT were 552 mV, 24 mV and 10 mV at ba4re GCE, CNTs/GCE and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE, respectively. The observation of only 10 mV of ΔE{sub p} for ACT at Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE was a clear indication of a great acceleration of the electrode process compared to bare GCE and GCE modified with CNTs. Also, L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and L-tyrosine (L-TRY) did not interfere with the selective determination of ACT. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the quantification of ACT. A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus the concentrations of ACT over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −10} to 1.8 × 10{sup −8} M with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10{sup −11} M (based on 3S{sub b}/m). The proposed composite material provided high electrocatalytic activity, improved voltammetric behavior, good selectivity and good reproducibility. The accurate quantification of ACT makes the proposed electrode of great interest for the public health. - Highlights: • A voltammetric sensor based on yttrium oxide was prepared for the detection of ACT. • The proposed electrode has greatly accelerated the voltammetric process of ACT. • A detection limit of 0.03 nM was obtained for ACT. • The proposed electrode exhibited great selectivity for ACT in the presence of L-AA and L-TRY. • The composite material exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and excellent reproducibility.

  13. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Survey of Synergistic Effect of L-carnitine with Glutamine on Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Soccer Players: A Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of L-carnitine and glutamine and their synergistic effects on male soccer athletes. Methods: 28 male soccer players (21.1 ± 0.7 y were enrolled in a randomized pre and post intervention, double-blind design. Before the intervention, their performances were assessed by Bruce protocol, and their body composition was measured with the body composition analyzer. Then, athletes were randomly allocated into four groups: 2 g L-glutamine, 2 g L-carnitine, 2 g L-carnitine + 2 g L-glutamine and placebo. Supplements were prescribed for 21 days and after three weeks, athletes' performances and body composition were re-evaluated. Results: The results showed that body weight, body fat percentage, lean muscle mass, and dietary intake made no significant changes in different groups of athletes. In between groups comparison, results did not significantly change in any performance indices. However, in L-carnitine supplement group, the results of pre and post intervention showed that the running distance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max increased significantly while the subjective sense of fatigue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Based on our findings, a three-week prescription of separateor combined glutamine and L-carnitine, had no effects on body composition or dietary intake in soccer players. But, the athletes' energy intake was more than the one reported in other studies. Although further studies are required to assess these effects on athletic performance.

  15. Importance of chip selection and elaboration process on the aromatic composition of finished wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan J; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos; González-San José, M Luisa

    2008-07-09

    The evolution of volatile compounds extracted from wood while being macerated for 1 month with four different commercial chips (different geographical origins and toasting degrees) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of the microoxygenation process between alcoholic and malolactic fermentation also was studied. The wood volatile compounds in wines macerated with the four types of chips evolved in the same way. However, the amounts of compounds extracted depended on the type of chip used. There were differences in the levels of vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, furfural, trans-isoeugenol, and cis-isoeugenol in wines in accordance with the type of wood chips (French or American), and the last two compounds along with 5-methyl furfural presented differences that were directly related to the toast level. However, no effects of microoxygenation treatment on the extraction of volatile compounds extracted from chips were observed. Therefore, the results obtained in this study highlight the importance of chip selection on the aromatic characteristics of finished wines.

  16. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Bauer, Laura L; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Fahey, George C

    2005-02-23

    Select mushrooms were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles either raw or cooked and at different stages of maturity. White button mushrooms (Agaricus biporus) contained high concentrations of ash (12.5 and 11.9% for immature and mature mushrooms, respectively). Starch and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in maitake (Grifola frondosa) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Crude protein (CP) and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were highest in crimini (Agaricus bisporus) and white button and maitake mushrooms, respectively. Chitin concentrations were highest in portabella (Agaricus bisporus) and enoki (Flammulina velutipes) mushrooms (8.0 and 7.7%, respectively). Oligosaccharides were found in low concentrations in some mushrooms. CP and TDF accounted for 86.4 and 49.3% of mushroom organic matter. Cooking increased starch, TDF, and AHF but decreased CP and chitin concentrations. The chitin concentration increased with mushroom maturity. These results detail the complete carbohydrate profile of several important mushroom varieties.

  17. Selective Electrochemical Detection of Ciprofloxacin with a Porous Nafion/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Pralay; Chaplin, Brian P

    2016-01-27

    This study focuses on the development of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Ciprofloxacin (CFX) in natural waters and wastewater effluents. The sensors are prepared by depositing a layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in a porous Nafion film on to a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode substrate. The porous-Nafion-MWCNT/BDD electrode enhanced detection of CFX due to selective adsorption, which was accomplished by a combination of electrostatic attraction at -SO3(-) sites in the porous Nafion film and the formation of charge assisted hydrogen bonding between CFX and -COOH MWCNT surface functional groups. By contrast, the bare BDD electrode did not show any activity for CFX oxidation. The sensors were selective for CFX detection in the presence of other antibiotics (i.e., amoxicillin) and other nontarget water constituents (i.e., Cl(-), Ca(2+), humic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, salicylic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). A limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 5.04 ± 0.26) in a 0.1 M KH2PO4 supporting electrolyte (pH = 4.5) was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The linear dynamic ranges with respect to CFX concentration were 0.005-0.05 μM and 0.05-10 μM, and the sensitivities were 41 ± 5.2 μA μM(-1) and 2.1 ± 0.22 μA μM(-1), respectively. Sensor fouling was observed at high concentrations of some organic compounds such as 1 mM 4-aminobenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. However, a short cathodic treatment fully restores sensor response. The results indicate that these sensors have application in detecting CFX in natural waters and wastewater effluents.

  18. Richness, composition and relationships of the floras of selected forests in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Geldenhuys

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Species lists of 14 widely separated forests representing particular geographic regions in southern Africa were used to study the size and composition of the individual floras, the similarities between them, and possible determinants of the observed patterns. The forests contain 1 438 species which belong to 155 families and 661 genera. The growth form spectra show specific patterns amongst the individual forests such as an abundance of ferns in montane forests, and of woody plants and vines in coastal forests. The richness of a forest flora increases with increasing altitudinal range within the forest. Significant linear species-area relationships exist for both woody and herbaceous species, but explain only 30% and 38% of the variation respectively in the size of the floras. In a multiple regression model the number of dispersal corridors, the proximity to other forests and mean altitude explained 81% of the variation in the number of woody species. The number of landscape types and of dispersal corridors explained 75% of the variation in number of herbaceous species. Several other factors contribute to the disproportionately large floras of relatively small forests such as at Umtamvuna, Sabie and Richards Bay. A high proportion of unique taxa are present (30% woody and 42% herbaceous species. The shared taxa show definite trends of the southward attenuation of species and the presence of elements of the Afromontane and Indian Ocean Coastal Regions.In conclusion, it is suggested that the southern Cape forests have been isolated from forests along the escarpment and mountains to the east since at least the Pliocene due to the Sundays River valley which stretches from the coast to the escarpment in the arid interior.

  19. Seasonal trends in abundance and composition of marine debris in selected public beaches in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman Bin; Hassan, Ruhana

    2015-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris were investigated at Saujana (in the state of Negeri Sembilan) and Batu Rakit (in the state of Terengganu) beaches during surveys conducted in December 2012 (northeast monsoon), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon). A total of 4,682 items of debris weighing 231.4 kg were collected and sorted. Batu Rakit received substantially greater quantities of debris (815±717 items/km or 40.4±13.0 kg/km) compared to Saujana (745±444 items/km or 36.7±18.0 kg/km). Total debris item was more abundant during the southwest monsoon (SWM) (1,122±737 items/km) compared to the northeast monsoon (NEM) (825±593 items/ km) and the intermediate monsoon (IM) (394±4 items/km) seasons. Plastic category (88%) was the most numerous items collected and object items contributed 44.18% includes packaging, plastic fragments, cups, plastic shopping bags, plastic food wrapper, clear plastic bottles from the total debris items collected. Object items associated with common source (47%) were the highest debris accumulated, followed by terrestrial (30%) and marine (23%) sources. The high percentage of common and terrestrial sources during SWM season requires immediate action by marine environment stakeholders to develop and introduce strategies to reduce if not totally eliminates the marine debris in the marine environment. Awareness should be continued and focused on beach users and vessels' crew to alert them on the alarming accumulation rate of marine debris and its pathways into the marine environment.

  20. Influence of Selected Alkoxysilanes on Dispersive Properties and Surface Chemistry of Titanium Dioxide and TiO2–SiO2 Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siwińska-Stefańska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on characterisation of titanium dioxide and coprecipitated TiO2–SiO2 composite material functionalised with selected alkoxysilanes. Synthetic composite material was obtained by an emulsion method with cyclohexane as the organic phase, titanium sulfate as titanium precursor, and sodium silicate solution as precipitating agent were applied. Structures of titania and composite material samples were studied by the wide angle X-ray scattering method. The chemical composition of TiO2–SiO2 composite material precipitated was evaluated based on the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy technique. The functionalised TiO2 and TiO2–SiO2 composite material were thoroughly characterised to determine the yield of functionalisation with silanes. The characterisation included determination of dispersion and morphology of the systems (particle size distribution, scanning electron microscope images, adsorption properties (nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and electrokinetic properties (zeta potential.

  1. Selective extraction of catecholamines by packed fiber solid-phase using composite nanofibers composing of polymeric crown ether with polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qin; Wang, Yu; Qu, Jian-Song; Deng, Jian-Jun; Kang, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, electrospun composite nanofibers comprising polymeric crown ether with polystyrene (PCE-PS) have been used for the selective extraction of catecholamines - dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) - prior to their analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Using a minicartridge packed with PCE-PS composite nanofibers, the target compounds were extracted effectively from urine samples to which diphenylborinic acid 2-aminoethyl ester was added as a complexing reagent. The extracted catecholamines could be liberated from the fiber by the addition of acetic acid. A good linearity was observed for catecholamines in the range of 2.0-200 ng mL(-1) (NE, E and DA). The detection limits of catecholamines (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were 0.5 ng mL(-1) (NE), 0.2 ng mL(-1) (E) and 0.2 ng mL(-1) (DA), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute recoveries of the above three catecholamines were 90.6% (NE), 88.5% (E) and 94.5% (DA). The repeatability of extraction performance was from 5.4 to 9.2% (expressed as relative standard deviation). Our results indicate that the proposed method could be used for the determination of NE, E and DA in urine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. The effect of experience on composite resin shade selection in comparison to a spectrophotometer

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    Duygu Recen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the shade matching ability of dentists with different experience levels in comparison to a spectrophotometer. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Participants were selected from the volunteer fourth grade students of Faculty of Dentistry, Ege University (n=100. A fifthyear undergraduate student, a research assistant with 2 years of experience and two professors of restorative dentistry with at least 10 years of experience were included in this study as observers. Ishihara color blindness test was applied to all observers before taking shades. After taking the shades with conventional method by using Vita Classical shade guide, the research assistant took the shades again with SpectroShade Micro device. Agreement on shade matches was evaluated by percentage and compared using Wilcoxon test (p0.05 and the correct match rate of the research assistant was superior to the others. Statistically significant differences were found between the fifth grade student’s shade assignments and the research assistant’s assignments as well as the device’s readings (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that shade matching is a learnable process. In order to do a correct shade match in complicated situations, dentists may refer to spectrophotometric devices.

  4. Fatty acids composition of fruits of selected Central European sedges (Carex L. Cyperaceae

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    Janyszek, Magdalena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in the fruits of 13 sedge species (Carex L., Cyperaceae were analyzed. The oil contents in the fruits of the studied sedges ranged from 3.73 and 46.52%. In the studied fruit oils 14 different fatty acids were identified. The main unsaturated fatty acids were: linoleic, α-linolenic, oleic, oleopalmitic n-7; oleopalmitic n-9, octadecenic, and eicosenoic acids. The following acids were found in the greatest quantities: linoleic, oleic, α-linolenic and palmitic acids. Based on the fatty acid composition, studied taxa can be divided in two groups. The first group (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina is a very good source of linoleic acid. The second group, including the remaining species, is a good source of α-linolenic acid. The highest oleic acid contents were observed in C. vulpina. The studied material has shown a low concentration of saturated fatty acids, among which palmitic acid was the main one.Results of the analyses allow for the inclusion of the studied species among plants whose fruits are characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids.Los ácidos grasos de frutos de 13 especies de juncos (Carex L., Cyperaceae fueron analizados. El contenido de aceite en los frutos de juncos estudiados vario desde un 3.73 a un 46.52%. En los aceites de los frutos estudiados fueron identificados 14 ácidos grasos diferentes. Los principales ácidos grasos insaturados fueron los ácidos linoleico, α-linolenico, oleico, n-7 palmitoleico, n-9 palmitoleico, octadecenoico y eicosanoico. Los siguientes ácidos grasos fueron encontrados en mayor cantidad: ácido linoleico, ácido oleico, ácido α-linolenico, y ácido palmítico. Basado en la composición de ácidos grasos, las especies estudiadas pueden ser divididas en dos grupos. El primer grupo (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina es una muy buena fuente de ácido linoleico. El segundo grupo, que incluye las especies restantes, es una buena fuente

  5. Five-year evaluation of a low-shrinkage Silorane resin composite material: A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Dige, Irene; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical performance of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite material (Filtek™ Silorane, 3 M-Espe) by comparing it with a methacrylate-based composite material (Ceram•X™, Dentsply DeTrey). Material and methods A number of 72patien...

  6. Time-composition superpositioning in the rheological behavior of triblock copolymer/selective co-solvent blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arjun; Bukovnik, Rudolf; Spontak, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Thermoplastic elastomers composed of styrenic triblock copolymers are of great importance in applications such as adhesives and vibration dampening due to their resilience and facile processing. The swelling of these polymers by adding midblock selective solvents or oligomers provides an easy route by which to modify the morphology and mechanical behavior of these systems. In this study we consider a ternary blend of a poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] triblock copolymer and mixtures of two midblock selective co-solvents: a mineral oil that is liquid at ambient temperature, and a glassy tackifier resin that exhibits limited solubility in the midblock matrix. We use dynamic rheology to study the viscoelastic response of a wide variety of systems under oscillatory shear. The copolymer concentration is varied between 15 to 35 wt%, while the resin/oil ratio in the midblock-solvent matrix is independently varied. Frequency spectra acquired at ambient temperature display viscoelastic behavior that shifts in the frequency domain depending on the resin/oil ratio. At high oil loadings, the materials behave as physical gels. For each copolymer concentration, all the frequency data can be shifted by time-composition superpositioning to yield a single master-curve.

  7. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien C Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU, we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  8. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Damien C; Ogilvie, Colin B; Batorsky, Rebecca E; Bean, David J; Power, Karen A; Ghebremichael, Musie; Bedard, Hunter E; Gladden, Adrianne D; Seese, Aaron M; Amero, Molly A; Lane, Kimberly; McGrath, Graham; Bazner, Suzane B; Tinsley, Jake; Lennon, Niall J; Henn, Matthew R; Brumme, Zabrina L; Norris, Philip J; Rosenberg, Eric S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Jessen, Heiko; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Walker, Bruce D; Altfeld, Marcus; Carlson, Jonathan M; Allen, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX) transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU), we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  9. Forming a single layer of a composite powder based on the Ti-Nb system via selective laser melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprykin, A. A.; Sharkeev, Yu P.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Babakova, E. V.; Dudikhin, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    Alloys based on the titanium-niobium system are widely used in implant production. It is conditional, first of all, on the low modulus of elasticity and bio-inert properties of an alloy. These alloys are especially important for tooth replacement and orthopedic surgery. At present alloys based on the titanium-niobium system are produced mainly using conventional metallurgical methods. The further subtractive manufacturing an end product results in a lot of wastes, increasing, therefore, its cost. The alternative of these processes is additive manufacturing. Selective laser melting is a technology, which makes it possible to synthesize products of metal powders and their blends. The point of this technology is laser melting a layer of a powdered material; then a sintered layer is coated with the next layer of powder etc. Complex products and working prototypes are made on the base of this technology. The authors of this paper address to the issue of applying selective laser melting in order to synthesize a binary alloy of a composite powder based on the titanium-niobium system. A set of 10x10 mm samples is made in various process conditions. The samples are made by an experimental selective laser synthesis machine «VARISKAF-100MB». The machine provides adjustment of the following process variables: laser emission power, scanning rate and pitch, temperature of powder pre-heating, thickness of the layer to be sprinkled, and diameter of laser spot focusing. All samples are made in the preliminary vacuumized shielding atmosphere of argon. The porosity and thickness of the sintered layer related to the laser emission power are shown at various scanning rates. It is revealed that scanning rate and laser emission power are adjustable process variables, having the greatest effect on forming the sintered layer.

  10. A Six-Month Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Soy and Isoflavones Daidzein on Body Composition in Equol-Producing Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper reported the effects of commonly used whole soy foods (soy flour and purified daidzein (one of the major isoflavones and the precursor of equol on changes in anthropometric measurements and body composition in a 6-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among prehypertensive postmenopausal women who are also equol producers. Methods. 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three treatments: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group, 40 g low-fat milk powder + 63 mg daidzein (daidzein group, or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo group daily each for 6 months. Anthropometric indicators and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Results. 253 subjects completed the study with good compliance. Urinary isoflavones levels suggested good compliance of subjects with supplementation. Whole soy and purified daidzein had no significant effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body fat percentage, fat mass, and free fat mass. Conclusion. Six-month consumption of whole soy and purified daidzein at provided dosage had no improvement on body weight and composition compared with isocaloric milk placebo among prehypertensive equol-producing postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01270737.

  11. Clinical Effectiveness of Different Polishing Systems and Self-Etch Adhesives in Class V Composite Resin Restorations: Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Kim, H-Y; Shin, S-M; Lee, C-O; Kim, D S; Choi, K-K; Kim, S-Y

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical effectiveness of different polishing systems and self-etch adhesives in class V composite resin restorations. A total of 164 noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) from 35 patients were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, each of which used a combination of polishing systems and adhesives. The two polishing systems used were Sof-Lex XT (Sof), a multistep abrasive disc, and Enhance/Pogo (EP), a simplified abrasive-impregnated rubber instrument. The adhesive systems were Clearfil SE bond (CS), a two-step self-etch adhesive, and Xeno V (XE), a one-step self-etch adhesive. All NCCLs were restored with light-cured microhybrid resin composites (Z250). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months by two blinded independent examiners using modified FDI criteria. The Fisher exact test and generalized estimating equation analysis considering repeated measurements were performed to compare the outcomes between the polishing systems and adhesives. Three restorations were dislodged: two in CS/Sof and one in CS/EP. None of the restorations required any repair or retreatment except those showing retention loss. Sof was superior to EP with regard to surface luster, staining, and marginal adaptation (p0.05). Sof is clinically superior to EP for polishing performance in class V composite resin restoration. XE demonstrates clinically equivalent bonding performance to CS.

  12. Three-year Randomized Clinical Study of a One-step Universal Adhesive and a Two-step Self-etch Adhesive in Class II Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 years) received at least two extended Class II restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage composite (Aelite LS) was used for all restorations, which were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. 114 Class II restorations were evaluated at three years. Eight restorations, 3 AU and 5 OX, failed during the follow-up, resulting in 94.7% (AU) and 91.2% (OX) success rates (p > 0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.9%, respectively.The main reason for failure was composite fracture. Class II composite restorations placed with a 1-step universal adhesive showed good short-term efficacy.

  13. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  14. A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Pivotal Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of a Selective Cytopheretic Device in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Tumlin

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a highly morbid condition in critically ill patients that is associated with high mortality. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Selective Cytopheretic Device (SCD in the treatment of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU.A randomized, controlled trial of 134 ICU patients with AKI, 69 received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT alone and 65 received SCD therapy.No significant difference in 60-day mortality was observed between the treated (27/69; 39% and control patients (21/59; 36%, with six patients lost to follow up in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. Of the 19 SCD subjects (CRRT+SCD and 31 control subjects (CRRT alone who maintained a post-filter ionized calcium (iCa level in the protocol's recommended range (≤ 0.4 mmol/L for greater or equal to 90% of the therapy time, 60-day mortality was 16% (3/19 in the SCD group compared to 41% (11/27 in the CRRT alone group (p = 0.11. Dialysis dependency showed a borderline statistically significant difference between the SCD treated versus control CRRT alone patients maintained for ≥ 90% of the treatment in the protocol's recommended (r iCa target range of ≤ 0.4 mmol/L with values of, 0% (0/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively (P = 0.10. When the riCa treated and control subgroups were compared for a composite index of 60 day mortality and dialysis dependency, the percentage of SCD treated subjects was 16% versus 58% in the control subjects (p<0.01. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between the treated (45/69; 65% and control groups (40/65; 63%; p = 0·86.SCD therapy may improve mortality and reduce dialysis dependency in a tightly controlled regional hypocalcaemic environment in the perfusion circuit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400893 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01400893.

  15. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Leber, Bettina; Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R; Tripolt, Norbert J; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    .... We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome...

  16. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chih-Hui Chiu; Ming-Chen Ko; Long-Shan Wu; Ding-Peng Yeh; Nai-Wen Kan; Po-Fu Lee; Jenn-Woei Hsieh; Ching-Yu Tseng; Chien-Chang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan...

  17. Anatomic basis for an algorithmic approach for free fibula flap donor side selection in composite oro-mandibular defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck oncological resections may result in composite oro-mandibular defects involving the oral mucosa (lining, mandibular bone and the skin (cover. Reconstructive options for such defects have evolved over a period. Free fibula flap reconstruction is currently accepted the world over as the gold standard for oro-mandibular defect reconstruction. Existing literature provides conflicting views about the use of a particular side and orientation of the fibula flap for achieving the optimal outcome. The purpose of this study is to confirm anatomically the effect of bone, soft tissue and vessel orientation on the ease of doing reconstruction. Materials and Methods: This is a cadaveric study. A mandibular model with a defect was used. This was pre plated to maintain continuity. Composite fibula flaps of the same dimension were harvested from both legs of a fresh cadaver. The harvested flaps were used to reconstruct the mandibular defect in different orientations and the best configuration for each reconstructive requirement was assessed. Results: Keeping the peroneal surface for plating, that is, facing outwards, four different configurations of the fibula flap are possible for a given mandibular defect. With a posterior vascular pedicle ipsilateral fibula is suitable for skin cover and contralateral for mucosal lining and the reverse for an anteriorly placed pedicle. Conclusion: The algorithm based selection of appropriate sided fibula flap facilitates complex mandibular reconstruction by placing the right kind of tissue at the right place and helps in reducing the donor site morbidity by allowing the surgeon to harvest only the required amount of skin.

  18. Validity of Selected Bioimpedance Equations for Estimating Body Composition in Men and Women: A Four-Compartment Model Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Schumacker, Randall E; Richardson, Mark T; Fedewa, Michael V; Wingo, Jonathan E; Welborn, Bailey A

    2017-07-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Bishop, PA, Schumacker, RE, Richardson, MT, Fedewa, MV, Wingo, JE, and Welborn, BA. Validity of selected bioimpedance equations for estimating body composition in men and women: a four-compartment model comparison. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1963-1972, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) values from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations to values determined from a 4-compartment (4C) model. Eighty-two adults (42 men and 40 women) volunteered to participate (age = 23 ± 5 years). Body fat percentage and FFM were estimated from previously developed BIA equations by Chumlea et al. (BIACH), Deurenberg et al. (BIADE), Kyle et al. (BIAKYLE), and Sun et al. (BIASUN). Four-compartment model body composition was derived from underwater weighing for body density, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral content, and bioimpedance spectroscopy for total body water. The standard error of estimate (SEE) for group BF% and FFM ranged from 3.0 to 3.8% and 2.1 to 2.7 kg, respectively. The constant error (CE) was significantly higher and lower for BF% and FFM (p equations (BIACH, CE = 3.1% and -2.2 kg; BIADE, CE = 3.7% and -2.9 kg; BIAKYLE, CE = 2.3% and -1.9 kg), but was not significant for BF% (p = 0.702) and FFM (p = 0.677) for BIASUN (CE = -0.1% and 0.1 kg). The 95% limits of agreement were narrowest for BIACH (±5.9%; ±4.2 kg) and largest for BIADE (±7.4%; ±6.2 kg). The significant CE yielded by BIACH, BIADE, and BIAKYLE indicates these equations tend to overpredict group BF% and underestimate group FFM. However, all BIA equations produced low SEEs and fairly narrow limits of agreement. When the use of a 4C model is not available, practitioners might consider using one of the selected BIA equations, but should consider the associated CE.

  19. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P composition (fat mass or lean mass) between groups. Compared to a healthy control diet, energy-restricted high-protein diets containing different proportions of fat and CHO confer no advantage to weight loss or change in body composition in the presence of an appropriate exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Micromechanical finite-element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite-element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% HA. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30, respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical FEA model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any HA loading to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. The results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient- and site-specific composite tissue-engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Micromechanical finite element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone:hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30% HA by volume. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 MPa to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any loading of HA to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. Results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient and site-specific composite tissue engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. PMID:22522129

  2. Comparing the role of selective and divided attention in the composite face effect: Insights from Attention Operating Characteristic (AOC) plots and cross-contingency correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Composite faces combine the top half of one face with the bottom half of another to create a compelling illusion of a new face. Evidence for holistic processing with composite faces comes primarily from a matching procedure in a selective attention task. In the present study, a dual-task approach has been employed to study whether composite faces reflect genuine holistic (i.e., fusion of parts) or non-holistic processing strategies (i.e., switching, resource sharing). This has been accomplished by applying the Attention Operation Characteristic methodology (AOC, Sperling & Melchner, 1978a, 1978b) and cross-contingency correlations (Bonnel & Prinzmetal, 1998) to composite faces. Overall, the results converged on the following conclusions: (a) observers can voluntarily allocate differential amounts of attention to the top and bottom parts in both spatially aligned and misaligned composite faces, (b) the interaction between composite face halves is due to attentional limitations, not due to switching or fusion strategies, and (c) the processing of aligned and misaligned composite faces is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Taken together, these results challenge the holistic interpretation of the composite face illusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bias in the prediction of genetic gain due to mass and half-sib selection in random mating populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of gains from selection allows the comparison of breeding methods and selection strategies, although these estimates may be biased. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of such bias in predicting genetic gain. For this, we simulated 10 cycles of a hypothetical breeding program that involved seven traits, three population classes, three experimental conditions and two breeding methods (mass and half-sib selection. Each combination of trait, population, heritability, method and cycle was repeated 10 times. The predicted gains were biased, even when the genetic parameters were estimated without error. Gain from selection in both genders is twice the gain from selection in a single gender only in the absence of dominance. The use of genotypic variance or broad sense heritability in the predictions represented an additional source of bias. Predictions based on additive variance and narrow sense heritability were equivalent, as were predictions based on genotypic variance and broad sense heritability. The predictions based on mass and family selection were suitable for comparing selection strategies, whereas those based on selection within progenies showed the largest bias and lower association with the realized gain.

  4. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  5. Characterization of microbiota composition and presence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in carriage water of ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1-2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes.

  6. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  7. A Compact Via-free Composite Right/Left Handed Low-pass Filter with Improved Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Choudhary, Dilip Kumar; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a compact via-free low pass filter is designed based on composite right/left handed (CRLH) concept. The structure uses open ended concept. Rectangular slots are etched on signal transmission line (TL) to suppress the spurious band without altering the performance and size of filter. The filter is designed for low pass frequency band with cut-off frequency of 3.5 GHz. The proposed metamaterial structure has several prominent advantages in term of selectivity up to 34 dB/GHz and compactness with average insertion loss less than 0.4 dB. It has multiple applications in wireless communication (such as GSM900, global navigation satellite system (1.559-1.610 GHz), GSM1800, WLAN/WiFi (2.4-2.49 GHz) and WiMAX (2.5-2.69 GHz)). The design parameters have been measured and compared with the simulated results and found excellent agreement. The electrical size of proposed filter is 0.14λ0× 0.11λ0 (where λ0 is free space wavelength at zeroth order resonance (ZOR) frequency 2.7 GHz).

  8. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-08-03

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Site-Selective Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Isophorone Diisocyanate and Formation of Polyurethane-CNC Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girouard, Natalie M; Xu, Shanhong; Schueneman, Gregory T; Shofner, Meisha L; Meredith, J Carson

    2016-01-20

    The unequal reactivity of the two isocyanate groups in an isophorone diisocyante (IPDI) monomer was exploited to yield modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with both urethane and isocyanate functionality. The chemical functionality of the modified CNCs was verified with ATR-FTIR analysis and elemental analysis. The selectivity for the secondary isocyanate group using dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) as the reaction catalyst was confirmed with (13)C NMR. The modified CNCs showed improvements in the onset of thermal degradation by 35 °C compared to the unmodified CNCs. Polyurethane composites based on IPDI and a trifunctional polyether alcohol were synthesized using unmodified (um-CNC) and modified CNCs (m-CNC). The degree of nanoparticle dispersion was qualitatively assessed with polarized optical microscopy. It was found that the modification step facilitated superior nanoparticle dispersion compared to the um-CNCs, which resulted in increases in the tensile strength and work of fracture of over 200% compared to the neat matrix without degradation of elongation at break.

  10. Effect of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomized cross-over human feeding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, M; Wang, X; Baer, D J

    2014-01-01

    The modification of microbiota composition to a ‘beneficial’ one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy...... for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various...

  11. Expressed sequence tags of randomly selected cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, D; Martin, F

    1995-01-01

    Random sequencing of cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal tissues was carried out to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Database comparisons revealed that 42% of the cDNAs corresponded to previously sequenced genes. These ESTs represent efficient molecular markers to analyze changes in gene expression during the formation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  12. Synthesis and optical characterization of C-SiO2 and C-NiO sol-gel composite films for use as selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makiwa, G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cheaper and environmentally friendly method to fabricate efficient spectrally selective solar absorber materials. The sol-gel technique was used to fabricate carbon-silica (C-SiO2) and carbon-nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite...

  13. The Impact Of Ten Weeks Of Bodyweight Training On The Level Of Physical Fitness And Selected Parameters Of Body Composition In Women Aged 21-23 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipecki Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of 10 weeks of bodyweight training on selected elements of body composition (body mass, muscle mass, and the percentage of body fat and water and components of physical fitness (strength, strength endurance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity of women aged 21-23 years who do not practise sports professionally.

  14. Impact of Selection Bias on Treatment Effect Size Estimates in Randomized Trials of Oral Health Interventions: A Meta-epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, H; Armijo-Olivo, S; Cummings, G G; Amin, M; da Costa, B R; Flores-Mir, C

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to items of selection bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability) in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Using a 2-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity, we quantified the impact of selection bias on the magnitude of ES estimates. We identified 64 meta-analyses, including 540 randomized controlled trials analyzing 137,957 patients. Sequence generation was judged to be adequate (at low risk of bias) in 32% ( n = 173) of trials, and baseline comparability was judged to be adequate in 77.8% of trials. Allocation concealment was unclear in the majority of trials ( n = 458, 84.8%). We identified significantly larger treatment ES estimates in trials that had inadequate/unknown sequence generation (difference in ES = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.25) and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment (difference in ES = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.27). In contrast, baseline imbalance (difference in ES = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.12) was not associated with inflated or underestimated ES. In conclusion, treatment ES estimates were 0.13 and 0.15 larger in trials with inadequate/unknown sequence generation and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment, respectively. Therefore, authors of systematic reviews using oral health randomized controlled trials should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of

  15. Composition selected by Llamas intake (Lama glama, Linnaeus 1758 of José Manuel Pando Province, municipality of Santiago De Machaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia Animal y Tecnología (IICAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the municipality of Santiago de Machaca is the first section of the province José Manuel Pando, is located southeast of the department of La Paz, a distance of 205 km, from the city of La Paz, the research objectives were to determine the consumption Flames selected a native pasture and determine the nutritional quality selected (% PC, % NDF,% FDA Burning of native pasture. The results were: 18 native grasses consumed by the four camels, fodder were identified that more quantity than was consumed Trifolium pratensis (layu layu No.1 consumed camel, camel No. 2 (473 (462.93 gr. , 6 g, camel No. 3 (544.43 g and the camel No. 4 (477.87 g, native grassland and Bromus catharticus (Cebadilla camélido No.1 consumed (357.12 gr., camel No. 2 (409,6gr., camel No. 3 (445,44gr. and camel No. 4 ( 310,61gr.. The total consumption of 18 forage species based on live weight (Kg. was next, camel No.1 consumed (1,323 Kg. (62 Kg. PV, camel No. 2 (1,280Kg. (60 Kg. PV, camel No. 3 (1,237Kg. (58 Kg. PV and camel No. 4 (1,195 Kg. (56 Kg. PV. The statistical analysis of the four camels, by completely randomized design (ANOVA, is indicating no significant difference (p ≥0.05 with respect to consumption of native grasslands. The samples sent to the laboratory of the Institute of Diagnostic Laboratory Services and Health Research Institute SELADIS were: maximum concentration crude protein found in the pasture Trifolium pratensis (layu layu 15.93% and is lower Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla 15.33%; The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla has 65.66% and the pasture Trifolium pratensis (layu layu 45.21%, the concentration is directly related to the type of pasture and composition flora, being the Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla is enhanced by the structure of cell walls. Grasslands who consume more camels on the geographic location and area of ​​study is the Trifolium

  16. A randomized clinical trial of cusp-replacing resin composite restorations: efficiency and short-term effectiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and short-term effectiveness of the morphology and function of direct and indirect cusp-replacing resin composite restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 94 patients, 106 cusp-replacing restorations for maxillary premolars were fabricated to restore

  17. A randomized clinical trial of the effect of low-level laser therapy before composite placement on postoperative sensitivity in class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Maleknejad, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mahsa; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser irradiation when applied just before placement of resin composite on reducing postoperative sensitivity of class V lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 31 patients with 62 class V cavities were included (two teeth in each participant). The teeth were randomly assigned into laser and placebo groups. After cavity preparation, the teeth in the experimental group were subjected to irradiation from a low-power red laser (630 nm, 28 mW, continuous wave, 60 s, 1.68 J), which was applied for 1 min on the axial wall of the cavity. In the control group, the same procedure was performed but with laser simulation. Then, a self-etch adhesive was applied and the cavities were restored with a microhybrid resin composite. Before treatment and on days 1, 14, and 30 after treatment, tooth sensitivity to a cold stimulus was recorded using a visual analogue scale. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (p class V restorations.

  18. Influence of Selected Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces Strains and Their Mixed Cultures on Chemical Composition of Apple Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Paweł; Semik-Szczurak, Dorota; Tarko, Tomasz; Bułdys, Andrzej

    2018-01-25

    Currently in apple winemaking, pure cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus strains are mainly used. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Johannisberg Riesling - LOCK 105), S. bayanus (DSMZ 3774), S. paradoxus (CBS 7302), and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (DSMZ 70576) applied in pure and mixed cultures on the chemical composition and sensory profile of apple wines. Pasteurized Gloster apple musts with addition of sucrose (up to 22°Blg) were inoculated with specific volume (0.6 g dry weight per liter) of yeast pure or mixed cultures (in a ratio of 1:1, 1:1:1, or 1:1:1:1) and fermented for 28 d at 22 °C. The influence of pure/mixed culture on the chemical composition, volatile profile, and sensory properties of apple wines was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) methods. All pure culture of yeasts used for the apple wines production are characterized by good enological profiles. S. bayanus and Sch. pombe are the most distinct to S. cerevisiae. S. bayanus strain increases the level of malic acid and carbonyl compounds in apple wines, whereas Sch. pombe highly deacidifies it and produces the most of glycerol, esters, and acetic acid. The wines obtained with these 2 species gained also, respectively, the best and the worse notes during sensory analysis. Mixed cultures (in most cases) produce greater amounts of ethanol, methanol, and volatile esters compared to pure cultures. The presence of S. bayanus in the mixed culture is beneficial for the quality of apple wines. Good understanding of the properties of yeasts and the procedures for their selection will make it easier to find strains that could improve the quality of wine. Since wine is formed by the action of a number of species and strains of yeasts, many authors have studied the effect of mixed cultures on the final quality of the product. Most of this research was focused on the effect of the inoculation

  19. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  20. A Randomized Comparative Study of Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment With or Without Selective Nerve Root Block for Chronic Cervical Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Qian; Xiao, Lizu; Yang, Juan; Xong, Donglin; Li, Disen; Liu, LiPing; Ancha, Sigdha; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a combination of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and cervical nerve root block (CNRB) via a posterior approach was superior to a transforaminal epidural steroid injection through the anterolateral approach for cervical radicular pain in a previous study. This randomized trial was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy between CNRB, PRF, and CNRB + PRF for cervical radicular pain. A prospective and randomized design was used in this study. Sixty-two patients were randomized into three parallel groups: CNRB, PRF, or CNRB + PRF. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain intensity, and global perceived effect (GPE) was scored by the patient on a 7-point scale, ranging from much worse (-3), no change (0), to total improvement (+3). The outcomes were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Side effects and complications were noted. The NRS was significantly reduced in all three groups 1 week after the treatments (P 0.05). No serious complications were observed in any of the patients. Combining CNRB and PRF appeared to be a safe and efficacious technique for cervical radicular pain. The combination therapy yielded better outcomes than either CNRB or PRF alone. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  2. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  3. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  4. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  5. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A comparison of regular consumption of fresh lean pork, beef and chicken on body composition: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A; Davis, Courtney R; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2014-02-14

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  7. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  8. Effects of cognitive speed of processing training on a composite neuropsychological outcome: results at one-year from the IHAMS randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Vander Weg, Mark W; Howren, M Bryant; Jones, Michael P; Dotson, Megan M

    2016-02-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is common and well-documented. Cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT) has been shown to improve trained abilities (Useful Field of View; UFOV), but transfer to individual non-trained cognitive outcomes or neuropsychological composites is sparse. We examine the effects of SOPT on a composite of six equally weighted tests--UFOV, Trail-making A and B, Symbol Digit Modality, Controlled Oral Word Association, Stroop Color and Word, and Digit Vigilance. 681 patients were randomized separately within two age-bands (50-64, ≥ 65) to three SOPT groups (10 initial hours on-site, 10 initial hours on-site plus 4 hours of boosters, or 10 initial hours at-home) or an attention-control group (10 initial hours on-site of crossword puzzles). At one-year, 587 patients (86.2%) had complete data. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used. Factor analysis revealed a simple unidimensional structure with Cronbach's α of 0.82. The time effect was statistically significant (p age-band (p = 0.463), and time by treatment group by age-band (p = 0.564) effects were not. Compared to the attention-control group who played a computerized crossword puzzle game, assignment to 10-14 hours of SOPT did not significantly improve a composite measure of cognitive abilities.

  9. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Leber, Bettina; Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R; Tripolt, Norbert J; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13) or no LcS (n = 15). Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  10. A morphological and structural approach to evaluate the electromagnetic performances of composites based on random networks of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G.; Tucci, V.

    2014-04-01

    Small quantities of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer resins allow to obtain new lightweight nanocomposites suitable for microwave applications, such as efficient electromagnetic shielding or radar absorbing materials. The availability of appropriate simulation models taking into account the morphological and physical features of such very interesting composites is very important for design and performance optimization of devices and systems. In this study, a 3-dimensional (3D) numerical structure modeling the morphology of a CNT-based composite is considered in order to carry out a computational analysis of their electromagnetic performances. The main innovative features of the proposed model consists in the identification of a resistance and capacitance network whose values depend on the filler geometry and loading and whose complexity is associated with the percolation paths. Tunneling effect and capacitive interactions between the individual conductive particles are properly taken into account. The obtained network allows an easy calculation in a wide frequency range of the complex permittivity and others electromagnetic parameters. Moreover, a reliable sensitivity analysis concerning the impact of some crucial parameters, such as the CNTs properties and the dielectric permittivity of the neat resin, on the electromagnetic features of the resulting composites can be carried out. The model predictions are in good agreement with existing experimental data, suggesting that the proposed model can be a useful tool for their design and performance optimization in the microwave range.

  11. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural and pre-treatments induced variability in the chemical composition and morphology of lichens and mosses selected for active monitoring of airborne elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, I-80055 Portici (Italy)], E-mail: adamo@unina.it; Bargagli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Giordano, S. [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Modenesi, P. [DIP.TE.RIS, Universita di Genova, Corso Dogali 1/m, I-16136 Genova (Italy); Monaci, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Pittao, E. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Spagnuolo, V. [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tretiach, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    To enhance the reliability of the moss and lichen transplant technique for active biomonitoring of trace metals in urban environments, we evaluated the natural variability in the chemical composition of the (epilithic and epiphytic) moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea from two reference areas in NE Italy. Green shoots of epilithic mosses and lobes of epiphytic lichens from larch branches showed rather homogenous composition and were selected for the exposure in nylon bags. As different physico-chemical pre-treatments are usually applied to selected cryptogamic material before its exposure, we also evaluated the effects of oven-drying at 120 deg. C for 24 h, washing in 1 N HNO{sub 3} solution, and in 0.5% NH{sub 4} oxalate solution at 85 deg. C for 15 h on the chemical composition and morphology of water-washed moss shoots and lichen lobes. Pre-treatments remarkably changed the chemical composition of selected materials but not their surface morphology. - Water-washed and oven-dried moss shoots and lichen lobes have adequate chemical and morphological homogeneity to be used as active biomonitors of trace element atmospheric deposition.

  13. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  14. Visible-light-driven N-(BiO)2CO3/Graphene oxide composites with improved photocatalytic activity and selectivity for NOx removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijuan; Huang, Yu; Yao, Jie; Cao, Jun-ji; Liu, Yuan

    2018-02-01

    N-doped (BiO)2CO3 (NBOC)/graphene oxide (GO) composite obtained from three-dimensional hierarchical microspheres is successfully synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method for the first time. In this synthesis, citrate ion plays a critical role in N doping. The obtained samples are used to degrade gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level under visible-light irradiation. NBOC-GO composite with 1.0 wt% graphene oxide (GO) displays the highest photocatalytic NO removal efficiency, which is 4.3 times higher than that of pristine (BiO)2CO3. Moreover, NBOC-GO composite significantly inhibits toxic NO2 intermediate production, indicating its high selectivity for NO conversion. Compared with regular GO, N doping considerably improves the catalytic performance of NBOC-GO composite, which increases NO removal by 74.6% and fully inhibits NO2 generation. The improved photocatalytic activity is mainly ascribed to extended optical absorption ability and enhanced separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers over NBOC-GO composite. Both results of electron spin resonance and theoretical analysis of band structure indicate that NO removal is dominated by oxidation with rad OH and rad O2- radicals. The photocatalytic activity improvement mechanism over the NBOC-GO composite is proposed accordingly based on systematic characterizations. This study demonstrates a feasible route to fabricating Bi-containing composites with high selectivity and stability for air pollution control and provides a new insight into the associated photocatalytic mechanisms.

  15. Effects of short-term oral corticosteroid intake on dietary intake, body weight and body composition in adults with asthma - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, B S; Gibson, P G; McElduff, P; MacDonald-Wicks, L K; Wood, L G

    2015-05-01

    Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are an efficacious treatment for asthma exacerbations, yet risk of adverse effects may decrease patient adherence to therapy. In particular, changes in appetite and dietary intake, which lead to weight gain and changes in body composition, are considered undesirable. To determine whether 10-day OCS therapy in adults with asthma causes changes in leptin, appetite, dietary intake, body weight and body composition. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over trial of 10 days prednisolone (50 mg) in adults with stable asthma (n = 55) (ACTRN12611000562976). Pre- and post-assessment included spirometry, body weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, appetite measured using a validated visual analogue scale (VAS) and dietary intake assessed using 4-day food records. Leptin was measured as a biomarker of appetite and eosinophils as an adherence biomarker. Outcomes were analysed by generalized linear mixed models. Subject adherence was confirmed by a significant decrease in blood eosinophils (× 10(9) /L) following prednisolone compared to placebo [Coef. -0.29, 95% CI: (-0.39, -0.19) P body weight (kg) [Coef. -0.38, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.05) P = 0.083] or body fat (%) [Coef. -0.31, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.20) P = 0.230]. Symptoms including sleep and gastrointestinal disturbance were reported significantly more often during prednisolone vs. placebo. Short-term OCS in stable asthma did not induce significant changes in appetite, dietary intake, body weight or composition, although other adverse effects may require medical management. This evidence may assist in increasing medication adherence of asthmatics prescribed OCS for exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of citric acid-based nano hydroxyapatite composite graft in the regeneration of intrabony defects - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Priya Dayashankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional periodontal therapy with various bone grafts has limited scope and the results are not predictable. To improve their utility, the hybridization of bioceramics and biodegradable polymers has been widely adopted to reform the mechanical properties of bone grafts. One such biodegradable polymer is POC (Poly 1,8 octanediol. Secondly, citric acid is considered as the key material in bone mineralization, which is related to the overall stability, strength and fracture resistance of bone. Hence citric acid is incorporated in a polymer and Nano hydroxyapatite to form a composite graft, for periodontal bone regeneration. This study attempts to evaluate the efficacy of citric acid based Nano-hydroxyapatite composite graft for the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis patients over 12 months. Methods: A split mouth study, which consists of 10 systemically healthy patients, were randomly treated with Citric acid based Nano hydroxyapatite composite graft (test sites, n=18 or with Nano hydroxyapatite alone (control sites, n=15. Plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, bone probing depth (BPD and hard tissue parameters such as amount of defect fill, percentage of defect fill, and changes in alveolar crest were assessed over a period of 12 months. Statistical analysis used was student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Both test and control sites demonstrated statistically significant reduction of PD, BPD, gain in CAL and radiographic bone fill. Nevertheless the test sites showed Statistically significant improvements in all the parameters as compared to control sites at 12 months. Conclusion: Citric acid based Nano hydroxyapatite composite graft can be considered as a newer material for periodontal regeneration.

  17. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  19. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  1. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Body Weight and Body Composition Among Adults: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 37 Randomized Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tingting; Qi, Lu; Huang, Tao

    2017-10-23

    Effects of dairy consumption on body weight and body composition have been inconsistently observed in randomized control trials (RCTs). Our meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and body composition among the adults. We conducted a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase databases of the relevant studies from 1966 to Mar 2017 regarding dairy consumption on body weight and body composition including of body fat, lean mass and waist circumference (WC). The summary results were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. 37 RCTs with 184,802 participants were included in this meta-analysis. High dairy intervention increased body weight (0.01, 95% CI: -0.25, 0.26, I2 = 78.3%) and lean mass (0.37, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.62, I2 = 83.4%); decreased body fat (-0.23, 95% CI: -0.48, 0.02, I2 = 78.2%) and WC (-1.37, 95% CI: -2.28, -0.46, I2 = 98.9%) overall. In the subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products increased body weight (0.36, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.70, I2 = 83.1%) among participants without energy restriction. Dairy consumption decreased body weight (-0.64, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.24, I2 = 60.2%), body fat (-0.56, 95%CI: -0.95, -0.17, I2 = 66.6%) and waist circumference (-2.18, 95%CI: -4.30, -0.06, I2 = 99.0%) among the adults with energy restriction. This meta-analysis suggests a beneficial effect of energy-restricted dairy consumption on body weight and body composition. However, high dairy consumption in the absence of caloric restriction may increase body weight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  3. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  4. H-DROP: an SVM based helical domain linker predictor trained with features optimized by combining random forest and stepwise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Teppei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Ryotaro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Domain linker prediction is attracting much interest as it can help identifying novel domains suitable for high throughput proteomics analysis. Here, we report H-DROP, an SVM-based Helical Domain linker pRediction using OPtimal features. H-DROP is, to the best of our knowledge, the first predictor for specifically and effectively identifying helical linkers. This was made possible first because a large training dataset became available from IS-Dom, and second because we selected a small number of optimal features from a huge number of potential ones. The training helical linker dataset, which included 261 helical linkers, was constructed by detecting helical residues at the boundary regions of two independent structural domains listed in our previously reported IS-Dom dataset. 45 optimal feature candidates were selected from 3,000 features by random forest, which were further reduced to 26 optimal features by stepwise selection. The prediction sensitivity and precision of H-DROP were 35.2 and 38.8%, respectively. These values were over 10.7% higher than those of control methods including our previously developed DROP, which is a coil linker predictor, and PPRODO, which is trained with un-differentiated domain boundary sequences. Overall, these results indicated that helical linkers can be predicted from sequence information alone by using a strictly curated training data set for helical linkers and carefully selected set of optimal features. H-DROP is available at http://domserv.lab.tuat.ac.jp.

  5. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S

    2011-03-01

    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effects of very-low-calorie diet on body composition, metabolic state, and genes expression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merra, G; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Barrucco, S; Perrone, M A; Avolio, E; Bernardini, S; Marchetti, M; Di Renzo, L

    2017-01-01

    Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs, Ketogenic diet (KD) are generally used as part of integrated intervention, medical monitoring and a program of lifestyle modification, to improve a multitude of clinical states. The effect of three different very low calories KD (VLCKD), with (VLCKD1) or without (VLCKD2,3) synthetic amino acid replacement of the 50% protein intake, were analyzed after weight loss. The clinical study used a cross-over randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Obese subjects, who were eligible for the study, were randomly (R) divided into three groups: one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1 and CG2). We comprehensively analyzed body composition, serum metabolites, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NfKB), Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) gene expression. After VLDKDs a significant decreased in BMI was observed. TBF (kg) significantly decrease after VLCKD1 and VLCKD3. After VLCKD2, a reduction of waist circumference (p = 0.02), FM L2-L5 (p < 0.05) was observed. After VLCKD1 reduction of IMAT (p = 0.00), LDL-C (p = 0.00) and HDL-C (p = 0.00) were observed. No significant changes of GH, ESR, and fibrinogen were highlighted. CRP (p = 0.02) reduced significantly after VLCKD3. Significant modulation of SOD1 expression (p = 0.009), CRP and decrease of glucose levels (p = 0.03) were obtained after VLCKD3. This is the first study that analyzes comprehensively body composition, metabolic profile, and inflammation and oxidative stress genes expression after VLCKD. Our results show the efficacy of VLCKD with synthetic aminoacidic protein replacement, for the reduction of cardiovascular risk, without the development of sarcopenia and activation of inflammatory and oxidative processes.

  7. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Jain, Sonal; Puri, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani

    2017-06-12

    Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched. We investigated the effect of oral cinnamon consumption on body composition and metabolic parameters of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 16-week double blind randomized control trial, 116 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomized to two dietary intervention groups, cinnamon [6 capsules (3 g) daily] or wheat flour [6 capsules (2.5 g) daily]. Body composition, blood pressure and metabolic parameters were assessed. Significantly greater decrease [difference between means, (95% CI)] in fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) [0.3 (0.2, 0.5) p = 0.001], glycosylated haemoglobin (mmol/mol) [2.6 (0.4, 4.9) p = 0.023], waist circumference (cm) [4.8 (1.9, 7.7) p = 0.002] and body mass index (kg/m2 ) [1.3 (0.9, 1.5) p = 0.001] was observed in the cinnamon group compared to placebo group. Other parameters which showed significantly greater improvement were: waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Prevalence of defined metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced in the intervention group (34.5%) vs. the placebo group (5.2%). A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. The clinical trial was retrospectively registered (after the recruitment of the participants) in ClinicalTrial.gov under the identification number: NCT02455778 on 25th May 2015.

  8. Hemocompatibility and selective cell fate of polydopamine-assisted heparinized PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongling; Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Bangxin

    2014-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium and its alloys have attracted much attention, as they have been used as cardiovascular stents recently because of their biodegradation after implantation. However, their corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and surface biocompatibility are needed for practical applications. In this work, heparinization of the plasma electrolytic oxidation/poly(l-lactic acid) (PEO/PLLA) composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy was achieved by the strong adhesion of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDAM). The corrosion resistance of the coated substrates was evaluated in simulated body fluid. In particular, the hemolysis ratio and platelet adhesion tests were conducted to evaluate the hemocompatibility of the composite coatings. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite coatings was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion and proliferation of HUVECs and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) directly incubated on the composite coatings were also investigated. The results showed that although PDAM modification and further heparinization reduced the corrosion resistance of the PEO/PLLA composite coating, the protection of the coating for the substrate was mainly maintained. Moreover, PDAM modification and further heparinization significantly suppressed the adhesion of platelets and had little influence on sustaining a low hemolysis ratio thus resulting in good surface hemocompatibility of the composite coating. The in vitro cell test demonstrated that none of the composite coatings presented obvious cytotoxicity. Significantly, after surface heparinization, the composite coating became more suitable for HUVEC growth and simultaneously inhibited HUASMC growth. The results show that further modification of the PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy is a promising method to obtain good surface hemocompatibility for anticoagulation and to regulate the cell fate for fast re

  9. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  10. Mapping main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL for body composition in a chicken population divergently selected for low or high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignal Alain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delineating the genetic basis of body composition is important to agriculture and medicine. In addition, the incorporation of gene-gene interactions in the statistical model provides further insight into the genetic factors that underlie body composition traits. We used Bayesian model selection to comprehensively map main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL in an F2 reciprocal intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for high or low growth rate. Results We identified 17 QTL with main effects across 13 chromosomes and several sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for breast meat yield, thigh + drumstick yield and abdominal fatness. Different sets of QTL were found for both breast muscles [Pectoralis (P major and P. minor], which suggests that they could be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms. Significant interactions of QTL by sex allowed detection of sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for body composition and abdominal fat. We found several female-specific P. major QTL and sex-antagonistic P. minor and abdominal fatness QTL. Also, several QTL on different chromosomes interact with each other to affect body composition and abdominal fatness. Conclusions The detection of main effects, epistasis and sex-dimorphic QTL suggest complex genetic regulation of somatic growth. An understanding of such regulatory mechanisms is key to mapping specific genes that underlie QTL controlling somatic growth in an avian model.

  11. Effects of L- Arginine Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Body Composition in Obese Patients with Pre-diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Fazelian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to determine effects of L-Arginine supplementation on antioxidant status and body composition in obese patients with prediabetes. Methods: A double-blind randomized control trial was performed on 46 (24 men, 22 women obese patients with prediabetes. They were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in intervention (n = 23 and control group (n=23 received 3 gr/day L-arginine and placebo, respectively for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical measurements ((serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD were performed at the baseline and after 8-week intervention. Results: The mean age and BMI of participants were 44.29±8.65 years old and 28.14±1.35 kg/m2, respectively. At the end of study, in both intervention and control group, percentage of carbohydrate decreased and %fat intake increased compared to the baseline (P0.05. Among measured biochemical factors, only serum TAC level showed significant differences at the end of study in the intervention group compared to the control group (pv<0.01. Conclusion: 3gr/day L-Arginine supplementation increased TAC level in obese patients with prediabetes.

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stengel, S; Kemmler, W; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether the effect of multipurpose exercise can be enhanced by whole-body vibration (WBV). One hundred and fifty-one post-menopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a training group (TG); (2) training including vibration (VTG); and (3) a wellness control group (CG). TG and VTG performed the same training program twice weekly (60 min), consisting of aerobic and strength exercises, with the only difference that leg strength exercises (15 min) were performed with (VTG) or without (TG) vibration. CG performed a low-intensity "wellness" program. At baseline and after 18 months, body composition was determined using dual-X-ray-absorptiometry. Maximum isometric strength was determined for the legs and the trunk region. Leg power was measured by countermovement jumps using a force-measuring plate. In the TG lean body mass, total body fat, and abdominal fat were favorably affected, but no additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. However, concerning muscle strength and power, there was a tendency in favor of the VTG. Only vibration training resulted in a significant increase of leg and trunk flexion strength compared with CG. In summary, WBV embedded in a multipurpose exercise program showed minor additive effects on body composition and neuromuscular performance. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Javier; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Sadarangani, Kabir P; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2017-11-10

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation interventions on modification in strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed using three databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO and Web of Science. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of HMB supplementation interventions on modification in bench and leg press strength, body mass, fat-free mass and fat mass. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed effect meta-analysis due to low value of the heterogeneity. The Egger test was used to determine the presence of publication bias, and the Q and I2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity among studies. Significance was set at p0.05, and null heterogeneity I2=0.0% p>0.05). These results remained constant even analyzing by subgroups (HMB doses, duration of intervention, training level and diet co-intervention). This meta-analysis found no effect of HMB supplementation on strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of a novel herbal composition licorice flavonoid oil in subject with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaku Nakagawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In order toevaluate the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFOon abdominalwaist circumference, blood pressure, body weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, body fat composition,and fasting blood glucose in patients with metabolic syndrome, a 12 week randomized double-blind placebo-controlledstudywas conducted. Methods: Fiftypatientswith metabolic syndrome agedbetween 18-75 years were assigned toeither the LFO or placebo group. Abdominal waist circumference, blood pressure, body weight,and BMI were assessed atbaseline, week 4, week 8,and week 12. Clinical laboratory examinations, fat composition,andfasting blood glucose level wereassessed at baseline (week 0 and final visit(week 12.Results: Atotal of 50 subjects (25 subjects in each groupcompleted the 12-weekstudy. Significant difference inchangesfrom the baseline wasobserved in body weight, waist circumference,and BMI in the LFOgroup compared to the placebo group from week 4or week 8 onwards. No adverse events were noted throughout the study. Conclusion: The present study suggeststhat LFOisa promising dietary nutrient forimproving metabolic syndrome, particularlythroughits beneficial effect of normalizingbody weight, BMI,and possibly the amount of visceral fatand HDL cholesterol.

  15. Polypropylene-based composite mesh versus standard polypropylene mesh in the reconstruction of complicated large abdominal wall hernias: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M I; El-Haddad, H M

    2016-10-01

    To compare polypropylene mesh positioned onlay supported by omentum and/or peritoneum versus inlay implantation of polypropylene-based composite mesh in patients with complicated wide-defect ventral hernias. This was a prospective randomized study carried out on 60 patients presenting with complicated large ventral hernia in the period from January 2012 to January 2016 in the department of Gastrointestinal Surgery unit and Surgical Emergency of the Main Alexandria University Hospital, Egypt. Large hernia had an abdominal wall defect that could not be closed. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients according to the type of mesh used to deal with the large abdominal wall defect. The study included 38 women (63.3 %) and 22 men (37.7 %); their mean age was 46.5 years (range, 25-70). Complicated incisional hernia was the commonest presentation (56.7 %).The operative and mesh fixation times were longer in the polypropylene group. Seven wound infections and two recurrences were encountered in the propylene group. Mean follow-up was 28.7 months (2-48 months). Composite mesh provided, in one session, satisfactory results in patients with complicated large ventral hernia. The procedure is safe and effective in lowering operative time with a trend of low wound complication and recurrence rates.

  16. Top management team composition and organizational ecology : A nested hierarchical selection theory of team reproduction and organizational diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Christophe; Wezel, Filippo C.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Baum, JAC; Dobrev, SD; VanWitteloostuijn, A

    2006-01-01

    The "upper echelon" literature has mainly produced static empirical studies on the impact of top management team composition on organizational outcomes, ignoring the dynamics of industrial demography. Organizational ecology explicitly studied the dynamics of organizational diversity at the

  17. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat...

  18. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Stannard, Stephen R; Ghlissi, Zohra; Maughan, Ronald J; Kallel, Choumous; Jamoussi, Kamel; Zeghal, Khaled M; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known...

  19. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  20. A randomized trial to determine the impact of a digestion resistant starch composition on the gut microbiome in older and mid-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa, Michelle J; Strang, David; Tappia, Paramjit S; Graham, Morag; Van Domselaar, Gary; Forbes, Jessica D; Laminman, Vanessa; Olson, Nancy; DeGagne, Pat; Bray, David; Murray, Brenda-Lee; Dufault, Brenden; Lix, Lisa M

    2017-03-31

    The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic® (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition. Secondary objectives included assessment of stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and inflammatory markers in ELD and MID Canadian adults. This was a prospective, placebo controlled, randomized, double-blinded study. Stool was collected at enrollment and 6, 10 and 14 weeks after randomization to placebo or MSPrebiotic®. Microbiome analysis was done using 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA extracted from stool. SCFA analysis of stool was performed using gas chromatography. There were 42 ELD and 42 MID participants randomized to either placebo or MSPrebiotic® who completed the study. There was significantly higher abundance of Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli/Shigella) in ELD compared to MID at enrollment (p website: ClinicalTrials.gov. The full trial protocol is available on request from the corresponding author. The 16S rRNA sequencing data and metadata generated in this study have been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/381931). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of one selected Tisochrysis lutea strain rich in lipids on Crassostrea gigas larval development and biochemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, F; Petton, Bruno; Mingant, Christian; Bougaran, Gael; Rouxel, Catherine; Quere, Claudie; Wikfors, G. H.; Soudant, P; Robert, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Effects of a remarkably high overall lipid Tisochrysis lutea strain (T+) upon gross biochemical composition, fatty acid (FA), sterol and lipid class composition of Crassostrea gigas larvae were evaluated and compared with a normal strain of Tisochrysis lutea (T) and the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile (Cg). In a first experiment, the influence of different single diets (T, T+ and Cg) and a bispecific diet (TCg) was studied, whereas, effects of monospecific diets (T and T+) and bispecific diets ...

  2. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  4. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    infarction or other biomarker positive acute coronary syndrome, non-fatal stroke or CV death analysed using a Cox model with a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of 1.4 for the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: In total, 7297 participants were randomized. During a median 3-year follow-up, fewer subjects than......-years with celecoxib and 1.10 per 100 patient-years with nsNSAIDs (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.33; P = 0.75). Pre-specified non-inferiority was achieved in the ITT analysis. The upper bound of the 95% confidence limit for the absolute increase in OT risk associated with celecoxib treatment was two......NSAIDs. There was no advantage of a strategy of switching prescribed nsNSAIDs to prescribed celecoxib. This study excluded an increased risk of the primary endpoint of more than two events per 1000 patient-years associated with switching to prescribed celecoxib....

  5. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Weißenfels, Anja; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; Kohl, Matthias; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30-50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks) that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as "single-set-to-failure protocol," while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms) over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM) as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press). LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93 ± 1.15%) were significant (p = .001); however, no significant group differences were detected (p = .395). Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7 ± 14.7%, p = .002, versus WB-EMS 7.3 ± 10.3%, p = .012) with no significant (p = .215) between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  6. Randomized controlled clinical trial of the 24-months survival of composite resin restorations after one-step incomplete and complete excavation on primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, R; Opdam, N J; Guimarães, L F; Demarco, F F; Casagrande, L; Haas, A N; Araujo, F B

    2015-10-01

    This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the 24-months survival of composite restorations in primary molars after partial caries removal (PCR) and total caries removal (TCR). Forty-eight children aged 3-8 years with at least one molar with a deep carious lesion were included (PCR; n=66; TCR; n=54). For PCR, excavation was stopped when dentine with a leathery consistency was achieved; in the TCR group, total absence of carious tissue was confirmed using a blunt-tipped probe. Pulpotomy was performed in cases of pulp exposure. Success was assessed by modified USPHS criteria with Alpha and Bravo scores recorded as success. Pulp exposure occurred in 1 and 15 of the teeth treated with PCR and TCR respectively (p<0.01). The restorations survival rate after 24 months was 66% (PCR) and 86% (TCR) (p=0.03). When teeth that received pulpotomy were analyzed separately, the survival rate was 92% (p=0.09). PCR performed in occlusoproximal restorations demonstrated the lowest success rate (p=0.002). PCR increases 2.90 times the probability of having a restorative failure compared to TCR (p=0.03), after adjusting for cavity type. When pulp exposure and restoration failure were considered as the outcome, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.10) with success rates of 64% (PCR) and 61% (TCR). Collectively, deciduous teeth submitted to PCR prevented pulp exposure and, consequently, more invasive treatments; otherwise, PCR yielded lower longevity for composite restoration compared to TCR, suggesting that PCR restorations need to be followed over time, especially when multi-surface restorations are involved. Composite restorations on carious remaining tissue require monitoring over time, especially those performed in more than one surface. Even if the restorations present shortcomings over the time, the majority of them are subject to repair, allowing more conservative approaches for teeth with deep caries lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  8. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschler, Marc; Weißenfels, Anja; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; Kohl, Matthias; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks) that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms) over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM) as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press). LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93 ± 1.15%) were significant (p = .001); however, no significant group differences were detected (p = .395). Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7 ± 14.7%, p = .002, versus WB-EMS 7.3 ± 10.3%, p = .012) with no significant (p = .215) between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition. PMID:27034699

  9. Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Costacurta, Micaela; Merra, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Paola; Cioccoloni, Giorgia; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Docimo, Raffaella; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-06-10

    Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). 60 women were enrolled. At baseline and after a 3-week probiotic oral suspension (POS) intake, all subjects underwent evaluation of body composition by anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry, and psychological profile assessment by self-report questionnaires (i.e. EDI-2, SCL90R and BUT). Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test or a non-parametric Wilcoxon test to evaluate differences between baseline and after POS intake, one-way ANOVA to compare all three groups and, where applicable, Chi square or t test were used to assess symptoms. Of the 48 women that concluded the study, 24% were NWO, 26% were NWL and 50% were PreOB/OB. Significant differences in body composition were highlighted among groups both at baseline and after a POS (p meteorism (p < 0.05) and defecation frequency (p < 0.05). A 3-week intake of selected psychobiotics modulated body composition, bacterial contamination, psychopathological scores of NWO and PreOB/OB women. Further research is needed on a larger population and for a longer period of treatment before definitive conclusions can be made. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  10. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? – A 45 year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  11. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? - A 45 year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-12-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  12. Effect of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Selective Laser Melting on the Formation of In situ Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Aluminum-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfeng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM equipped with EDX, respectively. The thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool was investigated for a comprehensive understanding on the growth mechanism of the SLM-processed composite using a finite volume method (FVM. The results revealed that the in situ Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites were successfully fabricated by SLM. Combined with the XRD spectrum and EDX analysis, the new silica-rich Al2Si4O10 reinforcing phase was identified, which was dispersed around the grain boundaries of the aluminum matrix under a reasonable laser power of 200 W. Combined with the activity of Marangoni convection and repulsion forces, the characteristic microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites tended to transfer from the irregular network structure to the nearly sphere-like network structure in regular form by increasing the laser power. The formation mechanism of the microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites is thoroughly discussed herein.

  13. Thermoelectrically induced nonlinear free vibration analysis of piezo laminated composite conical shell panel with random fiber orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Achchhe; Shegokar, Niranjan L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the free vibration response of piezo laminated composite geometrically nonlinear conical shell panel subjected to a thermo-electrical loading. The temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and through the shell thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component E2 only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The basic formulation is based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT) with von-Karman nonlinearity. A C0 nonlinear finite element method based on direct iterative approach is outlined and applied to solve nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem. Parametric studies are carried out to examine the effect of amplitude ratios, stacking sequences, cone angles, piezoelectric layers, applied voltages, circumferential length to thickness ratios, change in temperatures and support boundary conditions on the nonlinear natural frequency of laminated conical shell panels. The present outlined approach has been validated with those available results in the literature.

  14. Thermoelectrically induced nonlinear free vibration analysis of piezo laminated composite conical shell panel with random fiber orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the free vibration response of piezo laminated composite geometrically nonlinear conical shell panel subjected to a thermo-electrical loading. The temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and through the shell thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component E2 only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The basic formulation is based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT with von-Karman nonlinearity. A C0 nonlinear finite element method based on direct iterative approach is outlined and applied to solve nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem. Parametric studies are carried out to examine the effect of amplitude ratios, stacking sequences, cone angles, piezoelectric layers, applied voltages, circumferential length to thickness ratios, change in temperatures and support boundary conditions on the nonlinear natural frequency of laminated conical shell panels. The present outlined approach has been validated with those available results in the literature.

  15. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  16. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  17. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  18. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  19. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  20. Electrochemical Selective and Simultaneous Detection of Diclofenac and Ibuprofen in Aqueous Solution Using HKUST-1 Metal-Organic Framework-Carbon Nanofiber Composite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Motoc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the detection protocols for the individual, selective, and simultaneous determination of ibuprofen (IBP and diclofenac (DCF in aqueous solutions have been developed using HKUST-1 metal-organic framework-carbon nanofiber composite (HKUST-CNF electrode. The morphological and electrical characterization of modified composite electrode prepared by film casting was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and four-point-probe methods. The electrochemical characterization of the electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV was considered the reference basis for the optimization of the operating conditions for chronoamperometry (CA and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA. This electrode exhibited the possibility to selectively detect IBP and DCF by simple switching the detection potential using CA. However, the MPA operated under optimum working conditions of four potential levels selected based on CV shape in relation to the potential value, pulse time, and potential level number, and order allowed the selective/simultaneous detection of IBP and DCF characterized by the enhanced detection performance. For this application, the HKUST-CNF electrode exhibited a good stability and reproducibility of the results was achieved.

  1. Electrochemical Selective and Simultaneous Detection of Diclofenac and Ibuprofen in Aqueous Solution Using HKUST-1 Metal-Organic Framework-Carbon Nanofiber Composite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoc, Sorina; Manea, Florica; Iacob, Adriana; Martinez-Joaristi, Alberto; Gascon, Jorge; Pop, Aniela; Schoonman, Joop

    2016-10-17

    In this study, the detection protocols for the individual, selective, and simultaneous determination of ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solutions have been developed using HKUST-1 metal-organic framework-carbon nanofiber composite (HKUST-CNF) electrode. The morphological and electrical characterization of modified composite electrode prepared by film casting was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and four-point-probe methods. The electrochemical characterization of the electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) was considered the reference basis for the optimization of the operating conditions for chronoamperometry (CA) and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA). This electrode exhibited the possibility to selectively detect IBP and DCF by simple switching the detection potential using CA. However, the MPA operated under optimum working conditions of four potential levels selected based on CV shape in relation to the potential value, pulse time, and potential level number, and order allowed the selective/simultaneous detection of IBP and DCF characterized by the enhanced detection performance. For this application, the HKUST-CNF electrode exhibited a good stability and reproducibility of the results was achieved.

  2. Selecting broiler chickens for ultimate pH of breast muscle: analysis of divergent selection experiment and phenotypic consequences on meat quality, growth, and body composition traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2014-09-01

    Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P meat of the pHu+ line was also characterized by greater CCY (+6.1 units; P meat and reducing the incidence of meat quality defects without affecting chicken growth performance.

  3. Effect of meal composition on postprandial lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle numbers: A randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Shah

    Full Text Available It is unclear how high-protein (HP and high-monounsaturated fat (HMF meals affect postprandial blood lipids and lipoprotein particle numbers (LPN.To compare a HP versus a HMF meal on postprandial lipid and LPN responses.Twenty-four participants (age: 36.3±15.0 years; body mass index: 23.6±2.0 kg/m2; 45.8% female were fed a HP (31.9% energy from protein and a HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat meal in a randomized cross-over trial design. Energy and carbohydrate content were the same across meals. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 hour postprandial state, and assessed for lipids and LPN.Repeated measures analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 treatment by time interaction effect for triglycerides (TG, the primary variable, total high-density lipoprotein particles (T-HDLP and T-HDLP minus large-buoyant high-density lipoprotein 2b (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b. HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG at 120 (geometric mean: 90.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 76.4-106.3 vs. 146.5 (124.2-172.9 mg/dL and 180 (101.4 (83.1-123.8 vs. 148.7 (121.9-181.4 mg/dL min and higher T-HDLP at 120 (mean difference: 297.3 (95% CI: 48.6-545.9 nmol/L and 180 (291.6 (15.8-567.5 nmol/L min. The difference in T-HDLP by condition was due to the significantly higher small-dense HDLP (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b during HP versus HMF condition at 120 (mean difference: 452.6 (95% CI: 177.4-727.9 nmol/L and 180 (496.8 (263.1-730.6 nmol/L min. Area under the curve analysis showed that HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG, non-HDLP, and very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDLP responses but significantly less favorable responses in LB-HDL2b particles, T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio.The HP meal led to lower TG, non-HDLP, and VLDLP but less favorable LB-HDL2b, small-dense HDLP, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio responses versus a HMF meal. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings over multiple meals.

  4. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  5. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, tech