WorldWideScience

Sample records for randomly selected adult

  1. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  2. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  3. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  4. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  5. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  6. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  7. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  8. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  9. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  10. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  11. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reales, Jos? M; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Elo?Sa; Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    .... Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com...

  13. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  14. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  15. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  16. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  17. Risk of bias in randomized trials of pharmacological interventions in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Yashwant K; Craig, Jonathan C; Sureshkumar, Premala; Hayen, Andrew; Brien, Jo-anne E

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic interventions in children are more likely to be biased than similar trials in adults. Trials involving only children and published in MEDLINE between January 2008 and October 2009 (n=100) were randomly selected and matched, by drug class and therapeutic area, with a similar trial completed in adults. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to compare the pediatric and adult trials. The characteristics of adult and pediatric trials included were similar, except that adult studies were more likely to be conducted in Europe and published in specialty journals. Two-thirds of all trials were single center, and 62% had 100 or fewer participants. Many trials had an unclear risk of bias for allocation concealment (65% adult, 52% pediatric). More pediatric trials had a low risk of bias for random sequence generation (59% pediatric, 41% adult, P=.002) and blinding of outcome assessment (63% pediatric, 48% adult, P=.04) than adult trials; however, a sensitivity analysis of trials published since 2008 (and so matched by year of publication) did not confirm this finding, suggesting year of publication was an important confounder. When randomized controlled trials are matched for drug class and therapeutic area, trials involving children display a similar risk of bias. Differences in the risk of bias between pediatric and adult trials are not caused by differences in the capacity of researchers to conduct and report trials of high quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  19. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  20. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  1. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  2. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  3. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  4. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  6. Mindfulness vs psychoeducation in adult ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxhaj, E; Sadohara, C; Borel, P; D'Amelio, R; Sobanski, E; Müller, H; Feige, B; Matthies, S; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2018-01-22

    Mindfulness training is a promising treatment approach in adult ADHD. However, there has not yet been a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness to an active control condition. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a mindfulness training program (MAP) compared to structured psychoeducation (PE). After randomization 81 medication-free adult ADHD patients participated either in an 8-week MAP or PE group program. At baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2) and after 8 months (T3), severity of ADHD and associated symptoms (depression, general psychopathology, quality of life) were measured with the Conner's ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the SF-36 by self and blind observer ratings. Both groups showed significant pre-post improvements in observer-rated Inattention scale (p load in adult ADHD. Furthermore in exploratory post hoc tests the study provides evidence for a potential gender-specific treatment response in adult ADHD.

  7. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  8. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  9. Exergaming and older adult cognition: a cluster randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J; Brickman, Adam M; Nimon, Joseph P; Okuma, Naoko; Westen, Sarah C; Merz, Molly E; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Kramer, Arthur F; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2012-02-01

    Dementia cases may reach 100 million by 2050. Interventions are sought to curb or prevent cognitive decline. Exercise yields cognitive benefits, but few older adults exercise. Virtual reality-enhanced exercise or "exergames" may elicit greater participation. To test the following hypotheses: (1) stationary cycling with virtual reality tours ("cybercycle") will enhance executive function and clinical status more than traditional exercise; (2) exercise effort will explain improvement; and (3) brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) will increase. Multi-site cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the impact of 3 months of cybercycling versus traditional exercise, on cognitive function in older adults. Data were collected in 2008-2010; analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. 102 older adults from eight retirement communities enrolled; 79 were randomized and 63 completed. A recumbent stationary ergometer was utilized; virtual reality tours and competitors were enabled on the cybercycle. Executive function (Color Trails Difference, Stroop C, Digits Backward); clinical status (mild cognitive impairment; MCI); exercise effort/fitness; and plasma BDNF. Intent-to-treat analyses, controlling for age, education, and cluster randomization, revealed a significant group X time interaction for composite executive function (p=0.002). Cybercycling yielded a medium effect over traditional exercise (d=0.50). Cybercyclists had a 23% relative risk reduction in clinical progression to MCI. Exercise effort and fitness were comparable, suggesting another underlying mechanism. A significant group X time interaction for BDNF (p=0.05) indicated enhanced neuroplasticity among cybercyclists. Cybercycling older adults achieved better cognitive function than traditional exercisers, for the same effort, suggesting that simultaneous cognitive and physical exercise has greater potential for preventing cognitive decline. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01167400. Copyright

  10. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  11. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  13. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Randomized trial of behavior therapy for adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Chang, Susanna; Liu, Haibei; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T; Scahill, Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome begin in childhood, peak in early adolescence, and often decrease by early adulthood. However, some adult patients continue to have impairing tics. Medications for tics are often effective but can cause adverse effects. Behavior therapy may offer an alternative but has not been examined in a large-scale controlled trial in adults. To test the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics in adults with Tourette syndrome of at least moderate severity. A randomized controlled trial with posttreatment evaluations at 3 and 6 months for positive responders. Three outpatient research clinics. Patients (N = 122; 78 males; age range, 16-69 years) with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder were recruited between December 27, 2005, and May 21, 2009. Patients received 8 sessions of comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics or 8 sessions of supportive treatment for 10 weeks. Patients with a positive response were given 3 monthly booster sessions. Total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale rated by a clinician masked to treatment assignment. Behavior therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean (SD) decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.0 [6.47] to 17.8 [7.32]) from baseline to end point compared with the control treatment (21.8 [6.59] to 19.3 [7.40]) (P Tourette syndrome. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00231985.

  15. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  16. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  17. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  18. Why are educated adults slim-Causation or selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2014-03-01

    More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks self-reported BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29). Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained. Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  20. Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon M; Yam, Anna; Bavelier, Daphne; Ball, Karlene; Mann, William C

    2013-07-01

    The current study investigated the effect of video game training on older adult's useful field of view performance (the UFOV® test). Fifty-eight older adult participants were randomized to receive practice with the target action game (Medal of Honor), a placebo control arcade game (Tetris), a clinically validated UFOV training program, or into a no contact control group. Examining pretest-posttest change in selective visual attention, the UFOV improved significantly more than the game groups; all three intervention groups improved significantly more than no-contact controls. There was a lack of difference between the two game conditions, differing from findings with younger adults. Discussion considers whether games posing less challenge might still be effective interventions for elders, and whether optimal training dosages should be higher.

  1. Comparison of treatment effect estimates for pharmacological randomized controlled trials enrolling older adults only and those including adults: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Seegers

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Older adults are underrepresented in clinical research. To assess therapeutic efficacy in older patients, some randomized controlled trials (RCTs include older adults only. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment effects between RCTs including older adults only (elderly RCTs and RCTs including all adults (adult RCTs by a meta-epidemiological approach. METHODS: All systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011 were screened. Eligible studies were meta-analyses of binary outcomes of pharmacologic treatment including at least one elderly RCT and at least one adult RCT. For each meta-analysis, we compared summary odds ratios for elderly RCTs and adult RCTs by calculating a ratio of odds ratios (ROR. A summary ROR was estimated across all meta-analyses. RESULTS: We selected 55 meta-analyses including 524 RCTs (17% elderly RCTs. The treatment effects differed beyond that expected by chance for 7 (13% meta-analyses, showing more favourable treatment effects in elderly RCTs in 5 cases and in adult RCTs in 2 cases. The summary ROR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.08, p = 0.28, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 51% and τ(2 = 0.14. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses by type-of-age RCT (elderly RCTs vs RCTs excluding older adults and vs RCTs of mixed-age adults, type of outcome (mortality or other and type of comparator (placebo or active drug yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pharmacologic treatments did not significantly differ, on average, between RCTs including older adults only and RCTs of all adults. However, clinically important discrepancies may occur and should be considered when generalizing evidence from all adults to older adults.

  2. Using music to reduce anxiety among older adults in the emergency department: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Laura; Rivera-Reyes, Laura; Hwang, Ula

    2017-11-01

    An emergency department (ED) visit may be distressing and anxiety-provoking for older adults (age > 65 years). No studies have specifically evaluated the effect of music listening on anxiety in older adults in the ED. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of music listening on anxiety levels in older ED patients. This was a randomized pilot study in the geriatric ED of an urban academic tertiary medical center. This was a sample of English-speaking adults (age > 65 years) who were not deaf (n = 35). Subjects consented to participate and were randomized to receive up to 60 min of music listening with routine care, while the control group received routine care with no music. Subjects in the music treatment group received headphones and an electronic tablet with pre-downloaded music, and were allowed to choose from 5 selections. The primary outcome was change in anxiety levels, measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), at enrollment and 1 h later. A total of 35 participants were enrolled: 74% were female, 40% were white, and 40% were black; of these, 32 subjects completed the study protocol. When comparing control (n = 18) against intervention subjects (n = 17), there were no significant differences in enrollment STAI scores (43.00 ± 15.00 vs. 40.30 ± 12.80, P = 0.57). STAI scores 1 hour after enrollment (after the music intervention) were significantly reduced in the intervention subjects compared to the control subjects (with reduction of 10.00 ± 12.29 vs. 1.88 ± 7.97, P = 0.03). These pilot results suggest that music listening may be an effective tool for reducing anxiety among older adults in the ED.

  3. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayes, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cogni...

  4. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Antonio ePrieto; Julia eMayas; Pilar eToril; Carmen ePita; Laura ePonce de León; José Manuel Reales; John eWaterworth

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cogn...

  5. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Oxygen Cost of Performing Selected Adult and Child Care Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, Nathanael; Vezina, Jesse W; Herrmann, Stephen D; Sawyer, Brandon J; Angadi, Siddhartha; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    Little is known about the oxygen cost of caring for infants and older adults. Many people perform these activities so it is useful to know the energy cost and if the activities are of sufficient intensity to contribute to meeting physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygen cost of four care-related activities in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Nineteen participants (n = 10 women, n = 9 men; Age = 36.4 ± 13.6 y; % Fat = 34.1 ± 10.5; BMI = 28.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2) performed four activities: 1) pushing an infant in a stroller, 2) pushing an adult in a wheelchair, 3) carrying an infant, and 4) bathing and dressing an infant. The oxygen cost was assessed using a portable metabolic unit. Activities were performed in random order for 8 minutes. The oxygen cost and heart rates, respectively, for healthy adults during care related activities were 3.09 METs and 90 ± 8 beats per minute (bpm) for pushing an infant in a stroller, 3.69 METs and 97 ± 9 bpm for pushing an adult in a wheelchair, 2.37 METs and 85 ± 9 bpm for carrying an infant, and 2.00 METs and 87 ± 9 bpm for bathing and dressing an infant. Carrying an infant and bathing an infant are light-intensity physical activities and pushing a wheelchair or a stroller are moderate intensity activities. The latter activities are of sufficient intensity to meet health-related physical activity recommendations.

  7. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  8. EFFECT OF CORE STABILITY TRAINING ON DYNAMIC BALANCE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhvani N Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a key component of normal daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary to find various programs to improve balance. The core functions to maintain postural alignment and balance during functional activities. The purpose was to study the effects of the core stability training on dynamic balance in healthy, young adults. Methods: It was an interventional study, in which 60 healthy young adults were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, one being experimental group and other control group. Measurement of their height, weight, BMI and leg length was taken. Subjects in both the groups were assessed for core stability with pressure biofeedback unit (PBU and dynamic balance using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT pre and post intervention. Subjects in the experimental group underwent progressive core stability training program for six weeks (3days/week and control group was refrained from any type of structured training program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in core stability and dynamic balance of the experimental group after six weeks of intervention. Conclusion: It is concluded that core stability training of six weeks duration is effective in improving dynamic balance in healthy, young adults.

  9. Clinical outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Ray, Wilson Z; Strom, Russell G; Blackburn, Spiros L; Lee, Amy; Park, Tae Sung

    2011-01-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a highly effective and well-established surgical tool for correction of lower-extremity spasticity in children with spastic diplegia caused by cerebral palsy (CP). Although the literature demonstrates considerable immediate and long-term functional benefits in children treated with SDR, the effects of SDR on adults with spastic diplegia have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the objective and subjective clinical outcomes of SDR on an adult population. We reviewed the charts of 21 consecutive adult patients who underwent SDR for treatment of CP-related spastic diplegia between the years of 1989 and 2007. All patients were treated by a single surgeon (T.S.P.) and underwent formal pre- and postoperative physical therapy assessments to examine joint range of motion (ROM), gross motor function measure (GMFM), and muscle tone. The majority of patients (15/21) exhibited preoperative ambulatory independence without an assistive device. Postoperative assessments were performed at 4 months, but most patients (11/21) had longer follow-up periods (mean, 17.6 ± 30.2 months). All patients were assessed with a telephone survey to estimate pre- and postoperative function with the Katz and Lawton Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale. After SDR surgery, patients experienced significant improvements in lower-extremity passive joint ROM (namely, decreases in hamstring and gastrocnemius tightness) as well as in GMFM crawling and kneeling scores. In addition, spasticity in all measured lower-extremity muscle groups was decreased as compared with preoperative levels. On the basis of our patient self-assessments conducted via telephone, each patient demonstrated subjective improvements in ambulatory ability, spasticity, coordination, joint ROM, pain, overall quality of life, and independence. Also, the Lawton total instrumental ADL scale scores were subjectively improved from preoperative levels

  10. Cost-Utility of Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Y.E.; Zon, A. van; Stegeman, I.; Zanten, G.A.; Rinia, A.B.; Stokroos, R.J.; Free, R.H.; Maat, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Huinck, W.J.; Topsakal, V.; Grolman, W.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-utility of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) versus unilateral CI. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). SETTING: Five tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight postlingually deafened adults eligible for cochlear implantation.

  11. Cost-Utility of Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Adults : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Yvette E; van Zon, Alice; Stegeman, Inge; van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Rinia, Albert B; Stokroos, Robert J; Free, Rolien H; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Huinck, Wendy J; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-utility of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) versus unilateral CI. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). SETTING: Five tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight postlingually deafened adults eligible for cochlear implantation.

  12. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  13. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  14. External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor J van Deudekom

    Full Text Available To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics.PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria.In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63-70 and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45-72. In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%. When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials.Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs.

  15. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  16. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  17. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Methods Overweight adults ...

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of the neuroplastic effects of CET on brain function in support of cognitive enhancement in adult autism . Analyses of treatment effects to date...the need and potential for CET to be a significant treatment advance for verbal adults with autism . Importantly, improvements were found in daily life function and in brain circuitry supporting core abilities....This project is focused on conducting the first randomized-controlled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in 54 verbal adults with autism

  19. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  20. The Effect of Interference on Temporal Order Memory for Random and Fixed Sequences in Nondemented Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Jerlyn C.; Pirogovsky, Eva; Luu, Trinh; Toner, Chelsea K.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of temporal interference on order memory for fixed and random sequences in young adults and nondemented older adults. The results demonstrate that temporal order memory for fixed and random sequences is impaired in nondemented older adults, particularly when temporal interference is high. However, temporal order…

  1. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  2. Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240 comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance

  3. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  4. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  5. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  6. Effects of health education tool on select epidemiological factors associated with adult obese urban slum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Deepika Pradeep; Shelke, Pallavi S

    2017-01-01

    National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006) India, found that 14.8% of Ever-Married Adults (age 15-49 years) had Body Mass Index (BMI) in the ranges of overweight and obese; compared to 10.6% in the National Family Health Survey-2. These figures highlighted the fact that India already faces a dual burden of chronic malnutrition, i.e., obesity, besides undernutrition. Higher BMI, especially, increased abdominal fat is an important determinant of the development of diabetes. This study aims to understand the effect of health education on obesity status of adult women above the age of 20 years in an urban slum area. Community-based, interventional study, to assess select epidemiological factors associated with obesity-including measurement of anthropometry and assessing random blood sugar level; followed by an intervention (health education to only obese women by means of flip-chart); followed by a follow-up 6 months later. About 22.6% women were found to be obese. Almost, all dietary and physical activity parameters as well as weight improved for the better after the intervention, and the change was statistically significant. This community based interventional study was able to understand certain factors associated with pathophysiology of obesity in slum dwelling adult women, and effectively documented a reduction in weight along with a change in their obesogenic practices postintervention.

  7. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  8. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N.; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Methods Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18?50 years with BMI=28?40 kg/m2 near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) an...

  9. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  10. The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    SH) and text word terms depression, depressive disorder and exercise, aerobic, non-aerobic, physical activity, physical fitness, walk*, jog*, run*, bicycling, swim*, strength, and resistance. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials including adults with clinical depression according to any diagnostic system were......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of exercise in adults with clinical depression. DATA SOURCES: The databases CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched (1806-2008) using medical subject headings (Me...... with depression (P = .002). No other characteristics were related to between-study heterogeneity. Pooled analysis of 5 trials with long-term follow-up (ie, that examined outcomes beyond the end of the intervention) suggested no long-term benefit (SMD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.26), with no strong evidence...

  11. The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    SH) and text word terms depression, depressive disorder and exercise, aerobic, non-aerobic, physical activity, physical fitness, walk*, jog*, run*, bicycling, swim*, strength, and resistance. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials including adults with clinical depression according to any diagnostic system were......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of exercise in adults with clinical depression. DATA SOURCES: The databases CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched (1806-2008) using medical subject headings (Me...... these, the estimated beneficial effect of exercise was more modest (SMD, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.31) than the pooled result for all 13 studies, with no strong evidence of benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a short-term effect of exercise on depression: on average, depression scores 0...

  12. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  13. Refractive Correction In A Selected Adult Population In Isiala Ngwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the types, distribution and frequency of refractive errors in adults in Isiala Ngwa South L.G.A. A 3-day vision screening program was carried out in November 2007 in which three hundred and forty two adults aged 40 to 80 years were screened for pathological conditions.The mean age ...

  14. Limited Role of Random Skin Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Intravascular Lymphoma in Adult Patients with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunje G; Sheu, Sarah L; Kuo, Karen Y; Ally, Mina S; Bailey, Elizabeth E; Kim, Jinah; Kwong, Bernice Y

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of random normal skin biopsy in the diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma (IVL) in adult Western patients with clinically diagnosed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In a retrospective chart review study, we analyzed a total of 59 skin biopsies that were performed to diagnose IVL in 21 adult patients with HLH seen at Stanford Hospital between 2004 and 2016. Out of the 59 skin biopsies, 42 were taken from clinically normal-appearing skin and 17 from clinically abnormal-appearing skin. None of the 59 biopsies revealed a diagnosis of primary or metastatic malignancy, regardless of the malignancy history, clinical presentation, and biopsy and histopathologic characteristics. A review of 8 positive IVL cases at Stanford Hospital including 1 case associated with HLH showed 1 positive diagnosis by a targeted skin biopsy and other positive diagnoses by bone marrow (n = 4), lung (n = 2), brain (n = 2), muscle (n = 1), and nerve (n = 1). Random skin biopsies have a limited role in diagnosing IVL in adult patients with HLH, in the setting of a single academic institution in the USA. A review of the literature emphasizes the role of a full body skin exam with a selective skin biopsy in these patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Adult height, coronary heart disease and stroke : A multi-locus Mendelian randomization meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nüesch, Eveline; Dale, Caroline; Palmer, Tom M.; White, Jon; Keating, Brendan J.; van Iperen, Erik P A; Goel, Anuj; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Asselbergs, F. W.; Verschuren, W. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Van der Schouw, Y. T.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Lange, Leslie A.; Hovingh, G. K.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Morris, Richard W.; Whincup, Peter H.; Wannamethe, Goya S.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ebrahim, Shah; Steel, Laura; Nair, Nikhil; Reiner, Alexander P.; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilson, James F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; McLachlan, Stela; Price, Jacqueline F.; Strachan, Mark W J; Robertson, Christine M.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Delgado, Graciela; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Leusink, Maarten; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; de Groot, Mark C H; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Amuzu, A.; Caufield, M.; Cavadino, A.; Cooper, J.; Davies, T. L.; Day, I. N.; Drenos, F.; Engmann, J.; Finan, C.; Giambartolomei, C.; Hardy, R.; Humphries, S. E.; Hypponen, E.; Kivimaki, M.; Kuh, D.; Kumari, M.; Ong, K.; Plagnol, V.; Power, C.; Richards, M.; Shah, S.; Shah, T.; Sofat, R.; Talmud, P. J.; Wareham, N.; Warren, H.; Whittaker, J. C.; Wong, A.; Zabaneh, D.; Smith, George Davey; Wells, Jonathan C.; Leon, David A.; Holmes, Michael V.; Casas, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated causal effect of completed growth, measured by adult height, on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular traits, using instrumental variable (IV) Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. Methods: We developed an allele score based on 69 single nucleotide

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  17. Cost-Utility of Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Adults : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Yvette E.; van Zon, Alice; Stegeman, Inge; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Rinia, Albert B.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Free, Rolien H.; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Huinck, Wendy J.; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    Objective:To study the cost-utility of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) versus unilateral CI.Study Design:Randomized controlled trial (RCT).Setting:Five tertiary referral centers.Patients:Thirty-eight postlingually deafened adults eligible for cochlear implantation.Interventions:A

  18. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  19. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  20. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  1. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  2. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Effectiveness of Houvast: A Strengths-Based Intervention for Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Manon A. M.; Boersma, Sandra N.; van der Veld, William M.; van Hulst, Bente; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed when entering the facility and when care ended.…

  3. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  4. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  5. A Selection of Hispanic Nonfiction for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 10 works of English-language nonfiction recommended for Hispanic young adults, including a view of pre-Columbian Mexico, biographies of controversial Hispanic men, an anthology of the writings of Juana Ines de la Cruz, an account of bullfighting, and books about Hispanic countries and Hispanic villages in New…

  6. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  7. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: Results of the 3-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Julia eMayas; Antonio ePrieto; Pilar Toril Barrera; Carmen Pita González; Laura Ponce De León Romero; José Manuel Reales; John Alexander Waterworth

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and th...

  9. Sex-specific roost selection by adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; S. Andrew Carter

    2007-01-01

    The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a common, widespread species that occurs throughout eastern North America; however, information on potential differences in roost selection between sexes is limited. We studied summer diurnal roosting of adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape to: (1) characterize roosts of adult males and females, (2...

  10. A Contemporary Review of Feminist Aesthetic Practices in Selective Adult Education Journals and Conference Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    This feminist content analysis of selective adult education journals and conference proceedings draws on feminist aesthetic theory to develop a deeper understanding of women adult education scholars' work with/in the arts. Four major categories identified were community cultural development, aesthetic civic engagement and knowledge mobilization,…

  11. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult ...

  12. Individualised resting hand splints for adults with acquired brain injury: a randomized, single blinded, single case design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Jodie; Kuipers, Kathy; Fleming, Jenny; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of individualized resting mitt splints on hypertonicity (spasticity and tissue stiffness) and passive range of motion (PROM). A randomized, single blinded, single case design. Ten adults with acquired brain injury were randomized to control (no-splint) and experimental (splint) groups. The experimental group received an individualized (wrist position, wearing schedule) thermoplastic resting mitt splint. Measures included wrist and finger PROM, muscle stiffness (Modified Ashworth Scale), and spasticity (Modified Tardieu Scale) which were taken at five time points. Between-group analyses indicated a statistically significant effect on PROM at the wrist (d = 2.14, CI₉₅ = 0.57, 3.72, p spasticity and stiffness. Within-group analyses indicated that splint-wear resulted in positive clinical effects ranging from zero effect (maintenance of pre-splinting status) to a large positive treatment effect. Non splint-wear resulted in negative clinical effects ranging from zero effect to a large negative treatment effect. Individualized resting splints for adults with moderate hypertonicity and no soft tissue contracture resulted in positive clinical effects to PROM, muscle stiffness and spasticity. Long-term splint-wear may be more beneficial than short-term wear, and may prevent the negative changes evident with no splint-wear. Resting hand splints should be considered for a select group where reduction in muscle stiffness and spasticity, or maintenance of PROM, is desired.

  13. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  14. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  15. Bupropion in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hamedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD for many years, and the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We hypothesized bupropion could be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD because some theoretical and experimental evidence exists to support efficacy of this medication. Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of ADHD, according to the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were randomized to receive 150 mg/day bupropion or placebo for a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Each patient filled the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self-Report-Screening version (CAARS before starting to take medication and in weeks 3 and 6 of the study. The mean score of the two groups receiving bupropion or placebo decreased over the 6 weeks. There was a significant difference between the two groups in CAARS score after 6 weeks. Bupropion is more effective than placebo in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Bupropion can be an alternative medication for the treatment of Adults with ADHD as its clinical efficacy was proven by other studies.

  16. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of a novel mixed monoamine reuptake inhibitor in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesnes Keith

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NS2359 is a potent reuptake blocker of noradrenalin, dopamine, and serotonin. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy, safety and cognitive function of NS2359 in adults with a DSM IV diagnosis of ADHD. Methods The study was a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel group design in outpatient adults (18–55 years testing 0.5 mg NS2359 vs. placebo for 8 weeks. Multiple assessments including computerized neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Results There was no significant difference between NS2359 (n = 63 versus placebo (n = 63 on the primary outcome measure reduction in investigator rated ADHD-RS total score (7.8 versus 6.4; p Conclusion No overall effect of NS2359 was found on overall symptoms of ADHD. There was also a modest signal of improvement in the inattentive adults with ADHD and cognition warranting further exploration using differing doses.

  18. Modified Atkins diet in adult with refractory epilepsy: A controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Okhovat, Ali Asghar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Mehvari, Jafar; Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2017-04-04

    Background: The usefulness of the modified Atkins diet (mAD) in refractory epilepsy in adults has been rarely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of mAD in adult with refractory epilepsy. Methods: In a controlled randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 66 refractory adult epileptic cases from February 2010 to December 2012. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, case groups (22 patients) used antiepileptic drugs and mAD and control group (32 patients) only use antiepileptic drugs. The primary outcome was at least 50% decrement in seizure frequency after 2 months of therapy. Results: No significant difference was shown in our data between groups regarding baseline characteristic. The differences of mean seizure attack after 2 months (P 50% seizure decrease at 1 and after 2 months and 12 (35.3%) had 50% decrease in seizure frequency. Furthermore, in mAD group, the mean urinary ketone positivity was 1.75 ± 0.28 and increasing liver enzyme was shown 5 cases (14.7%) in mAD group and 5 cases (15.6%) in control group (P < 0.050). Conclusion: The mAD may be effective as a cotherapy treatment for adults with refractory epilepsy and decrease 2.19 times seizure frequency in comparison with control groups. Trials with the more tolerant dietary regime, with larger sample size and longer duration, should be performed in future.

  19. Improving Social Support for Older Adults Through Technology: Findings From the PRISM Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2017-02-15

    Information and communication technology holds promise in terms of providing support and reducing isolation among older adults. We evaluated the impact of a specially designed computer system for older adults, the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management (PRISM) system. The trial was a multisite randomized field trial conducted at 3 sites. PRISM was compared to a Binder condition wherein participants received a notebook that contained paper content similar to that contained in PRISM. The sample included 300 older adults at risk for social isolation who lived independently in the community (Mage = 76.15 years). Primary outcome measures included indices of social isolation, social support, loneliness, and well-being. Secondary outcome measures included indices of computer proficiency and attitudes toward technology. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The PRISM group reported significantly less loneliness and increased perceived social support and well-being at 6 months. There was a trend indicating a decline in social isolation. Group differences were not maintained at 12 months, but those in the PRISM condition still showed improvements from baseline. There was also an increase in computer self-efficacy, proficiency, and comfort with computers for PRISM participants at 6 and 12 months. The findings suggest that access to technology applications such as PRISM may enhance social connectivity and reduce loneliness among older adults and has the potential to change attitudes toward technology and increase technology self-efficacy.

  20. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  1. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  2. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  3. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  4. Cognitive Training for Adults With Bothersome Tinnitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Spitznagel, Edward; Hale, Sandra; Nicklaus, Joyce E; Hardin, Frances Mei; Shimony, Joshua S; Coalson, Rebecca S; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2017-05-01

    Individuals with tinnitus have poorer working memory, slower processing speeds and reaction times, and deficiencies in selective attention, all of which interfere with readiness and performance. Brain Fitness Program-Tinnitus (BFP-T) is a cognitive training program specially designed to exploit neuroplasticity for preservation and expansion of cognitive health in adults with tinnitus. To evaluate the effect of the BFP-T on tinnitus. This open-label, intention-to-treat randomized clinical trial prescreened 191 patients with tinnitus and 64 healthy controls (HCs) from June 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. Participants were 40 adults with bothersome tinnitus for more than 6 months and 20 age-matched HCs. Patients with tinnitus were randomized to a BFP-T or non-BFP-T control group. The BFP-T was completed online, and assessments were completed at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants in the intervention group were required to complete the BFP-T online 1 hour per day 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Tinnitus assessment, neuroimaging, and cognitive testing were completed at baseline and 8 weeks later. The HCs underwent neuroimaging and cognitive assessments. The primary outcome measure was the change in Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score. Behavioral measures, neuroimaging, and cognitive tests were performed before and after the intervention. A total of 40 patients with tinnitus and 20 HCs participated in the study (median [range] age, 56 [35-64] years in the BFP-T group, 52 [24-64] years in the non-BFP-T group, and 50 [30-64] years in the HC group; 13 [65%] in the BFP-T group, 14 [70%] in the non-BFP-T group, and 13 [65%] in the HC group were males; and 16 [80%] in the BFP-T group, 16 [80%] in the non-BFP-T group, and 15 [75%] in the HC group were white). There was a reduction in the THI score in the BFP-T group (median, 7; range, -16 to 64) and non-BFP-T group (median, 11; range, -6 to 26), but this reduction was not significantly different between

  5. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-09-15

    Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18-50 years with BMI=28-40 kg/m 2 near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) and randomly assigned to either the stand-alone, theory-based Vegethon mobile app (enabling goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback and using "process motivators" including fun, surprise, choice, control, social comparison, and competition) or a wait-listed control condition. The primary outcome was daily vegetables servings, measured by an adapted Harvard food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) 8 weeks post-randomization. Daily vegetable servings from 24-hour dietary recalls, administered by trained, certified, and blinded interviewers 5 weeks post-randomization, was included as a secondary outcome. All analyses were conducted according to principles of intention-to-treat. Daily vegetable consumption was significantly greater in the intervention versus control condition for both measures (adjusted mean difference: 2.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.1, 3.8, p=0.04 for FFQ; and 1.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; p=0.02 for 24-hour recalls). Baseline vegetable consumption was a significant moderator of intervention effects (p=0.002) in which effects increased as baseline consumption increased. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Theory-based mobile interventions may present a low-cost, scalable, and effective approach to improving dietary behaviors and preventing associated chronic diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591. Registered 27 March 2013.

  6. Effects of exercise on depression in adults with arthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2015-02-03

    Previous randomized controlled trials have led to conflicting findings regarding the effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (AORC). The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to resolve these discrepancies. The inclusion criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) exercise (aerobic, strength training, or both) ≥4 weeks, (3) comparative control group, (4) adults with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia or systemic lupus erythematosus, (5) published studies in any language since January 1, 1981 and (6) depressive symptoms assessed. Studies were located by searching 10 electronic databases, cross-referencing, hand searching and expert review. Dual-selection of studies and data abstraction was performed. Hedge's standardized mean difference effect size (g) was calculated for each result and pooled using random-effects models, an approach that accounts for heterogeneity. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant. Heterogeneity based on fixed-effect models was estimated using Q and I (2) with alpha values ≤0.10 for Q considered statistically significant. Of the 500 citations reviewed, 2,449 participants (1,470 exercise, 979 control) nested within 29 studies were included. Length of training, reported as mean ± standard deviation (±SD) was 19 ± 16 weeks, frequency 4 ± 2 times per week and duration 34 ± 17 minutes per session. Overall, statistically significant exercise minus control group reductions were found for depressive symptoms (g = -0.42, 95% CI, -0.58, -0.26, Q = 126.9, P exercise program. Using Cohen's U3 Index, the percentile reduction was 16.4% (95% CI, 10.4% to 21.9%). All studies were considered to be at high risk of bias with respect to blinding of participants and personnel to group assignment. Exercise is associated with reductions in depressive symptoms among selected adults

  7. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  8. Dismantling multicomponent behavioral treatment for insomnia in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dana R; Sidani, Souraya; Bootzin, Richard R; Belyea, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the use of multicomponent insomnia treatment has increased. This study compares the effect of single component and multicomponent behavioral treatments for insomnia in older adults after intervention and at 3 months and 1 yr posttreatment. A randomized, controlled study. Veterans Affairs medical center. 179 older adults (mean age, 68.9 yr ± 8.0; 115 women [64.2%]) with chronic primary insomnia. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 wk of stimulus control therapy (SCT), sleep restriction therapy (SRT), the 2 therapies combined into a multicomponent intervention (MCI), or a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes were subjective (daily sleep diary) and objective (actigraphy) measures of sleep-onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), and sleep efficiency (SE). Secondary outcomes were clinical measures including response and remission rates. There were no differences between the single and multicomponent interventions on primary sleep outcomes measured by diary and actigraphy. All treatments produced significant improvement in diary-reported sleep in comparison with the control group. Effect sizes for sleep diary outcomes were medium to large. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up for diary and actigraph measured SOL, WASO, and SE. The MCI group had the largest proportion of treatment remitters. For older adults with chronic primary insomnia, the findings provide initial evidence that SCT, SRT, and MCI are equally efficacious and produce sustainable treatment gains on diary, actigraphy, and clinical outcomes. From a clinical perspective, MCI may be a preferred treatment due to its higher remission rate. Behavioral Intervention for Insomnia in Older Adults. NCT01154023. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154023?term=Behavioral+Intervention+for+Insomnia+in+Older+Adults&rank=1.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ito, Kengo; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Washimi, Yukihiko; Endo, Hidetoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years) with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50) with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50) before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to either a multicomponent exercise or an education control group using a ratio of 1∶1. The exercise group exercised for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, 40 times for 6 months. The exercise program was conducted under multitask conditions to stimulate attention and memory. The control group attended two education classes. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that no group × time interactions on the cognitive tests and brain atrophy in MCI patients. A sub-analysis of amnestic MCI patients for group × time interactions revealed that the exercise group exhibited significantly better Mini-Mental State Examination (p = .04) and logical memory scores (p = .04), and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy (pmemory scores (pmemory and maintaining general cognitive function and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy in older adults with amnestic MCI. Low total cholesterol and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor may predict improvement of cognitive functions in older adults with MCI. Further studies are required to determine the positive effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults with MCI. UMIN-CTR UMIN000003662 ctr.cgi?function = brows&action = brows&type = summary&recptno = R000004436&language = J.

  10. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  11. Career choice selection and satisfaction among US adult nephrology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Jhaveri, Kenar D; Sparks, Matthew A; Mattana, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Although many anticipate that there will be an eventual shortage of practicing nephrologists, a complete understanding is lacking regarding the current factors that lead US adult nephrology fellows to choose nephrology as a career and their satisfaction with this choice. It is of great concern that interest in obtaining nephrology fellowship training continues to decline in the United States, especially among US medical graduates, and the reasons for this are unclear. The exposure that students and residents have to nephrology is likely to play an important role in the career choices that they make and their ultimate satisfaction with this career choice is likely influenced by several factors, including job opportunities. Some of the findings presented here suggest that there may be a high percentage of nephrology fellows who are dissatisfied with their career choice. Failure to understand the factors that influence trainees to choose nephrology as a career and those that affect their satisfaction with this choice may impair the ability to graduate a sufficient number of nephrologists to meet projected demand. In this article, a number of variables related to the choice of nephrology as a career and satisfaction with a career in nephrology are discussed. Some steps that the nephrology training community might take to help promote interest in nephrology and optimize the satisfaction that nephrology graduates derive from their careers are also proposed.

  12. The effect of adult aggression on habitat selection by settlers of two coral-dwelling damselfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Tzvi

    Full Text Available Coral-reef fishes experience a major challenge when facing settlement in a multi-threat environment, within which, using settlement cues, they need to select a suitable site. Studies in laboratories and artificial setups have shown that the presence of conspecific adults often serves as a positive settlement cue, whose value is explained by the increased survival of juveniles in an already proven fit environment. However, settlement in already inhabited corals may expose the recruits to adult aggression. Daily observations and manipulation experiments were used in the present study, which was conducted in the natural reef. We revealed differential strategies of settlers, which do not necessarily join conspecific adults. Dascyllus aruanus prefer to settle near (not with their aggressive adults, and to join them only after gaining in size; whereas Dascyllus marginatus settlers in densely populated reefs settle independently of their adult distribution. Our results present different solutions to the challenges faced by fish recruits while selecting their microhabitat, and emphasize the complexity of habitat selection by the naïve settlers. Although laboratory experiments are important to the understanding of fish habitat selection, further studies in natural habitats are essential in order to elucidate the actual patterns of settlement and habitat selection, which are crucial for the survival of coral-reef fish populations.

  13. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  14. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  15. A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives and Peer Networks to Promote Walking among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Harkins, Kristin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Gonzales, Amy; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.; Asch, David A.; Heisler, Michele; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: Financial incentives and peer networks could be delivered through eHealth technologies to encourage older adults to walk more. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized trial in which 92 older adults with a computer and Internet access received a pedometer, daily walking goals, and weekly feedback on goal achievement. Participants…

  16. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  17. Interventions to Improve Medication Adherence among Older Adults: Meta-Analysis of Adherence Outcomes among Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Mehr, David R.; Russell, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence (MA) in older adults. Design and Methods: Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results of 33 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials. Random-effects models were used to estimate overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for MA, knowledge,…

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods Randomized controlled trial. We hypothesized that Koru, compared to a wait-list control group, would reduce perceived stress and sleep problems, and increase mindfulness, self-compassion, and gratitude. Results As hypothesized, results showed significant Group (Koru, wait-list) X Time (pre, post) interactions for improvements in perceived stress (F=4.50, df [1, 76.40], p=.037, d=.45), sleep problems (F= 4.71, df [1,79.49], p=.033, d=.52), mindfulness (F=26.80, df [1, 79.09], pstress, sleep problems, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Conclusions Results support the effectiveness of the Koru program for emerging adults in the university setting. PMID:24499130

  19. Food selection associated with sense of coherence in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Bernt

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Favorable dietary habits promote health, whereas unfavorable habits link to various chronic diseases. An individual's "sense of coherence" (SOC is reported to correlate with prevalence of some diseases to which dietary habits are linked. However, understanding what determines an individual's dietary preferences and how to change his/her behavior remains limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between dietary intake and SOC in adults. Methods Diet intake was recorded by an 84-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and SOC was measured by the 13-item Antonovsky questionnaire in 2,446 men and 2,545 women (25–74 years old from the population based northern Sweden MONICA screening in 1999. Results Intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, sucrose, and servings of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and sweets correlated with SOC among women, whereas intakes of total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, fiber, and alcohol, and servings of fruits, vegetables, bread, bread and cereals, fish, and potatoes correlated with SOC among men. With a few exceptions, intakes of these nutrients/foods were significantly explained by SOC quartile scores in linear GLM models. Both women and men classified into the highest SOC quartile had significantly higher age-BMI-education standardized mean intakes of vegetables than those in the lowest quartiles. Women in the highest SOC quartile also had higher intake of fruits but lower intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, sucrose, and sweets. Projection to latent structures (PLS multivariate modeling of intakes of the 84 food items and food aggregates simultaneously on SOC scores supported low SOC to coincide with a presumably less health promoting dietary preference, e.g. intake of pizza, soft drinks, candies, sausages for main course, hamburgers, mashed potato, chips and other snacks, potato salad, French fries, whereas men and women with high SOC

  20. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  1. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  2. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A Strickland

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17 on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their

  3. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

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    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  4. Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Roberto; Rodríguez, Pablo; Mesa, Lumey; Brito, Katia; Prior, Ada; Guilhem, Dirce; Novaes, M R C G

    2012-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections. This study compares the efficacy and safety of ABZ versus metronidazole (MTZ) in human giardiasis. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Centre of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology in Matanzas City, Cuba. Adult patients with confirmed symptomatic G. duodenalis mono-infection were randomly assigned to receive either ABZ [400 mg daily (n = 75)] or MTZ [250 mg t.i.d. (n = 75)], both for 5 days. Follow-up fecal samples were obtained at 3, 5, 7 days after treatment end. The efficacy was similar for both treatment groups: ABZ (82.6%) and MTZ (85.3%); p > 0.05. Side-effects including bitter taste, headache, vomiting and dizziness were significantly higher in the MTZ group. Abdominal pain was significantly higher in ABZ group. ABZ was found as effective as MTZ in the treatment of G. duodenalis infections in adult patients from Cuba and could be a useful drug in areas where co-infection with STH infections is common.

  5. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  6. A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Pamela M; Cole, Steve W; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Pollock, Brad H

    2008-08-01

    Suboptimal adherence to self-administered medications is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video-game intervention for improving adherence and other behavioral outcomes for adolescents and young adults with malignancies including acute leukemia, lymphoma, and soft-tissue sarcoma. A randomized trial with baseline and 1- and 3-month assessments was conducted from 2004 to 2005 at 34 medical centers in the United States, Canada, and Australia. A total of 375 male and female patients who were 13 to 29 years old, had an initial or relapse diagnosis of a malignancy, and currently undergoing treatment and expected to continue treatment for at least 4 months from baseline assessment were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention was a video game that addressed issues of cancer treatment and care for teenagers and young adults. Outcome measures included adherence, self-efficacy, knowledge, control, stress, and quality of life. For patients who were prescribed prophylactic antibiotics, adherence to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was tracked by electronic pill-monitoring devices (n = 200). Adherence to 6-mercaptopurine was assessed through serum metabolite assays (n = 54). Adherence to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 6-mercaptopurine was greater in the intervention group. Self-efficacy and knowledge also increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention did not affect self-report measures of adherence, stress, control, or quality of life. The video-game intervention significantly improved treatment adherence and indicators of cancer-related self-efficacy and knowledge in adolescents and young adults who were undergoing cancer therapy. The findings support current efforts to develop effective video-game interventions for education and training in health care.

  7. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic T Billings

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL (78.9 ± 3.9 μM and 8.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL (57.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05, and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03. Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation.Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  8. Improving motor control in walking: a randomized clinical trial in older adults with subclinical walking difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S; Lowry, Kristin; Perera, Subashan; Hornyak, Victoria; Wert, David; Studenski, Stephanie A; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2015-03-01

    To test the proposed mechanism of action of a task-specific motor learning intervention by examining its effect on measures of the motor control of gait. Single-blinded randomized clinical trial. University research laboratory. Adults (N=40) aged ≥65 years with gait speed >1.0m/s and impaired motor skill (figure-of-8 walk time >8s). The 2 interventions included a task-oriented motor learning and a standard exercise program; both interventions included strength training. Both lasted 12 weeks, with twice-weekly, 1-hour, physical therapist-supervised sessions. Two measures of the motor control of gait, gait variability and smoothness of walking, were assessed pre- and postintervention by assessors masked to the treatment arm. Of 40 randomized subjects, 38 completed the trial (mean age ± SD, 77.1±6.0y). The motor learning group improved more than the standard group in double-support time variability (.13m/s vs .05m/s; adjusted difference [AD]=.006, P=.03). Smoothness of walking in the anteroposterior direction improved more in the motor learning than standard group for all conditions (usual: AD=.53, P=.05; narrow: AD=.56, P=.01; dual task: AD=.57, P=.04). Smoothness of walking in the vertical direction also improved more in the motor learning than standard group for the narrow-path (AD=.71, P=.01) and dual-task (AD=.89, P=.01) conditions. Among older adults with subclinical walking difficulty, there is initial evidence that task-oriented motor learning exercise results in gains in the motor control of walking, while standard exercise does not. Task-oriented motor learning exercise is a promising intervention for improving timing and coordination deficits related to mobility difficulties in older adults, and needs to be evaluated in a definitive larger trial. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  10. Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep in Older Adults with Mild Sleep Impairment: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Chang, Yi-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Exercise has been found to be associated with improved sleep quality. However, most of the evidence is based on resistance exercise, walking, or gym-based aerobic activity. This study aimed to examine the effects of an 8-week aquatic exercise program on objectively measured sleep parameters among older adults with mild sleep impairment. A total of 67 eligible older adults with sleep impairment were selected and randomized to exercise and control groups, and 63 participants completed the study. The program involved 2 × 60-min sessions of aquatic exercise for 8 weeks. Participants wore wrist actigraphs to assess seven parameters of sleep for 1 week before and after the intervention. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the differences between groups in each of the sleep parameters. No significant group differences on demographic variables, life satisfaction, percentage of body fat, fitness, seated blood pressure, and any parameter of sleep were found at baseline. Significant group × time interaction effects were found in sleep onset latency, F(1,58) = 6.921, p = .011, partial eta squared = .011, and in sleep efficiency, F(1, 61) = 16.909, p exercise group reported significantly less time on sleep onset latency (mean difference = 7.9 min) and greater sleep efficiency (mean difference = 5.9 %) than the control group at posttest. There was no significant difference between groups in change of total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, activity counts, or number and length of awakenings. An 8-week aquatic exercise has significant benefits on some sleep parameters, including less time for sleep onset latency and better sleep efficiency in older adults with mild sleep impairment.

  11. Cognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; Porton, Shannondora A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J

    2017-12-29

    Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social-cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST (d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social-cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 (d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months (d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18-month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was found to be

  12. A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Suzuki

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions.Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50 with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50 before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to either a multicomponent exercise or an education control group using a ratio of 1∶1. The exercise group exercised for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, 40 times for 6 months. The exercise program was conducted under multitask conditions to stimulate attention and memory. The control group attended two education classes. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that no group × time interactions on the cognitive tests and brain atrophy in MCI patients. A sub-analysis of amnestic MCI patients for group × time interactions revealed that the exercise group exhibited significantly better Mini-Mental State Examination (p = .04 and logical memory scores (p = .04, and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy (p<.05 compared to the control group. Low total cholesterol levels before the intervention were associated with an improvement of logical memory scores (p<.05, and a higher level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly related to improved ADAS-cog scores (p<.05.The results suggested that an exercise intervention is beneficial for improving logical memory and maintaining general cognitive function and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy in older adults with amnestic MCI. Low total cholesterol and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor may predict improvement of cognitive functions in older adults with MCI. Further studies are required to determine the positive effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults with MCI.UMIN-CTR UMIN000003662 ctr.cgi?function =&hairsp

  13. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  14. Yoga for Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy McCall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in patient-led uptake of complementary therapies in adult cancer has led to a need for more rigorous study of such interventions and their outcomes. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a yoga intervention in men and women receiving conventional treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Prospective, mixed methods feasibility trial allocated participants to receive one of three yoga interventions over a four-week study period. Data collection was completed through online survey of QOL-CA/CS and customized surveys. Fifteen participants were included (11 female undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, colorectal, brain, and blood and lung cancer. Two participants dropped out and complete qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected from 12 participants and four yoga instructors. Other outcome measures included implementation costs patient-reported preferences for yoga intervention and changes in QOL-CA/CS. Three types of yoga intervention were safely administered in adult cancer. Mixed methods, cost-efficiency, QOL-CA/CS, and evidence-based design of yoga intervention have been used to establish feasibility and patient-preferences for yoga delivery in adult caner. Results suggest that, with some methodological improvements, a large-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted to test the efficacy of yoga for male and female cancer patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309112.

  15. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  17. Mindfulness as a Potential Intervention for Stimulus Over-Selectivity in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Louise; Simpson, Anna; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is related to significant declines in cognitive functioning. This effect can have a serious impact on the physical and psychological health of older adults as well as their quality of life. One phenomenon linked to cognitive deficits, particularly attention, that has been demonstrated to emerge with ageing is over-selectivity.…

  18. Selective Auditory Attention in Adults: Effects of Rhythmic Structure of the Competing Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Leigh Ann; Hicks, Candace Bourland

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed adult selective auditory attention to determine effects of (a) differences between the vocal/speaking characteristics of different mixed-gender pairs of masking talkers and (b) the rhythmic structure of the language of the competing speech. Method: Reception thresholds for English sentences were measured for 50…

  19. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  20. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  1. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  2. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  3. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  4. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  5. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  7. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  9. Strong natural selection on juveniles maintains a narrow adult hybrid zone in a broadcast spawner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Carlos; Hellberg, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection can maintain and help form species across different habitats, even when dispersal is high. Selection against inferior migrants (immigrant inviability) acts when locally adapted populations suffer high mortality on dispersal to unsuitable habitats. Habitat-specific populations undergoing divergent selection via immigrant inviability should thus show (1) a change in the ratio of adapted to nonadapted individuals among age/size classes and (2) a cline (defined by the environmental gradient) as selection counterbalances migration. Here we examine the frequencies of two depth-segregated lineages in juveniles and adults of a Caribbean octocoral, Eunicea flexuosa. Distributions of the two lineages in both shallow and deep environments were more distinct when inferred from adults than juveniles. Despite broad larval dispersal, we also found an extremely narrow hybrid zone (broadcast spawner. The large selection coefficient against mismatched genotypes derived from cohort data is consistent with that from field transplant experiments. Narrow hybrid zones and limited effective dispersal may be a common outcome of long periods of postsettlement, prereproductive selection across steep ecological gradients. Strong diversifying selection provides a mechanism to explain the prevalence of depth-segregated sibling species in the sea.

  10. You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults' food selection behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, L; Chan, H N; Louie, J C; Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-08-01

    Young or 'emerging' adulthood (ages 18-24 years) is a life-stage characterised by rapid weight gain, particularly among those born in recent decades, when environments have become saturated with cheap, highly palatable, processed foods. Although intervening in the immediate food environments of emerging adults is indicated, little is known about the factors influencing their food selection. The present study aimed to: (i) measure the relative importance of different influences on foods selected by emerging adults for consumption from a tertiary education setting and (ii) examine whether these influences differ according to gender, adiposity status, perceived stress and dieting or physical activity behaviours. An online survey was administered with 112 emerging adults aged 19-24 years assessing demographics, perceived stress, dieting, physical activity and influences on food selection. Adiposity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference) were measured. Analyses compared the importance of influences on food selection by gender, adiposity, perceived stress, dieting and physical activity. Taste was the most important influence on food selection, followed by convenience (availability), cost, nutrition/health value, smell and stimulatory properties (alertness). Participants with an elevated waist circumference selected foods to help them cope with stress and control their weight. Those reporting a higher level of physical activity placed greater importance on nutritional/health value of foods but less importance on taste. Female dieters also placed less importance on taste and value for money. Health promotion strategies addressing tertiary education food environments of emerging adults should ensure the ready availability of tasty and nutritious foods at a low cost. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Online video improves clinical outcomes in adults with atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Kim, Randie H; Idriss, Nayla Z; Larsen, Larissa N; Lio, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus that causes significant disease and psychosocial burden in patients. Patient education has the potential to improve clinical outcomes and patient knowledge of this condition. We sought to assess the effectiveness of online video education at improving AD knowledge and disease severity compared with a written pamphlet, and to determine the usefulness and appeal of the two educational delivery vehicles. In a randomized controlled trial, 80 participants were randomized to receive either online video-based patient education or written pamphlet education about AD and its management. We assessed AD disease severity using the patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM) scale. AD knowledge was assessed with standardized questionnaires at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. All participants had similar baseline knowledge and AD severity at the beginning of the study. On study completion, improvements in AD knowledge assessed by questionnaire were significantly greater in the video group than the pamphlet group (3.05 vs 1.85, P = .011). Online video-based education resulted in greater improvement in clinical outcome, as measured by POEM, compared with pamphlet-based education (POEM score reduction of 3.30 vs 1.03, P = .0043). Finally, although the usefulness of both interventions was rated equally (P = .77), the online video was significantly more appealing than the pamphlet (P = .0086). This study is limited to AD in adults. Online video for patient education is an effective and appealing tool for improving clinical outcomes in adult patients with AD. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic signatures of adiposity in young adults: Mendelian randomization analysis and effects of weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Peter; Wang, Qin; Kangas, Antti J; Richmond, Rebecca C; Skarp, Joni; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Soininen, Pasi; Havulinna, Aki S; Kaakinen, Marika; Viikari, Jorma S; Savolainen, Markku J; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Männistö, Satu; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno; Elliott, Paul; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smith, George Davey; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2014-12-01

    Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood. We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16-39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (pBMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%-183%). A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87% ± 3%; R(2)= 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (pBMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic effects (correspondence 160% ± 2%; R(2) = 0.92). Mendelian randomization indicates causal adverse effects of increased adiposity with multiple cardiometabolic risk markers across the metabolite profile in adolescents and young adults within the non-obese weight range. Consistent with the causal influences of adiposity, weight changes were paralleled by extensive metabolic changes, suggesting a broadly

  13. How effective is bibliotherapy for very old adults with subthreshold depression? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, Karlijn J; van Hout, Hein P J; van't Veer-Tazelaar, Petronella J; van der Horst, Henriette E; Cuijpers, Pim; van de Ven, Peter M; van Marwijk, Harm W J

    2011-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among elderly primary care patients, and because they encounter considerable barriers in seeking help and they often resist referral to specialized mental health facilities, it is important to look for easily accessible interventions within the primary care setting. Bibliotherapy, which has been found to be effective among younger populations, might be an attractive option. In this study, the authors investigated the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for depressive symptomatology in very old adults. Randomized controlled trial. After a 3-month period of "watchful waiting," the participants were randomly assigned to a bibliotherapy group or a usual care group. Thirty-three general practices in the north-western region of the Netherlands. One hundred seventy community-dwelling adults, aged 75 and older, with subthreshold depression. The bibliotherapy intervention consisted of an information leaflet and a self-help manual "Coping with Depression" adapted for the elderly. Outcome measures after 3 months were a) change in depressive symptoms according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and b) the proportion of participants who scored a significant improvement on the CES-D. One hundred forty-six (85.9%) of the 170 participants completed the baseline and follow-up measurements. The authors did not find any clinically relevant and statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the severity of the depressive symptoms. Bibliotherapy as a stand-alone intervention for the elderly (aged 75 years and older) did not reduce depressive symptoms more than usual care. This might indicate that bibliotherapy can only be effective for patients who are motivated and acknowledge their depression.

  14. Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Nouchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Hikaru Takeuchi; Hiroshi Hashizume; Takayuki Nozawa; Toshimune Kambara; Atsushi Sekiguchi; Carlos Makoto Miyauchi; Yuka Kotozaki; Haruka Nouchi; Ryuta Kawashima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a p...

  15. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  16. A randomized controlled trial of Koru: a mindfulness program for college students and other emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Juberg, Michael K; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list control group, would reduce perceived stress and sleep problems, and increase mindfulness, self-compassion, and gratitude. As hypothesized, results showed significant Group (Koru, Wait-List)×Time (Pre, Post) interactions for improvements in perceived stress (F[1, 76.40]=4.50, p=.037, d=.45), sleep problems (F [1, 79.49]=4.71, p=.033, d=.52), mindfulness (F [1, 79.09]=26.80, p<.001, d=95), and self-compassion (F[1, 74.77]=18.08, p<.001, d=.75). All significant effects were replicated in the wait-list group. Significant correlations were observed among changes in perceived stress, sleep problems, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Results support the effectiveness of the Koru program for emerging adults in the university setting.

  17. A randomized control study of instructional approaches for struggling adult readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daphne; Wise, Justin; Morris, Robin; Fredrick, Laura; Nanda, Alice O; Pae, Hye-K

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the effectiveness of various instructional approaches on the reading outcomes of 198 adults who read single words at the 3.0 through 5.9 grade equivalency levels. The students were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: Decoding and Fluency; Decoding, Comprehension, and Fluency; Decoding, Comprehension, Fluency, and Extensive Reading; Extensive Reading; and a Control/Comparison approach. The Control/Comparison approach employed a curriculum common to community-based adult literacy programs, and the Extensive Reading approach focused on wide exposure to literature. The Fluency component was a guided repeated oral reading approach, and the Decoding/Comprehension components were SRA/McGraw-Hill Direct Instruction Corrective Reading Programs. Results indicated continued weaknesses in and poor integration of participants' skills. Although students made significant gains independent of reading instruction group, all improvements were associated with small effect sizes. When reading instruction group was considered, only one significant finding was detected, with the Comparison/Control group, the Decoding and Fluency group, and the Decoding, Comprehension, Extensive Reading and Fluency group showing stronger word attack outcomes than the Extensive Reading group.

  18. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants ( n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed.

  19. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  20. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Keebler, Molly W; DeFina, Laura F; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56-75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health.

  1. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive versus Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bond Chapman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insidious declines in normal aging are well established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT versus physical training (PT on cognition and brain function in adults 56–75 years. Sedentary participants (N=36 were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 hours/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline, mid-training and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group’s memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health.

  2. Enhancing physical function in HIV-infected older adults: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa N; Majeed, Zahraa; Yoruk, Yilmaz B; Yang, Hongmei; Hilton, Tiffany N; McMahon, James M; Hall, William J; Walck, Donna; Luque, Amneris E; Ryan, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    HIV-infected older adults (HOA) are at risk of functional decline. Interventions promoting physical activity that can attenuate functional decline and are easily translated into the HOA community are of high priority. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a physical activity counseling intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) improves physical function, autonomous motivation, depression and the quality of life (QOL) in HOA. In total, 67 community-dwelling HOA with mild-to-moderate functional limitations were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: a physical activity counseling group or the usual care control group. We used SDT to guide the development of the experimental intervention. Outcome measures that were collected at baseline and final study visits included a battery of physical function tests, levels of physical activity, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL. The study participants were similar in their demographic and clinical characteristics in both the treatment and control groups. Overall physical performance, gait speed, measures of endurance and strength, and levels of physical activity improved in the treatment group compared to the control group (p autonomous regulation such as identified regulation, and measures of depression and QOL improved significantly in the treatment group compared with the control group (p autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL in HOA with functional limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A blind, randomized comparison of racecadotril and loperamide for stopping acute diarrhea in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hwang-Huei; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2005-03-14

    Racecadotril is a specific enkephalinase inhibitor that exhibits intestinal antisecretory activity without affecting intestinal transit. Loperamide is an effective anti-diarrheal agent, but it usually induces constipation. This study is to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of racecadotril versus loperamide in the outpatient treatment of acute diarrhea in adults. A two-center, randomized, parallel-group, single-blind study was carried out to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of racecadotril (100 mg thrice daily) and loperamide (2.0 mg 2 twice daily) in 62 adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The main efficacy criterion used was the duration of diarrhea after beginning the treatment (in hours). Other signs and symptoms were also evaluated. The clinical success rates for these anti-diarrheal treatments were 95.7% and 92.0% for racecadotril and loperamide respectively. Patients on racecadotril had a median duration of diarrhea of 19.5 h compared with a median of 13 h for patients on loperamide. Rapid improvement in anal burn and nausea was found for each drug. However, more patients on loperamide suffered from reactive constipation (29.0% vs 12.9%). Itching, another adverse event was notably higher in the racecadotril group (28.6% vs 0%). With regard to other adverse events, the two medications showed similar occurrence rates and similar concomitant medication usage rates. Racecadotril and loperamide are rapid, equally effective treatments for acute diarrhea in adults, but loperamide treatment is associated with a higher incidence of treatment-related constipation.

  4. Effects of Calorie Restriction in Obese Older Adults: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Gower, Barbara; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Goss, Amy; Wingo, Brooks C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Haas, Marilyn C; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Williams, Courtney P; Locher, Julie L

    2017-12-12

    We lack a comprehensive assessment of the risks and benefits of calorie restriction in older adults at high risk for cardiometabolic disease. Calorie restriction may reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but also have negative effects on lean mass and quality of life. We conducted a 52-week, randomized controlled trial involving 164 older adults with obesity taking at least one medication for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes. Interventions included an exercise intervention alone (Exercise), or with diet modification and body weight maintenance (Maintenance), or with diet modification and energy restriction (Weight Loss). The primary outcome was change in VAT at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiometabolic risk factors, functional status, and quality of life. A total of 148 participants had measured weight at 12 months. Despite loss of -1.6% ± 0.3% body fat and 4.1% ± 0.7% initial body weight, Weight Loss did not have statistically greater loss of VAT (-192.6 ± 185.2 cm3) or lean mass (-0.4 ± 0.3 kg) compared with Exercise (VAT = -21.9 ± 173.7 cm3; lean mass = 0.3 ± 0.3 kg). Quality of life improved in all groups with no differences between groups. No significant changes in physical function were observed. Weight Loss had significantly greater improvements in blood glucose (-8.3 ± 3.6 mg/dL, p adults at high risk for cardiometabolic disease, it did reduce total body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors without significantly more adverse events and lean mass loss.

  5. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  6. Hospital-Level Care at Home for Acutely Ill Adults: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David M; Ouchi, Kei; Blanchfield, Bonnie; Diamond, Keren; Licurse, Adam; Pu, Charles T; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2018-02-06

    Hospitals are standard of care for acute illness, but hospitals can be unsafe, uncomfortable, and expensive. Providing substitutive hospital-level care in a patient's home potentially reduces cost while maintaining or improving quality, safety, and patient experience, although evidence from randomized controlled trials in the US is lacking. Determine if home hospital care reduces cost while maintaining quality, safety, and patient experience. Randomized controlled trial. Adults admitted via the emergency department with any infection or exacerbation of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma. Home hospital care, including nurse and physician home visits, intravenous medications, continuous monitoring, video communication, and point-of-care testing. Primary outcome was direct cost of the acute care episode. Secondary outcomes included utilization, 30-day cost, physical activity, and patient experience. Nine patients were randomized to home, 11 to usual care. Median direct cost of the acute care episode for home patients was 52% (IQR, 28%; p = 0.05) lower than for control patients. During the care episode, home patients had fewer laboratory orders (median per admission: 6 vs. 19; p Home patients were more physically active (median minutes, 209 vs. 78; p home patients, one occurred in control patients. Median direct cost for the acute care plus 30-day post-discharge period for home patients was 67% (IQR, 77%; p home-care services (22% vs. 55%; p = 0.08) and fewer readmissions (11% vs. 36%; p = 0.32). Patient experience was similar in both groups. The use of substitutive home-hospitalization compared to in-hospital usual care reduced cost and utilization and improved physical activity. No significant differences in quality, safety, and patient experience were noted, with more definitive results awaiting a larger trial. Trial Registration NCT02864420.

  7. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  8. Cost-effectiveness of ART restorations in elderly adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mata, Cristiane; Allen, Patrick F; Cronin, Michael; O'Mahony, Denis; McKenna, Gerald; Woods, Noel

    2014-02-01

    As the world population ages, the requirement for cost-effective methods of treating chronic disease conditions increases. In terms of oral health, there is a rapidly increasing number of dentate elderly with a high burden of maintenance. Population surveys indicate that older individuals are keeping their teeth for longer and are a higher caries risk group. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) could be suitable for patients in nursing homes or house-bound elderly, but very little research has been done on its use in adults. To compare the cost-effectiveness of ART and a conventional technique (CT) for restoring carious lesions as part of a preventive and restorative programme for older adults. In this randomized clinical trial, 82 patients with carious lesions were randomly allocated to receive either ART or conventional restorations. Treatment costs were measured based on treatment time, materials and labour. For the ART group, the cost of care provided by a dentist was also compared to the cost of having a hygienist to provide treatment. Effectiveness was measured using percentage of restorations that survived after a year. Eighty-two patients received 260 restorations, that is, 128 ART and 132 conventional restorations. 91.1% of the restorations were on one surface only. After a year, 252 restorations were assessed in 80 patients. The average cost for ART and conventional restorations was €16.86 and €28.71 respectively; the restoration survival percentages were 91.1% and 97.7%, respectively. This resulted in a cost-effectiveness ratio of 0.18 (ART) and 0.29 (CT). When the cost of a hygienist to provide ART was inserted in the analysis, the resulting ratio was 0.14. Atraumatic restorative treatment was found to be a more cost-effective alternative to treat older adults after 1 year, compared to conventional restorations, especially in out of surgery facilities and using alternative workforce such as hygienists. Atraumatic restorative treatment can be a

  9. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  10. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  11. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  13. A multicomponent intervention for the management of chronic pain in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Ka Long; Lam, Rosanna W L; Mok, Monique H T; Chen, Phoon Ping; Chow, Yu Fat; Chung, Joanne W Y; Law, Alexander C B; Lee, Jenny S W; Leung, Edward M F; Tam, Cindy W C

    2017-11-09

    Studies have shown that physical interventions and psychological methods based on the cognitive behavioral approach are efficacious in alleviating pain and that combining both tends to yield more benefits than either intervention alone. In view of the aging population with chronic pain and the lack of evidence-based pain management programs locally, we developed a multicomponent intervention incorporating physical exercise and cognitive behavioral techniques and examined its long-term effects against treatment as usual (i.e., pain education) in older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Hong Kong. We are conducting a double-blind, cluster-randomized controlled trial. A sample of 160 participants aged ≥ 60 years will be recruited from social centers or outpatient clinics and will be randomized on the basis of center/clinic to either the multicomponent intervention or the pain education program. Both interventions consist of ten weekly sessions of 90 minutes each. The primary outcome is pain intensity, and the secondary outcomes include pain interference, pain persistence, pain self-efficacy, pain coping, pain catastrophizing cognitions, health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, and hip and knee muscle strength. All outcome measures will be collected at baseline, postintervention, and at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis will be performed using mixed-effects regression to see whether the multicomponent intervention alleviates pain intensity and associated outcomes over and above the effects of pain education (i.e., a treatment × time intervention effect). Because the activities included in the multicomponent intervention were carefully selected for ready implementation by allied health professionals in general, the results of this study, if positive, will make available an efficacious, nonpharmacological pain management program that can be widely adopted in clinical and social service settings and will hence improve older

  14. Selective attentional processing to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults who fear falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lesley A; White, Patti; Doan, Jonathan B; de Bruin, Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Fear of falling is known to affect more than half of community-dwelling older adults over 60 years of age. This fear is associated with physical and psychological effects that increase the risk of falling. The authors' theory is that attentional processing biases may exist in this population that serve to perpetuate fear of falling and subsequently increase fall risk. As a starting point in testing this proposition, the authors examined selective attentional processing bias to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults. Thirty older adult participants (M(age) = 70.8 ± 5.8), self-categorized to be Fearful of Falling (FF, n = 15) or Non-Fearful of Falling (NF, n = 15) completed a visual dot-probe paradigm to determine detection latencies to fall-threatening and general-threat stimuli. Attentional processing was defined using three index scores: attentional bias, congruency index, and incongruency index. Bias indicates capture of attention, whereas congruency and incongruency imply vigilance and disengagement difficulty, respectively. Both groups showed an attentional bias to fall-threat words but those who were fearful of falling also showed an incongruency effect for fall-threat words. These findings confirm that selective attentional processing profiles for fall-relevant stimuli differ between older adults who exhibit fear of falling and those who do not have this fear. Moreover, in accordance with current interpretations of selective attentional processing, the incongruency effect noted among fall-fearful older adults presents a possibility for a difficulty disengaging from fall-threatening stimuli.

  15. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  16. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  17. Outcomes of a Telehealth Intervention for Homebound Older Adults with Heart or Chronic Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie; McGinty, Jean; Bardelli, Ellen; Davitt, Joan; Ten Have, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Telehealth care is emerging as a viable intervention model to treat complex chronic conditions, such as heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to engage older adults in self-care disease management. Design and Methods: We report on a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of a multifaceted…

  18. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  19. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO HISTAMINE IN A RANDOM-POPULATION SAMPLE OF ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; WEISS, ST; ROSNER, B; DEVRIES, K; VANDERLENDE, R

    1993-01-01

    Long-term variability of bronchial responsiveness has been studied in a random population sample of adults. During a follow-up period of 18 yr, 2,216 subjects contributed 5,012 observations to the analyses. Each subject could have as many as seven observations. Bronchial responsiveness was assessed

  20. Adult height in children with growth hormone deficiency: a randomized, controlled, growth hormone dose-response trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; Ridder, M.A. de; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m(2)/day biosynthetic GH (approx. 0.025

  1. The Sonoma Water Evaluation Trial (SWET): A randomized drinking water intervention trial to reduce gastrointestinal illness in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives. We estimate the risk of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) among adults 55 and older in a community drinking tap water meeting current U.S. standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 indiv...

  2. The efficacy of life-review as online-guided self-help for adults: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Korte, J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The study used a randomized controlled trial to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of life-review as online-guided self-help in adults (40+) with moderate depressive symptomatology. We evaluated ego-integrity and rumination as mediators and assessed whether the effects of

  3. Can a Lifestyle Intervention Improve Physical Fitness in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spastic Cerebral Palsy? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, J.; Roebroeck, M.; van der Slot, W.; Twisk, J.; Wensink, A.; Stam, H.; van den Berg-Emons, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate both the short- and long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on physical fitness in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting University hospitals and rehabilitation clinics. Participants

  4. Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Randomized, Controlled, Growth Hormone Dose-Response Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). Methods: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vortioxetine on cognitive function in depressed adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntyre, Roger S; Lophaven, Søren; Olsen, Christina K

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of vortioxetine 10 and 20 mg/d vs. placebo on cognitive function and depression in adults with recurrent moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder (MDD) was evaluated. Patients (18-65 yr, N = 602) were randomized (1:1:1...

  6. Feeding rates and selectivity among nauplii, copepodites and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B.; Irigoien, X.; Graeve, M.; Head, R. N.; Harris, R. P.

    2002-04-01

    This study focuses on selective feeding by developmental stages of two oceanic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus from nauplii to adults. A mixture of four algal species of different biochemical composition, Prorocentrum nanum (dinoflagellate), Thalassiosira minima (diatom), Rhodomonas baltica (cryptophyte) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (chlorophyte), added in an equal biovolume, was used in three different experimental set-ups. In set-up 1 the algal species were present as single cells of similar size (14 µm). In set-up 2 the diatom T. minima was present in chains of two or three cells and was therefore larger than the other algae, while the biovolume of all species remained the same. In set-up 3, the diatom T. minima was excluded from the mixture. Feeding selectivity of the copepods was assessed in relation to the quality of the algal species expressed in terms of carbon and nitrogen content, fatty acid composition, and chain length of the diatom. The results show that younger stages and adult females of C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus did not show a preference for an algal species when the algae were of similar size. In the feeding experiments where the diatoms were offered as chains, both copepod species showed a selective behaviour only on the basis of algal size. Individual ingestion rates increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µg C day-1 for nauplii of both species to 5 µg C day-1 for adult females of C. helgolandicus to 12 µg C day-1 for C. finmarchicus. Individual filtration rates ranged from 5 ml day-1 for C. finmarchicus nauplii to 70-98 ml day-1 for adult females, and from 3 ml day-1 for C. helgolandicus nauplii to 35-46 ml day-1 for adult females. Ingestion and filtration rates per unit body carbon decreased gradually in both copepod species with increasing body carbon. The daily ingested amount of food decreased for C. finmarchicus from 124-134% of the body carbon for nauplii to 19% of the body carbon for adult females, and for C

  7. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  8. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  9. Metabolic signatures of adiposity in young adults: Mendelian randomization analysis and effects of weight change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Würtz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood.We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16-39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24 ± 4 kg/m(2. Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures. Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%-183%. A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87% ± 3%; R(2= 0.89, suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures, including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic effects

  10. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate ready-made spectacles in an adult population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Gandhi, Monica; Brady, Christopher; Ali, Ferhina S; Mathur, Umang; Munoz, Beatriz; Friedman, David S

    2010-06-01

    Ready-made spectacles (RMS) have advantages; however, visual performance and satisfaction has not been evaluated. A 1-month, double-masked, randomized clinical trial comparing planned continued use and visual performance of RMS to Custom Spectacles (CS) in adults aged 18-45 years with > or =1 diopter (D) of uncorrected refractive error (URE). A total of 373 of 400 participants (93%) completed; mean age was 30 +/- 9 years, and 58% were female. Average URE was 2.21 +/- 1.31D and habitual vision was 0.58 +/- 0.21 logMAR (logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution, 20/63(+1) Snellen acuity). Ten participants with habitual vision better than 20/40 were excluded (3%). A lower proportion in the RMS group intended to continue to wear the study spectacles after 1 month (165/183, 90% vs 174/180, 97%, P = 0.02). Spectacle vision in the eye with lower URE was 0.08 +/- 0.15 vs 0.02 +/- 0.08, P or =2.00 D and anisometropia > or =1.00 D (74/363, 20%) found no difference in planned continued use (139/143, 97% vs 141/146, 97%, P = 1.0) for RMS vs CS. While vision is slightly better with CS, 90% of an adult population with URE planned to continue to use their RMS at 1 month. Furthermore, if those without high astigmatism or anisometropia are excluded, virtually all are satisfied with RMS and there is no difference when compared with CS. The findings of this study support the use of RMS for the delivery of refractive services in settings where there is a high level of need, limited resources and low access to refractive services.

  11. Adult height, coronary heart disease and stroke: a multi-locus Mendelian randomization meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch, Eveline; Dale, Caroline; Palmer, Tom M; White, Jon; Keating, Brendan J; van Iperen, Erik Pa; Goel, Anuj; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Verschuren, W M; Wijmenga, C; Van der Schouw, Y T; Onland-Moret, N C; Lange, Leslie A; Hovingh, G K; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Morris, Richard W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethe, Goya S; Gaunt, Tom R; Ebrahim, Shah; Steel, Laura; Nair, Nikhil; Reiner, Alexander P; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilson, James F; Bolton, Jennifer L; McLachlan, Stela; Price, Jacqueline F; Strachan, Mark Wj; Robertson, Christine M; Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Leusink, Maarten; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; de Groot, Mark Ch; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lawlor, Debbie A; Amuzu, A; Caufield, M; Cavadino, A; Cooper, J; Davies, T L; Drenos, F; Engmann, J; Finan, C; Giambartolomei, C; Hardy, R; Humphries, S E; Hypponen, E; Kivimaki, M; Kuh, D; Kumari, M; Ong, K; Plagnol, V; Power, C; Richards, M; Shah, S; Shah, T; Sofat, R; Talmud, P J; Wareham, N; Warren, H; Whittaker, J C; Wong, A; Zabaneh, D; Davey Smith, George; Wells, Jonathan C; Leon, David A; Holmes, Michael V; Casas, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    We investigated causal effect of completed growth, measured by adult height, on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular traits, using instrumental variable (IV) Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. We developed an allele score based on 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult height, identified by the IBCCardioChip, and used it for IV analysis against cardiovascular risk factors and events in 21 studies and 60 028 participants. IV analysis on CHD was supplemented by summary data from 180 height-SNPs from the GIANT consortium and their corresponding CHD estimates derived from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. IV estimates from IBCCardioChip and GIANT-CARDIoGRAMplusC4D showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height reduced the odds of CHD by 10% [odds ratios 0.90; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.78 to 1.03 and 0.85 to 0.95, respectively],which agrees with the estimate from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91 to 0.94). IV analysis revealed no association with stroke (odds ratio 0.97; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.19). IV analysis showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height resulted in lower levels of body mass index ( P  < 0.001), triglycerides ( P  < 0.001), non high-density (non-HDL) cholesterol ( P  < 0.001), C-reactive protein ( P  = 0.042), and systolic blood pressure ( P  = 0.064) and higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity ( P  < 0.001 for both). Taller individuals have a lower risk of CHD with potential explanations being that taller people have a better lung function and lower levels of body mass index, cholesterol and blood pressure.

  12. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, A; Calvo, M S; Beelman, R B; Levy, E; Siuty, J; Kalaras, M D; Uribarri, J

    2014-10-01

    Based on the growing evidence of risk reduction from fresh fruit and vegetable consumption and an inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we determined the benefits of regularly consuming vitamin D-enriched mushrooms in a prediabetic cohort. Exposing edible mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light increases vitamin D2 (D2) and raises serum 25OHD2 in healthy young adults; however, their benefit to deficient prediabetics and glucose metabolism remains untested. Forty-three prediabetic, D-deficient adults (25OHD≤20 ng/ml), BMI>25 were randomized to four groups consuming daily entrées containing 100 g fresh sliced cooked mushrooms prepared by a chef for 16 weeks. Two groups were fed UVB-treated mushrooms initially containing: 600 IU D2 or 4000 IU D2; each one also received one capsule of placebo daily. Two control groups were fed untreated mushrooms and D3 dietary supplements at two label doses: 600 IU D3 and 4000 IU D3. D2 and D3 content were analyzed in mushrooms, before and after cooking and in over-the-counter supplements. After 16 weeks, both D2-UVB-mushroom entrée doses, which were significantly lower after cooking, produced modest or no increases in 25OHD2 or total 25OHD relative to the positive control subjects who actually consumed about 1242 and 7320 IU per day of D3 (higher than stated on the label). Unanticipated D2 cooking loss from fresh UVB mushrooms and probable low absorption and/or hydroxylation may explain the smaller increase in 25OHD2 in our prediabetic overweight/obese cohort compared with past findings in younger, healthy subjects. Moreover, no dose or vitamin D source was associated with modifying T2D risk factors.

  13. Effects of clay art therapy on adults outpatients with major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Joshua K M; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2017-08-01

    Depression has become a critical global health problem, affecting millions of people. Cost-effective nonpharmacological treatment in community settings has been proposed to complement medical treatment. Short-term clay art therapy (CAT) is an alternative treatment that promotes the enhancement of various aspects of mental health for depressed individuals. One-hundred and six adults with depression were randomized into a CAT group or visual art (VA) control group for six 2.5-h weekly sessions. Intervention effects were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (Chinese version), Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being Inventory, and 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Chinese version) at baseline, immediately postintervention (T1), and 3-weeks postintervention (T2). Multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated a more significant time × group effect for CAT than for VA on depressive signs, general health, and body-mind-spirit well-being (all p<0.05). Significant within-groups changes were observed in these three aspects after treatment and at T2 (all p<0.001) and in alexithymia at T2 (p<0.01) in the CAT group, but the change was nonsignificant in the VA group at T1 and T2. The homogeneity of the participants affected the generalizability of the study findings. The short-term postintervention follow-up (3 weeks) presented difficulties in demonstrating the long-term effects of CAT. CAT can aid emotion regulation and benefit various aspects of mental health in adults. The short duration of the intervention suggests additional application value in treating depression. Further investigation is warranted regarding the potential effect of CAT on alleviating physical symptoms and improving social function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of barriers to improve diabetes management in older adults: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Medha N; Segal, Alissa R; Suhl, Emmy; Ryan, Courtney; Sternthal, Adrianne; Giusti, Judy; Lee, Yishan; Fitzgerald, Shane; Staum, Elizabeth; Bonsignor, Patricia; DesRochers, Laura; McCartney, Richard; Weinger, Katie

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether assessment of barriers to self-care and strategies to cope with these barriers in older adults with diabetes is superior to usual care with attention control. The American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend the assessment of age-specific barriers. However, the effect of such strategy on outcomes is unknown. We randomized 100 subjects aged ≥69 years with poorly controlled diabetes (A1C >8%) in two groups. A geriatric diabetes team assessed barriers and developed strategies to help patients cope with barriers for an intervention group. The control group received equal amounts of attention time. The active intervention was performed for the first 6 months, followed by a "no-contact" period. Outcome measures included A1C, Tinetti test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), self-care frequency, and diabetes-related distress. We assessed 100 patients (age 75 ± 5 years, duration 21 ± 13 years, 68% type 2 diabetes, 89% on insulin) over 12 months. After the active period, A1C decreased by -0.45% in the intervention group vs. -0.31% in the control group. At 12 months, A1C decreased further in the intervention group by -0.21% vs. 0% in control group (linear mixed-model, P Tinetti), and endurance (6MWT) compared with the control group. Diabetes-related distress improved in both groups. Only attention between clinic visits lowers diabetes-related distress in older adults. However, communication with an educator cognizant of patients' barriers improves glycemic control and self-care frequency, maintains functionality, and lowers distress in this population.

  15. Effectiveness of an online group course for depression in adolescents and young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Rianne; Kramer, Jeannet; Gerrits, Rob; Cuijpers, Pim

    2012-06-07

    Depression is a serious mental health problem, whose first onset is usually in adolescence. Online treatment may offer a solution for the current undertreatment of depression in youth. For adults with depressive symptoms, the effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated. This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness online depression treatment for young people with depressive complaints and the first to focus on an online group course. To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of a guided Web-based group course called Grip op Je Dip (Master Your Mood [MYM]), designed for young people aged 16 to 25 years with depressive symptoms, in comparison with a wait-listed control group. We randomly assigned 244 young people with depressive symptoms to the online MYM course or to a waiting-list control condition. The primary outcome measure was treatment outcome after 3 months on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes were anxiety (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and mastery (Mastery Scale). We studied the maintenance of effects in the MYM group 6 months after baseline. Missing data were imputed. The MYM group (n = 121) showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months than the control group (n = 123) (t(187 )= 6.62, P limitation is the infeasibility of comparing the 6-month outcomes of the MYM and control groups, as the controls had access to MYM after 3 months. The online group course MYM was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety and in increasing mastery in young people. These effects persisted in the MYM group at 6 months.

  16. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc A; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hekler, Eric B; Perata, Elyse

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. Participants (N = 20) were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1) static intervention (SI) or 2) adaptive intervention (AI). Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white) in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (pgoal and feedback algorithm is a "behavior change technology" that could be incorporated into mHealth technologies and scaled to reach large populations. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01793064.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of a ragweed allergy immunotherapy tablet in North American and European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creticos, Peter S; Maloney, Jennifer; Bernstein, David I; Casale, Thomas; Kaur, Amarjot; Fisher, Robert; Liu, Nancy; Murphy, Kevin; Nékám, Kristóf; Nolte, Hendrik

    2013-05-01

    In North America and Europe, millions of patients experience symptoms of allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis (AR/C) on exposure to ragweed pollen. The disease burden can be significant, with most patients relying on symptomatic medications without disease-modifying potential. However, novel sublingual immunomodulatory treatment options may potentially play an important role if efficacy and side effect profiles allow the convenience of self-administration. This study evaluated an allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT; SCH 39641/MK-3641) for treatment of ragweed-induced AR/C in the first large randomized, double-blind multinational trial of this therapeutic modality for ragweed allergy. Adults (n = 784) with short ragweed-induced AR/C were randomly assigned to approximately 52 weeks of daily self-administered ragweed AIT of 1.5, 6, or 12 units of Ambrosia artemisiifolia major allergen 1 (Amb a 1-U) or placebo. Subjects could use as-needed allergy rescue medication. Symptoms and medications were recorded daily. The primary efficacy end point was total combined daily symptom/medication score (TCS) during peak ragweed season. Safety was monitored through adverse event diaries maintained through study duration. During peak ragweed season, ragweed AIT of 1.5, 6, and 12 Amb a 1-U reduced TCS by 9% (-0.76; P = .22), 19% (-1.58; P = .01), and 24% (-2.04; P = .002) compared with placebo. During the entire season, ragweed AIT of 1.5, 6, and 12 Amb a 1-U reduced TCS by 12% (-0.88; P = .09), 18% (-1.28; P = .01), and 27% (-1.92; P Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Readmission and mortality in malnourished, older, hospitalized adults treated with a specialized oral nutritional supplement: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, Nicolaas E; Matheson, Eric M; Matarese, Laura E; Luo, Menghua; Baggs, Geraldine E; Nelson, Jeffrey L; Hegazi, Refaat A; Tappenden, Kelly A; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalized, malnourished older adults have a high risk of readmission and mortality. Evaluation of a high-protein oral nutritional supplement (HP-HMB) containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on postdischarge outcomes of nonelective readmission and mortality in malnourished, hospitalized older adults. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Inpatient and posthospital discharge. Older (≥65 years), malnourished (Subjective Global Assessment [SGA] class B or C) adults hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Standard-of-care plus HP-HMB (n = 328) or a placebo supplement (n = 324), 2 servings/day. Primary composite endpoint was 90-day postdischarge incidence of death or nonelective readmission. Other endpoints included 30- and 60-day postdischarge incidence of death or readmission, length of stay (LOS), SGA class, body weight, and activities of daily living (ADL). The primary composite endpoint was similar between HP-HMB (26.8%) and placebo (31.1%). No between-group differences were observed for 90-day readmission rate, but 90-day mortality was significantly lower with HP-HMB relative to placebo (4.8% vs. 9.7%; relative risk 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.90; p = 0.018). The number-needed-to-treat to prevent 1 death was 20.3 (95% CI: 10.9, 121.4). Compared with placebo, HP-HMB resulted in improved odds of better nutritional status (SGA class, OR, 2.04, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.25, p = 0.009) at day 90, and an increase in body weight at day 30 (p = 0.035). LOS and ADL were similar between treatments. Limited generalizability; patients represent a selected hospitalized population. Although no effects were observed for the primary composite endpoint, compared with placebo HP-HMB decreased mortality and improved indices of nutritional status during the 90-day observation period. www.ClinicalTrials.govNCT01626742. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published

  19. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  20. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cathryn A; Podd, John; Hill, Stephen R; Minihane, Anne M; Haskell, Crystal; Kennedy, David

    2013-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. Therefore, individuals who consume diets low in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may cognitively benefit from DHA supplementation. Sex and apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE) affect cognition and may modulate the response to DHA supplementation. We investigated whether a DHA supplement improves cognitive performance in healthy young adults and whether sex and APOE modulate the response. Healthy adults (n = 176; age range: 18-45 y; nonsmoking and with a low intake of DHA) completed a 6-mo randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention in which they consumed 1.16 g DHA/d or a placebo. Cognitive performance was assessed by using a computerized cognitive test battery. For all tests, z scores were calculated and clustered into cognitive domains as follows: episodic and working memory, attention, reaction time (RT) of episodic and working memory, and attention and processing speed. ANCOVA was conducted with sex and APOE as independent variables. RTs of episodic and working memory improved with DHA compared with placebo [mean difference (95% CI): -0.18 SD (-0.33, -0.03 SD) (P = 0.02) and -0.36 SD (-0.58, -0.14 SD) (P = 0.002), respectively]. Sex × treatment interactions occurred for episodic memory (P = 0.006) and the RT of working memory (P = 0.03). Compared with the placebo, DHA improved episodic memory in women [0.28 SD (0.08, 0.48 SD); P = 0.006] and RTs of working memory in men [-0.60 SD (-0.95, -0.25 SD); P = 0.001]. APOE did not affect cognitive function, but there were some indications of APOE × sex × treatment interactions. DHA supplementation improved memory and the RT of memory in healthy, young adults whose habitual diets were low in DHA. The response was modulated by sex. This trial was registered at the New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx) as ACTRN12610000212055.

  1. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Lisanne; van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim

    2007-12-19

    Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential mediators and the search for subgroups who respond differently to the interventions. This study is a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: two treatment conditions and one waiting list control group. The two treatment conditions are Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and Internet-based problem-solving therapy. They consist of 8 and 5 weekly lessons respectively. Both interventions are combined with support by e-mail. Participants in the waiting list control group receive the intervention three months later. The study population consists of adults from the general population. They are recruited through advertisements in local and national newspapers and through banners on the Internet. Subjects with symptoms of depression (> or = 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) are included. Other inclusion criteria are having sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language, access to the Internet and an e-mail address. Primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, quality of life, dysfunctional cognitions, worrying, problem solving skills, mastery, absence at work and use of healthcare. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: dysfunctional cognitions, problem solving skills, worrying, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics and symptom severity. Data are collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 9 months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted on the intention-to-treat sample. This study evaluates two Internet

  2. A randomized controlled trial of an automated exercise coach for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy W; Silliman, Rebecca A; Nelson, Kerrie; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Henault, Lori; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of a computer-based physical activity program (Embodied Conversational Agent-ECA) with that of a pedometer control condition in sedentary older adults. Single-blind block-randomized controlled trial stratified according to clinic site and health literacy status. Three urban ambulatory care practices at Boston Medical Center between April 2009 and September 2011. Older adults (N = 263; mean age 71.3; 61% female; 63% African American; 51% high school diploma or less). ECA participants were provided with portable tablet computers with touch screens to use for 2 months and were directed to connect their pedometers to the computer using a data cable and interact with a computer-animated virtual exercise coach daily to discuss walking and to set walking goals. Intervention participants were then given the opportunity to interact with the ECA in a kiosk in their clinic waiting room for the following 10 months. Control participants were given a control pedometer intervention that only tracked step counts for an equivalent period of time. Intervention participants were also provided with pedometers. The primary outcome was average daily step count for the 30 days before the 12-month interview. Secondary outcomes were average daily step count for the 30 days before the 2-month interview. Outcomes were also stratified according to health literacy level. ECA participants walked significantly more steps than control participants at 2 months (adjusted mean 4,041 vs 3,499 steps/day, P = .01), but this effect waned by 12 months (3,861 vs 3,383, P = .09). For participants with adequate health literacy, those in the ECA group walked significantly more than controls at both 2 months (P = .03) and 12 months (P = .02), while those with inadequate health literacy failed to show significant differences between treatment groups at either time point. Intervention participants were highly satisfied with the program. An automated exercise promotion system deployed

  3. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential mediators and the search for subgroups who respond differently to the interventions. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: two treatment conditions and one waiting list control group. The two treatment conditions are Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and Internet-based problem-solving therapy. They consist of 8 and 5 weekly lessons respectively. Both interventions are combined with support by e-mail. Participants in the waiting list control group receive the intervention three months later. The study population consists of adults from the general population. They are recruited through advertisements in local and national newspapers and through banners on the Internet. Subjects with symptoms of depression (≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale are included. Other inclusion criteria are having sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language, access to the Internet and an e-mail address. Primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, quality of life, dysfunctional cognitions, worrying, problem solving skills, mastery, absence at work and use of healthcare. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: dysfunctional cognitions, problem solving skills, worrying, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics and symptom severity. Data are collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 9 months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted on the intention

  4. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  5. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  6. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640

  7. A smartphone "app"-delivered randomized factorial trial targeting physical activity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Roberts, Sarah; Hillman, Charles H; Mullen, Sean P; Ritterband, Lee; McAuley, Edward

    2017-10-01

    Rapid technological development has challenged researchers developing mobile moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) interventions. This 12-week randomized factorial intervention aimed to determine the individual and combined impact of a self-monitoring smartphone-app (tracking, feedback, education) and two theory-based modules (goal-setting, points-based feedback) on MVPA, key psychosocial outcomes, and application usage. Adults (N = 116; M age  = 41.38 ± 7.57) received (1) a basic self-monitoring app, (2) the basic app plus goal setting, (3) the basic app plus points-based feedback, or (4) the basic app plus both modules. All individuals increased MVPA by more than 11 daily minutes. Those with points-based feedback demonstrated still higher levels of MVPA and more favorable psychosocial and app usage outcomes across the intervention. Those with access to in-app goal setting had higher levels of app usage relative to those without the component. It is imperative that effective digital intervention "ingredients" are identified, and these findings provide early evidence to this effect. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02592590.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of purified dietary anthocyanin in adults with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ling, W; Guo, H; Song, F; Ye, Q; Zou, T; Li, D; Zhang, Y; Li, G; Xiao, Y; Liu, F; Li, Z; Shi, Z; Yang, Y

    2013-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and previous studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin inhibits atherosclerosis. In the present study, we explored the effects of anthocyanins on inflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic adults and cell lines. A total of 150 subjects with hypercholesterolemia consumed a purified anthocyanin mixture (320 mg/d) or a placebo twice a day for 24 weeks in a randomized, double-blind trial. Anthocyanin consumption significantly decreased the levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (-21.6% vs. -2.5%, P = 0.001), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) (-12.3% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.005) and plasma IL-1β (-12.8% vs. -1.3%, P = 0.019) compared to the placebo. We also found a significant difference in the LDL-cholesterol (-10.4% vs. 0.3%, P = 0.030) and HDL-cholesterol level changes (14.0% vs. -0.9%, P = 0.036) between the two groups. In cell culture assays in vitro, purified anthocyanin mixture, delphinidin-3-Ο-β-glucoside (Dp-3g) and cyanidin-3-Ο-β-glucoside (Cy-3g) inhibited IL-6 and IL-1β-induced CRP production (P effects of Dp-3g and Cy-3g separately (P effects in mediating anti-inflammatory responses in vitro cell culture assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Nintendo Wii training on balance impaired older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown....... METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary...... motivating at 5 and 10 weeks into the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Biofeedback-based Wii training led to marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction; rate of force development) and overall functional performance in community-dwelling older adults. Unexpectedly, static...

  11. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  13. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  15. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  16. A randomized controlled trial comparing split and subunit influenza vaccines in adults in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morales

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In a two-center, comparative trial, 344 adults were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated split-virion (Imovax Gripeâ or sub-unit (Agrippal S1â influenza vaccine (1999-2000 formulations. For analysis, study groups were subdivided into adult (18-60 years old and elderly (over 60 years subjects. Blood was drawn immediately before and one month after vaccination, safety was evaluated using a blind-observer design based on reporting of solicited and unsolicited adverse events. Both vaccines were very well tolerated, had similar reactogenicity profiles, and elicited fewer reports of reactions in elderly individuals. Post-vaccination Imovax Gripeâ induced seroprotective antibody titers against the three vaccine strains in 94-99% of adults and 88-97% of elderly subjects, compared with 88-100% and 88-98%, respectively, of those given Agrippal S1â. In conclusion, the split-virion and sub-unit influenza vaccines had similar safety and reactogenicity profiles, and elicited satisfactory immunity in adult and elderly subjects. However, higher post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT values in response to the B strain were seen with the split vaccine Imovax Gripeâ, giving it a better overall immunogenicity.En un ensayo comparativo realizado en dos centros, se asignaron de manera aleatoria 344 adultos para recibir una dosis de vacuna contra la gripe de virus fraccionado inactivado (Imovax Gripeâ o de vacuna de subunidades (Agrippal S1â (formulaciones 1999-2000. Para el análisis, los grupos estudiados fueron subdivididos en adultos (18-60 años y ancianos (más de 60 años. La sangre fue extraída justo antes y un mes después de la vacunación. La inocuidad fue evaluada utilizando un informe sobre reacciones adversas, usando un diseño de observador a ciegas. Ambas vacunas fueron muy bien toleradas, con perfiles de reactogenicidad similares y desarrollaron escasas reacciones adversas en los individuos ancianos. La vacunación con

  17. Health Selection Among Migrants from Mexico to the U.S.: Childhood Predictors of Adult Physical and Mental Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua Breslau; Guilherme Borges; Daniel J. Tancredi; Naomi Saito; Heather Anderson; Richard Kravitz; Ladson Hinton; Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola; Maria-Elena Medina Mora

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We tested whether positive selection on childhood predictors of adult mental and physical health contributed to health advantages of Mexicanborn immigrants to the United States relative to U.S...

  18. Pilot randomized controlled trial: elastic-resistance-training and lifestyle-activity intervention for sedentary older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Mundey, Chris M; Lubans, Nicole J; Lonsdale, Chris C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a resistance-training (RT) and lifestyle-activity program for sedentary older adults. Eligible participants (N = 44) were randomized to an 8-wk intervention or a control group. The primary outcome was lower body muscle strength, and participants completed a range of secondary outcomes. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for lower body muscle strength (difference = 3.9 repetitions [reps], 95% CI = 2.0-5.8 reps; p lifestyle-activity program delivered in the community setting is an efficacious and feasible approach to improve health in sedentary older adults.

  19. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    P B Rshikesan; Pailoor Subramanya; Deepeshwar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yog...

  20. Effects of nurse-led child- and parent-focused violence intervention on mentally ill adult patients and victimized parents: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsu, Mei-Chi

    2016-08-01

    Child-to-parent violence is an often hidden serious problem for parental caregivers of mentally ill adult children who experience violence toward them. To date, the comprehensive dyadic parent-adult child intervention to manage child-to-parent violence is scarce. To evaluate the effect of Child- and Parent-focused Violence Program, an adjunctive intervention involved with both violent adult children with mental illness and their victimized biological parent (parent-adult child dyads) on violence management. Open-label randomized controlled trial. A psychiatric ward in a teaching hospital and two mental hospitals in Southern Taiwan. Sixty-nine patients aged ≥20 years, with thought or mood disorders, having violent behavior in the past 6 months toward their biological parent of either gender were recruited. The violent patients' victimized biological parents who had a major and ongoing role in provision of care to these patients, living together with and being assaulted by their violent children were also recruited. The parent-adult child dyads were selected. The intervention was carried out from 2011 to 2013. The parent-adult child dyads were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (36 dyads), which received Child- and Parent-focused Violence Intervention Program, or to the control group (33 dyads), which received only routine psychiatric care. The intervention included two individualized sessions for each patient and parent, separately, and 2 conjoint sessions for each parental-child dyad for a total of 6 sessions. Each session lasted for at least 60-min. Data collection was conducted at 3 different time frames: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and treatment follow-up (one month after the completion of the intervention). Occurrence of violence prior to intervention was comparable between two groups: 88.9% (n=32) parents in the experimental group versus 93.9% (n=31) in the control group experienced verbal attack, and 50% (n=18) versus 48.5% (n=16

  1. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  2. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible.To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention.Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data.A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74.The adaptive intervention outperformed the static intervention for increasing

  3. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  4. A text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-12-27

    Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content "paths" based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ(2)(1)=1.4, P=.24; R(2)=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ(2)(1)=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day), intervention participants (17%, n=5) also

  5. Disruption of adult expression of sexually selected traits by developmental exposure to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Sieli, Paizlee T; Twellman, Erin E; Welsh, Thomas H; Schachtman, Todd R; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2011-07-12

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), may cause adverse health effects in wildlife and humans, but controversy remains as to what traits are most sensitive to EDCs and might serve as barometers of exposure. Expression of sexually selected traits that have evolved through intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating partner are more dependent on developmental and physical condition of an animal than naturally selected traits and thus might be particularly vulnerable to disruption by developmental exposure to EDCs. We have used the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) as a model to test this hypothesis. Adult male-male competition for mates in this species is supported by enhanced spatial navigational and exploratory abilities, which enable males to search for prospective, widely dispersed females. Male deer mice exposed to BPA or ethinyl estradiol (EE) through maternal diet showed no changes in external phenotype, sensory development, or adult circulating concentrations of testosterone and corticosterone, but spatial learning abilities and exploratory behaviors were severely compromised compared with control males. Because these traits are not sexually selected in females, BPA exposure predictably had no effect, although EE-exposed females demonstrated enhanced spatial navigational abilities. Both BPA-exposed and control females preferred control males to BPA-exposed males. Our demonstration that developmental exposure to BPA compromises cognitive abilities and behaviors essential for males to reproduce successfully has broad implications for other species, including our own. Thus, sexually selected traits might provide useful biomarkers to assess risk of environmental contamination in animal and human populations.

  6. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was conducted to correlate the effect of different therapeutic techniques (active release, muscle energy and Mulligan on increasing hamstring flexibility. Methods: Fifty seven normal healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were assigned randomly to one of the four study groups: Group (113subjects received active release technique. Group (215subjects received muscle energy technique. Group (3 12subjects received Mulligan’s technique. Group (417subjects did not get any intercession. Popliteal angle (active knee extension test and sit-reach flexibility test were measured pre and post the intervention period. Results: MANOVA test for active knee extension test and sit-reach test among the four groups for post intervention values there was no significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the post values of AKE with both groups showed significant increases than Group 3. Group 1 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 3.5-11.8; Group 2 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 4.6-12.8. Conclusion: It can be reasoned that both active release and muscle energy techniques have similar impact in enhancing hamstring flexibility than Mulligan technique in normal male adults.

  7. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Aiello

    Full Text Available Limited vaccine availability and the potential for resistance to antiviral medications have led to calls for establishing the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical measures for mitigating pandemic influenza. Our objective was to examine if the use of face masks and hand hygiene reduced rates of influenza-like illness (ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the natural setting. A cluster-randomized intervention trial was designed involving 1,178 young adults living in 37 residence houses in 5 university residence halls during the 2007-2008 influenza season. Participants were assigned to face mask and hand hygiene, face mask only, or control group during the study. Discrete-time survival models using generalized estimating equations to estimate intervention effects on ILI and confirmed influenza A/B infection over a 6-week study period were examined. A significant reduction in the rate of ILI was observed in weeks 3 through 6 of the study, with a maximum reduction of 75% during the final study week (rate ratio [RR] = 0.25, [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.87]. Both intervention groups compared to the control showed cumulative reductions in rates of influenza over the study period, although results did not reach statistical significance. Generalizability limited to similar settings and age groups. Face masks and hand hygiene combined may reduce the rate of ILI and confirmed influenza in community settings. These non-pharmaceutical measures should be recommended in crowded settings at the start of an influenza pandemic.[corrected] Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00490633.

  8. Effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenji; Makizako, Hyuma; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Suzukawa, Megumi

    2017-05-30

    Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults. A total of 24 elderly women (75-83 years old) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. Those in the intervention group attended 3 months of biweekly 90-min sessions focused on aerobic exercise, strength training, and physical therapy. We monitored changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during walking in both groups using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). All subjects completed the 3-month experiment and the adherence to the exercise program was 100%. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly greater step length in the right foot after 3 months of physical activity. The FDG-PET assessment revealed a significant post-intervention increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left posterior entorhinal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior temporopolar area in the intervention group. Interestingly, the control group showed a relative increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left premotor and supplemental motor areas, left and right somatosensory association cortex, and right primary visual cortex after the 3-month period. We found no significant differences in FDG uptake between the intervention and control groups before vs. after the intervention. Exercise training increased activity in specific brain regions, such as the precuneus and entorhinal cortices, which play an important role in episodic and spatial memory. Further

  9. Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Javier I; Balz, Marion; Kimball, Jennifer; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Fong, Reedmond; Momma, Tony Y; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schroeter, Hagen; Keen, Carl L

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from dietary intervention studies shows that the intake of flavanols and procyanidins can be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for advancing our understanding with regard to safe amounts of intake for these bioactives. The aim was to investigate in healthy adults the effects of cocoa flavanol (CF) intake amount and intake duration on blood pressure, platelet function, metabolic variables, and potential adverse events (AEs). This investigation consisted of 2 parts. Part 1 was an open-label, intake-amount escalation study, in which 34 healthy adults (aged 35-55 y) consumed escalating amounts of CFs, ranging from 1000 to 2000 mg/d over 6 wk. Primary outcomes were blood pressure and platelet function, select metabolic variables, and the occurrence and severity of AEs. Secondary outcomes included plasma concentrations of CF-derived metabolites and methylxanthines. On the basis of the outcomes of study part 1, and assessing the same outcome measures, part 2 of this investigation was a controlled, randomized, double-masked, 2-parallel-arm dietary intervention study in which healthy participants (aged 35-55 y) were asked to consume for 12 consecutive weeks up to 2000 mg CFs/d (n = 46) or a CF-free control (n = 28). Daily intake of up to 2000 mg CFs/d for 12 wk was not associated with significant changes in blood pressure or platelet function compared with CF-free controls in normotensive, healthy individuals who exhibited a very low risk of cardiovascular disease. There were no clinically relevant changes in the metabolic variables assessed in either of the groups. AEs reported were classified as mild in severity and did not significantly differ between study arms. The consumption of CFs in amounts up to 2000 mg/d for 12 wk was well tolerated in healthy men and women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02447770 (part 1) and NCT02447783 (part 2). © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  11. A randomized single blind crossover trial comparing leather and commercial wrist splints for treating chronic wrist pain in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Jill; Nimmo, Rachel; Rowell, Wendy; Quinn, Stephen; Jones, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To compare the effectiveness of a custom-made leather wrist splint (LS) with a commercially available fabric splint (FS) in adults with chronic wrist pain. Methods Participants (N = 25, mean age = 54) were randomly assigned to treatment order in a 2-phase crossover trial. Splints were worn for 2 weeks, separated by a one-week washout period. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each splint phase using the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN), the ...

  12. A web-based, social networking physical activity intervention for insufficiently active adults delivered via Facebook app : randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online s...

  13. Effects of physical activity on strength and skeletal muscle fat infiltration in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Goodpaster, Bret H.; Chomentowski, Peter; Ward, Bryan K.; Rossi, Andrea; Glynn, Nancy W.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Pahor, Marco; Newman, Anne B.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the loss of strength and muscle mass appear to be inevitable consequences of aging. Moreover, aging is associated with an increase in body fat. This study examined whether increased physical activity could prevent or reverse the losses of strength and skeletal muscle mass as well as the gain in fat in older adults. Eleven men and 31 women completed a randomized trial consisting of either a physical activity (PA; n = 22) or successful aging health educationa...

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Applied Relaxation for Adults With Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dugas, Michel J.; Brillon, Pascale; Savard, Pierre; Turcotte, Julie; Gaudet, Adrienne; Ladouceur, Robert; Leblanc, Renée; Gervais, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), applied relaxation (AR), and wait-list control (WL) in a sample of 65 adults with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The CBT condition was based on the intolerance of uncertainty model of GAD, whereas the AR condition was based on general theories of anxiety. Both manualized treatments were administered over 12 weekly 1-hour sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report questionnaire...

  15. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option.

  16. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  17. Behavioral Weight Loss and Physical Activity Intervention in Obese Adults with Asthma. A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Peg; Xiao, Lan; Lavori, Philip W.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Buist, A. Sonia; Haskell, William L.; Lv, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The effect of weight loss on asthma in obese adults warrants rigorous investigation. Objectives: To examine an evidence-based, practical, and comprehensive lifestyle intervention targeting modest weight loss and increased physical activity for asthma control. Methods: The trial randomized 330 obese adults with uncontrolled asthma to receive usual care enhanced with a pedometer, a weight scale, information about existing weight management services at the participating clinics, and an asthma education DVD, or with these tools plus the 12-month intervention. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores from baseline to 12 months. Participants (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [12.4] yr) were 70.6% women, 20.0% non-Hispanic black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latino, and 8.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. At baseline, they were obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [5.9] kg/m2) and had uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, 15.1 [3.8]). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants achieved significantly greater mean weight loss (±SE) (intervention, −4.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. control, −2.1 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.01) and increased leisure-time activity (intervention, 418.2 ± 110.6 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk vs. control, 178.8 ± 109.1 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk; P = 0.05) at 12 months. But between-treatment mean (±SE) differences were not significant for ACQ changes (intervention, –0.3 ± 0.1 vs. control, –0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.92) from baseline (mean [SD], 1.4 [0.8]), nor for any other clinical asthma outcomes (e.g., spirometric results and asthma exacerbations). Among all participants regardless of treatment assignment, weight loss of 10% or greater was associated with a Cohen d effect of 0.76 and with 3.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.72–8.31) times the odds of achieving clinically significant reductions (i.e., ≥0.5) on ACQ as stable weight (obese adults with

  18. Behavioral weight loss and physical activity intervention in obese adults with asthma. A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Strub, Peg; Xiao, Lan; Lavori, Philip W; Camargo, Carlos A; Wilson, Sandra R; Gardner, Christopher D; Buist, A Sonia; Haskell, William L; Lv, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of weight loss on asthma in obese adults warrants rigorous investigation. To examine an evidence-based, practical, and comprehensive lifestyle intervention targeting modest weight loss and increased physical activity for asthma control. The trial randomized 330 obese adults with uncontrolled asthma to receive usual care enhanced with a pedometer, a weight scale, information about existing weight management services at the participating clinics, and an asthma education DVD, or with these tools plus the 12-month intervention. The primary outcome was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores from baseline to 12 months. Participants (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [12.4] yr) were 70.6% women, 20.0% non-Hispanic black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latino, and 8.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. At baseline, they were obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [5.9] kg/m(2)) and had uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, 15.1 [3.8]). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants achieved significantly greater mean weight loss (±SE) (intervention, -4.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. control, -2.1 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.01) and increased leisure-time activity (intervention, 418.2 ± 110.6 metabolic equivalent task-min/wk vs. control, 178.8 ± 109.1 metabolic equivalent task-min/wk; P = 0.05) at 12 months. But between-treatment mean (±SE) differences were not significant for ACQ changes (intervention, -0.3 ± 0.1 vs. control, -0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.92) from baseline (mean [SD], 1.4 [0.8]), nor for any other clinical asthma outcomes (e.g., spirometric results and asthma exacerbations). Among all participants regardless of treatment assignment, weight loss of 10% or greater was associated with a Cohen d effect of 0.76 and with 3.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.72-8.31) times the odds of achieving clinically significant reductions (i.e., ≥0.5) on ACQ as stable weight (loss or gain from baseline). The effects of other weight change categories were small. Moderately and severely obese adults

  19. Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Scott

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado (n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas (n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C. Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline (p = 0.001. C increased by 15% (p = 0.030. At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV (p = 0.001 and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory (p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively. For AV only there was improved sustained attention (p = 0.033, and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem (p = 0.036. Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health.

  20. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  1. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  2. Selected Food Consumption Mediates the Association between Education Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So-Young; Kim, Boeun; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008-2011) were included in cross-sectional analyses (n = 11,029, 30-64 years). The possible mediating effect of selected food groups (fruits, raw vegetables, red meat, milk, and soft drinks) on the association between education level and MetS was tested using a multiple mediation model. Education level was negatively associated with MetS prevalence. The association between lower education level and higher MetS prevalence was partially mediated by selected food consumption (lower intakes of fruit, red meat and milk; higher intakes of vegetable and soft drink) after adjusted for covariates. Gender also modified the association between education level and MetS prevalence that was more prominent in women than in men. Selected food consumption substantially contributes to the association between education level and MetS in Korean adults, especially among women. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources: Motivational Influences on Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of signal-temporal uncertainty in children and adults: tone detection in noise or a random-frequency masker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J; Buss, Emily

    2013-12-01

    A cue indicating when in time to listen can improve adults' tone detection thresholds, particularly for conditions that produce substantial informational masking. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5- to 13-yr-old children likewise benefit from a light cue indicating when in time to listen for a masked pure-tone signal. Each listener was tested in one of two continuous maskers: Broadband noise (low informational masking) or a random-frequency, two-tone masker (high informational masking). Using a single-interval method of constant stimuli, detection thresholds were measured for two temporal conditions: (1) Temporally-defined, with the listening interval defined by a light cue, and (2) temporally-uncertain, with no light cue. Thresholds estimated from psychometric functions fitted to the data indicated that children and adults benefited to the same degree from the visual cue. Across listeners, the average benefit of a defined listening interval was 1.8 dB in the broadband noise and 8.6 dB in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. Thus, the benefit of knowing when in time to listen was more robust for conditions believed to be dominated by informational masking. An unexpected finding of this study was that children's thresholds were comparable to adults' in the random-frequency, two-tone masker.

  6. Adjusting Challenge-Skill Balance to Improve Quality of Life in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ippei; Hirao, Kazuki; Nonaka, Tetsushi

    We sought to investigate whether occupational therapy that includes adjusting the challenge-skill balance improves health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for older adults in comparison with standard occupational therapy. In this single-blind, randomized controlled trial, 56 older adults were assigned to two groups that received 10 sessions of occupational therapy with and without adjustment of challenge-skill balance. The primary outcome was change in HRQOL after 10 sessions of occupational therapy. Significant differences were observed in HRQOL using the EuroQol-5 Dimension score (p = .022, d = 0.76) and the eight-item Short-Form Health Survey scores for general health (p = .001, d = 0.99) and in flow experience using the Flow State Scale for Occupational Tasks (p = .008, d = 0.82). Assessment and adjustment of the challenge-skill balance of activities may effectively improve older adults' HRQOL.

  7. Effects of smartphone-based memory training for older adults with subjective memory complaints: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seo Jin; Seo, Sungmin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Song, Myeong Ju; Shin, Min-Sup

    2017-01-10

    We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks. We used objective cognitive measures to evaluate changes with respect to four domains: attention, memory, working memory (WM), and response inhibition. In addition, we included self-report questionnaires to assess levels of SMC, depression, and anxiety. Total WM quotient [t(17) = 6.27, p smartphone-based memory training program may improve WM function in older adults. However, objective improvement in performance does not necessarily lead to decreased SMC.

  8. Effects of music and music video interventions on sleep quality: A randomized controlled trial in adults with sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of music and music video interventions on objective and subjective sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 71 adults who were recruited from the outpatient department of a hospital with 1100 beds and randomly assigned to the control, music, and music video groups. During the 4 test days (Days 2-5), for 30min before nocturnal sleep, the music group listened to Buddhist music and the music video group watched Buddhist music videos. They were instructed to not listen/watch to the music/MV on the first night (pretest, Day 1) and the final night (Day 6). The control group received no intervention. Sleep was assessed using a one-channel electroencephalography machine in their homes and self-reported questionnaires. The music and music video interventions had no effect on any objective sleep parameters, as measured using electroencephalography. However, the music group had significantly longer subjective total sleep time than the music video group did (Wald χ 2 =6.23, p=0.04). Our study results increase knowledge regarding music interventions for sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. This study suggested that more research is required to strengthen the scientific knowledge of the effects of music intervention on sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. (ISRCTN94971645). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Abdel-Daiem, Wafaa M; Sayyed Bakheet, Mohamad

    2012-08-05

    We investigated the gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, control males and group II, control females; group III, acute cold restraint stressed males and group IV, acute cold restraint stressed females; group V, fluoxetine-treated stressed males and group VI, fluoxetine-treated stressed females. Acute cold restraint stress was established by fixing the four limbs of the rat and placing it in a refrigerator at 4°C for 3h. Fluoxetine was given intraperitoneal in a single dose of 10mg/kg/day. After 2 weeks, stomach and brain tissues were collected for the assay of gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase, nitric oxide (NO) and cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Stressed animals exhibited increased total acidity in association with decreased gastric secretion volume. Gastric MDA was increased while gastric catalase, NO, and cortical GABA were decreased in stressed male rats when compared to stressed females. However, fluoxetine administration attenuated these stress-induced changes especially in stressed male animals. Stressed male rats were more responsive to the antiulcer effect of fluoxetine more than stressed females. However, fluoxetine might be considered to be the first-choice drug in depressive patients with gastric ulcers in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of "Word" vs. "Picture" Version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Wang, Cuiling; Burns, Leah C; Berman, Robert M; Derby, Carol A; L'Italien, Gilbert; Budd, David; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the psychometric relationship between the Word and Picture versions of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) and developed an equation for score conversion. 187 participants were administered the FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word on two visits using a randomized counterbalanced design. Participants had a mean age of 82.1 (sd=5.4) and mean education of 14.5 (sd=3.3) years. Mean FCSRT-Picture Free Recall score (mean 33.0, range: 17-44) was 7.9 points higher than the Word score (mean 25.1, range: 3-43). The Picture and Word FCSRT correlations for Free Recall and Total Recall were r=0.56, pPicture and Word versions of the FCSRT were moderately associated in a sample of cognitively normal older adults. The score mean differences and variability between FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word indicate that their scores should not be considered equivalent.

  11. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: Results of the 3-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become nonsignificant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  14. Online health information use by participants in selected senior centres in Korea: current status of internet access and health information use by Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joohyun; Gassert, Carole A; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe how older adult internet users from senior centres in Korea accessed and used health information on the internet and the perceived barriers that prevented internet use. Increasingly, patients are using health-related information available on the internet. Internet based health information has influenced patient knowledge and expectations regarding healthcare. However, there are few studies about the use of internet for health information by older adults, and even less is known about older adults in Korea. Based on the Access to Information framework developed by McCreadie and Rice, this quantitative study with a qualitative adjunct explored the older adults' use of internet for health information. A convenience sample of 91 community-dwelling older adults in Korea was recruited from 10 randomly selected senior centres, using the modified Kaiser Family Foundation Survey as the basis for structured interview. Half of older internet users (n = 13) had used online health information and found it was helpful. Barriers to internet use were: no interest (90.8%); too complicated (75%); no experience in using internet (∼50%); too expensive (∼50%); or disability (10%). Qualitative findings revealed that the prime reason for non-use of the internet was related to literacy and level of education due to historical background. The results of quantitative and qualitative analysis supported that the internet users were relatively younger, more educated, male, had a higher income, received more support from others and all from large senior centres. This study is important because the results can provide valuable insights into the potential for health education and health communication for older adults in Korea using the internet. It could affect health promotion, policy and education for older adults in Korea. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Widespread sucralose exposure in a randomized clinical trial in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Walter, Peter J; Garraffo, H Martin; Robien, Kim; Rother, Kristina I

    2017-04-01

    Background : Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are found in many foods and beverages, but consumers may not realize their presence, and their role in appetite, weight, and health is controversial. Although consumption limits based on toxicologic safety are well established, the threshold required to exert clinically relevant metabolic effects is unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether individuals who do not report consumption of LCSs can be correctly characterized as "unexposed" and to investigate whether instructions to avoid LCSs are effective in minimizing exposure. Design: Eighteen healthy 18- to 35-y-old "nonconsumers" (sucralose or carbonated water (control) 3 times/d for 1 wk. Food diaries were maintained throughout the study, and a spot urine sample was collected at each visit. Results: At baseline, 8 participants had sucralose in their urine (29.9-239.0 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 111.4 ± 91.5 ng/mL). After the run-in, sucralose was found in 8 individuals (2 of whom did not have detectable sucralose at baseline) and ranged from 25.0 to 1062.0 ng/mL (mean ± SD: 191.7 ± 354.2 ng/mL). Only 1 participant reported consumption of an LCS-containing food before her visit. After the intervention, sucralose was detected in 3 individuals randomly assigned to receive carbonated water (26-121 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 60.7 ± 52.4 ng/mL). Conclusions: Despite the selection of healthy volunteers with minimal reported LCS consumption, more than one-third were exposed to sucralose at baseline and/or before randomization, and nearly half were exposed after assignment to the control. This shows that instructions to avoid LCSs are not effective and that nondietary sources (e.g., personal care products) may be important contributors to overall exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02877186. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Results from an online computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, Lenneke; van Empelen, Pepijn; Boon, Brigitte; Borsboom, Gerard; Visscher, Tommy; Oenema, Anke

    2012-03-14

    Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people. Therefore, we developed an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults. The focus of the intervention was on making small (100 kcal per day), but sustained changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA) behaviors in order to maintain current weight or achieve modest weight loss. Self-regulation theory was used as the basis of the intervention. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the computer-tailored intervention in weight-related anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, skin folds and waist circumference) and energy balance-related behaviors (physical activity; intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks) in a randomized controlled trial. The tailored intervention (TI) was compared to a generic information website (GI). Participants were 539 overweight adults (mean age 47.8 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.04, 30.9% male, 10.7% low educated) who where recruited among the general population and among employees from large companies by means of advertisements and flyers. Anthropometric measurements were measured by trained research assistants at baseline and 6-months post-intervention. DI and PA behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1-month and 6-month post-intervention, using self-reported questionnaires. Repeated measurement analyses showed that BMI remained stable over time and that there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups (BMI: TI=28.09, GI=27.61, P=.09). Similar results were found for waist circumference and skin fold thickness. Amount of physical activity increased and intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks decreased during the course of the study, but there were no differences

  17. Tolerability during double-blind randomized phase I trials with the house dust mite allergy immunotherapy tablet in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, J L; Carrillo, T; Pedemonte, C; Plaza Martin, A M; Martín Hurtado, S; Dige, E; Calderon, M A

    2014-01-01

    The orodispersible house dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet (ALK, Denmark) is being developed for the treatment of HDM respiratory allergic disease. The objective of the 2 phase I trials was to investigate tolerability and the acceptable dose range of HDM SLIT-tablet treatment in adults and children with HDM respiratory allergic disease. The trials were randomized, multiple-dose, dose-escalation, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trials including patients with HDM-induced asthma, with or without rhinoconjunctivitis. Both trials were registered in EudraCT (Trial 1: 2005-002151-41; Trial 2: 2007-000402-67). Trial 1 included 71 adults (18-63 years) and trial 2 included 72 children (5-14 years). Both trials included 6 dose groups that were randomized 3:1 to active treatment or placebo once daily for 28 days. Adverse events (AEs) were coded in MedDRA (version 8.1 or later). Immunological variables included specific IgE and IgE-blocking factor. No serious AEs were reported. In trial 1 (maximum dose, 32 development units [DU]), 1 patient in the 16 DU group discontinued due to AEs. The entire 32 DU group was discontinued as 1 patient had a severe adverse reaction. In trial 2 (maximum dose, 12 DU), no patients discontinued prematurely. The most frequently reported AEs were mild application-site related events. The total number of events was dose-related within each trial. HDM SLIT-tablet treatment induced changes in immunological parameters in a dose-dependent manner. These trials demonstrate that doses up to 12 DU of HDM SLIT-tablet were tolerated in the selected populations, and thus are suitable for further clinical investigations in adults and children with HDM respiratory allergic disease.

  18. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford I; Rainforth, Maxwell V; Haaga, David A F; Hagelin, John; Salerno, John W; Travis, Fred; Tanner, Melissa; Gaylord-King, Carolyn; Grosswald, Sarina; Schneider, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    Psychological distress contributes to the development of hypertension in young adults. This trial assessed the effects of a mind-body intervention on blood pressure (BP), psychological distress, and coping in college students. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 298 university students randomly allocated to either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program or wait-list control. At baseline and after 3 months, BP, psychological distress, and coping ability were assessed. A subgroup of 159 subjects at risk for hypertension was analyzed similarly. Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the overall sample were -2.0/-1.2 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +0.4/+0.5 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.15, P = 0.15, respectively). Changes in SBP/DBP for the hypertension risk subgroup were -5.0/-2.8 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +1.3/+1.2 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Significant improvements were found in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility, and coping (P values < 0.05). Changes in psychological distress and coping correlated with changes in SBP (P values < 0.05) and DBP (P values < 0.08). This is the first RCT to demonstrate that a selected mind-body intervention, the TM program, decreased BP in association with decreased psychological distress, and increased coping in young adults at risk for hypertension. This mind-body program may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults.

  19. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah Mummah; Thomas N Robinson; Maya Mathur; Sarah Farzinkhou; Stephen Sutton; Christopher D Gardner

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials...

  20. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to test the treatment effect of the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) program versus sleep hygiene education for improving sleep quality, as the main outcome, in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Older adults with current sleep disturbances will be recruited from the urban Los Angeles community. Participants will be randomized into two standardized treatment conditions, MAPs and sleep hygiene education. Each condition will consist of weekly 2-hour group-based classes over the course of the 6-week intervention. The primary objective of this study is to determine if mindfulness meditation practice as engaged through the MAPs program leads to improved sleep quality relative to sleep hygiene education in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah; Espeland, Mark; Gorin, Amy; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Erickson, Karen; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-01-01

    ... (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control...

  3. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer : Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David; Gapstur, Susan; Berndt, Sonja; Chanock, Stephen; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using

  4. Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

  5. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Onrust, S.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design. This manuscript describes the design of a

  6. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Onrust, S.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study

  7. 77 FR 5850 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... . Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above via TTY by calling the... Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs; Final Notice AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA... (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs. The Department has determined that it is in the public...

  8. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  9. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolake (Odufuwa Akanni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select, a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days (p < 0.05 over the 12-week program. Cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $1374 to $1452 per QALY gained. The reported cost-effective ratios are well within the common cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000 for a gained QALY. Some sociodemographic differences were also observed in program impact and cost. Non-Hispanic whites experienced significant improvements in healthy days from baseline to the follow-up period and had higher cost-effectiveness ratios. Results indicate that the Texercise Select program is a cost-effective strategy for increasing physical activity and improving healthy dietary practices among older adults as compared to similar health promotion interventions. In line with the significant improvement in

  11. Eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Megan A; Howarth, Nancy C; Roberts, Susan B; Huang, Terry T-K

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of eating frequency to weight control is poorly understood. This review examines the evidence to date on the role of eating frequency in weight control in free-living adults. The majority of cross-sectional studies in free-living adults show an inverse relationship between eating frequency and adiposity; however, this is likely an artifact produced by the underreporting of eating frequency concurrent with underreporting of energy intake. When implausible energy intake reporting (which is mostly underreporting) is taken into account, the association between eating frequency and adiposity becomes positive. In studies in which eating frequency is prescribed and food intake is mostly self-selected, there is either no effect or a minor positive effect of eating frequency on energy intake. Most of those studies have been short-term and lack the necessary dietary biomarkers to validate reported energy intakes and eating frequencies. In conclusion, there is some suggestion from cross-sectional studies in which energy intake underreporting is taken into account and from experimental studies to date that greater eating frequency may promote positive energy balance. However, experimental studies of longer-term duration that include objective dietary biomarkers are necessary before firm conclusions about the relative importance of eating frequency in weight control can be made.

  12. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  13. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  14. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  15. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: a small randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Myers, Hector F; Cole, Steven W; Irwin, Michael R

    2009-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time x treatment condition interaction, p=.02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00600561.

  16. Exercise for depression in older adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials adjusting for publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B. Schuch

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidepressant effects of exercise in older adults, using randomized controlled trial (RCT data. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of exercise in older adults, addressing limitations of previous works. RCTs of exercise interventions in older people with depression (≥ 60 years comparing exercise vs. control were eligible. A random-effects meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD (95% confidence interval [95%CI], meta-regressions, and trim, fill, and fail-safe number analyses were conducted. Results: Eight RCTs were included, representing 138 participants in exercise arms and 129 controls. Exercise had a large and significant effect on depression (SMD = -0.90 [95%CI -0.29 to -1.51], with a fail-safe number of 71 studies. Significant effects were found for 1 mixed aerobic and anaerobic interventions, 2 at moderate intensity, 3 that were group-based, 4 that utilized mixed supervised and unsupervised formats, and 5 in people without other clinical comorbidities. Conclusion: Adjusting for publication bias increased the beneficial effects of exercise in three subgroup analysis, suggesting that previous meta-analyses have underestimated the benefits of exercise due to publication bias. We advocate that exercise be considered as a routine component of the management of depression in older adults.

  17. Prospective, randomized trial of epinephrine, metaproterenol, and both in the prehospital treatment of asthma in the adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrel, M; Lavery, R F; Jaker, M; Atkin, S; Tortella, B J; Cody, R P

    1995-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness and incidence of adverse reactions with three treatment regimens for asthma in adults in the prehospital setting. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Inner-city emergency medical service system providing basic and advanced life support and transport to 14 urban area hospital emergency departments. One hundred fifty-four adult asthmatic patients, 18 to 50 years old, who presented to paramedics with shortness of breath and wheezing. Eligible patients were randomly assigned by the base station physician to one of three treatment groups: subcutaneous epinephrine, nebulized metaproterenol, or subcutaneous epinephrine and nebulized metaproterenol. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and after treatment in each patient. During a 9-month period (October 1992 through June 1993), 154 patients were enrolled in the study; 53 (34%) received epinephrine, 49 (32%) received metaproterenol, and 52 (34%) received both. There were no significant differences in patient demographics, initial vital signs, or pretreatment PEFR among the three groups. The mean difference between pretreatment and posttreatment PEFR was 73 L/min and did not significantly differ among the treatment groups. Significant changes in vital signs were seen in no treatment group. Nebulized metaproterenol is as effective as subcutaneous epinephrine in the prehospital treatment of adult patients with acute asthma. The combination of these two treatments offered no additional clinical benefit in the patients we studied.

  18. The impact of tailored text messages on health beliefs and medication adherence in adults with diabetes: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate medication adherence reduces optimal health outcomes and can lead to increased costs, particularly in patients with diabetes. Efforts to improve adherence have resulted in limited effects; approaches leveraging mobile technology have emerged, but their focus has mainly been limited to simple reminder messages. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of tailored text messages focusing on improving medication adherence and health beliefs in adults with diabetes. Adults aged 21-64, with uncontrolled diabetes, and taking at least one anti-diabetic medication were recruited and randomized into 2 study arms: daily tailored text messaging for 90 days or standard care. Comparing baseline and endpoint survey responses, changes in theory-driven health beliefs and attitudes were assessed. The impact on medication adherence was evaluated using pharmacy claims by calculating the percent of days covered (PDC). A total of 75 subjects were consented, and 48 were randomized. Mean PDC at baseline were comparable between cohorts (84.4% and 87.1%, respectively). Declines in adherence were observed in both groups over time but no significant differences were observed between groups or from baseline to the end of the active study period. Unadjusted tests suggested that perceived benefits and competence might have improved in the intervention arm. Tailoring mobile phone text messages is a novel way to address medication nonadherence and health beliefs; further investigation to this combined technique is needed to better understand its impact on behavior change in adults with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized clinical trial of a writing workshop intervention to improve autobiographical memory and well-being in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Mosby, Amanda; Hanley, Kathryn B; Pedraza, Maria Suarez; Brandt, Jason

    2011-08-01

    Despite much research on methods to improve new learning and memory in old age, there is virtually no literature on the improvement of autobiographical memory (AM). The present study assessed the effectiveness of a structured autobiographical writing workshop for improving AM, mood and self-concept in older adults. Fifty-one nondemented older adults (67-96 years) participated. AM was assessed with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and the Remote Memory Word Association Task (RMWAT). After completing baseline (BL) testing, participants were randomized to a structured autobiographical writing workshop, a reminiscence group (active control condition) or a no-treatment control group. Follow-up testing was completed at 8 and 34 weeks after BL. Repeated measures ANOVAs failed to reveal a group-by-time interaction for any of the autobiographical memory (AM) measures. Across groups, there was a decrease in number of mid- and late-life events reported (on the AMI), and memories tended to be less detailed (on the RMWAT) although more pleasant memories were reported with repeated testing. Mood remained unchanged; ratings of self-concept improved across all groups. This is the first study of its kind to use a randomized group design to test an intervention for AM in older adults. In general, our specific intervention was ineffective for increasing recall from one's life story, mood or self-concept. Methodological limitations and suggestions for future investigation are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Nutrient Intake During Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Interventions in a Randomized Trial in Older Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G D; Beavers, D P; Hamm, D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). The study setting was at a university research facility. Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further

  1. Reduction of inappropriate benzodiazepine prescriptions among older adults through direct patient education: the EMPOWER cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Martin, Philippe; Tamblyn, Robyn; Benedetti, Andrea; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation Choosing Wisely Campaign recommends against the use of benzodiazepine drugs for adults 65 years and older. The effect of direct patient education to catalyze collaborative care for reducing inappropriate prescriptions remains unknown. To compare the effect of a direct-to-consumer educational intervention against usual care on benzodiazepine therapy discontinuation in community-dwelling older adults. Cluster randomized trial (EMPOWER [Eliminating Medications Through Patient Ownership of End Results] study [2010-2012, 6-month follow-up]). Community pharmacies were randomly allocated to the intervention or control arm in nonstratified, blocked groups of 4. Participants (303 long-term users of benzodiazepine medication aged 65-95 years, recruited from 30 community pharmacies) were screened and enrolled prior to randomization: 15 pharmacies randomized to the educational intervention included 148 participants and 15 pharmacies randomized to the "wait list" control included 155 participants. Participants, physicians, pharmacists, and evaluators were blinded to outcome assessment. The active arm received a deprescribing patient empowerment intervention describing the risks of benzodiazepine use and a stepwise tapering protocol. The control arm received usual care. Benzodiazepine therapy discontinuation at 6 months after randomization, ascertained by pharmacy medication renewal profiles. A total of 261 participants (86%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Of the recipients in the intervention group, 62% initiated conversation about benzodiazepine therapy cessation with a physician and/or pharmacist. At 6 months, 27% of the intervention group had discontinued benzodiazepine use compared with 5% of the control group (risk difference, 23% [95% CI, 14%-32%]; intracluster correlation, 0.008; number needed to treat, 4). Dose reduction occurred in an additional 11% (95% CI, 6%-16%). In multivariate subanalyses, age greater than 80

  2. The effects of probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome indices in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaian, Nazila; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Feizi, Awat; Jafari, Parvaneh; Amini, Masoud

    2017-03-29

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity has been rising dramatically; however, their pathogenesis is particularly intriguing. Recently, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new candidate that may be linked to metabolic diseases. We hypothesize that selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic or synbiotic supplementation may improve metabolic dysfunction and prevent diabetes in prediabetics. In this study, a synthesis and study of synbiotics will be carried out for the first time in Iran. In a randomized triple-blind controlled clinical trial, 120 adults with impaired glucose tolerance based on the inclusion criteria will be selected by a simple random sampling method and will be randomly allocated to 6 months of 6 g/d probiotic, synbiotic or placebo. The fecal abundance of bacteria, blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences will be measured at baseline and following treatment. Also, plasma lipid profiles, HbA1C, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels, will be measured and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-B) will be calculated at baseline and will be repeated at months 3, 6, 12, and 18. The data will be compared within and between groups using statistical methods. The results of this trial could contribute to the evidence-based clinical guidelines that address gut microbiota manipulation to maximize health benefits in prevention and management of metabolic syndrome in prediabetes. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials: IRCT201511032321N2 . Registered on 27 February 2016.

  3. Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hanson, Kyle C; English, Karl K; Shrimpton, J Mark; Farrell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behaviour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model to test the null hypothesis that fishing is not selective for specific physiological or energetic traits. Fish were intercepted during their spawning migrations, implanted with a gastric radio transmitter, and biopsied (i.e., non-lethally sampled for blood, gill tissue and quantification of energetic status). In both 2003 and 2006, we tagged and biopsied 301 and 770 sockeye salmon, respectively, in the marine environment en route to their natal river system to spawn. In 2006 an additional 378 individuals were tagged and biopsied in freshwater. We found that 23 (7.6%) of the marine fish tagged in 2003, 78 (10.1%) of the marine fish tagged in 2006 and 57 (15.1%) of the freshwater fish tagged in 2006 were harvested by one of three fisheries sectors that operate in the coastal marine environment and the Fraser River (i.e. commercial, recreational or First Nations fisheries between the site of release and Hell's Gate in the Fraser River, approximately 250 km upriver and 465 km from the ocean tagging site). However, fisheries were not open continually or consistently in different locations and for different fisheries sectors necessitating a paired analytical approach. As such, for statistical analyses we paired individual fish that were harvested with another fish of the same genetic stock that was released on the same date and exhibited similar migration behaviour, except that they successfully evaded capture and reached natal spawning grounds. Using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, we revealed that the physiological

  4. Smoking Characteristics of Adults With Selected Lifetime Mental Illnesses: Results From the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Davis, Shane P.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts among US adults with selected diagnosed lifetime mental illnesses. Methods. We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey on 23 393 noninstitutionalized US adults to obtain age-adjusted estimates of smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts for adults screened as having serious psychological distress and persons self-reporting bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity, dementia, or phobias or fears. Results. The age-adjusted smoking prevalence of adults with mental illness or serious psychological distress ranged from 34.3% (phobias or fears) to 59.1% (schizophrenia) compared with 18.3% of adults with no such illness. Smoking prevalence increased with the number of comorbid mental illnesses. Cessation attempts among persons with diagnosed mental illness or serious psychological distress were comparable to attempts among adults without mental illnesses or distress; however, lower quit ratios were observed among adults with these diagnoses, indicating lower success in quitting. Conclusions. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among persons with mental illnesses than among adults without mental illnesses. Our findings stress the need for prevention and cessation efforts targeting adults with mental illnesses. PMID:20966369

  5. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  7. The Effects of Computer Training and Internet Usage on the Use of Everyday Technology by Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Karin; van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Jolles, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    According to the skill transfer concept, people may use general technological skills to solve new problems. To test this concept, a technological transfer test was included in a randomized controlled-intervention study aimed at the causal relationship between computer use and autonomy of older adults. Older adults with and without exposure to…

  8. 76 FR 43729 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... reminder of the importance of ensuring that the services provided to people who are out of work and... services and training provided under the Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs. Generally speaking...

  9. Rationale for a randomized controlled trial comparing two prophylaxis regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A: the Hemophilia Adult Prophylaxis Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of comprehensive hemophilia care is to prevent occurrence of bleeds by prophylaxis or regular preventive factor, one or more times weekly. Although prophylaxis is effective in reducing bleeding and joint damage in children, whether it is necessary to continue into adulthood is not known. The purpose of this article is to describe a Phase III randomized controlled trial to evaluate prophylaxis comparing two dose regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A. I hypothesize that adults with mature cartilage and joints are less susceptible to joint bleeds and joint damage, and that once-weekly recombinant factor VIII prophylaxis, with up to two rescue doses per week, is as effective as thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing bleeding frequency, but less costly and more acceptable, with higher quality of life. The ultimate goal of this project is to determine whether once-weekly prophylaxis is any worse than thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing joint bleeding frequency, while potentially utilizing less factor, at lower cost, leading to a better quality of life. This is an innovative concept, as it challenges the current paradigm of thrice-weekly prophylaxis in adults, which is based on dosing in children. Furthermore, this trial will assess interdose thrombin generation, a novel tissue factor-based assay of hemostasis, to determine if individualized thrombin generation can predict more individualized prophylaxis dosing, which would be practice changing. PMID:21939418

  10. Physical abuse of older adults in nursing homes: a random sample survey of adults with an elderly family member in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B; Oehmke, James; Zhang, Zhenmei; Barboza, Gia E; Griffore, Robert J; Von Heydrich, Levente; Post, Lori A; Weatherill, Robin P; Mastin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Few empirical studies have focused on elder abuse in nursing home settings. The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of staff physical abuse among elderly individuals receiving nursing home care in Michigan. A random sample of 452 adults with elderly relatives, older than 65 years, and in nursing home care completed a telephone survey regarding elder abuse and neglect experienced by this elder family member in the care setting. Some 24.3% of respondents reported at least one incident of physical abuse by nursing home staff. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the importance of various risk factors in nursing home abuse. Limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), older adult behavioral difficulties, and previous victimization by nonstaff perpetrators were associated with a greater likelihood of physical abuse. Interventions that address these risk factors may be effective in reducing older adult physical abuse in nursing homes. Attention to the contextual or ecological character of nursing home abuse is essential, particularly in light of the findings of this study.

  11. Adverse Events With Ketamine Versus Ketofol for Procedural Sedation on Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoel, Fabien; Contenti, Julie; Giolito, Didier; Boiffier, Mathieu; Rapp, Jocelyn; Istria, Jacques; Fournier, Marc; Ageron, François-Xavier; Levraut, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the frequency and severity of recovery reactions between ketamine and ketamine-propofol 1:1 admixture ("ketofol"). We performed a multicentric, randomized, double-blind trial in which adult patients received emergency procedural sedations with ketamine or ketofol. Our primary outcome was the proportion of unpleasant recovery reactions. Other outcomes were frequency of interventions required by these recovery reactions, rates of respiratory or hemodynamic events, emesis, and satisfaction of patients as well as providers. A total of 152 patients completed the study, 76 in each arm. Compared with ketamine, ketofol determined a 22% reduction in recovery reactions incidence (p ketamine. We found a significant reduction in recovery reactions and emesis frequencies among adult patients receiving emergency procedural sedations with ketofol, compared with ketamine. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine in adults' burns wound dressing--A randomized double blind cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Pankaj; Velayudhan, Savitri; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan; Gupta, Suman Lata

    2013-09-01

    Study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and side effects of oral dexmedetomidine and ketamine in adults for burn wound dressing. Sixty healthy adults with thermal burns with burn area (20-50%) were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In Group K 5mg/kg ketamine and in Group D 4 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine was given orally. Patients crossed over to the other group the following day. Visual analogue score, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters were recorded from 30min after drug administration to 2h after procedure. Patients' preference was also recorded. Mean VAS score was significantly reduced from baseline in both the groups at all time points (Pburns wound dressing. Oral ketamine produced significantly better pain relief than dexmedetomidine but was associated with delirium and excessive salivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of life-review as online-guided self-help for adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Sanne M A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Korte, Jojanneke; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2015-01-01

    The study used a randomized controlled trial to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of life-review as online-guided self-help in adults (40+) with moderate depressive symptomatology. We evaluated ego-integrity and rumination as mediators and assessed whether the effects of the intervention did not differ across middle-aged and older adults. Effects of life-review (n = 58) were compared with a waiting list group (n = 58) and an expressive writing intervention (n = 58) on depressive symptoms (primary outcome), anxiety, and well-being (secondary outcomes). Mediator and moderator analyses were also applied. Compared with the waiting list, life-review reduced depressive symptoms (d = 0.35) and enhanced emotional (d = 0.16) and psychological well-being (d = 0.27). Life-review was not more effective than expressive writing. The effects on depressive symptoms were partly related with increases in ego-integrity and decreases in rumination. The intervention is applicable for middle-aged and older adults. Life-review is effective as self-help for middle-aged and older adults with moderate depressive symptomatology compared with a waiting list group. Future research should investigate whether stimulating ego-integrity and reducing rumination enhance the effects of the intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vortioxetine on cognitive function in depressed adults

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Lophaven, Søren; Olsen, Christina K.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of vortioxetine 10 and 20 mg/d vs. placebo on cognitive function and depression in adults with recurrent moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder (MDD) was evaluated. Patients (18–65 yr, N = 602) were randomized (1:1:1) to vortioxetine 10 or 20 mg/d or placebo for 8 wk in a double-blind multi-national study. Cognitive function was assessed with objective neuropsychological tests of executive function, processing speed, attention and learning and memory, and a subjective cogni...

  16. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  17. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  18. Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in older adults after regular senior elastic band exercising: an experimental randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lin Yu; Chung, Wei Sheng; Chen, Kuei Min

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test the effects of regular senior elastic band exercises on the generation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities in older adults. Long-term regular exercises have positive health promotion outcomes. On the contrary, high-intensity, high-speed and short-term exercises in older adults may increase free radicals and cause chronic disease and ageing effect. A prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Data were collected during 2012. Twenty-five older adults were recruited from a community care centre, southern Taiwan and were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. Twenty-two participants completed the study: experimental group (n = 10) and control group (n = 12). The experimental group performed 6-month senior elastic band exercises while the control group kept regular daily routines. Both groups received blood tests (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase) 30 minutes before the study began and 1 hour after the final intervention treatment. At the end of the 6-month senior elastic band exercises, no statistically significant differences in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase values between the experimental and control groups. No significant differences existed in both thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase values before and after the 6-month senior elastic band exercises either. Regular senior elastic band exercises did not increase the generation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities. Senior elastic band exercises have the potential to be promoted among older adults in the community as an exercise option without adverse effects on free radicals and have potential for mitigating ageing and increasing disease control. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  20. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  1. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  2. Transport, dam passage, and size selection of adult Atlantic Salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigourney, Douglas B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Hughes, Edward; Cox, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2012, returning adult Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had to pass through fishways at three dams in the lower section of the Penobscot River, Maine: Veazie Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 48; removed in 2013), Great Works Dam (rkm 60; removed in 2012), and Milford Dam (rkm 62). To facilitate better passage through the lower river, a fish transport program was implemented in 2010 and 2011. Fish were captured at Veazie Dam and were either transported by truck above Milford Dam (TRKD group) or released into the head pond above Veazie Dam (run-of-the-river [ROR] group). To assess the efficacy of transport, we used PIT telemetry to compare the performance and passage of TRKD and ROR fish based on their (1) success in reaching one of the three dams upstream of Milford Dam, (2) time taken to reach an upstream dam (transit time), and (3) success in passing that upstream dam. In both years, the percentage of fish detected at upstream dams was higher for the TRKD group (82.4% in 2010; 78.6% in 2011) than for the ROR group (41.3% in 2010; 22.4% in 2011). In addition, median transit time was faster for TRKD fish (7 d in 2010; 5 d in 2011) than for ROR fish (23 d in 2010; 25 d in 2011). However, passage success through the upstream dams did not differ between the two release groups. Our analysis also revealed a strong, negative size-selective force on dam passage: larger fish were consistently less likely to successfully pass dams than smaller fish. Finally, environmental conditions also influenced passage success. Our analysis shows that the transport of adult Atlantic Salmon can be an effective means by which to increase migration success in systems where upstream passage is poor.

  3. Prevention of anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Maurice; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Watkins, Ed; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a preventive intervention for anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive levels of repetitive negative thinking (RNT; worry and rumination) in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N = 251, 83.7% female) showing elevated levels of RNT were randomly allocated to a 6-week cognitive-behavioral training delivered in a group, via the internet, or to a waitlist control condition. Self-report measures were collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention, 3 m and 12 m follow-up. Both versions of the preventive intervention significantly reduced RNT (d = 0.53 to 0.89), and symptom levels of anxiety and depression (d = 0.36 to 0.72). Effects were maintained until 12 m follow-up. The interventions resulted in a significantly lower 12 m prevalence rate of depression (group intervention: 15.3%, internet intervention: 14.7%) and generalized anxiety disorder (group intervention: 18.0%, internet intervention: 16.0%), compared to the waitlist (32.4% and 42.2%, respectively). Mediation analyses demonstrated that reductions in RNT mediated the effect of the interventions on the prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Results provide evidence for the efficacy of this preventive intervention targeting RNT and support a selective prevention approach that specifically targets a known risk factor to prevent multiple disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Botulinum toxin injection into the forearm muscles for wrist and fingers spastic overactivity in adults with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial comparing three injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Lobba, Davide; Midiri, Alessandro; Prandi, Paolo; Melotti, Camilla; Baldessarelli, Silvia; Smania, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    To compare the outcome of manual needle placement, electrical stimulation and ultrasonography-guided techniques for botulinum toxin injection into the forearm muscles of adults with arm spasticity. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. Sixty chronic stroke patients with wrist and fingers spasticity. After randomization into three groups, each patient received botulinum toxin type A in at least two of these muscles: flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus (no fascicles selection). The manual needle placement group underwent injections using palpation; the electrical stimulation group received injections with electrical stimulation guidance; the ultrasonography group was injected under sonographic guidance. A sole injector was used. All patients were evaluated at baseline and four weeks after injection. Modified Ashworth Scale; Tardieu Scale; wrist and fingers passive range of motion. One month after injection, Modified Ashworth Scale scores improved more in the electrical stimulation group than the manual needle placement group (wrist: P = 0.014; fingers: P = 0.011), as well as the Tardieu angle (wrist: P = 0.008; fingers: P = 0.015) and passive range of motion (wrist: P = 0.004). Furthermore, Modified Ashworth Scale scores improved more in the ultrasonography group than in the manual needle placement group (wrist: P = 0.001; fingers: P = 0.003), as well as the Tardieu angle (wrist: P = 0.010; fingers: P = 0.001) and passive range of motion (wrist: P muscles of stroke patients.

  5. Efficacy of Lisdexamfetamine in Adults With Moderate to Severe Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James I; McElroy, Susan L; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Gasior, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ability of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse and maintain efficacy with long-term treatment in psychiatric conditions is important. To assess lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder. A multinational, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study including 418 participants was conducted at 49 clinical research study sites from January 27, 2014, to April 8, 2015. Eligible adults met DSM-IV-R binge-eating disorder criteria and had moderate to severe binge eating disorder (≥3 binge-eating days per week for 14 days before open-label baseline; Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S] scores ≥4 [moderate severity] at screening and open-label baseline). Following a 12-week, open-label phase (dose optimization, 4 weeks [lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, 50 or 70 mg]; dose maintenance, 8 weeks), lisdexamfetamine responders (≤1 binge eating day per week for 4 consecutive weeks and CGI-S scores ≤2 at week 12) were randomized to placebo or continued lisdexamfetamine during a 26-week, double-blind, randomized withdrawal phase. Lisdexamfetamine administration. The primary outcome variable, time to relapse (≥2 binge-eating days per week for 2 consecutive weeks and ≥2-point CGI-S score increases from randomized withdrawal baseline), was analyzed using a log-rank test (primary analysis); the analysis was stratified for dichotomized 4-week cessation status. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events. Of the 418 participants enrolled in the open-label phase of the study, 411 (358 [87.1%] women; mean [SD] age, 38.3 [10.4] years) were included in the safety analysis set. Of 275 randomized lisdexamfetamine responders (placebo, n = 138; lisdexamfetamine, n = 137), the observed proportions of participants meeting relapse criteria were 3.7% (5 of 136) for lisdexamfetamine and 32.1% (42 of 131) for placebo. Lisdexamfetamine demonstrated superiority over

  6. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  7. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  8. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  9. Selection pour Adolescents et Adultes, Francais Langue Etrangere. Niveau II (French as a Foreign Language, Level 2, Selections for Adolescents and Adults)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Raymond

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists reading materials including stories, novels, plays, poetry, comic strips and documentary works, to be used for intermediate instruction of French as a foreign language for adults and adolescents. Dictionaries and grammar texts are also cited. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  10. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  11. GrOup based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) randomized controlled trial: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Harden, Samantha M; Wolf, Svenja A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Liu, Yan; Dunlop, William L; Schmader, Toni; Sheel, Andrew W; Zumbo, Bruno D; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-06-27

    Physical activity has health benefits across the lifespan, yet only 13 % of Canadian older adults are sufficiently active. Results from a number of observational studies indicate that adults display positive preferences for exercising with others of a similar age and same gender, and that intra-group age- and gender-similarity are associated with elevated exercise adherence. However, research has yet to experimentally examine the extent to which intra-group age- and gender-related similarity affect exercise adherence behaviors. The GrOup-based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) trial is a three-arm randomized control trial that will examine the efficacy of two different group-based exercise programs for older adults (informed by the tenets of self-categorization theory) in relation to a standard group-based exercise program. Within this manuscript we outline the design and proposed evaluation of the GOAL trial. The first arm is comprised of exercise groups made up of participants of a similar-age and of the same gender; the second arm consists of groups with similar-aged mixed gender participants; the control arm is comprised of mixed-aged mixed gender participants. We aim to compare the adherence rates of participants across conditions, as well as potential moderation effects and mediating mechanisms. Results from this trial will inform intervention designs to improve the exercise adherence behaviors of older adult. At a systems-level, should support be derived for the efficacy of the interventions tested in this trial, changing group composition (i.e., age, gender) represents a feasible program adaptation for physical activity centers. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02023632 . Registered December 13, 2013.

  12. Health-social partnership intervention programme for community-dwelling older adults: a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chang, Katherine Ka Pik

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to describe the research protocol that will be used to determine the effectiveness of a health-social partnership intervention programme among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing in place is a preferred option for overcoming challenges of the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the risk for hospitalization associated with the ageing population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to implement this concept is limited. The integrated efforts of health and social services may help to enable older adults to live with a sense of control over their daily life and to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. This is a randomized, controlled trial. Participants are community-dwelling older adults referred from a community centre. Sample size calculation was based on power analysis. The intervention group will receive the programme with the standard protocols guided by a comprehensive assessment-intervention-evaluation framework. Home visits and telephones follow-up will be employed as means of conducting the interventions and monitoring their progress. The customary care group will receive placebo social calls. The duration of the interventions will be 3 months. The study was funded by the School of Nursing in Hong Kong. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in September 2014. The results of this research are expected to enable older adults to stay in the community with optimal health and well-being. Health and social sciences are integrated into the practice in this research protocol. The scarce literature on this topic means that this study can also provide an opportunity to bridge the caring gap among older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vancouver At Home: pragmatic randomized trials investigating Housing First for homeless and mentally ill adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with mental illnesses are overrepresented among the homeless. Housing First (HF) has been shown to promote positive outcomes in this population. However, key questions remain unresolved, including: how to match support services to client needs, the benefits of housing in scattered sites versus single congregate building, and the effectiveness of HF with individuals actively using substances. The present study aimed to recruit two samples of homeless mentally ill participants who differed in the complexity of their needs. Study details, including recruitment, randomization, and follow-up, are presented. Methods Eligibility was based on homeless status and current mental disorder. Participants were classified as either moderate needs (MN) or high needs (HN). Those with MN were randomized to HF with Intensive Case Management (HF-ICM) or usual care. Those with HN were randomized to HF with Assertive Community Treatment (HF-ACT), congregate housing with support, or usual care. Participants were interviewed every 3 months for 2 years. Separate consent was sought to access administrative data. Results Participants met eligibility for either MN (n = 200) or HN (n = 297) and were randomized accordingly. Both samples were primarily male and white. Compared to participants designated MN, HN participants had higher rates of hospitalization for psychiatric reasons prior to randomization, were younger at the time of recruitment, younger when first homeless, more likely to meet criteria for substance dependence, and less likely to have completed high school. Across all study arms, between 92% and 100% of participants were followed over 24 months post-randomization. Minimal significant differences were found between study arms following randomization. 438 participants (88%) provided consent to access administrative data. Conclusion The study successfully recruited participants meeting criteria for homelessness and current mental disorder. Both MN

  14. Cognitive behaviour therapy in medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent Symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsson Emil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is not fully treated by psychopharmacological treatment alone. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate a newly developed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT based group programme, the Reasoning and Rehabilitation for ADHD Youths and Adults (R&R2ADHD, using a randomized controlled trial. Methods 54 adults with ADHD already receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental (CBT/MED treatment condition (n = 27 and a 'treatment as usual' (TAU/MED control condition (n = 27 that did not receive the CBT intervention. The outcome measures were obtained before treatment (baseline, after treatment and at three month follow-up and included ADHD symptoms and impairments rated by independent assessors, self-reported current ADHD symptoms, and comorbid problems. Results The findings suggested medium to large treatment effects for ADHD symptoms, which increased further at three month follow-up. Additionally, comorbid problems also improved at follow-up with large effect sizes. Conclusions The findings give support for the effectiveness of R&R2ADHD in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems, an improving functions associated with impairment. The implications are that the benefits of R&R2ADHD are multifaceted and that combined psychopharmacological and CBT based treatments may add to and improve pharmacological interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000533998 (http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000533998.aspx

  15. Mobile phone intervention and weight loss among overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (weight loss among overweight and obese adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  17. A Survey of the Use of Theological Terminology with Reference to Jesus Christ in Selected Church School Curricula for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Helen Kathryn

    Purposes of this study were to determine the Christological emphasis in selected adult church curricula for the years 1942, 1952, and 1962 regarding the person, mission, resurrection, and second advent of Christ; and to assess the influence of the theological renaissance on these curricula. Materials were those of the American Baptist Convention,…

  18. Level of activity and participation in adults with Spastic Diplegia 17-26 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G. Langerak (Nelleke); J. Hillier (Jean); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); J.C. Peter (Jonathan); A. Graham Fieggen (A.); C.L. Vaughan (Christopher)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate the activity and participation levels of adults with spastic diplegia 17-26 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy; to investigate relationships between subjects'functioning and age, socio-economic-status, level of satisfaction and their perceptions of the

  19. Selective Attention Deficits Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Kittler, Phyllis; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Adults with Down syndrome and early stage Alzheimer's disease showed decline in their ability to selectively attend to stimuli in a multitrial cancellation task. They also showed variability in their performance over the test trials, whereas healthy participants showed stability. These changes in performance were observed approximately 2 years…

  20. Dietary strawberry improves cognition in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adults experience a variety of functional changes that decrease their quality of life with age-related cognitive decline and reduced mobility being of particular concern. Pre-clinical research indicates that berry fruit offer a promising dietary approach to preserving nervous system function, ...

  1. A blind, randomized comparison of racecadotril and loperamide for stopping acute diarrhea in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hwang-Huei; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Racecadotril is a specific enkephalinase inhibitor that exhibits intestinal antisecretory activity without affecting intestinal transit. Loperamide is an effective anti-diarrheal agent, but it usually induces constipation. This study is to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of racecadotril versus loperamide in the outpatient treatment of acute diarrhea in adults.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  3. Adult Trainers in Greece: Qualifications, Teaching Effectiveness, and Competency-Based Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Kritikos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research has been to investigate the views of adult education trainers with regards to the qualifications which form part of the "effective adult trainer profile." Trainers in Adult Education were asked to express their views on the specific qualifications (e.g. work experience, studies, etc.) which increase (and to…

  4. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  5. Benzodiazepine Discontinuation among Adults with GAD: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Patrick; Ladouceur, Robert; Morin, Charles M.; Dugas, Michel J.; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the specific effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) combined with medication tapering for benzodiazepine discontinuation among generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients by using a nonspecific therapy control group. Sixty-one patients who had used benzodiazepines for more than 12 months were randomly assigned to…

  6. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence selectively alters motivation and reward function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Gueye, Aliou B; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Ahmed, Serge H; Cador, Martine

    2010-02-19

    There has been a dramatic escalation in sugar intake in the last few decades, most strikingly observed in the adolescent population. Sugar overconsumption has been associated with several adverse health consequences, including obesity and diabetes. Very little is known, however, about the impact of sugar overconsumption on mental health in general, and on reward-related behavioral disorders in particular. This study examined in rats the effects of unlimited access to sucrose during adolescence on the motivation for natural and pharmacological rewards in adulthood. Adolescent rats had free access to 5% sucrose or water from postnatal day 30 to 46. The control group had access to water only. In adulthood, rats were tested for self-administration of saccharin (sweet), maltodextrin (non-sweet), and cocaine (a potent drug of abuse) using fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules, and a concentration-response curve for each substance. Adult rats, exposed or not exposed to sucrose, were tested for saccharin self-administration later in life to verify the specificity of adolescence for the sugar effects. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence, but not during adulthood, reduced the subsequent motivation for saccharin and maltodextrin, but not cocaine. This selective decrease in motivation is more likely due to changes in brain reward processing than changes in gustatory perception. Sugar overconsumption induces a developmental stage-specific chronic depression in reward processing that may contribute to an increase in the vulnerability to reward-related psychiatric disorders.

  7. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverman, Benjamin E; Pravdo, Piers L; Simpson, Bryan P; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics. Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREATE to generate AAV variants that efficiently and widely transduce the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS) after intravenous injection. One variant, AAV-PHP.B, transfers genes throughout the CNS with an efficiency that is at least 40-fold greater than that of the current standard, AAV9 (refs. 14,15,16,17), and transduces the majority of astrocytes and neurons across multiple CNS regions. In vitro, it transduces human neurons and astrocytes more efficiently than does AAV9, demonstrating the potential of CREATE to produce customized AAV vectors for biomedical applications.

  8. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  9. Genomic Selection for Quantitative Adult Plant Stem Rust Resistance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Rutkoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative adult plant resistance (APR to stem rust ( f. sp. is an important breeding target in wheat ( L. and a potential target for genomic selection (GS. To evaluate the relative importance of known APR loci in applying GS, we characterized a set of CIMMYT germplasm at important APR loci and on a genome-wide profile using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS. Using this germplasm, we describe the genetic architecture and evaluate prediction models for APR using data from the international Ug99 stem rust screening nurseries. Prediction models incorporating markers linked to important APR loci and seedling phenotype scores as fixed effects were evaluated along with the classic prediction models: Multiple linear regression (MLR, Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP, Bayesian Lasso (BL, and Bayes Cπ (BCπ. We found the region to play an important role in APR in this germplasm. A model using linked markers as fixed effects in G-BLUP was more accurate than MLR with linked markers (-value = 0.12, and ordinary G-BLUP (-value = 0.15. Incorporating seedling phenotype information as fixed effects in G-BLUP did not consistently increase accuracy. Overall, levels of prediction accuracy found in this study indicate that GS can be effectively applied to improve stem rust APR in this germplasm, and if genotypes at linked markers are available, modeling these genotypes as fixed effects could lead to better predictions.

  10. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

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    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  11. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of telemonitoring in older adults with multiple health issues to prevent hospitalizations and emergency department visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y.; Pecina, Jennifer L.; Upatising, Benjavan; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Shah, Nilay D.; Van Houten, Holly; Cha, Steve; Croghan, Ivana; Naessens, James M.; Hanson, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficiently caring for frail, older adults will become an increasingly important part of healthcare reform; telemonitoring within homes may be an answer to improve outcomes. This study sought to determine the difference in hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in older adults using telemonitoring versus usual care. Methods This was a randomized trial of adults older than 60 years with high-risk for rehospitalization. Subjects were randomized to telemonitoring with daily input versus patient-driven usual care. Telemonitoring was accomplished by daily biometrics, symptom reporting and videoconference. The primary outcome included a composite end-point of hospitalization and ER visits in the 12 months following enrollment. Secondary end-points included hospital days, hospital admissions, and ER visits. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Results Two hundred and five subjects were enrolled with a mean age of 80.3 years. There was no difference in hospitalizations and ER visits between the telemonitoring group (63.7%) and the group receiving usual care (57.3%) (P value 0.345). There was no difference in individual outcomes including hospital days, hospital admissions and ER visits. There also was no significant change between hospitalizations and ER visits in the pre-enrollment and post-enrollment period. Mortality was higher in the telemonitoring group (14.7%), compared to usual care (3.9%) (P value 0.008). Conclusions Among elderly patients, telemonitoring did not result in lower hospitalizations or ER visits. There were no differences determined within the secondary outcomes. The cause of the mortality difference is unknown. PMID:22507696

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  14. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Multi-modal intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive older adults: Design of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Bavry, Anthony A; Carter, Christy S; Daniels, Michael J; Pahor, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Persons aged over 65 years account for over 75% of healthcare expenditures and deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accordingly, reducing CVD risk among older adults is an important public health priority. Functional status, determined by measures of physical performance, is an important predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults and declines more rapidly in seniors with hypertension. To date, physical exercise is the primary strategy for attenuating declines in functional status. Yet despite the general benefits of training, exercise alone appears to be insufficient for preventing this decline. Thus, alternative or adjuvant strategies are needed to preserve functional status among seniors with hypertension. Prior data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may be efficacious in enhancing exercise-derived improvements in functional status yet this hypothesis has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The objective of this randomized, double-masked pilot trial is to gather preliminary efficacy and safety data necessary for conducting a full-scale trial to test this hypothesis. Sedentary men and women ≥ 65 years of age with functional limitations and hypertension are being recruited into this 24 week intervention study. Participants are randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) ACEi plus exercise training, (2) thiazide diuretic plus exercise training, or (3) AT1 receptor antagonist plus exercise training. The primary outcome is change in walking speed and secondary outcomes consist of other indices of CV risk including exercise capacity, body composition, as well as circulating indices of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention on Depressive Mood of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT. For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry, and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training.

  17. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Vascular Risk Factors in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Uemura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of exercise intervention on vascular risk factors in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults who met the definition of MCI using the Petersen criteria (n = 100; mean age = 75.3 years were randomly allocated to the exercise (n = 50 or education control group (n = 50. Participants in the exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/day, 2 days/week, 80 times for 12 months. Anthropometric profiles, blood markers, blood pressure, and physical fitness (the 6-min walking test were measured. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C risk ratio measurements were taken from blood samples. Results: The exercise group showed significantly reduced TC and TC/HDL-C risk ratio after training compared with baseline levels (p Conclusion: Exercise intervention was associated with positive changes in important vascular risk factors related to cognitive decline and vascular disease in older adults with MCI.

  18. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A Secondary Analysis of Sleep Quality Changes in Older Adults From a Randomized Trial of an MBSR Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Autumn M; Moynihan, Jan; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-08-01

    This secondary analysis examined changes in sleep quality associated with participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program among healthy older adults. Data were collected at baseline, 8-weeks post-treatment, and a 6-month follow-up from adults aged ≥ 65 ( N = 200), randomly assigned to MBSR or a waitlist control. Group differences were examined using mixed analysis of covariance with repeated measures on the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. A small-sized, significant effect was found on overall sleep among MBSR participants with baseline PSQI scores > 5, indicative of a sleep disturbance, F(2, 80) = 4.32, p = .02, ηp2 = .05. A medium-sized, significant effect was found for MBSR participants with baseline PSQI scores ≥ 10, F(2, 28) = 3.13, p = .04, ηp2 = .10. These findings indicate that improved sleep quality for older adults who have higher levels of sleep disturbance may be associated with participation in MBSR.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of an inference generation strategy intervention for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murza, Kimberly A; Nye, Chad; Schwartz, Jamie B; Ehren, Barbara J; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L

    2014-08-01

    The present intervention study investigated the efficacy of the ACT & Check Strategy intervention to improve inference generation when reading, metacognitive ability, general reading comprehension, and social inference ability in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD). Twenty-five adults with HF-ASD were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control group. Treatment sessions were conducted in 1-hr sessions, twice a week, for a total of 6 weeks. Treatment focused on explicit instruction of components of inference generation, categories of inferences, and increasingly independent strategy use. The treatment group demonstrated significantly superior performance on 1 of 2 measures of inference generation in reading and 1 measure of metacognitive ability compared with the control group. Significant differences between groups were not found on measures of reading comprehension or social inference ability. These findings suggest that the ACT & Check Strategy was effective in improving participants' ability to generate inferences in reading and certain metacognitive abilities, but the skills do not appear to generalize to other social communication contexts, such as social inference generation. This research provides a measure of support for explicitly teaching inference generation to address a reading inference deficit in adults with HF-ASD.

  1. Phase IV: randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Wie, Seong-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kee, Sae Yoon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the primary method for preventing influenza and its complications. Considering the increasing demand for influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers are required to establish large-scale production systems. This phase IV randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines regarding immunogenicity and safety. A total of 1,023 healthy adults aged 18-64 y were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive the GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe or the GC FLU® Injection, and they were further randomized to one of 3 lots of each vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. In both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups, immune responses were equivalent between lots for each of the 3 vaccine strains on day 21. The 2-sided 95% CI of GMT ratios between pairs of lots were between 0.67 and 1.5, meeting the equivalence criteria. After vaccination, all 3 criteria of the European Medicines Agency were met in both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups. The vaccines showed tolerable safety profiles without serious adverse events. The demonstration of lot consistency, robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles support the reliability of mass-manufacturing systems for the GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe.

  2. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  3. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells.

  6. The Effects of Service-Delivery Model and Purchase Price on Hearing-Aid Outcomes in Older Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sara E.; Quigley, Tera M.; Main, Anna K.; Kinney, Dana L.; Herring, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of hearing aids in older adults using audiology best practices, to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative over-the-counter (OTC) intervention, and to examine the influence of purchase price on outcomes for both service-delivery models. Design The design of this study was a single-site, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with three parallel branches: (a) audiology best practices (AB), (b) consumer decides OTC model (CD), and (c) placebo devices (P). Outcome measures were obtained after a typical 6-week trial period with follow-up 4-week AB-based trial for those initially assigned to CD and P groups. Setting Older adults from the general community were recruited via newspaper and community flyers to participate at a university research clinic. Participants Participants were adults, ages 55–79 years, with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. There were 188 eligible participants: 163 enrolled as a volunteer sample, and 154 completed the intervention. Intervention(s) All participants received the same high-end digital mini-behind-the-ear hearing aids fitted bilaterally. AB and P groups received best-practice services from audiologists; differing mainly in use of appropriate (AB) or placebo (P) hearing aid settings. CD participants self-selected their own pre-programmed hearing aids via an OTC model. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Primary outcome measure was a 66-item self-report, Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (Cox & Gilmore, 1990). Secondary outcome measure was the Connected Speech Test (Cox, Alexander, & Gilmore, 1987) benefit. Additional measures of hearing-aid benefit, satisfaction, and usage were also obtained. Results Per-protocol analyses were performed. AB service-delivery model was found to be efficacious for most of the outcome measures, with moderate or large effect sizes (Cohen's d). CD service-delivery model was efficacious, with similar effect sizes. However

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test, both performance-based measures of social cognition that... Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy J. Minshew, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pittsburgh...Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0665 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0665 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Delirium prevention in critically ill adults through an automated reorientation intervention - A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Cindy L; Cairns, Paula; Ji, Ming; Calero, Karel; Anderson, W McDowell; Liang, Zhan

    Explore the effect of an automated reorientation intervention on ICU delirium in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Delirium is common in ICU patients, and negatively affects outcomes. Few prevention strategies have been tested. Thirty ICU patients were randomized to 3 groups. Ten received hourly recorded messages in a family member's voice during waking hours over 3 ICU days, 10 received the same messages in a non-family voice, and 10 (control) did not receive any automated reorientation messages. The primary outcome was delirium free days during the intervention period (evaluated by CAM-ICU). Groups were compared by Fisher's Exact Test. The family voice group had more delirium free days than the non-family voice group, and significantly more delirium free days (p = 0.0437) than the control group. Reorientation through automated, scripted messages reduced incidence of delirium. Using identical scripted messages, family voice was more effective than non-family voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of concurrent training on muscle strength in older adults with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, Vania Fernanda Clemente; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Taffarel, Andre Andriolli; Mourão, Camila Baldini; da Silva, Isabel Paulo; da Silva, Sara Pereira; Peccin, Maria Stella; Lombardi, Império

    2017-12-24

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among older adults. Concurrent training comprises muscle strengthening and aerobic exercise. Determine the effects of a concurrent training program on muscle strength, walking function, metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk, use of medications and quality of life among older adults with metabolic syndrome. A randomised, controlled, blind, clinical trial was conducted in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, involving 41 male and female older adults. The participants were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 18) and intervention group (n = 23) and were submitted to the following evaluations: strength - 1 maximum repetition (1MR) for 12 muscle groups; the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT); blood concentrations of cholesterol and glucose; the use of medications; and the administration of the SF-36 questionnaire. The intervention was conducted twice a week over a total of 24 sessions of concurrent training: 50 min of strength exercises (40-70% 1MR) and 40 min of walking exercises (70-85% maximum heart rate). Increases in muscle strength were found in the upper and lower limbs in the inter-group analysis and a greater distance travelled on the 6MWT was found in the intervention group (p = 0.001). The intervention group demonstrated a reduction in the consumption of biguanides (p = 0.002). No changes were found regarding metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk or self-perceived quality of life. The findings of this clinical trial can be used for the prescription of concurrent training for older adults with metabolic syndrome for gains in muscle strength and walking distance as well as a reduction in the use of biguanides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  11. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  12. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials: Web-based interventions for smoking cessation among adolescents, college students, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Heidi E; Wilson, Lisa M; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Tang, Erika Avila; Odelola, Olaide; Bass, Eric B; Chander, Geetanjali

    2011-04-01

    Web-based treatments can deliver broad reaching, relatively inexpensive, and clinically tested methods for smoking cessation. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of smoking cessation to evaluate the efficacy of Web-based interventions in adults, college students, and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from January 1, 1990 through February 12, 2010 for RCTs examining the efficacy of Web-based smoking cessation programs. Paired reviewers abstracted data on study design, patient characteristics, and outcomes sequentially and did quality assessments independently. Twenty-one RCTs met eligibility criteria, with 15 conducted among adults. Among adults, 2 RCTs found that a multicomponent intervention with Web and non-Web-based elements was more efficacious than a self-help manual, and one of 2 RCTs found that Web-based interventions may be more effective than no treatment. Three trials provided insufficient evidence to demonstrate whether Web-based interventions were more efficacious than counseling. By contrast, tailored Web sites in 2 RCTs and greater Web site exposure in 6 of 7 RCTs were associated with higher rates of abstinence. Among college students, evidence supporting use of Web-based interventions was insufficient because the one RCT conducted was also a multicomponent intervention. Five RCTs among adolescents demonstrated mixed results, with insufficient evidence supporting their efficacy. Evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for smoking cessation is insufficient to moderate in adults and insufficient in college students and adolescents. These RCTs have, however, elucidated clinical, methodological, and statistical practices that are likely to improve future trial design and treatment delivery.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  14. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell KL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Caldwell,1 Shawn M Bergman,2 Scott R Collier,3 N Travis Triplett,3 Rebecca Quin,4 John Bergquist,5 Carl F Pieper6 1Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, 4Department of Theatre and Dance, 5Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants: Seventy-five adults (18–40 years from a predominately undergraduate mid-sized university. Methods: This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention, and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results: Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion: TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality

  15. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Tue H; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-05-10

    The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration in composition of overall fecal microbiota structure assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, or phylogenetic microarray methods were included. Independent collection and quality assessment of studies were performed by two authors using predefined criteria including methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review. The quality of the studies was assessed as medium to high. Still, no effects were observed on the fecal microbiota composition in terms of α-diversity, richness, or evenness in any of the included studies when compared to placebo. Only one study found that probiotic supplementation significantly modified the overall structure of the fecal bacterial community in terms of β-diversity when compared to placebo. This systematic review of the pertinent literature demonstrates a lack of evidence for an impact of probiotics on

  16. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  17. Intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in the treatment of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial

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    Anagnostou Evdokia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no effective medications for the treatment of social cognition/function deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and adult intervention literature in this area is sparse. Emerging data from animal models and genetic association studies as well as early, single-dose intervention studies suggest that the oxytocin system may be a potential therapeutic target for social cognition/function deficits in ASD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the safety/therapeutic effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in adults with ASD, with respect to the two core symptom domains of social cognition/functioning and repetitive behaviors. Methods This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in 19 adults with ASD (16 males; 33.20 ± 13.29 years. Subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in the morning and afternoon for 6 weeks. Measures of social function/cognition (the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy and repetitive behaviors (Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised were administered. Secondary measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale, Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – compulsion subscale and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotional/social subscales. Full-information maximum-likelihood parameter estimates were obtained and tested using mixed-effects regression analyses. Results Although no significant changes were detected in the primary outcome measures after correcting for baseline differences, results suggested improvements after 6 weeks in measures of social cognition (Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test, p = 0.002, d = 1.2, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotion, p = 0.031, d = 0.84, both secondary measures. Oxytocin was well tolerated and no serious adverse

  18. Vortioxetine in the treatment of adult patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Barker, Alex

    2014-09-27

    Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal compound that has recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It is a selective serotonin (5-HT) 3A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of serotonin transporters. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adults with MDD. A literature search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and HINARI. The meta-analysis was conducted by including randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adult patients with MDD. Using the random effects model, which assumes individual studies are estimating different treatment effects, the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine was determined by weighted mean differences (WMDs) and odds ratios (ORs). The findings were considered as statistically significant when the 95% CI of WMDs and ORs did not include 0 and 1, respectively. Heterogeneity testing, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were also performed. During the initial literature search about 151 publications were identified. Based on the predetermined inclusion criteria, 7 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled analysis demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from baseline among patients who were on vortioxetine (WMD = -3.92; 95% CI, -5.258 to -2.581). Furthermore, a statistically significant number of patients with MDD who were on vortioxetine have achieved a greater than or equal to 50% reduction in depression symptoms from baseline. However, a significant number of patients who were on vortioxetine therapy reported more adverse events than patients who were on placebo (overall OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.38). Therapy with vortioxetine was significantly associated with reduction in depression symptoms from

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  20. Early vs late tracheotomy for prevention of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Pier Paolo; Antonelli, Massimo; Fumagalli, Roberto; Faggiano, Chiara; Berardino, Maurizio; Pallavicini, Franco Bobbio; Miletto, Antonio; Mangione, Salvatore; Sinardi, Angelo U; Pastorelli, Mauro; Vivaldi, Nicoletta; Pasetto, Alberto; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Urbino, Rosario; Filippini, Claudia; Pagano, Eva; Evangelista, Andrea; Ciccone, Gianni; Mascia, Luciana; Ranieri, V Marco

    2010-04-21

    Tracheotomy is used to replace endotracheal intubation in patients requiring prolonged ventilation; however, there is considerable variability in the time considered optimal for performing tracheotomy. This is of clinical importance because timing is a key criterion for performing a tracheotomy and patients who receive one require a large amount of health care resources. To determine the effectiveness of early tracheotomy (after 6-8 days of laryngeal intubation) compared with late tracheotomy (after 13-15 days of laryngeal intubation) in reducing the incidence of pneumonia and increasing the number of ventilator-free and intensive care unit (ICU)-free days. Randomized controlled trial performed in 12 Italian ICUs from June 2004 to June 2008 of 600 adult patients enrolled without lung infection, who had been ventilated for 24 hours, had a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II between 35 and 65, and had a sequential organ failure assessment score of 5 or greater. Patients who had worsening of respiratory conditions, unchanged or worse sequential organ failure assessment score, and no pneumonia 48 hours after inclusion were randomized to early tracheotomy (n = 209; 145 received tracheotomy) or late tracheotomy (n = 210; 119 received tracheotomy). The primary endpoint was incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia; secondary endpoints during the 28 days immediately following randomization were number of ventilator-free days, number of ICU-free days, and number of patients in each group who were still alive. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was observed in 30 patients in the early tracheotomy group (14%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-19%) and in 44 patients in the late tracheotomy group (21%; 95% CI, 15%-26%) (P = .07). During the 28 days immediately following randomization, the hazard ratio of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.42-1.04), remaining connected to the ventilator was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56-0.87), remaining in the ICU was 0.73 (95

  1. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  2. Urban Adolescents' and Young Adults' Decision-Making Process around Selection of Intrauterine Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Susan E; Felsher, Marisa; Korich, Faye; Jacobs, Amanda M

    2016-06-01

    To examine adolescent and young adults' priorities, values, and preferences affecting the choice to use an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Qualitative exploratory study with analysis done using a modified grounded theory approach. Outpatient adolescent medicine clinic located within an academic children's hospital in the Bronx, New York. Twenty-seven women aged 16 to 25 years of age on the day of their IUD insertion. We conducted semistructured interviews exploring participant's decision making process around selecting an IUD. We were specifically interested in elucidating factors that could potentially improve IUD counseling. We identified 4 broad factors affecting choice: (1) personal; (2) IUD device-specific; (3) health care provider; and (4) social network. Most of the participants perceived an ease with a user-independent method and were attracted by the high efficacy of IUDs, potential longevity of use, and the option to remove the device before its expiration. Participants described their health care provider as being the most influential individual during the IUD decision-making process via provision of reliable, accurate contraceptive information and demonstration of an actual device. Of all people in their social network, mothers played the biggest role. Adolescents and young women who choose an IUD appear to value the IUDs' efficacy and convenience, their relationship with and elements of clinicians' contraceptive counseling, and their mother's support. Our results suggest that during IUD counseling, clinicians should discuss these device-specific benefits, elicit patient questions and concerns, and use visual aids including the device itself. Incorporating the factors we found most salient into routine IUD counseling might increase the number of adolescents and young women who choose an IUD as a good fit for them. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlan Dean

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool – in the context of "microcredit" – but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored. Methods Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257 for a loan (200% annual percentage rate – APR from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their applications. This randomized encouragement resulted in 53% of applicants receiving a loan they otherwise would not have received. All subjects were assessed 6–12 months later with questions about demographics, socio-economic status, and two indicators of mental health: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were calculated using multinomial probit regressions. Results Randomization into receiving a "second look" for access to credit increased perceived stress in the combined sample of women and men; the findings were stronger among men. Credit access was associated with reduced depressive symptoms in men, but not women. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a mechanism used to reduce the economic stress of extremely poor individuals can have mixed effects on their experiences of psychological stress and depressive symptomatology. Our data support the notion that mental health should be included as a measure of success (or failure when examining potential tools for poverty alleviation. Further longitudinal research is needed in South Africa and other settings to understand how borrowing at high interest rates affects gender roles and daily life activities. CCT: ISRCTN 10734925

  4. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hamad, Rita; Karlan, Dean; Ozer, Emily J; Zinman, Jonathan

    2008-12-16

    In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool - in the context of "microcredit" - but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored. Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257) for a loan (200% annual percentage rate - APR) from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their applications. This randomized encouragement resulted in 53% of applicants receiving a loan they otherwise would not have received. All subjects were assessed 6-12 months later with questions about demographics, socio-economic status, and two indicators of mental health: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were calculated using multinomial probit regressions. Randomization into receiving a "second look" for access to credit increased perceived stress in the combined sample of women and men; the findings were stronger among men. Credit access was associated with reduced depressive symptoms in men, but not women. Our findings suggest that a mechanism used to reduce the economic stress of extremely poor individuals can have mixed effects on their experiences of psychological stress and depressive symptomatology. Our data support the notion that mental health should be included as a measure of success (or failure) when examining potential tools for poverty alleviation. Further longitudinal research is needed in South Africa and other settings to understand how borrowing at high interest rates affects gender roles and daily life activities. CCT: ISRCTN 10734925.

  5. A cognitive behavioral smoking abstinence intervention for adults with chronic pain: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Townsend, Cynthia O; Hays, J Taylor; Ebnet, Kaye L; Gauvin, Thomas R; Gehin, Jessica M; Laures, Heidi J; Patten, Christi A; Warner, David O

    2014-03-01

    Current evidence suggests it may be difficult for patients with chronic pain to quit smoking and, based on previous formative work, a 7-session individual and group-based cognitive behavioral (CB) intervention was developed. The primary aim of this randomized controlled pilot trial was to test the hypothesis that abstinence at month 6 would be greater among patients with chronic pain who received the CB intervention compared to a control condition. Upon admission to a 3-week interdisciplinary pain treatment (IPT) program, patients were randomized to receive the CB intervention (n=30) or the control condition (n=30). The 7-day point prevalence of self-reported smoking status was assessed at week 3 (upon completion of the 3-week IPT program) and at month 6 in an intent-to-treat analysis. At week 3, 30% (n=9) of patients in the CB condition were abstinent from smoking compared to 10% (n=3) in the control group (P=.104). At month 6, 20% (n=6) of patients who received the CB intervention were abstinent compared to none in the control group (P=.024). At week 3, a significant group by time interaction effect was found where the CB patients experienced greater improvements in self-efficacy from baseline compared to the control group (P=.002). A greater proportion of patients randomized to the CB group completed the IPT program (P=.052). The findings of this pilot trial suggest that integration of a CB-based smoking abstinence intervention into ongoing pain therapy may be an effective treatment for smokers with chronic pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized trial of individual peer support for adults with psychiatric disabilities undergoing civil commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, E Sally; Maru, Mihoko; Johnson, Gene; Cohee, Julie; Hinkel, Jennifer; Hashemi, Lobat

    2016-09-01

    Given the proliferation of peer-delivered services and its growing but insufficient empirical base, we undertook a randomized trial to examine the effects of such services on individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities undergoing a civil commitment. We recruited n = 113 individuals who were civilly committed for inpatient treatment. Randomly assigned experimental participants were paired with a trained peer specialist to receive intensive 1-on-1 support to assist them with both their recovery and the conditions of their mandated court-ordered services. Individuals in the control group were invited to receive other supportive, peer-delivered services, such as social and group educational activities, but excluding individual peer support. We assessed a variety of outcomes including social supports, quality of life, recovery, symptoms, and functioning. Mounting a randomized trial in this setting and with participants who were court-ordered for inpatient treatment proved challenging in terms of recruitment, service provision, retention in the intervention, and attrition from the research. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed no significant differences in outcomes by study condition. As-treated analyses comparing high- and low-use peer support groups with control group participants found significant differences favoring peer support recipients in quality of life and functioning but no differences in other study outcomes. Difficulties with ensuring the quality of the peer support in this study may be in part responsible for our failure to see more-definitive and -positive results. As the peer support specialist profession evolves, an understanding of its effective ingredients and mechanisms must be elucidated to allow for more-rigorous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  8. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  9. A randomized single blind crossover trial comparing leather and commercial wrist splints for treating chronic wrist pain in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effectiveness of a custom-made leather wrist splint (LS with a commercially available fabric splint (FS in adults with chronic wrist pain. Methods Participants (N = 25, mean age = 54 were randomly assigned to treatment order in a 2-phase crossover trial. Splints were worn for 2 weeks, separated by a one-week washout period. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each splint phase using the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM and Jamar dynamometer by an observer blinded to treatment allocation. Results Both styles of wrist splint significantly reduced pain (effect size LS 0.79, FS 0.43, improved hand function and increased grip strength compared to baseline (all p Conclusion Leather wrist splints were superior to a commercially available fabric splint for the short-term relief of pain and dysfunction.

  10. Can the Alexander Technique improve balance and mobility in older adults with visual impairments? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Sherrington, Catherine; Lo, Serigne; Keay, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of Alexander Technique lessons on balance and mobility in older adults with visual impairments. Randomized assessor blinded controlled trial with intervention and usual care control groups. Participants' homes. A total of 120 community-dwellers aged 50+ with visual impairments. Twelve weeks of Alexander lessons and usual care. Short Physical Performance Battery items were primary outcomes at 3 months and secondary outcomes at 12 months. Additional secondary outcomes were postural sway, maximal balance range and falls over 12 months. Between-group differences in primary outcomes were not significant. The intervention group reduced postural sway on a firm surface with eyes open at 3 months after adjusting for baseline values (-29.59 mm, 95%CI -49.52 to -9.67, P Alexander Technique is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenje, Justin; Millard, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio. 75 adult male volunteers. Outpatient primary care clinic. Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Intraoperative duration. Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result. The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups. VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  12. The psychometric properties of the AUDIT: a survey from a random sample of elderly Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källmén, Håkan; Wennberg, Peter; Ramstedt, Mats; Hallgren, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption and related harms have been reported among the elderly population of Europe. Consequently, it is important to monitor patterns of alcohol use, and to use a valid and reliable tool when screening for risky consumption in this age group. The aim was to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly Swedish adults, and to compare the results with the general Swedish population. Another aim was to calculate the level of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) to be used for comparison in future studies. The questionnaire was sent to 1459 Swedish adults aged 79-80 years with a response rate of 73.3%. Internal consistency reliability, were assessed using Cronbach alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis assessed construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly population as compared to a Swedish general population sample. The results showed that AUDIT was more reliable and valid among the Swedish general population sample than among the elderly and that Item 1 and 4 in AUDIT was less reliable and valid among the elderly. While the AUDIT showed acceptable psychometric properties in the general population sample, it's performance was of less quality among the elderly respondents. Further psychometric assessments of the AUDIT in elderly populations are required before it is implemented more widely.

  13. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  14. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  15. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  16. Effectiveness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2014-10-01

    The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men. A total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=20) or a control group (n=20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. ANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (Pfunctional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P=0.031) in the CTG. Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  18. A randomized controlled trial of a web-based, personalized normative feedback alcohol intervention for young-adult veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Parast, Layla; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-05-01

    Young-adult American veterans are at risk for problematic alcohol use. However, they are unlikely to seek care and may drop out from lengthy, multicomponent treatments when they do get care. This randomized controlled trial tested a very brief alcohol intervention delivered over the Internet to reach the population of young-adult veterans to help reduce their drinking. Veterans (N = 784) were recruited from Facebook and randomized to either a control condition or a personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention seeking to correct drinking perceptions of gender-specific veteran peers. At immediate postintervention, PNF participants reported greater reductions in their perceptions of peer drinking and intentions to drink over the next month, compared with control participants. At 1-month follow-up, PNF participants reduced their drinking behavior and related consequences to a significantly greater extent than controls. Specifically, PNF participants drank 3.4 fewer drinks per week, consumed 0.4 fewer drinks per occasion, binge drank on 1.0 fewer days, and experienced about 1.0 fewer consequences than control participants in the month after the intervention. Intervention effects for drinks per occasion were most pronounced among more problematic drinkers. Changes in perceived norms from baseline to 1-month follow-up mediated intervention efficacy. Though effects were assessed after only 1 month, findings have potential to inform broader, population-level programs designed for young veterans to prevent escalation of drinking and development of long-term alcohol problems. Given the simplicity of the PNF approach and ease of administration, this intervention has the potential for a substantial impact on public health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Tai chi and self-rated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Fisher, K John; Harmer, Peter; Irbe, Dainis; Tearse, Robert G; Weimer, Cheryl

    2004-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of tai chi on self-rated sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in older adults reporting moderate sleep complaints. Randomized, controlled trial with allocation to tai chi or exercise control. General community. One hundred eighteen women and men aged 60 to 92. Participants were randomized into tai chi or low-impact exercise and participated in a 60-minute session, three times per week, for 24 consecutive weeks. Primary outcome measures were the seven subscales of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), PSQI global score, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Secondary outcome measures were physical performance (single leg stand, timed chair rise, 50-foot speed walk) and 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental summary scores. Tai chi participants reported significant improvements in five of the PSQI subscale scores (sleep quality, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances) (Psleep-onset latency of about 18 minutes less per night (95% confidence interval (CI)=-28.64 to -7.12) and sleep duration of about 48 minutes more per night (95% CI=14.71-82.41) than low-impact exercise participants. Tai chi participants also showed better scores in secondary outcome measures than low-impact exercise participants. Both groups reported improvements in SF-12 mental summary scores. Older adults with moderate sleep complaints can improve self-rated sleep quality through a 6-month, low- to moderate-intensity tai chi program. Tai chi appears to be effective as a nonpharmacological approach to sleep enhancement for sleep-disturbed elderly individuals.

  20. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  1. Aerobic exercise and strength training effects on cardiovascular sympathetic function in healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Christian; Lindgren, Martin; Shapiro, Peter A; McKinley, Paula S; Brondolo, Elizabeth N; Myers, Michael M; Zhao, Yihong; Sloan, Richard P

    2013-05-01

    Exercise has widely documented cardioprotective effects, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not entirely known. Previously, we demonstrated that aerobic but not strength training lowered resting heart rate and increased cardiac vagal regulation, changes that were reversed by sedentary deconditioning. Here, we focus on the sympathetic nervous system and test whether aerobic training lowers levels of cardiovascular sympathetic activity in rest and that deconditioning would reverse this effect. We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of aerobic (A) versus strength (S) training on indices of cardiac (preejection period, or PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, or LF BPV) sympathetic regulation in 149 young, healthy, and sedentary adults. Participants were studied before and after conditioning, as well as after 4 weeks of sedentary deconditioning. As previously reported, aerobic capacity increased in response to conditioning and decreased after deconditioning in the aerobic, but not the strength, training group. Contrary to prediction, there was no differential effect of training on either PEP (A: mean [SD] -0.83 [7.8] milliseconds versus S: 1.47 [6.69] milliseconds) or LF BPV (A: mean [SD] -0.09 [0.93] ln mm Hg(2) versus S: 0.06 [0.79] ln mm Hg(2)) (both p values > .05). These findings, from a large randomized controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on resting state cardiovascular indices of PEP and LF BPV. These results indicate that in healthy, young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in resting sympathetic activity. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00358137.

  2. Selection and Cataloging of Adult Pornography Web Sites for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Gottlieb, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Pornography has become part of mainstream culture. As such, it has become a subject of academic research, and this, in turn, has implications for university libraries. Focusing on adult Internet pornography, this study suggests that academic libraries should provide access to adult pornographic Web sites by including them in their online catalogs.

  3. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  4. A Mobile Health Lifestyle Program for Prevention of Weight Gain in Young Adults (TXT2BFiT): Nine-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Balestracci, Kate; Hebden, Lana; Wong, Annette TY; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Background The unprecedented rise in obesity among young adults, who have limited interaction with health services, has not been successfully abated. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the maintenance outcomes of a 12-week mHealth intervention on prevention of weight gain in young adults and lifestyle behaviors at 9 months from baseline. Methods A two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with subjects allocated to intervention or control 1:1 was conducted in a com...

  5. A randomized, double-blind, duloxetine-referenced study comparing efficacy and tolerability of 2 fixed doses of vortioxetine in the acute treatment of adults with MDD

    OpenAIRE

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Jacobsen, Paula L.; Chen, Yinzhong; Serenko, Michael; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Vortioxetine has reduced depressive symptoms in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in multiple clinical trials. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine 15 and 20?mg vs placebo in adults with MDD. Methods Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to vortioxetine 15?mg, vortioxetine 20?mg, duloxetine 60?mg (active reference), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change in Montgomery??sberg Depression Rating S...

  6. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tulk, Hilary M. F.; Blonski, Diane C.; Murch, Lauren A; Duncan, Alison M.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. Subjects/Methods In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200?g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, La...

  7. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of personalized lifestyle advices and tandem skydives on pleasure in anhedonic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Masselink, Maurits; Vrijen, Charlotte; Heininga, Vera E; Bak, Tom; Nederhof, Esther; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-06-04

    Anhedonia is generally defined as the inability to feel pleasure in response to experiences that are usually enjoyable. Anhedonia is one of the two core symptoms of depression and is a major public health concern. Anhedonia has proven particularly difficult to counteract and predicts poor treatment response generally. It has often been hypothesized that anhedonia can be deterred by a healthy lifestyle. However, it is quite unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach will be effective for everyone. In this study the effects of personalized lifestyle advice based on observed individual patterns of lifestyle behaviors and experienced pleasure will be examined. Further, we will explore whether a tandem skydive following the personalized lifestyle advice positively influences anhedonic young adults' abilities to carry out the recommended lifestyle changes, and whether this ultimately improves their self-reported pleasure. Our study design is an exploratory intervention study, preceded by a cross-sectional survey as a screening instrument. For the survey, 2000 young adults (18-24 years old) will be selected from the general population. Based on survey outcomes, 72 individuals (36 males and 36 females) with persistent anhedonia (i.e., more than two months) and 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) without anhedonia (non-anhedonic control group) will be selected for the intervention study. The non-anhedonic control group will fill out momentary assessments of pleasure and lifestyle behaviors three times a day, for one month. The anhedonic individuals will fill out momentary assessments for three consecutive months. After the first month, the anhedonic individuals will be randomly assigned to (1) no intervention, (2) lifestyle advice only, (3) lifestyle advice plus tandem skydive. The personalized lifestyle advice is based on patterns observed in the first month. The present study is the first to examine the effects of a personalized lifestyle advice and tandem skydive on

  8. Weight loss, exercise or both and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchonville, M; Armamento-Villareal, R; Shah, K; Napoli, N; Sinacore, D R; Qualls, C; Villareal, D T

    2014-03-01

    Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in insulin sensitivity and is associated with risk for cardiometabolic syndrome in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. To determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults. One-hundred and seven obese (body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg m(-2)) older (≥65 years) adults with physical frailty were randomized to control group, diet group, exercise group and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Outcomes for this study included changes in insulin sensitivity index (ISI), glucose tolerance, central obesity, adipocytokines and cardiometabolic syndrome. Although similar increases in ISI occurred in the diet-exercise and diet groups at 6 months, the ISI improved more in the diet-exercise than in the diet group at 12 months (2.4 vs 1.2; between-group difference, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-2.1); no changes in ISI occurred in both exercise and control groups. The diet-exercise and diet groups had similar improvements in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (-2.9 and -2.9 × 10(3) mg min dl(-1)), glucose AUC (-1.4 and -2.2 × 10(3)mg min dl(-1)), visceral fat (-787 and -561 cm(3)), tumor necrosis factor (-17.0 and -12.8 pg ml(-1)), adiponectin (5.0 and 4.0 ng ml(-1)), waist circumference (-8.2 and -8.4 cm), triglyceride (-30.7 and -24.3 g dl(-1)) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (-15.9 and -13.1/-4.9 and -6.7 mm Hg), while no changes in these parameters occurred in both exercise and control groups. The cardiometabolic syndrome prevalence decreased by 40% in the diet-exercise and by 15% in the diet group. Body weight decreased similarly in the diet-exercise and diet groups (-8.6 and -9.7 kg) but not in the exercise and control groups. In frail, obese older adults, lifestyle interventions associated with weight loss improve insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic

  9. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  10. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  11. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Effects of Resistance Exercise Using Thera-band on Balance of Elderly Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjong; An, Changsik; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of resistance exercise using Thera-band on balance of elderly adults. [Methods] Subjects (age range, 60-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=12) or control group (n=12). The experimental group performed stretching and resistance exercises, and the control group performed stretching exercises only. Before and after the 5-week intervention, the participants' static and dynamic balance were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up & Go Test, and the Tetrax Portable Multiple System (Tetrax Ltd., Ramat Gan, Israel) after 5 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the values of the Tetrax in the weight distribution index with eyes open and that with eyes closed and the stability test index with eyes open were significantly lower in the resistance exercise group than in the control group, and the pre-test values were was significantly higher than the post-test values. However, there were no significant differences between groups in the values of the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up & Go Test, and the Tetrax stability test index with the eyes closed. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that resistance exercise using the Thera-band is possible to improve the static and dynamic balance of elderly adults.

  13. Effects of IV Acetaminophen on Core Body Temperature and Hemodynamic Responses in Febrile Critically Ill Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell-Chaple, Hildy M; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Sessler, Daniel I; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of IV acetaminophen on core body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate in febrile critically ill patients. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three adult ICUs at a large, urban, academic medical center. Forty critically ill adults with fever (core temperature, ≥ 38.3°C). An infusion of acetaminophen 1 g or saline placebo over 15 minutes. Core temperature and vital signs were measured at baseline and at 5-15-minute intervals for 4 hours after infusion of study drug. The primary outcome was time-weighted average core temperature adjusted for baseline temperature. Secondary outcomes included adjusted time-weighted average heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, along with changes-over-time for each. Baseline patient characteristics were similar in those given acetaminophen and placebo. Patients given acetaminophen had an adjusted time-weighted average temperature that was 0.47°C less than those given placebo (95% CI, -0.76 to -0.18; p = 0.002). The acetaminophen group had significantly lower adjusted time-weighted average systolic blood pressure (-17 mm Hg; 95% CI, -25 to -8; p acetaminophen decreased temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. IV acetaminophen thus produces modest fever reduction in critical care patients, along with clinically important reductions in blood pressure.

  14. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ji Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results: In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  15. Church-based social marketing to motivate older adults to take balance classes for fall prevention: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Thoreson, Sallie R; Clark, Lauren; Goss, Cynthia W; Marosits, Mark J; Currie, Dustin W; Lezotte, Dennis C

    2014-10-01

    Determine whether a church-based social marketing program increases older adults' participation in balance classes for fall prevention. In 2009-10, 51 churches (7101 total members aged ≥ 60) in Colorado, U.S.A. were randomized to receive no intervention or a social marketing program. The program highlighted benefits of class participation (staying independent, building relationships), reduced potential barriers (providing convenient, subsidized classes), and communicated marketing messages through church leaders, trained "messengers," printed materials and church-based communication channels. Between-group differences in balance class enrollment and marketing message recall among congregants were compared using Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test and regression models. Compared to 25 control churches, 26 churches receiving the social marketing program had a higher median proportion (9.8% vs. 0.3%; psocial marketing effectively disseminated messages about preventing falls through balance classes and, by emphasizing benefits and reducing barriers and costs of participation, successfully motivated older adults to enroll in the classes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Aoife; Duffy, Sarah; O'Grady, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed...... a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk...... winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although...

  17. Development and Pilot Randomized Control Trial of a Drama Program to Enhance Well-being Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Straus, Elizabeth; Dev, Sheena I; Parish, Steven M; Sueko, Seema; Eyler, Lisa T

    2017-02-01

    Develop a novel theatre-based program and test its feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy for improving empathy/compassion and well-being among older adults. Thirteen older adults were randomized to a 6-week Drama Workshop (DW) program or time-equivalent Backstage Pass (BP) control condition. Pre- and post-treatment measures included empathy, compassion, and mood scales. Additional post-treatment measures included self-rated change in empathy/compassion, confidence, and affect. Participants also rated their mood/affect after each session. The program was successfully completed and well-liked. No pre-to-post-treatment changes in empathy/compassion or mood symptoms were found in either group. Compared to BP, DW weekly ratings indicated higher levels of anxiety and lower happiness; however, the DW program had higher self-ratings of positive change in self-esteem, confidence, and happiness post-treatment. While the DW may not promote empathy/compassion and was personally challenging during the program, engagement in dramatic exercises and rehearsing and performing a dramatic piece was seen by participants as a positive growth experience, as indicated by the post-treatment ratings of enhanced self-esteem, confidence and happiness. Thus, such a program might be useful for counteracting some of the potential negative aspects of aging, including reduced self-efficacy due to physical limitations and negative affect due to losses.

  18. Soy fiber improves weight loss and lipid profile in overweight and obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojie; Gao, Jinlong; Zhang, Qianyuan; Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Kelei; Zhu, Shankuan; Li, Duo

    2013-12-01

    Studies have suggested that food rich in dietary fiber may facilitate body weight loss, lower total and LDL-cholesterol levels, and reduce body fat. This study examined the effects of soy fiber (SF) on body weight, body composition, and blood lipids in overweight and obese participants. Thirty-nine overweight and obese college adults (19-39 years of age) were randomly assigned to consume control biscuits or biscuits supplemented with SF for their breakfast for 12 wk (approximately 100 g/day). There were significant differences in changes on body weight, BMI, and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) between the two groups after 12-wk intervention (p weight, BMI, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and glucose, body fat, and trunk fat of participants in SF group were observed significantly after 12 wk. SF had favorable effects on body weight, BMI, and fasting LDL-C levels in overweight and obese adults. These effects may be beneficial in antiobesity and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hypertension (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number-NCT01802840). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Moderate-intensity exercise and self-rated quality of sleep in older adults. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A C; Oman, R F; Brassington, G S; Bliwise, D L; Haskell, W L

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effects of moderate-intensity exercise training on self-rated (subjective) sleep quality among healthy, sedentary older adults reporting moderate sleep complaints. Randomized controlled trial of 16 weeks' duration. General community. Volunteer sample of 29 women and 14 men (of 67 eligible subjects) aged 50 to 76 years who were sedentary, free of cardiovascular disease, and reported moderate sleep complaints. No participant was withdrawn for adverse effects. Randomized to 16 weeks of community-based, moderate-intensity exercise training or to a wait-listed control condition. Exercise consisted primarily of four 30- to 40-minute endurance training sessions (low-impact aerobics; brisk walking) prescribed per week at 60% to 75% of heart rate reserve based on peak treadmill exercise heart rate. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Compared with controls (C), subjects in the exercise training condition (E) showed significant improvement in the PSQI global sleep score at 16 weeks (baseline and posttest values in mean [SD] for C=8.93 [3.1] and 8.8 [2.6]; baseline and posttest values for E=8.7 [3.0] and 5.4 [2.8]; mean posttest difference between conditions=3.4; Pmoderate sleep complaints can improve self-rated sleep quality by initiating a regular moderate-intensity exercise program.

  20. Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hsing Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT pilot study was designed to (1 assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA intervention and (2 provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI, and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen’s effect size of 1.22 P<0.00. Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3% P<0.00. Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted.

  1. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Gwenyth R; Middleton, Kimberly R; Ames, Nancy; Brooks, Alyssa T; Handel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality), anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250 PMID:25520557

  2. Efficacy and Effectiveness of Exercise on Tender Points in Adults with Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials (aerobic, strength training, or both on tender points (TPs in adults with fibromyalgia. Using random effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CI, a statistically significant reduction in TPs was observed based on per-protocol analyses (8 studies representing 322 participants but not intention-to-treat analyses (5 studies representing 338 participants (per-protocol, , −0.68, 95% CI, −1.16, −0.20; intention-to-treat, , −0.24, 95% CI, −0.62, 0.15. Changes were equivalent to relative reductions of 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, for per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. It was concluded that exercise is efficacious for reducing TPs in women with FM. However, a need exists for additional well-designed and reported studies on this topic.

  3. A randomized controlled trial comparing treatment regimens for acute pain for topical oleoresin capsaicin (pepper spray) exposure in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James D; Hennessy, Robert; McManus, John G

    2008-01-01

    Several topical therapies have been proposed to treat acute pain from exposure to oleoresin capsaicin (OC). The purpose of this study was to determine the most beneficial topical treatment for relieving contact dermatitis pain caused by OC exposure. We performed a single-blind, randomized human experiment evaluating the effectiveness of five different regimens for the treatment of topical facial OC exposure. Forty-nine volunteer, adult law enforcement trainees were exposed to OC during a routine training exercise and were randomized to one of five treatment groups (aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide [Maalox], 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water). After initial self-decontamination with water, subjects rated their pain using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and then every 10 minutes, for a total of 60 minutes. Subjects were blinded to previous VAS recordings. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) (treatment, time) with repeated measures on one factor (time) was performed using a 1.3-cm difference as clinically significant. Forty-four men and five women, with an average age of 24 years, participated in the study. There was a significant difference in pain with respect to time (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in pain between treatment groups (p > 0.05). In this study, there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared to be the best predictor for decrease in pain.

  4. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  5. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R. Wallen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality, anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250

  6. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun Ted

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.

  7. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  8. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  9. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. Methods A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85 consumed 100grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81 who consumed 100grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Results Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Conclusions Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  10. The working mechanisms of an environmentally tailored physical activity intervention for older adults: a randomized controlled trial

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    Mudde Aart N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the working mechanisms of a computer tailored physical activity intervention for older adults with environmental information compared to a basic tailored intervention without environmental information. Method A clustered randomized controlled trial with two computer tailored interventions and a no-intervention control group was conducted among 1971 adults aged ≥ 50. The two tailored interventions were developed using Intervention Mapping and consisted of three tailored letters delivered over a four-month period. The basic tailored intervention targeted psychosocial determinants alone, while the environmentally tailored intervention additionally targeted environmental determinants, by providing tailored environmental information. Study outcomes were collected with questionnaires at baseline, three and six months and comprised total physical activity (days/week, walking (min/week, cycling (min/week, sports (min/week, environmental perceptions and use and appreciation of the interventions. Results Mediation analyses showed that changes in cycling, sports and total physical activity behaviour induced by the environmentally tailored intervention were mediated by changes in environmental perceptions. Changes in environmental perceptions did not mediate the effect of the basic tailored intervention on behaviour. Compared with the basic tailored intervention, the environmentally tailored intervention significantly improved cycling behaviour (τ = 30.2. Additionally, the tailored letters of the environmentally tailored intervention were better appreciated and used, although these differences did not mediate the intervention effect. Discussion This study gave some first indications of the relevance of environmental perceptions as a determinant of changing physical activity behaviours and the potential effectiveness of providing environmental information as an intervention strategy aimed at

  11. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Wang, Chunrong; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Cai, Jenny; Kurilich, Anne

    2012-08-06

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women) with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85) consumed 100 grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81) who consumed 100 grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6 weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  12. A behavioral economics intervention to encourage epinephrine-carrying among food-allergic adults: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Dupuis, Roxanne; Graves, Amy; Seymour, Jane W; Kounaves, Sarah; Strupp, Emily; Leri, Damien; Frasso, Rosemary; Grande, David; Meisel, Zachary F

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults with food allergies are at increased risk of adverse events, including death from anaphylaxis. Epinephrine is the cornerstone of emergency response, yet few individuals with serious food allergies consistently carry their emergency medication. Behavioral economics offers promising, previously untapped opportunities for behavior change in this arena. To test the effectiveness of modest financial incentives in promoting the carrying of epinephrine and to evaluate the acceptability of text messaging for delivering reminders and key health messages to young adults with food allergies. A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial in young adults with food allergies investigated the carrying of epinephrine auto-injectors using financial incentives plus text message reminders vs text message reminders alone. Epinephrine carriage was assessed 10 times during the 49-day intervention using rapid-reply cell phone photographs plus daily code words. The intervention (financial incentive) group had their epinephrine auto-injectors at 54% of check-ins vs 27% of check-ins in the control (text-only) group (P = .023). Participants in the 2 groups consistently reported favorable impressions of text messaging as a desirable, unobtrusive way to receive information and support for food allergy management. Although the intervention and control groups reported favorable impressions of text message-based reminder systems, the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on a photograph-based measurement of epinephrine carriage. There remained ample room for improvement in the 2 groups given the goal of consistent, uninterrupted epinephrine carriage by people with potentially life-threatening food allergies. https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02354729. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhaled budesonide for adults with mild-to-moderate asthma: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

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    Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid with high topical potency and low systemic activity recommended in the treatment of chronic asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler. TYPE OF STUDY: Multicenter randomized parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. SETTING: Multicenter study in the university units. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. PROCEDURES: Comparison of budesonide 400 µg administered twice daily via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler with placebo, in 43 adult patients (aged 15 to 78 years with mild-to-moderate asthma (FEV1 71% of predicted normal that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed by pulmonary function tests and asthma symptom control (as perceived by the patients and the use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Budesonide 400 µg (bid was significantly more effective than placebo in improving morning peak expiratory flow (mean difference: 67.9 l/min; P < 0.005 and FEV1 (mean difference: 0.60 l; P < 0.005 over the 8-week treatment period. Onset of action, assessed by morning peak expiratory flow, occurred within the first two weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler results in a rapid onset of asthma control, which is maintained over time and is well tolerated in adults with mild-to-moderate asthma.

  14. Similar cardiometabolic effects of high- and moderate-intensity training among apparently healthy inactive adults: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Téllez-T, Luis Andrés; Camelo-Prieto, Diana; Hernández-Quiñonez, Paula Andrea; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-05-30

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and exercise training is an important factor in the treatment and prevention of the clinical components of MetS. The aim was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training and steady-state moderate-intensity training on clinical components of MetS in healthy physically inactive adults. Twenty adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate-intensity continuous training [MCT group; 60-80% heart rate reserve (HRR)] or high-intensity interval training (HIT group; 4 × 4 min at 85-95% peak HRR interspersed with 4 min of active rest at 65% peak HRR). We used the revised International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS. A MetS Z-score was calculated for each individual and each component of the MetS. In intent-to-treat analyses, the changes in MetS Z-score were 1.546 (1.575) in the MCT group and -1.249 (1.629) in the HIT group (between-groups difference, P =  0.001). The average number of cardiometabolic risk factors changed in the MCT group (-0.133, P = 0.040) but not in the HIT group (0.018, P = 0.294), with no difference between groups (P = 0.277). Among apparently healthy physically inactive adults, HIT and MCT offer similar cardiometabolic protection against single MetS risk factors but differ in their effect on average risk factors per subject. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02738385 registered on March 23, 2016.

  15. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cancer risk among adults with hypertension in China: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianhui; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Rong; Li, Youbao; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Hua; Lei, Yu; Hou, Fan Fan; Gu, Jin; Huo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The relationship of folic acid supplementation with the risk of cancer remains inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on cancer incidence among adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 20,702 hypertensive adults without history of stroke or MI, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes(CC, CT and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single pill containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid(n = 10,348) or a pill containing 10 mg enalapril alone(n = 10,354). During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, cancer occurred in 116 participants(1.12%) in the enalapril-folic acid group versus 116 participants(1.12%) in the enalapril group (HR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.77-1.29). There was also no significant difference in the HRs for specific types of cancer(esophageal, gastric, breast, lung, colorectal, head and neck, liver and gynecologic cancer or lymphoma) or cancer mortality(HR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.69-1.58). For participants not receiving folic acid treatment (enalapril only group), MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent predictor of total cancer risk compared to CC genotype (HR, 1.86; 95%CI, 1.07-3.22). Consistently, a beneficial effect was observed in participants with MTHFR TT genotype and low folate levels (folic acid supplementation can increase the risk of cancer incidence among adults with hypertension without history of stroke or MI in China. Our data suggest a protective effect in participants with MTHFR TT genotype and low folate levels. © 2016 UICC.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Study on the Effects of a Documentary on Students’ Empathy and Attitudes towards Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people’s empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Method Seventy-seven students (ages 18–29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. Results The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk’s λ=0.933, F(1,75)=5.389, p=0.023, partial η2=0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs. post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t-tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t(37)=−2.999, p=0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk’s λ=0.994, F(1,75)=0.482, p=0.490, partial η2=0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t(38)=0.725, p=0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students. PMID:29399638

  17. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  18. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

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    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  19. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  20. Conditional reduction of adult born doublecortin-positive neurons reversibly impairs selective behaviours

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    Lillian eGarrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB - and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM, results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months and middle (from 10 months aged mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the tamoxifen treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of an AMA-1 malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

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    Mahamadou A Thera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the AMA-1-based blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A in adults exposed to seasonal malaria.A phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A is a recombinant protein (FMP2.1 based on apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 from the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum, adjuvanted with AS02A. The comparator vaccine was a cell-culture rabies virus vaccine (RabAvert. Sixty healthy, malaria-experienced adults aged 18-55 y were recruited into 2 cohorts and randomized to receive either a half dose or full dose of the malaria vaccine (FMP2.1 25 microg/AS02A 0.25 mL or FMP2.1 50 microg/AS02A 0.5 mL or rabies vaccine given in 3 doses at 0, 1 and 2 mo, and were followed for 1 y. Solicited symptoms were assessed for 7 d and unsolicited symptoms for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Titers of anti-AMA-1 antibodies were measured by ELISA and P. falciparum growth inhibition assays were performed on sera collected at pre- and post-vaccination time points. Transient local pain and swelling were common and more frequent in both malaria vaccine dosage groups than in the comparator group. Anti-AMA-1 antibodies increased significantly in both malaria vaccine groups, peaking at nearly 5-fold and more than 6-fold higher than baseline in the half-dose and full-dose groups, respectively.The FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine had a good safety profile, was well-tolerated, and was highly immunogenic in malaria-exposed adults. This malaria vaccine is being evaluated in Phase 1 and 2 trials in children at this site.

  2. Mindfulness meditation and improvement in sleep quality and daytime impairment among older adults with sleep disturbances: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are most prevalent among older adults and often go untreated. Treatment options for sleep disturbances remain limited, and there is a need for community-accessible programs that can improve sleep. To determine the efficacy of a mind-body medicine intervention, called mindfulness meditation, to promote sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep disturbances. Randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2012, at a medical research center among an older adult sample (mean [SD] age, 66.3 [7.4] years) with moderate sleep disturbances (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] >5). A standardized mindful awareness practices (MAPs) intervention (n = 24) or a sleep hygiene education (SHE) intervention (n = 25) was randomized to participants, who received a 6-week intervention (2 hours per week) with assigned homework. The study was powered to detect between-group differences in moderate sleep disturbance measured via the PSQI at postintervention. Secondary outcomes pertained to sleep-related daytime impairment and included validated measures of insomnia symptoms, depression, anxiety, stress, and fatigue, as well as inflammatory signaling via nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, participants in the MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to those in the SHE group on the PSQI. With the MAPs intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.7) at baseline and 7.4 (1.9) at postintervention. With the SHE intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.8) at baseline and 9.1 (2.0) at postintervention. The between-group mean difference was 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6-2.9), with an effect size of 0.89. The MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to the SHE group on secondary health outcomes of insomnia symptoms, depression symptoms, fatigue interference, and fatigue severity (P anxiety, stress, or NF-κB, although NF-κB concentrations significantly declined over time in both groups (P

  3. The effect of a simple traditional exercise programme (Baduanjin exercise) on sleep quality of older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Hsueh-Erh; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Chiou, Ai-Fu

    2012-03-01

    Sleep disturbance is a major problem for older adults, calling for the development of alternative medicine techniques to help improve sleep quality in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Baduanjin exercise program on sleep quality in Taiwanese elderly. A randomized controlled trial, longitudinal research design was employed. This study was conducted in an urban area of northern Taiwan. The inclusion criteria for participants were as follows: (1) community-dwelling older adults age 60 years or older; (2) no regular exercise within 6 months; (3) able to communicate; and (4) independent in self-care. Subjects were excluded if they had (1) depression tendency as demonstrated by the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Score of eight or higher; (2) impaired mobility; or (3) unstable health status. A total of 202 older people were screened for this study, 87 of whom were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Of these, 55 completed the 12-week study. Fifty-five participants were randomly assigned to the exercise group (27) or the control group (28). Those in the exercise group received 12 weeks of Baduanjin exercise training, while those in the control group had no intervention. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was administered to subjects at four time points: before the intervention, and at the 4th, 8th, and 12th week after intervention. Subjects in the Baduanjin exercise group had significantly improved overall sleep quality, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and daytime dysfunction after 12 weeks of intervention (psleep quality. Compared with the control group, the Baduanjin exercise group reported significantly better sleep quality after four weeks of intervention which was maintained throughout the 12-week exercise period. This study confirmed that the Baduanjin exercise program can improve sleep quality for Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults. We recommend

  4. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R; Slow, Sandy; Chambers, Stephen T; Jennings, Lance C; Stewart, Alistair W; Priest, Patricia C; Florkowski, Christopher M; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert

    2012-10-03

    Observational studies have reported an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). However, results of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have been inconclusive. To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on incidence and severity of URTIs in healthy adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 322 healthy adults between February 2010 and November 2011 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an initial dose of 200,000 IU oral vitamin D3, then 200,000 IU 1 month later, then 100,000 IU monthly (n = 161), or placebo administered in an identical dosing regimen (n = 161), for a total of 18 months. The primary end point was number of URTI episodes. Secondary end points were duration of URTI episodes, severity of URTI episodes, and number of days of missed work due to URTI episodes. The mean baseline 25-OHD level of participants was 29 (SD, 9) ng/mL. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in an increase in serum 25-OHD levels that was maintained at greater than 48 ng/mL throughout the study. There were 593 URTI episodes in the vitamin D group and 611 in the placebo group, with no statistically significant differences in the number of URTIs per participant (mean, 3.7 per person in the vitamin D group and 3.8 per person in the placebo group; risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.11), number of days of missed work as a result of URTIs (mean, 0.76 days in each group; risk ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.30), duration of symptoms per episode (mean, 12 days in each group; risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.73-1.25), or severity of URTI episodes. These findings remained unchanged when the analysis was repeated by season and by baseline 25-OHD levels. In this trial, monthly administration of 100,000 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the incidence or severity of URTIs in healthy adults. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000486224.

  5. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  6. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

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    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  7. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  8. Effect of Ganciclovir on IL-6 Levels Among Cytomegalovirus-Seropositive Adults With Critical Illness: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajit P; Stapleton, Renee D; Peng, Lili; Gunn, Scott R; Kimball, Louise E; Hyzy, Robert; Exline, Matthew C; Files, D Clark; Morris, Peter E; Frankel, Stephen K; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Hite, Duncan; Enfield, Kyle B; Steingrub, Jay; O'Brien, James; Parsons, Polly E; Cuschieri, Joseph; Wunderink, Richard G; Hotchkin, David L; Chen, Ying Q; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-08-22

    The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in mediating adverse clinical outcomes in nonimmunosuppressed adults with critical illness is unknown. To determine whether ganciclovir prophylaxis reduces plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in CMV-seropositive adults who are critically ill. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (conducted March 10, 2011-April 29, 2016) with a follow-up of 180 days (November 10, 2016) that included 160 CMV-seropositive adults with either sepsis or trauma and respiratory failure at 14 university intensive care units (ICUs) across the United States. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days), followed by either intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir once daily until hospital discharge (n = 84) or to receive matching placebo (n = 76). The primary outcome was change in IL-6 level from day 1 to 14. Secondary outcomes were incidence of CMV reactivation in plasma, mechanical ventilation days, incidence of secondary bacteremia or fungemia, ICU length of stay, mortality, and ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days. Among 160 randomized patients (mean age, 57 years; women, 43%), 156 patients received 1or more dose(s) of study medication, and 132 patients (85%) completed the study. The mean change in plasma IL-6 levels between groups was -0.79 log10 units (-2.06 to 0.48) in the ganciclovir group and -0.79 log10 units (-2.14 to 0.56) in the placebo group (point estimate of difference, 0 [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.3]; P > .99). Among secondary outcomes, CMV reactivation in plasma was significantly lower in the ganciclovir group (12% [10 of 84 patients] vs 39% [28 of 72 patients]); absolute risk difference, -27 (95% CI, -40 to -14), P ganciclovir group had more median VFDs in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) group and in the prespecified sepsis subgroup (ITT group: 23 days in ganciclovir group vs 20 days in the placebo group, P = .05; sepsis

  9. Text Messaging for Exercise Promotion in Older Adults From an Upper-Middle-Income Country: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. Objective The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants’ exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. Methods The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity–related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. Results In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and

  10. Adult perceptions of dental fluorosis and select dental conditions-an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rahul; Chuang, Janice Cheah Ping; Lee, Pauline Shih Jia; Leo, Song Jie; Yang, Naomi QiYue; Yee, Robert; Tong, Huei Jinn

    2016-04-01

    To compare lay people's perceptions with regard to various levels of dental fluorosis and select dental defects versus normal dentition. Adults rated digitally created photographs made showing lips (without retraction) and teeth depicting the following conditions: no apparent aesthetic defects (normal, Thylstrup- Fejerskov score 0 - TF0), 6 levels of fluorosis (TF1-6), carious lesions (two cavitated and one noncavitated), malocclusions (Class II, Class III, anterior open bite and greater spacing), extrinsic staining and an incisal chip. The photographs were displayed on colour-calibrated iPads(™) . Participants used a self-administered questionnaire to rate their perceptions on (Item 1) how normal teeth were, (Item 2) how attractive the teeth were, (Item 3) need to seek correction of teeth, (Item 4) how well the person took care of their teeth and (Item 5) whether the person was born like this. Data from Item 5 were excluded due to low reliability. Ratings for Item 1 showed that TF1-4 was similar or significantly better than TF0. For Item 2, TF1 and TF4 were significantly better than TF0, with TF2 and TF3 being similar. For Item 3, there was significantly lower need to seek correction with TF2 and TF4 versus TF0, whereas TF1 and TF3 were similar to TF0. TF5 and TF6 were rated significantly lower than TF0 for Item 1 and Item 2, and significantly higher rating for Item 3 (need to seek correction). Ratings for Item 4 were similar, with TF1, TF2 and TF4 being rated significantly higher than TF0, and TF5 and TF6 being rated lower. Cavitated caries and staining were generally perceived as being significantly less favourable than TF6, with higher need to seek correction as well. Noncavitated carious lesion and incisal chip were rated similar to TF0. Cavitated carious lesions were rated aesthetically similar or significantly worse than TF0 and TF6. Severe fluorosis (TF5 and 6) was perceived to be less aesthetically pleasing and received higher ratings for need to seek

  11. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  12. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy suppresses dental plaque formation in healthy adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose-Tsuno, Akiko; Aoki, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Kirikae, Teruo; Shimbo, Takuro; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Maruoka, Yutaka; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Isao; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-12-15

    Oral care is important for oral and systemic health, especially for elderly institutionalized individuals and compromised patients. However, conventional mechanical plaque control is often difficult for these patients because of the pain or the risk of aspiration. Although antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), which is considered an alternative or adjunct to mechanical approaches, has potential application as a less stressful method of daily plaque control, no clinical application of this technique has been reported. We investigated the inhibitory effect of a combination of toluidine blue O (TBO), and a red light-emitting diode (LED) on dental plaque formation in healthy volunteers. The optimal concentration of TBO was determined in preliminary in vitro experiments to evaluate the bactericidal effect of aPDT on Streptococcus oralis and to clarify its safety in fibroblast cells. To survey the mechanism of TBO-mediated aPDT, the quality and quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during aPDT were also examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of aPDT on dental plaque formation was investigated in eleven subjects as a clinical pilot study. The right or left mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to the treatment (with aPDT) or control (without aPDT) groups. In total, aPDT was applied six times (twice per day) to the teeth in the test group over a period of four days. On the fourth day, the study concluded and the analyses were performed. A combination of 500 or 1000 μg/ml TBO and LED irradiation for 20 s significantly decreased the number of colony forming units of Streptococcus oralis. The cytotoxicity of aPDT was comparable to that of standard antiseptics used in the oral cavity. Hydroxyl radicals were detected by ESR analysis, but singlet oxygen was not. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that aPDT with 1000 μg/ml TBO and red LED irradiation significantly suppressed dental plaque

  13. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  14. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  15. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, S; Condello, G; Capranica, L; Forte, R; Pesce, C

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST) training (n = 16) and physical-cognitive dual task (DT) training (n = 20), respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory) through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles) under both single and dual task (ST, DT) conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling). The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  16. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST training (n=16 and physical-cognitive dual task (DT training (n=20, respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles under both single and dual task (ST, DT conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling. The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  17. Kimchi, a fermented vegetable, improves serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Hwa; Noh, Jeong Sook; Han, Ji-Sook; Kim, Hyun Ju; Han, Eung-Soo; Song, Yeong Ok

    2013-03-01

    Vegetable-based diets have generally focused on their health benefits including negative associations with the serum cholesterol concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum lipid concentrations are influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. For the study, 100 volunteers were assigned to 2 dietary groups, low (15 g/day, n=50) and high (210 g/day, n=50) kimchi intake, and were housed together in a dormitory for 7 days. Identical meals except with different amount of kimchi were provided and subjects were instructed to maintain their normal physical activity. Concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C significantly decreased in both groups after 7 days of kimchi intake, but the effects were dose dependent. Lipid lowering effects of kimchi were more profound in the subjects with total cholesterol and LDL-C level over 190 and 130 mg/dL, respectively, in both groups. FBG was significantly decreased in the high kimchi intake as compared to the low intake group (P=.003). In conclusion, greater consumption of kimchi improved FBG and serum total cholesterol in young healthy adults.

  18. Reference ranges of cholesterol sub-fractions in random healthy adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaré, Alice T C R Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P L; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers' insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso.

  19. Objective Physical Activity and Weight Loss in Adults: The Step-Up Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelliann K.; Polzien, Kristen; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Rickman, Amy D.; Erickson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the amount of objectively measured MVPA and LPA that is associated with long-term weight loss and the maintenance of clinically significant weight loss. Design and Methods Adults (N=260; BMI: 25 to weight loss intervention and were prescribed a low-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Change in weight and objectively measured physical activity were assessed. MVPA>10 (METmin/wk) was computed from bouts ≥10 minutes and ≥3.0 METS and MVPAweight loss at 18 months, there was a significant Group X Time interaction effect (p10 and LPA, with both measures being significantly greater at 18 months in those with ≥10% weight loss. Similar results were observed for MVPA>10 and LPA with participants grouped on achieving ≥10% weight loss at 6 months and sustaining this at 18 months. Conclusions MVPA>10 of 200 to 300 minutes per week, coupled with increased amounts of LPA, are associated with improved long-term weight loss. Interventions should promote engagement in these amounts and types of physical activity. PMID:25376395

  20. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Jones, Kevin T

    2012-07-19

    Cognitive performance, including performance on working memory (WM) tasks declines with age. Changes in brain activations are one presumed contributor to WM decline in the healthy aging population. In particular, neuroimaging studies show that when older adults perform WM tasks there tends to be greater bilateral frontal activity than in younger adults. We hypothesized that stimulating the prefrontal cortex in healthy older adults would improve WM performance. To test this hypothesis we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neurostimulation technique in which small amounts of electrical current are applied to the scalp with the intent of modulating the activity in underlying neurons. Across three testing sessions we applied sham stimulation or anodal tDCS to the left (F3) or right (F4) prefrontal cortex to healthy older adults as they performed trials of verbal and visual 2-back WM tasks. Surprisingly, tDCS was uniformly beneficial across site and WM task, but only in older adults with more education. In the less educated group, tDCS provided no benefit to verbal or visual WM performance. We interpret these findings as evidence for differential frontal recruitment as a function of strategy when older adults perform WM tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  2. Telephone-Delivered Behavioral Skills Intervention for African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Williams, Joni S; Voronca, Delia C; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Lynch, Cheryl P

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects African Americans and is associated with poorer outcomes. Self-management is important for glycemic control; however, evidence in African Americans is limited. To assess the efficacy of a combined telephone-delivered education and behavioral skills intervention (TBSI) in reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in African Americans with type 2 diabetes, using a factorial design. This is a four-year randomized clinical trial, using a 2 x 2 factorial design.: Participants: African American adults ≥18 years) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥9%) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) knowledge only, 2) skills only, 3) combined knowledge and skills (TBSI), or 4) control group. All participants received 12 telephone-delivered 30-min intervention sessions specific to their assigned group. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome was HbA1c at 12 months post-randomization in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Two hundred fifty-five participants were randomly assigned to the four groups. Based on the ITT population after multiple imputation, the analysis of covariance with baseline HbA1c as the covariate showed that HbA1c at 12 months for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from that of the control group (knowledge: 0.49, p = 0.123; skills: 0.23, p = 0.456; combined: 0.48, p = 0.105). Absolute change from baseline at 12 months for all treatment arms was 0.6. Longitudinal mixed effects analysis showed that, on average, there was a significant decline in HbA1c over time for all treatment groups (-0.07, p different from that of the control group (knowledge: 0.06, p = 0.052; skills: 0.02, p = 0.448; combined: 0.05, p = 0.062). Results from per-protocol populations were similar. For African Americans with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, combined education and skills training did not achieve greater reductions in glycemic

  3. Examiner Training and Reliability in Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Adult Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, David W.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Bader, James D.; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gullion, Christina M.; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K.; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V.; Singh, Mabi L.; Vollmer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra- examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Methods Study examiners were trained to use a modified ICDAS-II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2) and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. Results The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4% to 13.5% of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23– 0.35) but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42– 0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 vs. D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90.Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classification systems employed. Conclusion The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. PMID:22320292

  4. Randomized Comparison of Serum Teicoplanin Concentrations following Daily or Alternate Daily Dosing in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, Bernard; Jehl, François; Drugeon, Henri; Brumpt, Ivan; Caulin, Evelyne

    2004-01-01

    Trough serum teicoplanin concentrations were compared in healthy adults following intravenous administration of one of two regimens: (i) 12 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h for 3 doses and then 15 mg/kg every 48 h for 4 doses (n = 16 subjects) or (ii) 6 mg/kg every 12 h for 2 doses and then 6 mg/kg every 24 h for 9 doses (n = 8 subjects). The mean ± standard deviation trough concentrations in serum on day 11 (24 and 48 h after administration of the last dose for the daily and alternate-day dosing schedules, respectively) were 16.0 ± 2.1 and 17.9 ± 3.5 mg/liter for subjects receiving the two regimens, respectively, by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The limits of the 95% confidence interval of the difference (−0.2, 3.6 mg/liter) determined by a nonparametric test were situated above the −1.3-mg/liter maximum set difference and indicated a noninferiority of the alternate-day dosing to the daily dosing. Throughout the study the individual trough concentrations in serum in the alternate-day dosing group constantly exceeded 10 mg/liter, the presently recommended target concentration for the treatment of severe infections. The trough concentrations in the sera of all subjects were bactericidal for six Staphylococcus aureus strains for which teicoplanin MICs are between 0.5 and 4 mg/liter. The bactericidal activity of serum was related to total teicoplanin (protein bound and unbound). In conclusion, an alternate-day dosing schedule (15 mg/kg on alternate days following administration of a 12-mg/kg loading dose three times every 12 h) could be considered for further efficacy and safety studies. PMID:15215086

  5. A randomized prospective pilot trial of Web-delivered epilepsy stigma reduction communications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Herrmann, Lynn K; Van Doren, Jamie R; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Welter, Elisabeth; Perzynski, Adam T; Bukach, Ashley; Needham, Kelley; Liu, Hongyan; Berg, Anne T

    2017-11-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that is often associated with stigmatizing attitudes and negative stereotypes among the general public. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested two new communication approaches targeting epilepsy stigma versus an education-alone approach. Two brief stigma-reduction videos were developed, informed by community stakeholder input; one highlighted role competency in people with epilepsy; the other highlighted social inclusion of people with epilepsy. A control video was also developed. A Web-based survey using a prospective RCT design compared effects of experimental videos and control on acceptability, perceived impact, epilepsy knowledge, and epilepsy stigma. Epilepsy knowledge and stigma were measured with the Epilepsy Knowledge Questionnaire (EKQ) and Attitudes and Beliefs about Living with Epilepsy (ABLE), respectively. A total of 295 participants completed the study. Mean age was 23.1 (standard deviation = 3.27) years; 59.0% were male, and 71.4% were white. Overall, respondents felt videos impacted their epilepsy attitudes. EKQ scores were similar across videos, with a trend for higher knowledge in experimental videos versus control (p = 0.06). The role competency and control videos were associated with slightly better perceived impact on attitudes. There were no differences between videos on ABLE scores (p = 0.568). There were subgroup differences suggesting that men, younger individuals, whites, and those with personal epilepsy experience had more stigmatizing attitudes. This RCT tested communication strategies to improve knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Although this initial effort will require follow-up, we have demonstrated the acceptability, feasibility, and potential of novel communication strategies to target epilepsy stigma, and a Web-based approach for assessing them. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis compared with biofeedback for adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, G; Rintala, D H; Jensen, M P; Fukui, T; Smith, D; Williams, W

    2015-02-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is common and results in significant costs to individuals, families and society. Although some research supports the efficacy of hypnosis for CLBP, we know little about the minimum dose needed to produce meaningful benefits, the roles of home practice and hypnotizability on outcome, or the maintenance of treatment benefits beyond 3 months. One hundred veterans with CLBP participated in a randomized, four-group design study. The groups were (1) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention without audio recordings for home practice; (2) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings; (3) a two-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings and brief weekly reminder telephone calls; and (4) an eight-session active (biofeedback) control intervention. Participants in all four groups reported significant pre- to post-treatment improvements in pain intensity, pain interference and sleep quality. The hypnosis groups combined reported significantly more pain intensity reduction than the control group. There was no significant difference among the three hypnosis conditions. Over half of the participants who received hypnosis reported clinically meaningful (≥ 30%) reductions in pain intensity, and they maintained these benefits for at least 6 months after treatment. Neither hypnotizability nor amount of home practice was associated significantly with treatment outcome. The findings indicate that two sessions of self-hypnosis training with audio recordings for home practice may be as effective as eight sessions of hypnosis treatment. If replicated in other patient samples, the findings have important implications for the application of hypnosis treatment for chronic pain management. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  7. Efficacy and safety of beloranib for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D D; Krishnarajah, J; Lillioja, S; de Looze, F; Marjason, J; Proietto, J; Shakib, S; Stuckey, B G A; Vath, J E; Hughes, T E

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of beloranib treatment for obesity. This phase II, double-blind, randomized study investigated the effects of beloranib suspension (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg) or placebo, administered subcutaneously, for 12 weeks in 147 participants (primarily white women) with obesity. No diet or exercise advice was administered. At week 12, beloranib resulted in dose-dependent progressive weight loss of -5.5 ± 0.5, -6.9 ± 0.6 and -10.9 ± 1.1 kg for the 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg beloranib doses, respectively, compared with -0.4 ± 0.4 kg with placebo (all p Weight loss with beloranib was associated with corresponding reductions in waist circumference and body fat mass, as well as improvements in lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and blood pressure. Sleep disturbance and gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with beloranib than with placebo; these were generally mild to moderate, transient and dose-related, and led to more early study withdrawals in participants in the group with the highest dose of beloranib. In this 12-week phase II study, beloranib produced clinically and statistically significant weight loss and corresponding improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Beloranib appeared safe, and the 0.6 and 1.2 mg doses were generally well tolerated. The 2.4 mg dose was associated with increased sleep latency and mild to moderate gastrointestinal adverse events over the first month of treatment. These findings represent a novel mechanism for producing clinically meaningful weight loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rectal balloon training as add-on therapy to pelvic floor muscle training in adults with fecal incontinence: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bols, E.; Berghmans, B.; de Bie, R.; Govaert, B.; van Wunnik, B.; Heijmans, M.W.; Hendriks, E.; Baeten, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Fecal incontinence (FI) is embarrassing, resulting in poor quality of life. Rectal sensation may be more important than sphincter strength to relieve symptoms. A single-blind, randomized controlled trial among adults with FI compared the effectiveness of rectal balloon training (RBT) and pelvic

  9. Characteristics of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome and aortic root dilation in a randomized trial comparing atenolol and losartan therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacro, R.V.; Guey, L.T.; Dietz, H.C.; Pearson, G.D.; Yetman, A.T.; Gelb, B.D.; Loeys, B.L.; Benson, D.W.; Bradley, T.J.; Backer, J. de; Forbus, G.A.; Klein, G.L.; Lai, W.W.; Levine, J.C.; Lewin, M.B.; Markham, L.W.; Paridon, S.M.; Pierpont, M.E.; Radojewski, E.; Selamet Tierney, E.S.; Sharkey, A.M.; Wechsler, S.B.; Mahony, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan. We report here the characteristics of the screened population and

  10. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E.; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47%

  11. A randomized trial on the effect of a multimodal intervention on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life in adult patients undergoing allogeneic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, M; Baadsgaard, M T; Hovgaard, D J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of a 4- to 6-week multimodal program of exercise, relaxation and psychoeducation on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life (QOL) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) adult...

  12. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  13. Level of activity and participation in adults with spastic diplegia 17-26 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerak, Nelleke G; Hillier, Susan L; Verkoeijen, Peter P; Peter, Jonathan C; Fieggen, A Graham; Vaughan, Christopher L

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the activity and participation levels of adults with spastic diplegia 17-26 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy; to investigate relationships between subjects' functioning and age, socio-economic-status, level of satisfaction and their perceptions of the post-operative outcomes. Observational follow-up study. Thirty-one subjects with spastic diplegia, age range 21-44 years, who underwent selective dorsal rhizotomy between 1981 and 1991. A semi-structured interview was used to gather data on patients' characteristics and long-term experiences after the operation. The Functional Mobility Scale and Life-Habit questionnaire were completed. Based on the Functional Mobility Scale 84% of subjects were reported as independent for a distance of 5 m, and 61% for 50 and 500 m. Eighty percent were independent in accomplishing all life habits, with most problems found for Mobility and Recreation. This was in agreement with the subjects' perception, with strong correlations between Life-Habit questionnaire accomplishment and satisfaction levels. No significant associations were found between functioning and age at selective dorsal rhizotomy, current age and socio-economic status. More than 15 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy, adults with spastic diplegia showed high levels of functioning, and similar levels of satisfaction with life habits. The majority had positive feelings about the neurosurgical procedure, although there is a need for better follow-up after subjects leave school.

  14. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  15. Effects of a Web-based tailored intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in adults: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Candel, Math Jjm; Kremers, Stef Pj; Reinwand, Dominique A; Jander, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2013-09-17

    Web-based tailored interventions provide users with information that is adapted to their individual characteristics and needs. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of tailored alcohol self-help programs among adults are scarce. Furthermore, it is a challenge to develop programs that can hold respondents' attention in online interventions. To assess whether a 3-session, Web-based tailored intervention is effective in reducing alcohol intake in high-risk adult drinkers and to compare 2 computer-tailoring feedback strategies (alternating vs summative) on behavioral change, dropout, and appreciation of the program. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with an experimental group and a control group (N=448) in Germany in 2010-2011. Follow-up took place after 6 months. Drinking behavior, health status, motivational determinants, and demographics were assessed among participants recruited via an online access panel. The experimental group was divided into 2 subgroups. In the alternating condition (n=132), the tailored feedback was split into a series of messages discussing individual topics offered while the respondent was filling out the program. Participants in the summative condition (n=181) received all advice at once after having answered all questions. The actual texts were identical for both conditions. The control group (n=135) only filled in 3 questionnaires. To identify intervention effects, logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted among complete cases (n=197) and after using multiple imputation. Among the complete cases (response rate: 197/448, 44.0%) who did not comply with the German national guideline for low-risk drinking at baseline, 21.1% of respondents in the experimental group complied after 6 months compared with 5.8% in the control group (effect size=0.42; OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.14-6.16, P=.02). The experimental group decreased by 3.9 drinks per week compared to 0.4 drinks per week in the control group, but

  16. Does high dose vitamin D supplementation enhance cognition?: A randomized trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Jacqueline A

    2017-04-01

    Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (cognitive performance were assessed and the latter consisted of: Symbol Digit Modalities Test, verbal (phonemic) fluency, digit span, and the CANTAB® computerized battery. There were no significant baseline differences between Low (n=40) and High (n=42) dose groups. Serum 25(OH)D increased significantly more in the High Dose (from 67.2±20 to 130.6±26nmol/L) than the Low Dose group (60.5±22 to 85.9±16nmol/L), p=0.0001. Performance improved in the High Dose group on nonverbal (visual) memory, as assessed by the Pattern Recognition Memory task (PRM), from 84.1±14.9 to 88.3±13.2, p=0.043 (d=0.3) and Paired Associates Learning Task, (PAL) number of stages completed, from 4.86±0.35 to 4.95±0.22, p=0.044 (d=0.5), but not in the Low Dose Group. Mixed effects modeling controlling for age, education, sex and baseline performance revealed that the degree of improvement was comparatively greater in the High Dose Group for these tasks, approaching significance: PRM, p=0.11 (d=0.4), PAL, p=0.058 (d=0.4). Among those who had insufficient 25(OH)D (memory seems to benefit from higher doses of vitamin D supplementation, particularly among those who are insufficient (memory and other cognitive domains do not. These findings are consistent with recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, which have demonstrated significant positive associations between 25(OH)D levels and nonverbal, but not verbal, memory. While our findings require confirmation, they suggest that higher 25(OH)D is particularly important for higher level cognitive functioning, specifically nonverbal (visual) memory, which also utilizes executive

  17. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  18. A randomized, three-period crossover study of umeclidinium as monotherapy in adult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laurie A; Briggs, Anne; Edwards, Lisa D; Yang, Shuying; Pascoe, Steven

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, no studies in patients with asthma have assessed a long-acting muscarinic antagonist in the absence of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Evaluate the dose-response, efficacy, and safety of umeclidinium (UMEC) in patients with asthma not receiving ICS. In this double-blind, three-period crossover study, 350 subjects were randomized to a sequence of three of eight inhaled treatments: UMEC 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, 125, or 250 mcg once daily (OD), UMEC 15.6 or 31.25 mcg twice daily (BID), or placebo, administered for 14 days (12-14-day washout). Trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 0-24-h weighted mean (WM) FEV1, and safety were assessed. Serial spirometry and pharmacokinetic assessments were performed in a subgroup. Subjects had a mean baseline pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 of 71% and 88% predicted, respectively. Significant improvements in change from baseline trough FEV1 were observed for UMEC 15.6 OD (0.066 L; p = 0.036) and UMEC 125 OD (0.088 L; p = 0.005) versus placebo, but not other OD or BID doses. UMEC increased 0-24-h WM FEV1 versus placebo (0.068-0.121 L [p ≤ 0.017] with no clear dose-response). Treatment differences were similar for corresponding OD and BID doses in serial assessments. UMEC was rapidly absorbed, with evidence of some accumulation. The incidence of on-treatment adverse events was 9-21% for UMEC and 12% for placebo. There were no treatment-related effects on laboratory parameters. The modest trough FEV1 improvements did not conclusively support a therapeutic benefit of UMEC in non-ICS treated patients with asthma. NCT01641692. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Social Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The UCLA PEERS(®) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K; Orenski, Kaely; Ellingsen, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that impaired social skills are often the most significant challenge for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet few evidence-based social skills interventions exist for adults on the spectrum. This replication trial tested the effectiveness of PEERS, a caregiver-assisted social skills program for high-functioning young adults with ASD. Using a randomized controlled design, 22 young adults 18-24 years of age were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or delayed treatment control (n = 10) group. Results revealed that the treatment group improved significantly in overall social skills, frequency of social engagement, and social skills knowledge, and significantly reduced ASD symptoms related to social responsiveness following PEERS. Most treatment gains were maintained at a 16-week follow-up assessment with new improvements observed.

  20. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed