Burgess, Jacqueline D; Kimble, Roy M; Watt, Kerrianne; Cameron, Cate M
Using social media to recruit specific populations for research studies is gaining popularity. Given that mothers of young children are the most active on social media, and young children are the most at risk of preventable burn injuries, social media was used to recruit mothers of young children to a burn prevention intervention. The aim of this paper was to describe the social media recruitment methods used to enroll mothers of young children to the app-based burn prevention intervention Cool Runnings. Participants were recruited via paid Facebook and Instagram advertisements to a 2-group, parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The advertisements were targeted at women 18 years and older, living in Queensland, Australia, with at least 1 child aged 5 to 12 months at the time of recruitment. Over the 30-day recruitment period from January to February 2016, Facebook and Instagram advertisements reached 65,268 people, generating 2573 link clicks, 1161 app downloads, and 498 enrolled participants to the Cool Runnings RCT. The cost per enrolled participant was Aus $13.08. Saturdays were the most effective day of the week for advertising results. The most popular time of day for enrolments was between 5 to 11 PM. This recruitment strategy campaign resulted in a broad reach of participants from regional, rural, and remote Queensland. Participants were representative of the population in regard to age and education levels. To our knowledge, this is the first use of social media recruitment for an injury prevention campaign. This recruitment method resulted in the rapid and cost-effective recruitment of participants with social, geographic, and economic diversity that were largely representative of the population. ©Jacqueline D Burgess, Roy M Kimble, Kerrianne Watt, Cate M Cameron. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 24.10.2017.
Tomlin, Zelda; deSalis, Isabel; Toerien, Merran; Donovan, Jenny L
With the routinization of evidence-based medicine and of the randomized-controlled trial (RCT), more patients are becoming 'sites of evidence production' yet, little is known about how they are recruited as participants; there is some evidence that 'substantively valid consent' is difficult to achieve. To explore the views and experiences of nurses recruiting patients to randomized-controlled trials and to examine the extent to which their recruitment practices were patient-centred and patient empowering. Semi-structured in-depth interviews; audio recording of recruitment appointments; thematic interactional analysis (drawing on discourse and conversation analysis). Nurses recruiting patients to five publicly funded RCTs and patients consenting to the recording of their recruitment sessions. The views of recruiting nurses about their recruitment role; the extent to which nurse-patient interactions were patient-centred; the nature of the nurses' interactional strategies and the nature and extent of patient participation in the discussion. The nurses had a keen sense of themselves as clinicians and patient advocates and their perceptions of the trial and its interventions were inextricably linked to those of the patients. However, many of their recruitment practices made it difficult for patients to play an active and informed part in the discussion about trial participation, raising questions over the quality of consent decisions. Nurses working in patient recruitment to RCTs need to reconcile two different worlds with different demands and ethics. Evidence production, a central task in evidence-based medicine, poses a challenge to patient-centred practice and more research and relevant training are needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lawrie, Theresa A; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Singata-Madliki, Mandisa; Ciganda, Alvaro; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Belizán, José M; Purnat, Tina Dannemann; Manyame, Sarah; Parker, Catherine; Cormick, Gabriela
The preconception period has the potential to influence pregnancy outcomes and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to evaluate a variety of potentially beneficial preconception interventions. However, RCTs commencing before pregnancy have significant participant recruitment and retention challenges. The Calcium And Pre-eclampsia trial (CAP trial) is a World Health Organization multi-country RCT of calcium supplementation commenced before pregnancy to prevent recurrent pre-eclampsia in which non-pregnant participants are recruited and followed up until childbirth. This sub-study explores recruitment methods and preconception retention of participants of the CAP trial to inform future trials. Recruiters at the study sites in Argentina, South Africa and Zimbabwe completed post-recruitment phase questionnaires on recruitment methods used. Qualitative data from these questionnaires and quantitative data on pre-pregnancy trial visit attendance and pregnancy rates up to September 2016 are reported in this paper. RStudio (Version 0.99.903 https://www.rstudio.org ) statistical software was used for summary statistics. Between July 2011 and 8 September 2016, 1354 women with previous pre-eclampsia were recruited. Recruitment took 2 years longer than expected and was facilitated mainly through medical record/register and maternity ward/clinic-based strategies. Recruiters highlighted difficulties associated with inadequate medical records, redundant patient contact details, and follow-up of temporarily ineligible women as some of the challenges faced. Whilst the attendance rates at pre-pregnancy visits were high (78% or more), visits often occurred later than scheduled. Forty-five percent of participants became pregnant (614/1354), 33.5% (454/1354) within 1 year of randomization. In preconception trials, both retrospective and prospective methods are useful for recruiting eligible women with certain conditions. However, these are time-consuming in low
Kelleher, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilt, Megan Pumper
Adolescents and young adults frequently post depression symptom references on social media; previous studies show positive associations between depression posts and self-reported depression symptoms. Depression is common among young people and this population often experiences many barriers to mental health care. Thus, social media may be a new resource to identify, recruit, and intervene with young people at risk for depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a social media intervention on Tumblr. We used social media to identify and recruit participants and to deliver the intervention of online depression resources. This randomized pilot intervention identified Tumblr users age 15-23 who posted about depression using the search term "#depress". Eligible participants were recruited via Tumblr messages; consented participants completed depression surveys and were then randomized to an intervention of online mental health resources delivered via a Tumblr message, while control participants did not receive resources. Postintervention online surveys assessed resource access and usefulness and control groups were asked whether they would have liked to receive resources. Analyses included t tests. A total of 25 participants met eligibility criteria. The mean age of the participants was 17.5 (SD 1.9) and 65% were female with average score on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 of 17.5 (SD 5.9). Among the 11 intervention participants, 36% (4/11) reported accessing intervention resources and 64% (7/11) felt the intervention was acceptable. Among the 14 control participants, only 29% (4/14) of reported that receiving resources online would be acceptable (P=.02). Participants suggested anonymity and ease of use as important characteristics in an online depression resource. The intervention was appropriately targeted to young people at risk for depression, and recruitment via Tumblr was feasible. Most participants in the intervention group felt the social media
Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Van Itallie, Anetta K; Savage, Trevor N; Hooker, Cindy; Maeder, Anthony J; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S
To describe in detail the recruitment methods and enrollment rates, the screening methods, and the baseline characteristics of a sample of adults participating in the Walk 2.0 Study, an 18 month, 3-arm randomized controlled trial of a Web 2.0 based physical activity intervention. A two-fold recruitment plan was developed and implemented, including a direct mail-out to an extract from the Australian Electoral Commission electoral roll, and other supplementary methods including email and telephone. Physical activity screening involved two steps: a validated single-item self-report instrument and the follow-up Active Australia Questionnaire. Readiness for physical activity participation was also based on a two-step process of administering the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire and, where needed, further clearance from a medical practitioner. Across all recruitment methods, a total of 1244 participants expressed interest in participating, of which 656 were deemed eligible. Of these, 504 were later enrolled in the Walk 2.0 trial (77% enrollment rate) and randomized to the Walk 1.0 group (n = 165), the Walk 2.0 group (n = 168), or the Logbook group (n = 171). Mean age of the total sample was 50.8 years, with 65.2% female and 79.1% born in Australia. The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of multiple strategies to obtain a diverse sample of adults eligible to take part in a web-based physical activity promotion intervention. The use of dual screening processes ensured safe participation in the intervention. This approach to recruitment and physical activity screening can be used as a model for further trials in this area.
The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G
Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-re...
Engendering women's political recruitment and participation in Myanmar ... process and promote economic growth that benefits women and men of all ethnicities. ... under the call “Gender equality and decentralization”, launched in July 2017.
Cristina M. Caperchione
Conclusion: The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of multiple strategies to obtain a diverse sample of adults eligible to take part in a web-based physical activity promotion intervention. The use of dual screening processes ensured safe participation in the intervention. This approach to recruitment and physical activity screening can be used as a model for further trials in this area.
The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G
Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was
The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.
Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G
Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was less cost effective in later endpoints
de Wit, N J; Quartero, A O; Zuithoff, A P; Numans, M E
The demand for family physicians (FPs) to participate in research is growing. The delicate balance between research participation and the daily practice routine might explain the often-disappointing number of patients recruited. We analyzed practice and physician characteristics associated with successful patient recruitment. We used a survey to conduct this study. There was a total of 165 FPs who participated in a combined randomized clinical trial/cohort study on drug treatment of dyspepsia in the Netherlands. We surveyed FPs about personal and practice characteristics and their motivation for participation in the project. These data were then related to the number of patients recruited. Univariate associations were calculated; relevant factors were entered into a logistic model that predicted patient recruitment. Data on 128 FPs could be analyzed (80% response rate); these FPs recruited 793 patients in the cohort study (mean = 6.3 per FP) and 527 in the clinical trial (mean = 4.2 per FP). The main reasons for participation were the research topic (59%) and the participation of an academic research group in the study (63%). Many FPs felt that participation was a professional obligation (39%); the financial incentive played a minor role (15%). The number of recruited patients was only independently associated with the participation of an academic research group. Successful patient recruitment in primary care research is determined more by motivation driven by the research group than by financial incentives, the research topic, or research experience.
Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta
Technology has transformed our lifestyles in dramatic and significant ways, including new and less expensive options for recruiting study participants. This study examines cost and participant differences between two recruitment sources, Craigslist (CL), and print newspapers (PNs). This paper also reviewed and compared studies involving clinical trials published since 2010 that recruited participants using CL alone or in combination with other methods. Secondary data analyses from a parent study involving a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention to promote self-change with problem drinkers. Significant differences were found between CL and PN participants on most demographic and pretreatment drinking variables. While all participants had AUDIT scores suggestive of an alcohol problem and reported drinking at high-risk levels, CL participants had less severe drinking problem histories, were considerably younger, and had a higher socioeconomic status than PN participants. The total advertising costs for the 65 CL ads ($275) were significantly less than the 69 PN ads ($33, 311). The recruiting cost per eligible participant was vastly less expensive using CL ($1.46) compared to print newspaper ads ($116.88). Using CL is a viable recruitment method for soliciting participants, particularly those that are younger, for alcohol intervention studies. It is also less expensive than newspaper ads. When CL participants were recruited, they reported being slightly more confident to change their drinking than PN participants. Limitations of using CL are discussed, including that some initial ad responders gave inconsistent answers to similar questions and a few tried to enter the study more than once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huynh, Lynn; Johns, Benjamin; Liu, Su-Hsun; Vedula, S Swaroop; Li, Tianjing; Puhan, Milo A
A large fraction of the cost of conducting clinical trials is allocated to recruitment of participants. A synthesis of findings from studies that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different recruitment strategies will inform investigators in designing cost-efficient clinical trials. To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize evidence from published comparisons of the cost and yield of strategies for recruitment of participants to health research studies. We included randomized studies in which two or more strategies for recruitment of participants had been compared. We focused our economic evaluation on studies that randomized participants to different recruitment strategies. We identified 10 randomized studies that compared recruitment strategies, including monetary incentives (cash or prize), direct contact (letters or telephone call), and medical referral strategies. Only two of the 10 studies compared strategies for recruiting participants to clinical trials. We found that allocating additional resources to recruit participants using monetary incentives or direct contact yielded between 4% and 23% additional participants compared to using neither strategy. For medical referral, recruitment of prostate cancer patients by nurses was cost-saving compared to recruitment by consultant urologists. For all underlying study designs, monetary incentives cost more than direct contact with potential participants, with a median incremental cost per recruitment ratio of Int$72 (Int$-International dollar, a theoretical unit of currency) for monetary incentive strategy compared to Int$28 for direct contact strategy. Only monetary incentives and source of referral were evaluated for recruiting participants into clinical trials. We did not review studies that presented non-monetary cost or lost opportunity cost. We did not adjust for the number of study recruitment sites or the study duration in our economic evaluation analysis. Systematic and explicit reporting of
Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Coster, Daniel C; Chrysler, Lisa M
To identify variables for a corporate social marketing (SM) health message based on the 4 Ps of SM in order to recruit future participants to an existing national, commercial, self-administered weight-loss program. A systematically evaluated, author-developed, 310-response survey was administered to a random sample of 270 respondents. A previously established research plan was used to empirically identify the audience segments and the "marketing mix" appropriate for the total sample and each segment. Tangible product, pertaining to the unique program features, should be emphasized rather than positive core product and outcome expectation related to use of the program.
Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A
This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and
Luck, Lauretta; Chok, Harrison Ng; Wilkes, Lesley
Recruitment and retention of participants, as well as response rates, can be challenging in nursing research. This can be because of the questions asked; the choice of methodology; the methods used to collect data; the characteristics of potential participants; the sample size required; and the duration of the study. Additionally, conducting research with nurses as participants presents several issues for them, including the time needed to participate in the research, the competing commitments for clinical practice, the political and environmental climate, and recruitment itself. To report on research studies conducted by the authors at a tertiary teaching hospital, to show the lessons learned when recruiting nurses to participate in nursing research. The authors discuss factors that supported recruitment of nurses in these studies, including the use of the personal touch and multiple recruitment strategies in a single study. Videos and photography facilitate interdisciplinary research and can be a valuable means of non-verbal data collection, especially with participants affected by disabilities, and can support research methods, such as the use of questionnaires. Recruiting nurses for research can be challenging. We suggest that researchers consider using more than one recruitment strategy when recruiting nurse participants. Recruitment is more successful if researchers align the aim(s) of the research with nurse's concerns and contexts. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.
Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829
Jean-Charles Rochet; Lars A. Stole
The canonical selection contracting programme takes the agent's participation decision as deterministic and finds the optimal contract, typically satisfying this constraint for the worst type. Upon weakening this assumption of known reservation values by introducing independent randomness into the agents' outside options, we find that some of the received wisdom from mechanism design and nonlinear pricing is not robust and the richer model which allows for stochastic participation affords a m...
Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.
Each Screening Center was responsible for establishing its own procedures for identifying and recruiting participants into the trial based on guidelines disseminated by the Coordinating Center and developed by NCI. Each Screening Center was also encouraged to develop and use other materials, such as introductory letters and answers to FAQs, to assist with recruitments. Once
Cunningham, John A; Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav
Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where 'requesters' (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for 'workers.' MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107). The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial - invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment), identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment), randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status). Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible) numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.
Ryan, Courtney; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Baranowski, Tom
The most productive methods of recruitment for a videogame for health (G4H) trial are not known. Success or failure of recruitment methods has been reported for a variety of clinical trials, but few specifically for G4H trials. This study's goal was to recruit 444 overweight or obese (body mass index percentile between the 84.5th-99.4th percentiles) children between the ages of 10-12 years. The article reports the results of different methods of participant recruitment. Participants had to agree to three fasting blood samples (baseline, immediately after, and 2 months later); be willing to wear an accelerometer for 7 days at each assessment; read and speak English fluently (because the games were in English); have no history of any condition that would affect what he/she could eat or how much physical activity he/she could get; and have an eligible home computer purchased in the last 5 years with high-speed internet. Hardware criteria reflected the types of computers upon which Diab-Nano could be effectively played. Recruitment was conducted over a 35-month period and included electronic media, print advertising, community recruitment, and an internal volunteer list. Respondents were guided to a web-based screening questionnaire that asked for source of hearing about the study. Although diverse recruitment methods were used, slow recruitment resulted in obtaining only 45% of the recruitment goal (n = 199). Electronic media (e.g., radio, television, and internet), which reached millions of targeted parents, resulted in only 76 respondents, of whom 13 became participants; print media (e.g., magazine, newsletter/newspaper, and mail), which also reached large numbers of parents, resulted in 192 respondents, of whom 19 became participants; community recruitment (e.g., school, friend or family, doctors office, flyer, work, community program) resulted in 162 respondents, of whom 38 became participants; and the internal volunteer list resulted in 413 respondents, of
Marks, Anne; Wilkes, Lesley; Blythe, Stacy; Griffiths, Rhonda
This paper is a reflection by a PhD candidate on her qualitative study involving parents, diabetes educators and school teachers who were caring for a child with type 1 diabetes using intensive insulin therapy in primary school. To reflect on a novice researcher's experience of recruiting research participants from community, health and education settings in Australia. Participants were successfully recruited for the study using internet communication tools: Facebook support groups; the Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA) e-newsletter; and emails sent to school principals. These methods were successful as Facebook and online support groups are popular, the study topic was of interest, the ADEA has many members, and numerous emails were sent to schools. Potential barriers to recruitment were a lack of access to those who did not use Facebook or the internet, gatekeepers, the high workloads of diabetes educators and teachers, and the time needed to obtain ethics approval and send a large number of emails to schools. Internet communication tools were successful in recruiting participants from community, health and education settings. However, different approaches were required for each type of participant. Lessons learned from this experience were: the importance of taking time to plan recruitment, including an in-depth understanding of potential participants and recruitment tools, the benefit of being an insider, and the need to work closely with gatekeepers. An understanding of recruitment is essential for ensuring access to appropriate participants and timely collection of data. The experience of the novice researcher may provide insight to others planning to use internet communication tools for recruitment. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
McDermott, Mary M; Domanchuk, Kathryn; Dyer, Alan; Ades, Philip; Kibbe, Melina; Criqui, Michael H
To describe the success of diverse recruitment methods in a randomized controlled clinical trial of exercise in persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). An analysis of recruitment sources conducted for the 746 men and women completing a baseline visit for the study to improve leg circulation (SILC), a randomized controlled trial of exercise for patients with PAD. For each recruitment source, we determined the number of randomized participants, the rate of randomization among those completing a baseline visit, and cost per randomized participant. Of the 746 individuals who completed a baseline visit, 156 were eligible and randomized. The most frequent sources of randomized participants were newspaper advertising (n = 67), mailed recruitment letters to patients with PAD identified at the study medical center (n = 25), and radio advertising (n = 18). Costs per randomized participant were $2750 for television advertising, $2167 for Life Line Screening, $2369 for newspaper advertising, $3931 for mailed postcards to older community dwelling men and women, and $5691 for radio advertising. Among those completing a baseline visit, randomization rates ranged from 10% for those identified from radio advertising to 32% for those identified from the Chicago Veterans Administration and 33% for those identified from posted flyers. Most participants in a randomized controlled trial of exercise were recruited from newspaper advertising and mailed recruitment letters to patients with known PAD. The highest randomization rates after a baseline visit occurred among participants identified from posted flyers and mailed recruitment letters to PAD patients.
Parikh, Yasha; Mason, Maryann; Williams, Karen
Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesity study recruitment and review facilitators to overcome recruitment difficulties. Twenty four childhood obesity researchers were contacted. Complete data for 11 researchers were obtained. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Grounded Theory methodological approach was used, as this was an exploratory study. Investigators YP and MM coded the interviews using 28 codes. Barriers to recruitment included: family and study logistics, family economics, lack of provider interest, invasive protocols, stigma, time restraints of clinicians, lack of patient motivation/interest, groupthink of students in a classroom, and participants who do not accept his or her own weight status. Facilitators to enhance recruitment practices included accommodating participants outside of regular clinic hours, incentivizing participants, cultivating relationships with communities, schools and clinics prior to study recruitment, emphasizing benefits of a study for the patient, and shifting language to focus on health rather than obesity. Pediatric obesity researchers face many standard and some unique challenges to recruitment, reflecting challenges common to clinical research as well as some specific to pediatrics and some specific to obesity research. Both pediatric studies as well as obesity studies are an added challenge to the already-difficult task of general study recruitment. Our findings can be used to make researchers more aware of potential difficulties, approaches and on
Krusche, Adele; Rudolf von Rohr, Isabelle; Muse, Kate; Duggan, Danielle; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J Mark G
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as being the most efficient way of investigating the efficacy of psychological therapies. However, researchers conducting RCTs commonly report difficulties in recruiting an adequate sample within planned timescales. In an effort to overcome recruitment difficulties, researchers often are forced to expand their recruitment criteria or extend the recruitment phase, thus increasing costs and delaying publication of results. Research investigating the effectiveness of recruitment strategies is limited, and trials often fail to report sufficient details about the recruitment sources and resources utilized. We examined the efficacy of strategies implemented during the Staying Well after Depression RCT in Oxford to recruit participants with a history of recurrent depression. We describe eight recruitment methods utilized and two further sources not initiated by the research team and examine their efficacy in terms of (1) the return, including the number of potential participants who contacted the trial and the number who were randomized into the trial; (2) cost-effectiveness, comprising direct financial cost and manpower for initial contacts and randomized participants; and (3) comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of individuals recruited from different sources. Poster advertising, web-based advertising, and mental health worker referrals were the cheapest methods per randomized participant; however, the ratio of randomized participants to initial contacts differed markedly per source. Advertising online, via posters, and on a local radio station were the most cost-effective recruitment methods for soliciting participants who subsequently were randomized into the trial. Advertising across many sources (saturation) was found to be important. It may not be feasible to employ all the recruitment methods used in this trial to obtain participation from other populations, such as those currently unwell, or in
Koziol-McLain, Jane; McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C
Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated, and randomized), 412 (82.2%) were
McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C
Background Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people’s early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. Objective The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. Methods In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. Results The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated
Foster, Harris E.; McVary, Kevin T.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Stavris, Karen; Downey, Joe; Kusek, John W.
Abstract Objectives The timely recruitment of study participants is a critical component of successful trials. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common nonmalignant urologic condition among older men, is characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Successful recruitment methods for a trial of medical therapy for BPH, Medical Therapy of Prostate Symptoms (MTOPS), were mass mailing and advertising. The Complementary and Alternative Medicines Trial for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) was designed to evaluate a botanical therapy, saw palmetto, for the treatment of BPH. The objective of this study was to evaluate recruitment strategies for CAMUS and to contrast the baseline characteristics of CAMUS participants with those recruited to a similar trial using conventional medical therapy. Design CAMUS is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effects of saw palmetto given at escalating doses over an 18-month period on relief from LUTS. Subjects The target enrollment goal was 350 men with LUTS from 11 clinical centers over a 12-month period. The recruitment techniques used and participants contacted, screened, and randomized through each technique were obtained from the clinical centers. Baseline characteristics of the CAMUS participants were compared with participants in the MTOPS trial who met the CAMUS eligibility criteria for LUTS. Results The target enrollment goal was achieved in 11 months. The overall monthly recruitment rate per site was 3.7 and ranged from 2.4 to 8.0. The most successful recruitment methods were mass mailing and advertising, which accounted for 39% and 35% of the study participants, respectively. In comparison to MTOPS participants, CAMUS participants were younger, more highly educated, more diverse, and had less severe urinary symptoms. Conclusions Successful recruitment methods for CAMUS were similar to those in MTOPS. The use of botanical therapy attracted a less symptomatic and more educated
Lee, Jeannette Y; Foster, Harris E; McVary, Kevin T; Meleth, Sreelatha; Stavris, Karen; Downey, Joe; Kusek, John W
The timely recruitment of study participants is a critical component of successful trials. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common nonmalignant urologic condition among older men, is characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Successful recruitment methods for a trial of medical therapy for BPH, Medical Therapy of Prostate Symptoms (MTOPS), were mass mailing and advertising. The Complementary and Alternative Medicines Trial for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) was designed to evaluate a botanical therapy, saw palmetto, for the treatment of BPH. The objective of this study was to evaluate recruitment strategies for CAMUS and to contrast the baseline characteristics of CAMUS participants with those recruited to a similar trial using conventional medical therapy. CAMUS is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effects of saw palmetto given at escalating doses over an 18-month period on relief from LUTS. The target enrollment goal was 350 men with LUTS from 11 clinical centers over a 12-month period. The recruitment techniques used and participants contacted, screened, and randomized through each technique were obtained from the clinical centers. Baseline characteristics of the CAMUS participants were compared with participants in the MTOPS trial who met the CAMUS eligibility criteria for LUTS. The target enrollment goal was achieved in 11 months. The overall monthly recruitment rate per site was 3.7 and ranged from 2.4 to 8.0. The most successful recruitment methods were mass mailing and advertising, which accounted for 39% and 35% of the study participants, respectively. In comparison to MTOPS participants, CAMUS participants were younger, more highly educated, more diverse, and had less severe urinary symptoms. Successful recruitment methods for CAMUS were similar to those in MTOPS. The use of botanical therapy attracted a less symptomatic and more educated study population.
Nash, Erin L; Gilroy, Deborah; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stanton, Tony; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Stowasser, Michael; Sharman, James E
Recruitment of sufficient sample size into clinical trials is challenging. Conventional advertising methods are expensive and are often ineffective. The effectiveness of Facebook for recruitment into blood pressure clinical trials of middle-to-older-aged people is unknown. This study aimed to assess this by comparing Facebook advertising with conventional recruitment methods from a retrospective analysis within a clinical trial. Conventional advertisements (newspaper, radio and posters) were employed for the first 20 months of a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three Australian capital cities from Tasmania, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. With dwindling participant recruitment, at 20 months a Facebook advertising campaign was employed intermittently over a 4-month period. Recruitment results were retrospectively compared with those using conventional methods in the previous 4 months. Compared with conventional recruitment methods, Facebook advertisement was associated with a significant increase in the number of participants recruited in the Australian Capital Territory (from an average 1.8-7.3/month; P advertisement was associated with a significant decrease in the age of participants enquiring into the study (from 60.9 to 58.7 years; P advertising was successful in helping to increase recruitment of middle-to-older aged participants into a blood pressure clinical trial, although there may be some variability in effect that is dependent on location.
John A. Cunningham
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical Turk (MTurk is an online portal operated by Amazon where ‘requesters’ (individuals or businesses can submit jobs for ‘workers.’ MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Methods Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107. The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial – invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment, identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment, randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. Results There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status. Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. Conclusions It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.
Helmerhorst Frans M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of hysterosalpingography (HSG as routine investigation in the fertility work-up prior to laparoscopy and dye had been assessed in a randomized controlled trial. Recruiting subjects to the study was more difficult than anticipated. The objective of this study was to explore possible reasons for non-participation in the trial. Methods All newly referred subfertile women admitted to the Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Leiden University Medical Centre between 1 April 1997 and 31 December 1999, were eligible for the study. The reasons for non-participation were evaluated by scrutinizing the medical records. Results Out of 759 women, a total of 127 (17% agreed to participate in the trial. The most important reason for non-participation was because of exclusion criteria (73%. Other reasons were inattentive clinicians (3% and patient-associated reasons (24%. Patient refusal and indecisiveness to enroll in the study were the most common patient-associated reasons. The most frequently stated reason for trial refusal was reluctance to undergo laparoscopy and dye mainly due to issues related to anesthesia and scheduling of procedure. Conclusion Almost three-quarters of recruitment difficulties in this study were due to unavoidable reasons. To overcome the remaining avoidable reasons for non-participation, attention should be paid to appropriate instruction of the study protocol to the participating doctors and to provide adequate information, in layman's terms, to the patients. Reminding patients by notes or telephone calls for attending the clinic are helpful. It may be contingent upon tracing the reasons of clinicians and patients for non-participation to improve enrollment during a trial.
Shuhatovich, Olga M; Sharman, Mathilde P; Mirabal, Yvette N; Earle, Nan R; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen
In order to improve recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used in current trials. A trial to test optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia recruited 1000 women from the community; the trial evaluated the emerging technology against Pap smears and colposcopically directed biopsies for cervical dysplasia. We have examined women's reasons for participating as well as the effectiveness and efficiency for each recruitment strategy. Reasons for participation were identified and compared between trials. The recruitment method that resulted in the most contacts was newspaper reportorial coverage and advertising, followed by family and friends, then television news coverage. The most cost-effective method for finding eligible women who attend the research appointment is word of mouth from a family member or friend. Recommendations are given for maximizing the efficiency of recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials.
Martin, Anika; Negron, Rennie; Balbierz, Amy; Bickell, Nina; Howell, Elizabeth A
Minority women are often not adequately represented in randomized controlled trials, limiting the generalizability of research trial results. We implemented a recruitment strategy for a postpartum depression prevention trial that utilized patient feedback to identify and understand the recruitment barriers of black and Latina postpartum women. Feedback on patients' reasons for trial refusal informed adaptations to the recruitment process. We calculated weekly recruitment rates and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from patient refusals. Of the 668 women who were approached and completed the consent process, 540 enrolled in the trial and 128 declined participation. Over 52-weeks of recruitment, refusal rates decreased from 40% to 19%. A taxonomy of eight reasons for refusal derived from patient responses identified barriers to recruitment and generated targeted revisions to the recruitment message. A recruitment strategy designed to incorporate and respond to patient feedback improved recruitment of Black and Latina women to a clinical trial.
Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John
The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this
Gu, Yu-Mei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan
Evidence-based thresholds for risk stratification based on pulse pressure (PP) are currently unavailable. To derive outcome-driven thresholds for the 24-hour ambulatory PP, we analyzed 9938 participants randomly recruited from 11 populations (47.3% women). After age stratification (... interval of the HRs associated with stepwise increasing PP levels crossed unity at 64 mm Hg. While accounting for all covariables, the top tenth of PP contributed less than 0.3% (generalized R(2) statistic) to the overall risk among the elderly. Thus, in randomly recruited people, ambulatory PP does...
Bartlett, Robin; Wright, Tiffany; Olarinde, Tia; Holmes, Tara; Beamon, Emily R; Wallace, Debra
Schools can be a valuable resource for recruitment of participants for research involving children, adolescents, and parents. Awareness of the benefits and challenges of working with schools can assist researchers in developing effective school partnerships. This article discusses the advantages of conducting research within the school system as well as the challenges that may also arise. Such challenges include developing key contacts, building relationships, logistical arrangements, and facilitating trust in the research topic and team. Suggestions for strategies to forge successful collaborative relationships with schools are provided.
Grill, Joshua D; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L; Cox, Chelsea G; Gombosev, Adrijana; Klein, Kirsten; O'Leary, Steve; Witbracht, Megan; Pierce, Aimee
Potential participant registries are tools to address the challenge of slow recruitment to clinical research. In particular, registries may aid recruitment to secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which enroll cognitively normal older individuals meeting specific genetic or biomarker criteria. Evidence of registry effectiveness is sparse, as is guidance on optimal designs or methods of conduct. We report our experiences of developing a novel local potential participant registry that implemented online enrollment and data collection. In the first year of operation, 957 individuals submitted email addresses to the registry, of whom 592 self-reported demographic, family history, and medical data. In addition, registrants provided information related to their interest and willingness to be contacted about studies. Local earned media and community education were the most effective methods of recruitment into the registry. Seventy-six (26%) of 298 registrants contacted about studies in the first year enrolled in those studies. One hundred twenty-nine registrants were invited to enroll in a preclinical AD trial, of whom 25 (18%) screened and 6 were randomized. These results indicate that registries can aid recruitment and provide needed guidance for investigators initiating new local registries.
Chhatre, Sumedha; Jefferson, Ashlie; Cook, Ratna; Meeker, Caitlin R; Kim, Ji Hyun; Hartz, Kayla Marie; Wong, Yu-Ning; Caruso, Adele; Newman, Diane K; Morales, Knashawn H; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar
Recruitment and retention strategies for patient-centered outcomes research are evolving and research on the subject is limited. In this work, we present a conceptual model of patient-centered recruitment and retention, and describe the recruitment and retention activities and related challenges in a patient-centered comparative effectiveness trial. This is a multicenter, longitudinal randomized controlled trial in localized prostate cancer patients. We recruited 743 participants from three sites over 15 months period (January 2014 to March 2015), and followed them for 24 months. At site 1, of the 773 eligible participants, 551 (72%) were enrolled. At site 2, 34 participants were eligible and 23 (68%) enrolled. Of the 434 eligible participants at site 3, 169 (39%) enrolled. We observed that strategies related to the concepts of trust (e.g., physician involvement, ensuring protection of information), communication (e.g., brochures and pamphlets in physicians' offices, continued contact during regular clinic visits and calling/emailing assessment), attitude (e.g., emphasizing the altruistic value of research, positive attitude of providers and research staff), and expectations (e.g., full disclosure of study requirements and time commitment, update letters) facilitated successful patient recruitment and retention. A stakeholders' advisory board provided important input for the recruitment and retention activities. Active engagement, reminders at the offices, and personalized update letters helped retention during follow-up. Usefulness of telephone recruitment was site specific and, at one site, the time requirement for telephone recruitment was a challenge. We have presented multilevel strategies for successful recruitment and retention in a clinical trial using a patient-centered approach. Our strategies were flexible to accommodate site-level requirements. These strategies as well as the challenges can aid recruitment and retention efforts of future large
Moreno, Megan A; Waite, Alan; Pumper, Megan; Colburn, Trina; Holm, Matt; Mendoza, Jason
Recruiting adolescent participants for research is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional in-person recruitment methods to social media recruitment. We recruited adolescents aged 14-18 years for a pilot physical activity intervention study, including a wearable physical activity tracking device and a Facebook group. Participants were recruited (a) in person from a local high school and an adolescent medicine clinic and (b) through social media, including Facebook targeted ads, sponsored tweets on Twitter, and a blog post. Data collected included total exposure (i.e., reach), engagement (i.e., interaction), and effectiveness. Effectiveness included screening and enrollment for each recruitment method, as well as time and resources spent on each recruitment method. In-person recruitment reached a total of 297 potential participants of which 37 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment reached a total of 34,272 potential participants of which 8 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment methods utilized an average of 1.6 hours of staff time and cost an average of $40.99 per participant enrolled, while in-person recruitment methods utilized an average of 0.75 hours of staff time and cost an average of $19.09 per participant enrolled. Social media recruitment reached more potential participants, but the cost per participant enrolled was higher compared to traditional methods. Studies need to consider benefits and downsides of traditional and social media recruitment methods based on study goals and population.
Whitebird, Robin R; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lewis, Beth A; Hanson, Leah R; Crain, A Lauren; Enstad, Chris J; Mehta, Adele
Caregivers for a family member with dementia experience chronic long-term stress that may benefit from new complementary therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction. Little is known however, about the challenges of recruiting and retaining family caregivers to research on mind-body based complementary therapies. Our pilot study is the first of its kind to successfully recruit caregivers for a family member with dementia to a randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction. The study used an array of recruitment strategies and techniques that were tailored to fit the unique features of our recruitment sources and employed retention strategies that placed high value on establishing early and ongoing communication with potential participants. Innovative recruitment methods including conducting outreach to health plan members and generating press coverage were combined with standard methods of community outreach and paid advertising. We were successful in exceeding our recruitment goal and retained 92% of the study participants at post-intervention (2 months) and 90% at 6 months. Recruitment and retention for family caregiver interventions employing mind-body based complementary therapies can be successful despite many challenges. Barriers include cultural perceptions about the use and benefit of complementary therapies, cultural differences with how the role of family caregiver is perceived, the use of group-based designs requiring significant time commitment by participants, and travel and respite care needs for busy family caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noce, Damia; Gögele, Martin; Schwienbacher, Christine; Caprioli, Giulia; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; Platzgummer, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter P; Pattaro, Cristian
After the success of genome-wide association studies to uncover complex trait loci, attempts to explain the remaining genetic heritability (h 2 ) are mainly focused on unraveling rare variant associations and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Little attention is paid to the possibility that h 2 estimates are inflated as a consequence of the epidemiological study design. We studied the time series of 54 biochemical traits in 4373 individuals from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, a pedigree-based study enrolling ten participants/day over several years, with close relatives preferentially invited within the same day. We observed distributional changes of measured traits over time. We hypothesized that the combination of such changes with the pedigree structure might generate a shared-environment component with consequent h 2 inflation. We performed variance components (VC) h 2 estimation for all traits after accounting for the enrollment period in a linear mixed model (two-stage approach). Accounting for the enrollment period caused a median h 2 reduction of 4%. For 9 traits, the reduction was of >20%. Results were confirmed by a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis with all VCs included at the same time (one-stage approach). The electrolytes were the traits most affected by the enrollment period. The h 2 inflation was independent of the h 2 magnitude, laboratory protocol changes, and length of the enrollment period. The enrollment process may induce shared-environment effects even under very stringent and standardized operating procedures, causing h 2 inflation. Including the day of participation as a random effect is a sensitive way to avoid overestimation.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To pilot using a panel of members of the public to provide preference data via the Internet Methods A stratified random sample of members of the general public was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble procedure using an Internet based tool. Health states were perdiodically presented in "sets" corresponding to different conditions, during the study. The following were described: Recruitment (proportion of people approached who were trained; Participation (a the proportion of people trained who provided any preferences and (b the proportion of panel members who contributed to each "set" of values; and Compliance (the proportion, per participant, of preference tasks which were completed. The influence of covariates on these outcomes was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A panel of 112 people was recruited. 23% of those approached (n = 5,320 responded to the invitation, and 24% of respondents (n = 1,215 were willing to participate (net = 5.5%. However, eventual recruitment rates, following training, were low (2.1% of those approached. Recruitment from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation and among ethnic minority communities was low. Eighteen sets of health state descriptions were considered over 14 months. 74% of panel members carried out at least one valuation task. People from areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation and unmarried people were less likely to participate. An average of 41% of panel members expressed preferences on each set of descriptions. Compliance ranged from 3% to 100%. Conclusion It is feasible to establish a panel of members of the general public to express preferences on a wide range of health state descriptions using the Internet, although differential recruitment and attrition are important challenges. Particular attention to recruitment and retention in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation and among ethnic minority communities is necessary
Parikh, Yasha; Mason, Maryann; Williams, Karen
Background Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesit...
Javier, Joyce R; Reyes, Angela; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Samson, Allan; Palinkas, Lawrence; Kipke, Michele D; Miranda, Jeanne
Filipinos, the second largest Asian subgroup in the U.S., experience significant youth behavioral health disparities but remain under-represented in health research. We describe lessons learned from using the Matching Model of Recruitment to recruit 215 Filipinos to participate in a large, randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored video aimed at increasing enrollment in the Incredible Years® Parent Program. We recruited participants from schools, churches, clinics, community events, and other community-based locations. Facilitators of participation included: partnership with local community groups, conducting research in familiar settings, building on existing social networks, and matching perspectives of community members and researchers. Findings suggest recruitment success occurs when there is a match between goals of Filipino parents, grandparents and the research community. Understanding the perspectives of ethnic minority communities and effectively communicating goals of research studies are critical to successful recruitment of hard-to-reach immigrant populations in randomized controlled trials.
Johnson, Anna M; Jones, Sara B; Duncan, Pamela W; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Coleman, Sylvia W; Mettam, Laurie H; Kucharska-Newton, Anna M; Sissine, Mysha E; Rosamond, Wayne D
Pragmatic randomized clinical trials are essential to determine the effectiveness of interventions in "real-world" clinical practice. These trials frequently use a cluster-randomized methodology, with randomization at the site level. Despite policymakers' increased interest in supporting pragmatic randomized clinical trials, no studies to date have reported on the unique recruitment challenges faced by cluster-randomized pragmatic trials. We investigated key challenges and successful strategies for hospital recruitment in the Comprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) study. The COMPASS study is designed to compare the effectiveness of the COMPASS model versus usual care in improving functional outcomes, reducing the numbers of hospital readmissions, and reducing caregiver strain for patients discharged home after stroke or transient ischemic attack. This model integrates early supported discharge planning with transitional care management, including nurse-led follow-up phone calls after 2, 30, and 60 days and an in-person clinic visit at 7-14 days involving a functional assessment and neurological examination. We present descriptive statistics of the characteristics of successfully recruited hospitals compared with all eligible hospitals, reasons for non-participation, and effective recruitment strategies. We successfully recruited 41 (43%) of 95 eligible North Carolina hospitals. Leading, non-exclusive reasons for non-participation included: insufficient staff or financial resources (n = 33, 61%), lack of health system support (n = 16, 30%), and lack of support of individual decision-makers (n = 11, 20%). Successful recruitment strategies included: building and nurturing relationships, engaging team members and community partners with a diverse skill mix, identifying gatekeepers, finding mutually beneficial solutions, having a central institutional review board, sharing published pilot data, and integrating contracts and review board
Mohammadi, N; Jones, T; Evans, D
Participant recruitment is a fundamental component of the research process and the methods employed to attract individuals will depend on the nature of the study. Recruitment may be more challenging when the study involves people from a minority religious group. However, this issue has not been well addressed in the literature. To discuss the challenges of recruiting participants from a minority religious group (the Islamic population) to participate in an interpretive, hermeneutic study concerning the experience of hospitalization. The challenges of recruitment encountered during this study are used as the basis for a broader discussion of this important issue. To ensure the success of this phase of the study, a pre-planned recruitment strategy was essential. Multiple recruitment strategies were used, including hospital-based recruitment, snowball sampling, advertising and contact with key people. Despite the use of multiple strategies, recruitment of participants was difficult and required an extended period of time to achieve sufficiently rich data. Thirteen participants shared their lived experience to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Recruiting participants from minority religious group involves potentially sensitive issues. There is an increased need for the researchers to carefully consider potential participants' rights and ensure that sound ethical principles underpin the study, as failure to do this may hinder the recruitment process. The two most effective strategies of recruitment were snowball sampling and contact with key Islamic people, with the least effective being advertising. This paper highlights the importance of anticipating potential difficulties and pre-planning strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment. Implementation of multiple strategies is recommended to ensure successful research recruitment.
Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P; Bell, Rhonda C
Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks' gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In comparison, the traditional approaches
Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P
Background Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks’ gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Methods Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Results Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In
McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A
Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Susan F; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; McElroy, Jane A; Ingraham, Natalie; Haynes, Suzanne G
Very little research has addressed issues of recruitment and participation of lesbian and bisexual (LB) women, aged 40 and older, into research studies. This study is based on a larger cross-site intervention study that recruited women from five geographic regions in the United States for culturally specific LB healthy weight programs, lasting 12 or 16 weeks. Principal investigators (PIs) of the five intervention programs completed a questionnaire on recruitment and participation strategies and barriers. Participant data on completion and sociodemographic variables were compiled and analyzed. The recruitment strategies the programs' PIs identified as most useful included word-of-mouth participant referrals, emails to LB participants' social networks, and use of electronic health records (at the two clinic-based programs) to identify eligible participants. Flyers and web postings were considered the least useful. Once in the program, participation and completion rates were fairly high (approximately 90%), although with varying levels of engagement in the different programs. Women who were younger or single were more likely to drop out. Women with disabilities had a lower participation/completion rate (82%) than women without any disability (93%). Dropouts were associated with challenges in scheduling (time of day, location) and changes in health status. Implementation of key strategies can improve both recruitment and participation, but there is a great need for further study of best practices to recruit and promote participation of LB women for health intervention research. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Crane, Melissa M; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah F
Recruiting young adults (ages 18-35 years) into weight gain prevention intervention studies is challenging and men are particularly difficult to reach. This paper describes two studies designed to improve recruitment for a randomized trial of weight gain prevention interventions. Study 1 used a quasi-experimental design to test the effect of two types of direct mailings on their overall reach. Study 2 used a randomized design to test the effect of using targeted messages to increase recruitment of men into the trial. For Study 1, 60,000 male and female young-adult households were randomly assigned to receive either a recruitment brochure or postcard. Visits to recruitment websites during each mailing period were used to assess response to each mailing. Study 2 focused on postcard recruitment only. These households received either a targeted or generic recruitment postcard, where targeted postcards included the word "Men" in the headline text. Response rates to each type of card were categorized based on participant report of mailing received. The reach of the postcards and brochures were similar (421 and 386 website visits, respectively; P = 0.22). Individuals who received the brochure were more likely to initiate the online screener than those who received a postcard (P = 0.01). In Study 2, of those who completed the telephone screening, 60.9 % of men (n = 23) had received the targeted postcard as compared to the generic postcard (39.1 %, P = 0.30). The reverse was true for women (n = 62, 38.7 vs. 61.3 %, P = 0.08). These studies suggest there was little difference in the reach of postcards versus brochures. However, recipients of brochures were more likely to continue to the next stage of study participation. As expected, men's response to the weight gain prevention messages was lower than women's response; but using targeted messages appears to have modestly increased the proportion of male respondents. These studies add to the limited
Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Boros, Daniella; Coull, Bruce M
Relatively few exercise randomized clinical trials (RCTs) among stroke survivors have reported the effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies, despite its central importance to study integrity. Our objective is to examine recruitment and retention strategies used among a group of older community-dwelling stroke survivors for an exercise RCT. Recruitment strategies were multidimensional using both paid (ie, newspaper, radio and, television) and unpaid advertisements (ie, staff visits, flyers, and brochures placed at outpatient rehabilitation centers, physician offices, and community facilities working with older adults; free media coverage of the study, presentations at stroke support groups, relatives/friends, and study Web site) to obtain referrals. Retention strategies centered on excellent communication, the study participants' needs, and having dedicated study staff. Attrition rates and adherence to the intervention were used to examine the effectiveness of these retention strategies. A total of 393 referrals were received, 233 persons were screened, and 145 stroke survivors enrolled in the study. During 3 years of study recruitment, we achieved 97% of our enrollment target. We enrolled 62% of those screened. Study enrollment from paid advertising was 21.4% (n = 31), whereas unpaid advertisements resulted in 78.6% (n = 114) of our participants. Attrition was 10% (n = 14 dropouts), and adherence to the intervention was 85%. Recruitment and retention of participants in an exercise RCT are time and labor intensive. Multiple recruitment and retention strategies are required to ensure an adequate sample of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Many of these strategies are also relevant for exercise RCTs among adults with other chronic illnesses. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Batterham, Philip J
Postal and telephone survey research is threatened by declining response rates and high cost. Online recruitment is becoming more popular, although there is little empirical evidence about its cost-effectiveness or the representativeness of online samples. There is also limited research on optimal strategies for developing advertising content for online recruitment. The present study aimed to assess these aspects of online recruitment. Two mental health surveys used advertisements within a social network website (Facebook) to recruit adult Australian participants. The initial survey used advertisements linking directly to an external survey website, and recruited 1283 participants at $9.82 per completed survey. A subsequent survey used advertisements linking to a Facebook page that featured links to the external survey, recruiting 610 participants at $1.51 per completion. Both surveys were more cost-effective than similar postal surveys conducted previously, which averaged $19.10 per completion. Online and postal surveys both had somewhat unrepresentative samples. However, online surveys tended to be more successful in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Advertising using "problem" terminology was more effective than "positive" terminology, while there was no significant effect of altruistic versus self-gain terminology. Online recruitment is efficient, flexible and cost-effective, suggesting that online recruitment has considerable potential for specific research designs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keightley, A; Clarkson, J; Maguire, A; Speed, C; Innes, N
To identify reasons behind a lower than expected participant recruitment rate within the FiCTION trial, a multi-centre paediatric primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT). An online survey, based on a previously published tool, consisting of both quantitative and qualitative responses, completed by staff in dental practices recruiting to FiCTION. Ratings from quantitative responses were aggregated to give overall scores for factors related to participant recruitment. Qualitative responses were independently grouped into themes. Thirty-nine anonymous responses were received. Main facilitators related to the support received from the central research team and importance of the research question. The main barriers related to low child eligibility rates and the integration of trial processes within routine workloads. These findings have directed strategies for enhancing participant recruitment at existing practices and informed recruitment of further practices. The results help provide a profile of the features required of practices to successfully screen and recruit participants. Future trials in this setting should consider the level of interest in the research question within practices, and ensure trial processes are as streamlined as possible. Research teams should actively support practices with participant recruitment and maintain enthusiasm among the entire practice team.
Jacobsen, Rebecca; Casalaspi, David
Whereas much has been written about the role of resources and motivation for activating adolescents to become engaged citizens, less work considers the role that recruitment within schools might play in shaping youth civic engagement patterns. Drawing on interviews with over 100 high school students and over 40 school officials, our research…
Child, Rebekah Jay Howerton; Mentes, Janet C; Pavlish, Carol; Phillips, Linda R
To examine the use of social networking sites in recruiting research participants. Workplace violence is an important issue for staff and patients. One workplace that reports the highest levels of violence is the emergency department. The ability to research issues such as workplace violence in real time is important in addressing them expeditiously, and social media can be used to advertise and recruit research subjects, implement studies and disseminate information. The experience of recruiting subjects through social networks, specifically Facebook, and the use of participant information clips (PICs) for advertising. A brief discussion of the history of advertising and communication using the internet is presented to provide an understanding of the trajectory of social media and implications for recruitment in general. The paper then focuses on the lead author's experience of recruiting subjects using Facebook, including its limitations and advantages, and her experience of using participant information clips. The low cost of advertising and recruiting participants this way, as well as the convenience provided to participants, resulted in almost half the study's total participants being obtained within 72 hours. Using Facebook to target a younger age range of nurses to participate in a study was successful and yielded a large number of completed responses in a short time period at little cost to the researcher. Recording the PIC was cheap, and posting it and a link to the site on pre-existing group pages was free, providing valuable viral marketing and snowball recruiting. Future researchers should not overlook using social network sites for recruitment if the demographics of the desired study population and subject matter permit it.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, most surveys have focused on the patients' perspective of recruitment barriers whereas the perspective of recruiting physicians has received less attention. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a postal survey among recruiting physicians of a multi-center trial to weigh barriers according to their impact on recruitment. Methods We identified any potential recruitment barriers from the literature and from our own experience with a multi-center trial of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We developed and pilot-tested a self-administered questionnaire where recruiting physicians were asked to express their agreement with statements about recruitment barriers on a Likert-type scale from 1 (full agreement with statement = very substantial recruitment barrier to 7 (no agreement with statement = no recruitment barrier. Results 38 of 55 recruiting physicians returned questionnaires (69% response rate, of which 35 could be analyzed (64% useable response rate. Recruiting physicians reported that "time constraints" (median agreement of 3, interquartile range 2–5 had the most negative impact on recruitment followed by "difficulties including identified eligible patients" (median agreement of 5, IQR 3–6. Other barriers such as "trial design barriers", "lack of access to treatment", "individual barriers of recruiting physicians" or "insufficient training of recruiting physicians" were perceived to have little or no impact on patient recruitment. Conclusion Physicians perceived time constraints as the most relevant recruitment barrier in a randomized trial. To overcome recruitment barriers interventions, that are affordable for both industry- and investigator-driven trials, need to be
Beskow, Laura M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Daly, Mary; Juengst, Eric T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Merz, Jon F; Pentz, Rebecca; Press, Nancy A; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Sugarman, Jeremy; Susswein, Lisa R; Terry, Sharon F; Austin, Melissa A; Burke, Wylie
Family-based research is essential to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of human disease. The success of family-based research often depends on investigators' ability to identify, recruit, and achieve a high participation rate among eligible family members. However, recruitment of family members raises ethical concerns due to the tension between protecting participants' privacy and promoting research quality, and guidelines for these activities are not well established. The Cancer Genetics Network Bioethics Committee assembled a multidisciplinary group to explore the scientific and ethical issues that arise in the process of family-based recruitment. The group used a literature review as well as expert opinion to develop recommendations about appropriate approaches to identifying, contacting, and recruiting family members. We conclude that there is no single correct approach, but recommend a balanced approach that takes into account the nature of the particular study as well as its recruitment goals. Recruitment of family members should be viewed as part of the research protocol and should require appropriate informed consent of the already-enrolled participant. Investigators should inform prospective participants why they are being contacted, how information about them was obtained, and what will happen to that information if they decide not to participate. The recruitment process should also be sensitive to the fact that some individuals from families at increased genetic risk will have no prior knowledge of their risk status. These recommendations are put forward to promote further discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to family-based recruitment. They suggest a framework for considering alternative recruitment strategies and their implications, as well as highlight areas in need of further empirical research. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Penckofer, Sue; Byrn, Mary; Mumby, Patricia; Ferrans, Carol Estwing
Recruitment and retention of persons participating in research is one of the most significant challenges faced by investigators. Although incentives are often used to improve recruitment and retention, evidence suggests that the relationship of the patient to study personnel may be the single, most important factor in subject accrual and continued participation. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations provides a framework to study the nurse-patient relationship during the research process. In this paper the authors provide a brief summary of research strategies that have been used for the recruitment and retention of subjects and an overview of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations including its use in research studies. In addition, a discussion of how this theory was used for the successful recruitment and retention of women with type 2 diabetes who participated in a clinical trial using a nurse-delivered psychoeducational intervention for depression is addressed.
Tate, Deborah F; LaRose, Jessica G; Griffin, Leah P; Erickson, Karen E; Robichaud, Erica F; Perdue, Letitia; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R
Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP). We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic. The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited. These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).
Oesterle, Sabrina; Epstein, Marina; Haggerty, Kevin P; Moreno, Megan A
Despite strong evidence that family programs are effective in preventing adolescent substance use, recruiting parents to participate in such programs remains a persistent challenge. This study explored the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit parents of middle school students to a self-directed family program to prevent adolescent drug use. The study used paid Facebook ads aiming to recruit 100 parents in Washington and Colorado using marijuana- or parenting-focused messages. All ad-recruited parents were also invited to refer others in order to compare Facebook recruitment to web-based respondent-driven sampling. Despite offering a $15 incentive for each successfully referred participant, the majority of the screened (70.4%) and eligible (65.1%) parents were recruited through Facebook ads. Yet, eligibility and consent rates were significantly higher among referred (76.6 and 57.3%, respectively) than Facebook-recruited parents (60.0 and 36.6%, respectively). Click-through rates on Facebook were higher for marijuana-focused than parenting-focused ads (0.72 and 0.65%, respectively). The final sample (54% Facebook-recruited) consisted of 103 demographically homogeneous parents (female, educated, non-Hispanic White, and mostly from Washington). Although Facebook was an effective and efficient method to recruit parents to a study with equal to better cost-effectiveness than traditional recruitment strategies, the promise of social media to reach a diverse population was not realized. Additional approaches to Facebook recruitment are needed to reach diverse samples in real-world settings and increase public health impact of family programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend multifactorial intervention programmes to prevent falls in older adults but there are few randomised controlled trials in a real life health care setting. We describe the rationale, intervention, study design, recruitment strategies and baseline characteristics of participants in a randomised controlled trial of a multifactorial falls prevention programme in primary health care. Methods Participants are patients from 19 primary care practices in Hutt Valley, New Zealand aged 75 years and over who have fallen in the past year and live independently. Two recruitment strategies were used – waiting room screening and practice mail-out. Intervention participants receive a community based nurse assessment of falls and fracture risk factors, home hazards, referral to appropriate community interventions, and strength and balance exercise programme. Control participants receive usual care and social visits. Outcome measures include number of falls and injuries over 12 months, balance, strength, falls efficacy, activities of daily living, quality of life, and physical activity levels. Results 312 participants were recruited (69% women. Of those who had fallen, 58% of people screened in the practice waiting rooms and 40% when screened by practice letter were willing to participate. Characteristics of participants recruited using the two methods are similar (p > 0.05. Mean age of all participants was 81 years (SD 5. On average participants have 7 medical conditions, take 5.5 medications (29% on psychotropics with a median of 2 falls (interquartile range 1, 3 in the previous year. Conclusion The two recruitment strategies and the community based intervention delivery were feasible and successful, identifying a high risk group with multiple falls. Recruitment in the waiting room gave higher response rates but was less efficient than practice mail-out. Testing the effectiveness of an evidence based intervention in a
Wong, Sabrina T; Wu, Leena; Boswell, Brooke; Housden, Laura; Lavoie, Josee
Equitable recruitment strategies, designed to ensure improved opportunities to participate in the research, are needed to include First Nations (FN) communities. The purpose of this article is to report on a set of successful strategies trialed with rural and FN communities in Canada. The strategies discussed were designed as part of a larger mixed-method study examining the effectiveness of Group Medical Visits (GMVs) on the quality of primary healthcare (PHC) in both FN reserve and northern communities in British Columbia (BC). Community partners and the study's decision-maker partners helped to identify and recruit primary care practices and reserve communities who were offering GMVs. Eleven communities (6 rural and 5 FN reserve) within the Northern Health Authority, BC participated in the study. Participants completed a survey either in person or via telephone. Content analysis was conducted on team meeting and field notes, focusing on issues related to the data collection process. Financial analysis was conducted on monetary resources spent on recruitment efforts in the various communities. Data were recorded regarding the number of times potential participants were contacted and mode of interview. Descriptive statistics were used to examine whether there were differences by mode of data collection, gender, and FN status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether FN status remained statistically significant after controlling for sex, education, employment status, age and health status. Once people were contacted, participation rate was 68% with 269 (n=90 men, n=179 women) people. Of those who participated in the survey, 42% were from FN communities. Content analysis revealed two overarching categories: (1) communication and coordination of the geographically dispersed research team and participating communities was maintained using synchronous and asynchronous methods; and (2) flexibility was needed to tailor recruitment strategies. Financial resources
García, Alexandra A; Zuñiga, Julie A; Lagon, Czarina
People from non-White racial groups and other underserved populations, including Latinos, are frequently reluctant to participate in research. Yet their participation into research is foundational to producing information that researchers and health care providers need to address health disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe challenges we have encountered along with culturally relevant strategies we used in five research studies to recruit Mexican American participants from community settings, some of whom were also of low socioeconomic status. We found that the most effective recruitment strategies reflect the common cultural values of personalismo, simpátia, confianza, respeto, and familismo.
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Delaney, Colleen; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Koenings, Mallory; Quick, Virginia
Despite the critical importance of successful recruitment and retention to study integrity, reporting of recruitment and retention strategies along with factors associated with successful recruitment and retention of participants in health-related interventions remain rare, especially for health and obesity prevention programs. Thus, the purpose of this article is to retrospectively examine the recruitment and retention marketing plan used in the online HomeStyles randomized controlled trial (RCT) and discuss outcomes associated with completion of the intervention. The HomeStyles RCT is an online intervention developed to motivate parents of young children to gain the skills and self-confidence needed to shape home environments and lifestyles to be protective against childhood obesity. Using the seven Ps of services marketing (i.e., people, place, product, physical evidence, price, promotion, and process), a comprehensive and systematic plan for recruitment and retention was implemented and outcomes assessed. A total of 489 parents with a young child aged 2 to attractiveness, interestingness, and usefulness. Despite all the retention efforts, the average monthly recruitment accrual rate of ~ 33 eligible enrolled participants at baseline (i.e., 489 participants/15-month recruitment period), declined to ~ 18, 11, 9, and 8 remaining recruited participants/month at midpoint, post, follow-up, and long-term follow-up surveys, respectively. In general, survey completers were significantly more likely to be female and perceived their child's health status to be better, and they were significantly less likely to be restrictive of their child's food intake. The findings of the present study highlight the need for far-reaching, concentrated, and varied recruitment strategies; sufficient time in the research plan for recruitment and retention activities; and creative, tireless, flexible, persistent project staff for health-related interventions.
Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Largent, Emily A; Shachar, Carmel; Cohen, I Glenn; Bierer, Barbara E
The practice of paying research participants has received significant attention in the bioethics literature, but the focus has been almost exclusively on consideration of factors relevant to determining acceptable payment amounts. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to what happens once the payment amount is set. What are the ethical parameters around how offers of payment may be advertised to prospective participants? This article seeks to answer this question, focusing on the ethical and practical issues associated with disclosing information about payment, and payment amounts in particular, in recruitment materials. We argue that it is permissible-and indeed typically ethically desirable-for recruitment materials to disclose the amount that participants will be paid. Further, we seek to clarify the regulatory guidance on "emphasizing" payment in a way that can facilitate design and review of recruitment materials.
Whitaker, Christopher; Stevelink, Sharon; Fear, Nicola
Social media is a popular online tool that allows users to communicate and exchange information. It allows digital content such as pictures, videos and websites to be shared, discussed, republished and endorsed by its users, their friends and businesses. Adverts can be posted and promoted to specific target audiences by demographics such as region, age or gender. Recruiting for health research is complex with strict requirement criteria imposed on the participants. Traditional research recruitment relies on flyers, newspaper adverts, radio and television broadcasts, letters, emails, website listings, and word of mouth. These methods are potentially poor at recruiting hard to reach demographics, can be slow and expensive. Recruitment via social media, in particular Facebook, may be faster and cheaper. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the current use and success of Facebook to recruit participants for health research purposes. A literature review was completed in March 2017 in the English language using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar, and a hand search of article references. Papers from the past 12 years were included and number of participants, recruitment period, number of impressions, cost per click or participant, and conversion rate extracted. A total of 35 studies were identified from the United States (n=22), Australia (n=9), Canada (n=2), Japan (n=1), and Germany (n=1) and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. All focused on the feasibility of recruitment via Facebook, with some (n=10) also testing interventions, such as smoking cessation and depression reduction. Most recruited young age groups (16-24 years), with the remaining targeting specific demographics, for example, military veterans. Information from the 35 studies was analyzed with median values being 264 recruited participants, a 3-month recruitment period, 3.3 million impressions, cost
Sagawa, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Makoto; Mizukami, Satoru
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic computed tomography (CT), a randomized controlled trial was planned in Japan. The randomized trial was designed as follows: participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups, CT group and XP group; XP group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by chest x-ray annually for 10 years; smokers in CT group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT annually for 10 years; non-smokers in CT group would receive 3 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT and 7 times of chest x-ray during 10 years. A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the trial. A letter for recruitment to participate in the above trial was mailed to the citizens in Hakui City, who were 50-64 years old and underwent regular lung cancer screening using chest x-ray this year. In the letter we explained that the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT had not been proved yet; only half of the participants could undergo thoracic CT screening; thoracic CT screening might cause unfavorable consequences like radiation exposure, false positives or overdiagnosis. Of 329 persons who received the letter of recruitment, 117 replied. After meeting with us for detailed explanation, 111 persons participated in the above randomized trial. The compliance of recruitment is high (approximately one third) and the above trial may be feasible. (author)
Burton-Chase, Allison M; Parker, Wendy M; Hennig, Kelsey; Sisson, Faith; Bruzzone, Linda L
Social media is increasingly being used as a means of recruiting participants, particularly for investigators whose areas of interest involve rare conditions or hard-to-reach populations. However, much of the literature to date has focused on paid advertisement recruitment. We used Lynch syndrome (LS), a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, as a model to demonstrate the successful partnership between researchers and a Web-based patient education and advocacy organization to facilitate participant recruitment. Recruitment was undertaken in partnership with Lynch Syndrome International (LSI), an advocacy organization with a strong social media presence. After LSI published our study information, participants followed up via email or phone call. Following prescreening and consent, interested and eligible participants were then sent a secure survey link. Within 36 hours of a single Facebook post by the site administrators for LSI, over 150 individuals responded via phone or email. Sixty-five individuals were sent the survey link and 57 individuals completed the survey (88% response rate). Of note, these 57 individuals were geographically diverse within the Unites States, representing LS patients from 26 different states. This approach has several advantages, including recruitment through a trusted source outside of a clinical setting, higher response rates, and cost-effectiveness with a small research team in a relatively short amount of time. Overall, social media recruitment with a trusted online partner can be highly effective in hard-to-reach clinical populations, such as patients with LS. However, this approach requires additional effort for eligibility screening. ©Allison M Burton-Chase, Wendy M Parker, Kelsey Hennig, Faith Sisson, Linda L Bruzzone. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.01.2017.
Puhan, Milo A; Steinemann, Nina; Kamm, Christian P; Müller, Stephanie; Kuhle, Jens; Kurmann, Roland; Calabrese, Pasquale; Kesselring, Jürg; von Wyl, Viktor; Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr
Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland. Participants actively contribute to the Swiss MS Registry, from defining research questions to providing data (online or on a paper form) and co-authoring papers. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Of the a priori defined groups with potential underrepresentation in other studies, 645 participants (46.5%) received care at a private neurology practice, 167 participants (12%) did not report any use of healthcare services in the past 12 months, 32 (2.3%) participants lived in rural mountainous areas, and 20 (2.0% of the 1041 for whom this information was available) lived in a long-term care facility. Having both online and paper options increased diversity of the study population in terms of geographic origin and type and severity of disease, as well as use of health care services. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. Academic and industry-driven medical research faces substantial challenges in terms of patient involvement, recruitment, relevance and
Waerden, J.E.B. van der; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Background Recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention in interventions are indispensable for successful prevention. This study investigated the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting and retaining low-SES women in depression prevention, and explored which sociodemographic
Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R
Virtual focus groups-such as online chat and video groups-are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group participants were more geographically diverse (but
Lieberman, Daniel Z
Research conducted via the Internet has the potential to reach important clinical populations of participants who would not participate in traditional studies. Concerns exist, however, about the validity of samples recruited in this manner, especially when participants are anonymous and never have contact with study staff. This study evaluated two anonymous samples that were recruited over the Internet to test an online program designed to help problem drinkers. The two studies were conducted 3 years apart, and different recruitment strategies were utilized. Despite these differences, the two samples were highly similar in demographic and clinical features. Correlations that have been found between variables in traditional non-anonymous studies were also found in both online samples, supporting the validity of the data that was collected. Appropriate skepticism is required when critically evaluating Internet studies. Nevertheless, the results of this study indicate that it is possible to obtain stable, valid data from anonymous participants over the Internet, even when there are significant differences in the way the participants are obtained.
Coyne, Elisabeth; Grafton, Eileen; Reid, Alayne
Research conducted in the clinical area promotes the delivery of evidence-based patient care. Involving nurses as participants in research is considered essential to link patient care with evidence-based interventions. However recruitment is influenced by nurses' competing demands and understanding engagement strategies may assist future research. This reflective analysis aimed to understand influencing factors and strategies that support successful recruitment nurses in clinical research. A reflective analysis of research notes and focus group data from research with oncology nurses was completed. This research identified that gaining support from key staff, understanding work constraints and developing a rapport with nurses is important. Establishing clear relevance and benefits of the research and being flexible with research requirements enabled nurses to participate in the research. Clear information and a willingness to accommodate the demands and dynamic nature of the environment, ensures ongoing support and engagement of nurses in the clinical setting as participants in research.
Basaluzzo, Gabriel; Miravete, Eugenio J
We present a flexible model of monopoly nonlinear pricing with endogenous participation decisions of heterogeneous consumers. We make use of the moments that define the few self-selecting tariff options that are commonly used to implement the optimal nonlinear tariff to estimate how demand and cost variables affect the pricing strategies offered by incumbent monopolists in several early U.S. local cellular telephone markets through the different elements of the theoretical model: marginal cos...
Elizabeth Clare Temple
Full Text Available While a growing number of researchers are embracing Internet-based data collection methods, the adoption of Internet-based recruitment methods has been relatively slow. This may be because little is known regarding the relative strengths and weaknesses of different methods of Internet-based participant recruitment, nor how these different recruitment strategies impact on the data collected. These issues are addressed in this article with reference to a study comparing the effectiveness of three Internet-based strategies in recruiting cannabis users for an online study. Consideration of the recruitment data leads us to recommend that researchers use multipronged Internet-based recruitment campaigns with appropriately detailed recruitment messages tailored to the population of interest and located carefully to ensure they reach the intended audience. Further, we suggest that building rapport directly with potential participants, or utilising derived rapport and implicit endorsements, is an important aspect of successful Internet-based participant recruitment strategies.
Johnson, Kimberly J; Mueller, Nancy L; Williams, Katherine; Gutmann, David H
Internet communication advances provide new opportunities to assemble individuals with rare diseases to online patient registries from wide geographic areas for research. However, there is little published information on the efficacy of different recruitment methods. Here we describe recruitment patterns and the characteristics of individuals with the self-identified autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who participated in an online patient registry during the 1-year period from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012. We employed four main mechanisms to alert potential participants to the registry: (1) Facebook and Google advertising, (2) government and academic websites, (3) patient advocacy groups, and (4) healthcare providers. Participants reported how they first heard about the registry through an online questionnaire. During the 1-year period, 880 individuals participated in the registry from all 50 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 39 countries. Facebook and Google were reported as referral sources by the highest number of participants (n=550, 72% Facebook), followed by healthcare providers (n=74), and government and academic websites (n=71). The mean participant age was 29±18 years and most participants reported White race (73%) and female sex (62%) irrespective of reported referral source. Internet advertising, especially through Facebook, resulted in efficient enrollment of large numbers of individuals with NF1. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of this approach to assemble individuals with a rare disease from across the world for research studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Training health professionals to recruit into challenging randomized controlled trials improved confidence: the development of the QuinteT randomized controlled trial recruitment training intervention.
Mills, Nicola; Gaunt, Daisy; Blazeby, Jane M; Elliott, Daisy; Husbands, Samantha; Holding, Peter; Rooshenas, Leila; Jepson, Marcus; Young, Bridget; Bower, Peter; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Gamble, Carrol; Donovan, Jenny L
The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate a training intervention for recruiting patients to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), particularly for those anticipated to be difficult for recruitment. One of three training workshops was offered to surgeons and one to research nurses. Self-confidence in recruitment was measured through questionnaires before and up to 3 months after training; perceived impact of training on practice was assessed after. Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests and supplemented with findings from the content analysis of free-text comments. Sixty-seven surgeons and 32 nurses attended. Self-confidence scores for all 10 questions increased after training [range of mean scores before 5.1-6.9 and after 6.9-8.2 (scale 0-10, all 95% confidence intervals are above 0 and all P-values recruitment following training was high-surgeons' mean score 8.8 [standard deviation (SD), 1.2] and nurses' 8.4 (SD, 1.3) (scale 0-10); 50% (19/38) of surgeons and 40% (10/25) of nurses reported on a 4-point Likert scale that training had made "a lot" of difference to their RCT discussions. Analysis of free text revealed this was mostly in relation to how to convey equipoise, explain randomization, and manage treatment preferences. Surgeons and research nurses reported increased self-confidence in discussing RCTs with patients, a raised awareness of hidden challenges and a positive impact on recruitment practice following QuinteT RCT Recruitment Training. Training will be made more available and evaluated in relation to recruitment rates and informed consent. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Justin C; Troxel, Andrea B; Ky, Bonnie; Damjanov, Nevena; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H
Observational studies indicate that higher volumes of physical activity are associated with improved disease outcomes among colon cancer survivors. The aim of this report is to describe the purpose, study design, methods, and recruitment results of the courage trial, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored, phase II, randomized, dose-response exercise trial among colon cancer survivors. The primary objective of the courage trial is to quantify the feasibility, safety, and physiologic effects of low-dose (150 min·week(-1)) and high-dose (300 min·week(-1)) moderate-intensity aerobic exercise compared to usual-care control group over six months. The exercise groups are provided with in-home treadmills and heart rate monitors. Between January and July 2015, 1433 letters were mailed using a population-based state cancer registry; 126 colon cancer survivors inquired about participation, and 39 were randomized onto the study protocol. Age was associated with inquiry about study participation (Pclinical, or geographic characteristics were associated with study inquiry or randomization. The final trial participant was randomized in August 2015. Six month endpoint data collection was completed in February 2016. The recruitment of colon cancer survivors into an exercise trial is feasible. The findings from this trial will inform key design aspects for future phase 2 and phase 3 randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy of exercise to improve clinical outcomes among colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitaker, Christopher; Stevelink, Sharon; Fear, Nicola
Background: Social media is a popular online tool that allows users to communicate and exchange information. It allows digitalcontent such as pictures, videos and websites to be shared, discussed, republished and endorsed by its users, their friends andbusinesses. Adverts can be posted and promoted to specific target audiences by demographics such as region, age or gender.Recruiting for health research is complex with strict requirement criteria imposed on the participants. Traditional resear...
van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M; van Harten, Wim H; Geleijn, Edwin; de Maaker-Berkhof, Marianne; Schrama, Jolanda; Geenen, Maud M; Meerum Terwogt, Jetske M; van den Heiligenberg, Simone M; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A J H; Sonke, Gabe S; Aaronson, Neil K
We report the recruitment rate, reasons for and factors influencing non-participation, and descriptive results of a randomized controlled trial of two different exercise programs for patients with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to a low-intensity, home-based program (Onco-Move), a moderate- to high-intensity, combined supervised resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack), or Usual Care. Non-participants provided reasons for non-participation and were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing behavioral and attitudinal variables. Trial participants completed performance-based and self-reported outcome measures prior to randomization, at the end of chemotherapy, and at the 6-month follow-up. Twenty-three of 63 referred patients agreed to participate in the trial. All 40 non-participants provided reasons for non-participation. Forty-five percent of the non-participants completed the questionnaire. Those who did not want to exercise had higher fatigue scores at baseline and a more negative attitude toward exercise. Compliance to both programs was high and no adverse events occurred. On average, the colon cancer participants were able to maintain or improve their physical fitness levels and maintain or decrease their fatigue levels during chemotherapy and follow-up. Recruitment of patients with colon cancer to a physical exercise trial during adjuvant chemotherapy proved to be difficult, underscoring the need to develop more effective strategies to increase participation rates. Both home-based and supervised programs are safe and feasible in patients with colon cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Effectiveness needs to be established in a larger trial. Netherlands Trial Register - NTR2159.
Coday, Mace; Richey, Phyllis; Thomas, Fridtjof; Tran, Quynh T; Terrell, Sarah B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miro, Danielle; Caufield, Margaret; Johnson, Karen C
Multiple recruitment strategies are often needed to recruit an adequate number of participants, especially hard to reach groups. Technology-based recruitment methods hold promise as a more robust form of reaching and enrolling historically hard to reach young adults. The TARGIT study is a randomized two-arm clinical trial in young adults using interactive technology testing an efficacious proactive telephone Quitline versus the Quitline plus a behavioral weight management intervention focusing on smoking cessation and weight change. All randomized participants in the TARGIT study were required to be a young adult smoker (18-35 years), who reported smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day, had a BMI technology-based strategies using standard descriptive statistics based on counts and proportions to describe the recruitment process from initial pre-screening (PS) to randomization into TARGIT. Participants at PS were majority Black (59.80%), female (52.66%), normal or over weight (combined 62.42%), 29.5 years old, and smoked 18.4 cigarettes per day. There were differences in men and women with respect to reasons for ineligibility during PS (p < 0.001; ignoring gender specific pregnancy-related ineligibility). TARGIT experienced a disproportionate loss of minorities during recruitment as well as a prolonged recruitment period due to either study ineligibility or not completing screening activities. Recruitment into longer term behavioral change intervention trials can be challenging and multiple methods are often required to recruit hard to reach groups.
Ramos, Juan David Hincapie
, the properties of computational infrastructures provided in the periphery of the user’s attention, and supporting gradual disclosure of detailed information on user’s request. Working with users of the Mini-Grid, this thesis shows the design process of two infrastructure awareness systems aimed at supporting...... the recruitment of participants, the implementation of one possible technical strategy, and an in-the-wild evaluation. The thesis finalizes with a discussion of the results and implications of infrastructure awareness for participative and other computational infrastructures....
van Schie, Sander; Moerbeek, Mirjam
Often only a limited number of clusters can be obtained in cluster randomised trials, although many potential participants can be recruited within each cluster. Thus, active recruitment is feasible within the clusters. To obtain an efficient sample size in a cluster randomised trial, the cluster
Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha
Introduction Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. Methods For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children’s Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. Conclusions This paper outlines the methods, res...
Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha
Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children's Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. This paper outlines the methods, results, and future research opportunities.
Hondras, Maria A; Long, Cynthia R; Haan, Andrea G; Spencer, Lori Byrd; Meeker, William C
To describe recruitment and enrollment experiences of 2 low back pain (LBP) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Descriptive report. Chiropractic research center in the midwest United States that is not a fee-for-service clinic. Both trials enrolled participants with subacute or chronic LBP without neurologic signs who had not received spinal manipulative care during the previous month. For study 1 we screened 1940 potential participants to enroll 192 participants (89 women and 103 men), mean age 40.0 +/- 9.4 years (range, 21-54 years). For study 2 we screened 1849 potential participants to enroll 240 participants (105 women and 135 men) at least 55 years old (mean, 63.1 +/- 6.7 years). Study 1 randomly assigned participants to 2 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or a wait list control group. Study 2 randomly assigned participants to 6 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or medical care consisting of 3 provider visits for medications. Recruitment source costs and yield, and baseline characteristics of enrolled versus nonparticipants were recorded. We conducted 3789 telephone screens for both trials to enroll 432 (11%) participants, at a cost in excess of $156,000 for recruitment efforts. The cost per call for all callers averaged $41, ranging from $4 to $300 based on recruitment method; for enrolled participants, the cost per call was $361, ranging from $33 to $750. Direct mail efforts accounted for 62% of all callers, 57% for enrolled participants, and had the second lowest cost per call for recruitment efforts. It is important that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research can be successfully conducted at CAM institutions. However, the costs associated with recruitment efforts for studies conducted at CAM institutions may be higher than expected and many self-identified participants are users of the CAM therapy. Therefore, strategies for efficient recruitment methods and targeting nonusers of CAM therapies should be developed early
Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene
Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.
Ammari, ABH; Hendriksen, Carsten; Rydahl Hansen, Susan
professionals. However, an unexpectedly high number of families declined participation in the trial. We describe and discuss the recruitment strategy and patient reported reasons for non-participation to add to the knowledge about what impedes recruitment and to identify the factors that influence willingness...... to participate in research aimed at family coping early in the palliative care trajectory. Patients with advanced cancer and their closest relative were recruited from medical, surgical, and oncological departments. Reasons for non-participation were registered and characteristics of participants and non......-participants were compared to evaluate differences between subgroups of non-participants based on reasons not to participate and reasons to participate in the trial. A total of 65.9% of the families declined participation. Two main categories for declining participation emerged: first, that the "burden of illness...
Groupp, Elyse; Haas, Mitchell; Fairweather, Alisa; Ganger, Bonnie; Attwood, Michael
To identify recruitment challenges and elucidate specific strategies that enabled recruitment of seniors for a randomized trial on low back pain comparing the Chronic Disease Self-management Program of the Stanford University to a 6-month wait-list control group. Recruitment for a randomized controlled trial. Community-based program offered at 12 locations. Community-dwelling seniors 60 years and older with chronic low back pain of mechanical origin. Passive recruitment strategies included advertisement in local and senior newspapers, in senior e-mail newsletters and listservs, in local community centers and businesses. Active strategies included meeting seniors at health fairs, lectures to the public and organizational meetings, and the help of trusted professionals in the community. A total of 100 white and 20 African American seniors were recruited. The program seemed to have the most appeal to white, middle-class older adults, educated through high school level. Advertisement failed to attract any participants to the program. Successful strategies included interaction with seniors at health fairs and lectures on health care, especially when the program was endorsed by a trusted community professional. Generating interest in the self-management program required keen communication skills because the idea of "self-management" was met with a myriad of responses, ranging from disinterest to disbelief. Generating interest also required active participation within the communities. Initial contacts had to be established with trusted professionals, whose endorsement enabled the project managers to present the concept of self-management to the seniors. More complex recruitment strategies were required for this study involving the self-management approach to back pain than for studies involving treatment.
Jaser, Sarah S; Faulkner, Melissa S; Murphy, Kathryn; Delamater, Alan; Grey, Margaret
Background The Internet and other eHealth technologies offer a platform for improving the dissemination and accessibility of psychoeducational programs for youth with chronic illness. However, little is known about the recruitment process and yield of diverse samples in Internet research with youth who have a chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of youth with Type 1 diabetes on recruitment, participation, and satisfaction with 2 eHealth psychoeducational programs. Methods Youth with Type 1 diabetes from 4 sites in the United States were invited to participate (N=510) with 320 eligible youth consenting (mean age=12.3, SD 1.1; 55.3% female; 65.2% white; and mean A1C=8.3, SD 1.5). Data for this secondary analysis included demographic information (age, race/ethnicity, and income), depressive symptoms, and recruitment rates, including those who refused at point of contact (22.0%), passive refusers who consented but did not participate (15.3%), and those who enrolled (62.7%). Participation (80% lessons completed) and a satisfaction survey (ie, how helpful, enjoyable) were also analyzed. Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were used. Results There were significant differences in recruitment rates by income and race/ethnicity such that black, Hispanic, or mixed race/ethnicity and low-income youth were more likely to refuse passively compared to white and higher-income youth who were more likely to enroll (P<.001). Participation in program sessions was high, with 78.1% of youth completing at least 4 of 5 sessions. There were no significant differences in participation by program, age, gender, or race/ethnicity. Low-income youth were less likely to participate (P=.002). Satisfaction in both programs was also high (3.9 of 5). There were significant gender, race/ethnicity, and income differences, in that girls (P=.001), black, Hispanic, or mixed race/ethnicity youth (P=.02), and low
Hoffman, Steven M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Political Science, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN (United States); High-Pippert, Angela [Department of Political Science, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN (United States)
Community energy initiatives offer a potentially important means for reshaping the electrical system in a manner compatible with emissions reduction goals. Many such initiatives, however, focus upon top-down, institutionally structured approaches that understand community residents as atomistic, economically motivated, and minimally engaged. This paper examines a number of case studies that are based upon a bottom-up approach rooted in a civic culture that seeks to maximize the capacities of an active and engaged citizenry. The paper focuses upon two mutually dependent issues: first, recruiting community members, and second, sustaining their participation.
Hoffman, Steven M.; High-Pippert, Angela
Community energy initiatives offer a potentially important means for reshaping the electrical system in a manner compatible with emissions reduction goals. Many such initiatives, however, focus upon top-down, institutionally structured approaches that understand community residents as atomistic, economically motivated, and minimally engaged. This paper examines a number of case studies that are based upon a bottom-up approach rooted in a civic culture that seeks to maximize the capacities of an active and engaged citizenry. The paper focuses upon two mutually dependent issues: first, recruiting community members, and second, sustaining their participation.
Cambron, J A
To report on recruitment efforts and accrual rates for a nonmusculoskeletal chiropractic clinical trial. Information regarding the method of recruitment was collected for each individual who responded to an advertisement and completed an interviewer-administered telephone screening. A suburban chiropractic teaching clinic with recruitment efforts extending throughout the larger metropolitan area. A total of 2312 women were screened for participation and the advertisement source was noted for each. Of these, 138 women were recruited and fulfilled all study requirements. The numbers of responses and accrual rates were determined for 8 different recruitment methods: newspaper advertisements, community referrals, radio advertisements, community colleges, press releases, a community electronic sign, public television, and local posters. The most effective recruitment methods were newspaper advertisements, community referrals, and radio advertisements; the least effective methods were public television and local posters. The effort required for the recruitment of subjects was underestimated in this study. Based on the information gained, future recruitment methods for study participants will primarily focus on low-effort, high-yield methods such as newspaper and radio advertising, followed by press releases, campus electronic signs, and public television.
Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian H
Research is needed on what influences recruitment to smoking reduction trials, and how to increase their reach. The present study aimed to i) assess the feasibility of recruiting a disadvantaged population, ii) examine the effects of recruitment methods on participant characteristics, iii) identify resource requirements for different recruitment methods, and iv) to qualitatively assess the acceptability of recruitment. This was done as part of a pilot two-arm trial of the effectiveness of a novel behavioral support intervention focused on increasing physical activity and reducing smoking, among disadvantaged smokers not wishing to quit. Smokers were recruited through mailed invitations from three primary care practices (62 participants) and one National Health Stop Smoking Service (SSS) database (31 participants). Six other participants were recruited via a variety of other community-based approaches. Data were collected through questionnaires, field notes, work sampling, and databases. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics of participants. We randomized between 5.1 and 11.1% of those invited through primary care and SSS, with associated researcher time to recruit one participant varying from 18 to 157 minutes depending on time and intensity invested.Only six participants were recruited through a wide variety of other community-based approaches, with an associated researcher time of 469 minutes to recruit one participant. Targets for recruiting a disadvantaged population were met, with 91% of the sample in social classes C2 to E (NRS social grades, UK), and 41% indicating mental health problems. Those recruited from SSS were more likely to respond to an initial letter, had used cessation aids before, and had attempted to quit in the past year. Overall, initial responders were more likely to be physically active than those who were recruited via follow-up telephone calls. No other demographics or behaviour characteristics were
Mann, Cindy; Delgado, Debbie; Horwood, Jeremy
A discussion and qualitative evaluation of the use of peer-review to train nurses and optimize recruitment practice in a randomized controlled trial. Sound recruitment processes are critical to the success of randomized controlled trials. Nurses recruiting to trials must obtain consent for an intervention that is administered for reasons other than anticipated benefit to the patient. This requires not only patients' acquiescence but also evidence that they have weighed the relevant information in reaching their decision. How trial information is explained is vital, but communication and training can be inadequate. A discussion of a new process to train nurses recruiting to a randomized controlled trial. Literature from 1999-2013 about consenting to trials is included. Over 3 months from 2009-2010, recruiting nurses reviewed recruitment interviews recorded during the pilot phase of a single-site randomized controlled trial and noted content, communication style and interactions. They discussed their findings during peer-review meetings, which were audio-recorded and analysed using qualitative methodology. Peer-review can enhance nurses' training in trial recruitment procedures by supporting development of the necessary communication skills, facilitating consistency in information provision and sharing best practice. Nurse-led peer-review can provide a forum to share communication strategies that will elicit and address participant concerns and obtain evidence of participant understanding prior to consent. Comparing practice can improve consistency and accuracy of trial information and facilitate identification of recruitment issues. Internal peer-review was well accepted and promoted team cohesion. Further evaluation is needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Herring, R. Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Fraser, Gary E.
Objective The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. Design We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30–109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Results Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. Conclusion In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities. PMID:21305834
Jepson, Marcus; Elliott, Daisy; Conefrey, Carmel; Wade, Julia; Rooshenas, Leila; Wilson, Caroline; Beard, David; Blazeby, Jane M; Birtle, Alison; Halliday, Alison; Stein, Rob; Donovan, Jenny L
To explore how the concept of randomisation is described by clinicians and understood by patients in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), and how it contributes to patient understanding and recruitment. Qualitative analysis of seventy-three audio recordings of recruitment consultations from five, multi-centre, UK based RCTs with identified or anticipated recruitment difficulties. One in ten appointments did not include any mention of randomisation. Most included a description of the method or process of allocation. Descriptions often drew on gambling-related metaphors or similies, or referred to allocation by a computer. Where reference was made to a computer, some patients assumed that they would receive the treatment that was 'best for them'. Descriptions of the rationale for randomisation were rarely present, and often only came about as a consequence of patients questioning the reason for a random allocation. The methods and processes of randomisation were usually described by recruiters, but often without clarity, which could lead to patient misunderstanding. The rationale for randomisation was rarely mentioned. Recruiters should avoid problematic gambling metaphors and illusions of agency in their explanations, and instead focus on clearer descriptions of the rationale and method of randomisation to ensure patients are better informed about randomisation and RCT participation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222
Nicklas, Jacinda M; Skurnik, Geraldine; Zera, Chloe A; Reforma, Liberty G; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W
The postpartum period is a window of opportunity for diabetes prevention in women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM), but recruitment for clinical trials during this period of life is a major challenge. We adapted a social-ecologic model to develop a multi-level recruitment strategy at the macro (high or institutional level), meso (mid or provider level), and micro (individual) levels. Our goal was to recruit 100 women with recent GDM into the Balance after Baby randomized controlled trial over a 17-month period. Participants were asked to attend three in-person study visits at 6 weeks, 6, and 12 months postpartum. They were randomized into a control arm or a web-based intervention arm at the end of the baseline visit at six weeks postpartum. At the end of the recruitment period, we compared population characteristics of our enrolled subjects to the entire population of women with GDM delivering at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). We successfully recruited 107 of 156 (69 %) women assessed for eligibility, with the majority (92) recruited during pregnancy at a mean 30 (SD ± 5) weeks of gestation, and 15 recruited postpartum, at a mean 2 (SD ± 3) weeks postpartum. 78 subjects attended the initial baseline visit, and 75 subjects were randomized into the trial at a mean 7 (SD ± 2) weeks postpartum. The recruited subjects were similar in age and race/ethnicity to the total population of 538 GDM deliveries at BWH over the 17-month recruitment period. Our multilevel approach allowed us to successfully meet our recruitment goal and recruit a representative sample of women with recent GDM. We believe that our most successful strategies included using a dedicated in-person recruiter, integrating recruitment into clinical flow, allowing for flexibility in recruitment, minimizing barriers to participation, and using an opt-out strategy with providers. Although the majority of women were recruited while pregnant, women recruited in the early postpartum period were
Herring, R Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary E
The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30-109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities.
Facebook advertisements were utilized to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18-44, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad campaign yielded 6,094 clicks by 5,963 unique users at a mean cost of $0.63 per click and a unique click-through rate of 0.08%. Of those who clicked through to the study site, eighteen percent (18%, n = 1,075) consented to participate. The participant pool was reduced to 344 women after application of strict eligibility criteria. Participants represented 43 states and the District of Columbia, their mean age was 20.9 years (Mdn 19.0, SD 4.0), and their mean weeks’ gestation was 11.5 (SD 5.8). The campaign cost was $3,821.81 or $11.11 per eligible participant. PMID:24082026
Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad campaign yielded 6,094 clicks by 5,963 unique users at a mean cost of $0.63 per click and a unique click-through rate of 0.08%. Of those who clicked through to the study site, 18% (n = 1,075) consented to participate. The participant pool was reduced to 344 women after application of strict eligibility criteria. Participants represented 43 states and the District of Columbia, their mean age was 20.9 years (Mdn = 19.0, SD = 4.0), and their mean weeks' gestation was 11.5 (SD = 5.8). The campaign cost was $3,821.81 or $11.11 per eligible participant. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Anderson, Charles T; Smithpeter, Megan V; Rogers, Melinda K
To examine the perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing of people with schizophrenia who volunteered for research protocols. A structured interview to assess research-related views of people with schizophrenia was developed and piloted. Data collection occurred at three sites. For this analysis, we examined the subset of responses from schizophrenia patients currently enrolled in a protocol. Data from 28 schizophrenia research volunteers were analyzed. Of these, 22 were men and 11 were voluntary inpatients. Most (n=23) recalled speaking with someone before enrolling in the protocol, and most (n=26) reported trusting the person who told them about it. Participants reported a moderate understanding of their protocols. All but one person (n=27) remembered signing a consent form. Twenty-one volunteers indicated that consent forms are meant to help both the patient and the researcher. Most (n=23) reported making the enrollment decision alone, with 22 making this decision prior to reviewing the consent form. The decision was described as relatively easy. Respondents felt some pressure to enroll, with women experiencing more pressure. Debriefing practices were strongly endorsed by participants. All 28 of the volunteers wished to be informed if a health problem (i.e., "something wrong") was discovered during the protocol. The persons living with schizophrenia who were interviewed for this project expressed interesting perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing in clinical research that may help guide efforts to make research processes more attuned to participants and merit further inquiry.
Cyr, Alaina B; Arbuckle, Luk; Ferris, Lorraine E
the appropriateness of the risk mitigation strategies that we employed by assessing their alignment with PbD and by discussing the following: (1) What are the potential risks and who is at risk? (2) Is cancer considered “sensitive” personal information? (3) What is the probability of online disclosure of a cancer diagnosis in everyday life? and (4) What are the public’s expectations for privacy online and their views about online tracking, profiling, and targeting? We conclude with a PbD framework for online health research recruitment. Conclusions Researchers, REBs, ethicists, students, and potential study participants are often unaware of the privacy risks of social media research recruitment and there is no official guidance. Our PbD framework for online health research recruitment is a resource for these wide audiences. PMID:28385682
Arends, Iris; Bultmann, Ute; Shaw, William S.; van Rhenen, Willem; Roelen, Corne; Nielsen, Karina; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). Methods A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a
Arends, I; et al.,; Shaw, W.S.; Bültmann, U.; Rhenen, van W.; Roelen, C.A.M.
Purpose To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). Methods A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a
Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy
Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…
Full Text Available Background: Two-thirds of treatment-seeking smokers are obese or overweight. Most smokers are concerned about gaining weight after quitting. The average smoker experiences modest post-quit weight gain which discourages many smokers from quitting. Although evidence suggests that combined interventions to help smokers quit smoking and prevent weight gain can be helpful, studies have not been replicated in real world settings. Methods: This paper describes recruitment and participant characteristics of the Best Quit Study, a 3-arm randomized controlled trial testing tobacco cessation treatment alone or combined with simultaneous or sequential weight management. Study participants were recruited via tobacco quitlines from August 5, 2013 to December 15, 2014. Results: Statistical analysis on baseline data was conducted in 2015/2016. Among 5082 potentially eligible callers to a tobacco quitline, 2540 were randomized (50% of eligible. Compared with individuals eligible but not randomized, those randomized were significantly more likely to be female (65.7% vs 54.5%, p < 0.01, overweight or obese (76.3% vs 62.5%, p < 0.01, more confident in quitting (p < 0.01, more addicted (first cigarette within 5 min: 50.0% vs 44.4%, p < 0.01, and have a chronic disease (28.6% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.01. Randomized groups were not statistically significantly different on demographics, tobacco or weight variables. Two-thirds of participants were female and white with a mean age of 43. Conclusions: Adding weight management interventions to tobacco cessation quitlines was feasible and acceptable to smokers. If successful for cessation and weight outcomes, a combined intervention may provide a treatment approach for addressing weight gain with smoking cessation through tobacco quitlines. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01867983. Keywords: Smoking, Weight gain, Quitlines, Simultaneous, Sequential
Gupta, Anjali; Calfas, Karen J.; Marshall, Simon J.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Huang, Jeannie S.; Epstein-Corbin, Melanie; Servetas, Christina; Donohue, Michael C.; Norman, Gregory J.; Raab, Fredric; Merchant, Gina; Fowler, James H.; Griswold, William G.; Fogg, B.J.; Patrick, Kevin
Advances in information technology and near ubiquity of the Internet have spawned novel modes of communication and unprecedented insights into human behavior via the digital footprint. Health behavior randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially technology-based, can leverage these advances to improve the overall clinical trials management process and benefit from improvements at every stage, from recruitment and enrollment to engagement and retention. In this paper, we report the results for recruitment and retention of participants in the SMART study and introduce a new model for clinical trials management that is a result of interdisciplinary team science. The MARKIT model brings together best practices from information technology, marketing, and clinical research into a single framework to maximize efforts for recruitment, enrollment, engagement, and retention of participants into a RCT. These practices may have contributed to the study’s on-time recruitment that was within budget, 86% retention at 24 months, and a minimum of 57% engagement with the intervention over the 2-year RCT. Use of technology in combination with marketing practices may enable investigators to reach a larger and more diverse community of participants to take part in technology-based clinical trials, help maximize limited resources, and lead to more cost-effective and efficient clinical trial management of study participants as modes of communication evolve among the target population of participants. PMID:25866383
Gupta, Anjali; Calfas, Karen J; Marshall, Simon J; Robinson, Thomas N; Rock, Cheryl L; Huang, Jeannie S; Epstein-Corbin, Melanie; Servetas, Christina; Donohue, Michael C; Norman, Gregory J; Raab, Fredric; Merchant, Gina; Fowler, James H; Griswold, William G; Fogg, B J; Patrick, Kevin
Advances in information technology and near ubiquity of the Internet have spawned novel modes of communication and unprecedented insights into human behavior via the digital footprint. Health behavior randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially technology-based, can leverage these advances to improve the overall clinical trials management process and benefit from improvements at every stage, from recruitment and enrollment to engagement and retention. In this paper, we report the results for recruitment and retention of participants in the SMART study and introduce a new model for clinical trials management that is a result of interdisciplinary team science. The MARKIT model brings together best practices from information technology, marketing, and clinical research into a single framework to maximize efforts for recruitment, enrollment, engagement, and retention of participants into a RCT. These practices may have contributed to the study's on-time recruitment that was within budget, 86% retention at 24 months, and a minimum of 57% engagement with the intervention over the 2-year RCT. Use of technology in combination with marketing practices may enable investigators to reach a larger and more diverse community of participants to take part in technology-based clinical trials, help maximize limited resources, and lead to more cost-effective and efficient clinical trial management of study participants as modes of communication evolve among the target population of participants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The free and open publication of course materials (OpenCourseWare or OCW was initially undertaken by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT and other universities primarily to share educational resources among educators (Abelson, 2007. OCW, however, and more in general open educational resources (OER1, have also provided well-documented opportunities for all learners, including the so-called “informal learners” and “independent learners” (Carson, 2005; Mulder, 2006, p. 35. Universities have also increasingly documented clear benefits for specific target groups such as secondary education students and lifelong learners seeking to enter formal postsecondary education programs.In addition to benefitting learners, OCW publication has benefitted the publishing institutions themselves by providing recruiting advantages. Finally enrollment figures from some institutions indicate that even in the case of the free and open publication of materials from online programs, OCW does not negatively affect enrollment. This paper reviews evaluation conducted at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH, and Open Universiteit Nederland (OUNL concerning OCW effects on higher education participation and student recruitment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment to randomized controlled trials is known to be challenging. It is important to understand and identify predictors of good or poor accrual to a clinical trial so that appropriate strategies can be put in place to overcome these problems and facilitate successful trial completion. We have developed a survey tool to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams regarding facilitators and barriers to recruitment in a clinical trial and describe herein the method of developing the questionnaire. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify studies that have explored facilitators and barriers to recruitment, and a list of potential factors affecting recruitment to a clinical trial was generated. These factors were categorized in terms relating to the (i trial, (ii site, (iii patient, (iv clinical team, (v information and consent and (vi study team. A list was provided for responders to grade these factors as weak, intermediate or strong facilitators or barriers to recruitment. Results A web-based survey questionnaire was developed. This survey was designed to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams with regard to the perceived facilitators and barriers to recruitment, to identify strategies applied to overcome these problems, and to obtain suggestions for change in the organization of future trials. The survey tool can be used to assess the recruitment experience of clinical teams in a single/multicenter trial in any clinical setting or speciality involving adults or children either in an ongoing trial or at trial completion. The questionnaire is short, easy to administer and to complete, with an estimated completion time of 11 minutes. Conclusions We have presented a robust methodology for developing this survey tool that provides an evidence-based list of potential factors that can affect recruitment to a clinical trial. We recommend that all clinical trialists should consider using
Arends, Iris; Bültmann, Ute; Shaw, William S; van Rhenen, Willem; Roelen, Corné; Nielsen, Karina; van der Klink, Jac J L
To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cluster-RCT), univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate associations between OPs' personal and work characteristics and the number of recruited participants for the cluster-RCT per OP. Perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment were categorised into: study characteristics (e.g. concise inclusion criteria); study population characteristics; OP's attention; OP's workload; context (e.g. working at different locations); and OP's characteristics (e.g. motivated to help). Important facilitators were encouragement by colleagues and reminders by information technology tools. Multivariate analyses showed that the number of OPs within the clinical unit who recruited participants was positively associated with the number of recruited participants per OP [rate ratio of 1.43, 95 % confidence interval 1.24-1.64]. When mobilising OPs for participant recruitment, researchers need to engage entire clinical units rather than approach OPs on an individual basis. OPs consider regular communication, especially face-to-face contact and information technology tools serving as reminders, as helpful.
Subasinghe, Asvini K; Nguyen, Margaret; Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M
Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertisements relating to general women's health. From November 2013 to June 2015, targeted advertising campaigns were implemented to specifically recruit women who had not received the HPV vaccine. Consenting participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire and those who had ever had sexual intercourse were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab. The HPV vaccination status of participants was confirmed from the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). The campaign comprised 10 advertisements shown between September 2011 and June 2015 which generated 55,381,637 impressions, yielding 23,714 clicks, at an overall cost of AUD $22,078.85. A total of 919 participants were recruited. A greater proportion of unvaccinated women (50.4%, 131/260) were recruited into the study following targeted advertising, compared with those recruited (19.3%, 127/659) prior to showing the modified advertisement (Padvertising is a rapid and cost-effective way of recruiting young unvaccinated women into a HPV vaccine effectiveness study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention in interventions are indispensable for successful prevention. This study investigated the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting and retaining low-SES women in depression prevention, and explored which sociodemographic characteristics and risk status factors within this specific target group are associated with successful recruitment and retention. Methods The process of recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention was structurally mapped and explored. Differences between women who dropped out and those who adhered to the subsequent stages of the recruitment and retention process were investigated. The potential of several referral strategies was also studied, with specific attention paid to the use of GP databases. Results As part of the recruitment process, 12.1% of the target population completed a telephone screening. The most successful referral strategy was the use of patient databases from GPs working in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Older age and more severe complaints were particularly associated with greater willingness to participate and with retention. Conclusions Low-SES women can be recruited and retained in public health interventions through tailored strategies. The integration of mental health screening within primary care might help to embed preventive interventions in low-SES communities.
Full Text Available The paper presents some contributions and analyses of regulations and practice in participative management, realized by a public enterprise from the Caras-Severin District. These ideas represent the beginning of research in this new activity domain, starting from personnel recruitment and selection activities for the participative management organism, which is the Administration Council.
Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John
Background The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervent...
Manzanero, Silvia; Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C
With the increasing capacity for remote collection of both data and samples for medical research, a thorough assessment is needed to determine the association of population characteristics and recruitment methodologies with response rates. The aim of this research was to assess population representativeness in a two-stage study of health and injury in recreational runners, which consisted of an epidemiological arm and genetic analysis. The cost and success of various classical and internet-based methods were analyzed, and demographic representativeness was assessed for recruitment to the epidemiological survey, reported willingness to participate in the genetic arm of the study, actual participation, sample return, and approval for biobank storage. A total of 4965 valid responses were received, of which 1664 were deemed eligible for genetic analysis. Younger age showed a negative association with initial recruitment rate, expressed willingness to participate in genetic analysis, and actual participation. Additionally, female sex was associated with higher initial recruitment rates, and ethnic origin impacted willingness to participate in the genetic analysis (all P<.001). The sharp decline in retention through the different stages of the study in young respondents suggests the necessity to develop specific recruitment and retention strategies when investigating a young, physically active population. ©Silvia Manzanero, Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, David C Hughes. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.05.2018.
Close, Sharron; Smaldone, Arlene; Fennoy, Ilene; Reame, Nancy; Grey, Margaret
Recruiting pediatric samples for research may be challenging due to parental mistrust of the research process, privacy concerns, and family time constraints. Recruitment of children with chronic and genetic conditions may further complicate the enrollment process. In this paper, we describe the methodological challenges of recruiting children for research and provide an exemplar of how the use of information technology (IT) strategies with social networking may improve access to difficult-to-reach pediatric research participants. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of boys between the ages of 8 and 18 years with Klinefelter syndrome. This study presented unique challenges for recruitment of pediatric participants. These challenges are illustrated by the report of recruitment activities developed for the study. We reviewed the literature to explore the issues of recruiting children for research using conventional and IT approaches. Success rates of conventional recruitment approaches, such as brochures, flyers in medical offices, and physician referrals, are compared with IT-based outreach. The IT approaches included teleconferencing via a Klinefelter syndrome support group, services of a Web-based commercial recruitment-matching company, and the development of a university-affiliated research recruitment website with the use of paid advertising on a social networking website (Facebook). Over a 3-month period, dissemination of over 150 recruitment brochures and flyers placed in a large urban hospital and hospital-affiliated clinical offices, with 850 letters to physicians and patients were not successful. Within the same period, face-to-face recruitment in the clinical setting yielded 4 (9%) participants. Using Web-based and social networking approaches, 39 (91%) agreed to participate in the study. With these approaches, 5 (12%) were recruited from the national Klinefelter syndrome advocacy group, 8 (19%) from local and teleconference support groups, 10
Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Cyr, Alaina B; Arbuckle, Luk; Ferris, Lorraine E
mitigation strategies that we employed by assessing their alignment with PbD and by discussing the following: (1) What are the potential risks and who is at risk? (2) Is cancer considered "sensitive" personal information? (3) What is the probability of online disclosure of a cancer diagnosis in everyday life? and (4) What are the public's expectations for privacy online and their views about online tracking, profiling, and targeting? We conclude with a PbD framework for online health research recruitment. Researchers, REBs, ethicists, students, and potential study participants are often unaware of the privacy risks of social media research recruitment and there is no official guidance. Our PbD framework for online health research recruitment is a resource for these wide audiences. ©Jacqueline Lorene Bender, Alaina B Cyr, Luk Arbuckle, Lorraine E Ferris. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.04.2017.
Lord, Paul A; Willis, Thomas A; Carder, Paul; West, Robert M; Foy, Robbie
Recruitment of representative samples in primary care research is essential to ensure high-quality, generalizable results. This is particularly important for research using routinely recorded patient data to examine the delivery of care. Yet little is known about how different recruitment strategies influence the characteristics of the practices included in research. We describe three approaches for recruiting practices to data-sharing studies, examining differences in recruitment levels and practice representativeness. We examined three studies that included varying populations of practices from West Yorkshire, UK. All used anonymized patient data to explore aspects of clinical practice. Recruitment strategies were 'opt-in', 'mixed opt-in and opt-out' and 'opt-out'. We compared aggregated practice data between recruited and not-recruited practices for practice list size, deprivation, chronic disease management, patient experience and rates of unplanned hospital admission. The opt-out strategy had the highest recruitment (80%), followed by mixed (70%) and opt-in (58%). Practices opting-in were larger (median 7153 versus 4722 patients, P = 0.03) than practices that declined to opt-in. Practices recruited by mixed approach were larger (median 7091 versus 5857 patients, P = 0.04) and had differences in the clinical quality measure (58.4% versus 53.9% of diabetic patients with HbA1c ≤ 59 mmol/mol, P Researchers should, with appropriate ethical safeguards, consider opt-out recruitment of practices for studies involving anonymized patient data sharing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Juraschek, Stephen P; Plante, Timothy B; Charleston, Jeanne; Miller, Edgar R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Appel, Lawrence J; Jerome, Gerald J; Gayles, Debra; Durkin, Nowella; White, Karen; Dalcin, Arlene; Hermosilla, Manuel
Despite widespread Internet adoption, online advertising remains an underutilized tool to recruit participants into clinical trials. Whether online advertising is a cost-effective method to enroll participants compared to other traditional forms of recruitment is not known. Recruitment for the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial, a community-based study of cancer survivors, was conducted from June 2015 through December 2016 via in-person community fairs, advertisements in periodicals, and direct postal mailings. In addition, "Right Column" banner ads were purchased from Facebook to direct participants to the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial website. Response rates, costs of traditional and online advertisements, and demographic data were determined and compared across different online and traditional recruitment strategies. Micro-trials optimizing features of online advertisements were also explored. Of the 406 respondents to our overall outreach efforts, 6% (24 of 406) were referred from online advertising. Facebook advertisements were shown over 3 million times (impressions) to 124,476 people, which resulted in 4401 clicks on our advertisement. Of these, 24 people ultimately contacted study staff, 6 underwent prescreening, and 4 enrolled in the study. The cost of online advertising per enrollee was $794 when targeting a general population versus $1426 when accounting for strategies that specifically targeted African Americans or men. By contrast, community fairs, direct mail, or periodicals cost $917, $799, or $436 per enrollee, respectively. Utilization of micro-trials to assess online ads identified subtleties (e.g. use of an advertisement title) that substantially impacted viewer interest in our trial. Online advertisements effectively directed a relevant population to our website, which resulted in new enrollees in the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial at a cost comparable to traditional methods. Costs were
Killawi, Amal; Khidir, Amal; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Hammoud, Maya; Elliott, Heather; Thurston, Michelle; Asad, Humna; Al-Khal, Abdul Latif; Fetters, Michael D
Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as "incidental research participants", the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This
van Straten Annemieke
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although indicated prevention of depression is available for about 80% of the Dutch population at little or no cost, only a small proportion of those with subthreshold depression make use of these services. Methods A narrative review is conducted of the Dutch preventive services in mental health care, also addressing the problem of low participation rates. We describe possible causes of these low participation rates, which may be related to the participants themselves, the service system, and the communication to the public, and we put forward possible solutions to this problem. Results There are three main groups of reasons why the participation rates are low: reasons within the participants (e.g., not considering themselves as being at risk; thinking the interventions are not effective; or being unwilling to participate because of the stigma associated with depression; reasons within the health care system; and reasons associated with the communication about the preventive services. Possible solutions to increasing the participation rate include organizing mass media campaigns, developing internet-based preventive interventions, adapting preventive interventions to the needs of specific subpopulations, positioning the services in primary care, integrating the interventions in community-wide interventions, and systematically screening high-risk groups for potential participants. Discussion Prevention could play an important role in public mental health in reducing the enormous burden of depression. However, before this can be realized more research is needed to explore why participation rates are low and how these rates can be improved.
van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute
Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based
Wasilewski, Marina Bastawrous; Stinson, Jennifer N; Webster, Fiona; Cameron, Jill Irene
Twitter has the potential to optimize research conduct, but more research is needed around the nature of study-related tweets and strategies for optimizing reach. In the context of our caregiving study, we aimed to describe the nature and extent of study-related tweets, the extent to which they were shared by others, and their potential reach. To do so, we conducted a secondary analysis of our Twitter recruitment. We aggregated and categorized study-related tweets and analyzed the reach of the 10 most retweeted tweets. Results indicated that of 71 caregivers, 27 were recruited via Twitter. General recruitment tweets were most-shared by users. Tweet reach ranged from 5273 to 62,144 users. Twitter caregivers were demographically comparable to non-Twitter caregivers but had higher Internet proficiency and fewer children. Overall, using a personal Twitter account can expand the reach of study recruitment. Future research should compare different recruitment strategies and explore characteristics that may challenge the heterogeneity of Twitter samples.
Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O; Saberi, Parya
There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives.
Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O
Background There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. Objective This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. Methods From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Results Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. Conclusions These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives. PMID:24784982
Franciscus, Margaret; Nucci, Anita; Bradley, Brenda
for long-term follow-up assessments. PURPOSE: Our purpose is to summarize the recruitment and retention strategies used to conduct TRIGR from the perspective of the study coordinators. METHODS: TRIGR was designed to test whether weaning to formula containing hydrolyzed versus intact cow's milk protein......BACKGROUND: The Trial to Reduce Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is the first multicenter international type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trial to be undertaken. A unique feature of TRIGR has been recruitment of eligible pregnant women and enrollment of newborns......-year follow-up phases of this study. The TRIGR study met the accrual goal after 4.7 years of recruitment, 2.7 years longer than projected initially. Challenges included difficulty in finding fathers with T1D, a higher than expected rate of premature delivery among T1D mothers, and implementation of new...
Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M
To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
Background Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. Objective This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Methods Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google—social media and advertising—university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. Results From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices—16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar
Partridge, Stephanie R; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette Ty; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google-social media and advertising-university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices-16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar (AUD) $139 per person. The least expensive
Cortellini, Mauro; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia
Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs), trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]). Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants' perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test ( P =0.64, not significant). Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial "short blanket syndrome". Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased results on account of large proportions of drop-outs. Our experience suggests that participants do not change their mind depending on the allocation group (intervention or control). There is no single
Ferris, Maria; Norwood, Victoria; Radeva, Milena; Gassman, Jennifer J; Al-Uzri, Amira; Askenazi, David; Matoo, Tej; Pinsk, Maury; Sharma, Amita; Smoyer, William; Stults, Jenna; Vyas, Shefali; Weiss, Robert; Gipson, Debbie; Kaskel, Frederick; Friedman, Aaron; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Trachtman, Howard
We describe the experience of the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis clinical trial (FSGS CT) in the identification and recruitment of participants into the study. This National Institutes of Health funded study, a multicenter, open-label, randomized comparison of cyclosporine versus oral dexamethasone pulses plus mycophenolate mofetil, experienced difficulty and delays meeting enrollment goals. These problems occurred despite the support of patient advocacy groups and aggressive recruitment strategies. Multiple barriers were identified including: (1) inaccurate estimates of the number of potential incident FSGS patients at participating centers; (2) delays in securing one of the test agents; (3) prolonged time between IRB approval and execution of a subcontract (mean 7.5 ± 0.8 months); (4) prolonged time between IRB approval and enrollment of the first patient at participating sites (mean 19.6 ± 1.4 months); and (5) reorganization of clinical coordinating core infrastructure to align resources with enrollment. A Web-based anonymous survey of site investigators revealed site-related barriers to patient recruitment. The value of a variety of recruitment tools was of marginal utility in facilitating patient enrollment. We conclude that improvements in the logistics of study approval and regulatory start-up and testing of promising novel agents are important factors in promoting enrollment into randomized clinical trials in nephrology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sikkens, Elga; van San, Marion; Sieckelinck, Stijn; Boeije, Hennie; de Winter, Micha
Social media are useful facilitators when recruiting hidden populations for research. In our research on youth and radicalization, we were able to find and contact young people with extreme ideals through Facebook. In this article, we discuss our experiences using Facebook as a tool for finding respondents who do not trust researchers. Facebook…
Sikkens, E.M.; van San, M.R.P.J.R.S.; Sieckelinck, S.M.A.; Boeije, H.R.; de Winter, M.
Social media are useful facilitators when recruiting hidden populations for research. In our research on youth and radicalization, we were able to find and contact young people with extreme ideals through Facebook. In this article, we discuss our experiences using Facebook as a tool for finding
Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry
This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…
Sikkens, E.; San, M. van; Sieckelinck, S.; Boeije, H.; Winter, M. de
Social media are useful facilitators when recruiting hidden populations for research. In our research on youth and radicalization, we were able to find and contact young people with extreme ideals through Facebook. In this article, we discuss our experiences using Facebook as a tool for finding
Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J
Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues. We compared two online interventions with a control without intervention. The pilot RCT had 4 arms, each with 4 British postcode areas: (A) geographically targeted AdWords, (B) adverts placed on local websites by contacting website owners and requesting links be added, (C) both interventions, (D) control. Participants were directed to our research project website linking to two freely available online CBT resource sites (Moodgym and Living Life To The Full (LLTTF)) and two other depression support sites. We used data from (1) AdWords, (2) Google Analytics for our project website and for LLTTF, and (3) research project website. We compared two outcomes: (1) numbers with depression accessing the research project website, and then chose an onward link to one of the two CBT websites, and (2) numbers registering with LLTTF. We documented costs, and explored intervention and assessment methods to make general recommendations to inform researchers aiming to use similar methodologies in future studies. Trying to place local website links appeared much less cost effective than AdWords and although may prove useful for service delivery, was not worth pursuing in the context of the current study design. Our AdWords intervention was effective in recruiting people to the project website but our location targeting "leaked" and was not as geographically specific as claimed. The impact on online CBT was also diluted by offering participants other choices of destinations. Measuring the impact on LLTTF use was
Luzurier, Quentin; Damm, Cédric; Lion, Fabien; Daniel, Carine; Pellerin, Lucille; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre
The aim was to describe a strategy for recruitment of healthy volunteers (HV) to a randomized trial that assessed the efficacy of different telephone techniques to assist HV in performing cardiac massage for vital emergency. Participation in the randomized trial was not financially compensated, however HV were offered emergency first-aid training. We also studied factors associated with HV motivation and satisfaction regarding participation in the trial. Strategy for recruitment of 210 HV aged 18 to 60 years was based on: (1) the updated records of all telephone number since January 2000 of HV registered in the Rouen Clinical Investigation Centre HV database, (2) a communication campaign for the general public focussing on posters and media advertisements. Data on the recruitment, socio-demographics, motivation and satisfaction of the 210 HV were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Of the 210 HV included, 63.3% (n = 133) were recruited from the HV database and 36.7% (n = 77) by the communication campaign. On the one hand, the HV database enabled screening of 1315 HV, 54.8% (n = 721) of whom were reached by phone, 55.2% (n = 398) of these latter accepted to participate in the study and 10.1% of the initial screening (n = 133) were finally included. One the other hand, for the 77 HV not recruited from the HV database, word-of-mouth (56.1%) was the main means of recruitment. The male/female ratio of the 210 HV was 0.5 and mean age 43.5 years (Standard Deviation = 12.4). The main motivations given for participating in the trial were to support research (87.6%) and receive emergency first-aid training (85.7%). Overall satisfaction with the welcome process was significantly higher for older HV (46-60 years) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.44; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.48-7.99), and for HV in management jobs (AOR: 4.26; 95% CI: 1.22-14.87). Satisfaction with protocol management was higher for women (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1
Esterman, Adrian; Pilotto, Louis
As part of a larger study of the effect of foot shape on functioning, 47 Royal Australian Air Force recruits with flexible flat feet who were embarking on a 10-week basic training course took part in a randomized controlled trial of orthotic therapy. In particular, recruits were assigned at random to an untreated group or a group that received Australian Orthotics Laboratory, three-quarter-length, flexible, shoe inserts. The groups were assessed at baseline and week 8. Outcome measures included pain, injury, foot health, and quality of life. The untreated group (n = 22) had a greater proportion of heavier recruits than did the treated group (n = 25). There were no significant differences in outcome measures at baseline. Only one-half of the group assigned to orthotic therapy wore the orthotics most or all of the time. At the end of the trial, although the results were not statistically significant, those who were provided with orthotics and wore them had the least lower limb pain and the best general foot health and quality of life. Notably, none of the recruits who wore their orthotics most or all of the time sustained a training injury.
Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased
Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…
Loskutova, Natalia Y; Smail, Craig; Ajayi, Kemi; Pace, Wilson D; Fox, Chester H
We assessed the challenging process of recruiting primary care practices in a practice-based research study. In this descriptive case study of recruitment data collected for a large practice-based study (TRANSLATE CKD), 48 single or multiple-site health care organizations in the USA with a total of 114 practices were invited to participate. We collected quantitative and qualitative measures of recruitment process and outcomes for the first 25 practices recruited. Information about 13 additional practices is not provided due to staff transitions and limited data collection resources. Initial outreach was made to 114 practices (from 48 organizations, 41% small); 52 (45%) practices responded with interest. Practices enrolled in the study (n = 25) represented 22% of the total outreach number, or 48% of those initially interested. Average time to enroll was 71 calendar days (range 11-107). There was no difference in the number of days practices remained under recruitment, based on enrolled versus not enrolled (44.8 ± 30.4 versus 46.8 ± 25.4 days, P = 0.86) or by the organization size, i.e. large versus small (defined by having ≤4 distinct practices; 52 ± 23.6 versus 43.6 ± 27.8 days; P = 0.46). The most common recruitment barriers were administrative, e.g. lack of perceived direct organizational benefit, and were more prominent among large organizations. Despite the general belief that the research topic, invitation method, and interest in research may facilitate practice recruitment, our results suggest that most of the recruitment challenges represent managerial challenges. Future research projects may need to consider relevant methodologies from businesses administration and marketing fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how performing formalized and improvised forms of praying changed the evoked BOLD response in a group of Danish Christians. Distinct from formalized praying and secular controls, improvised praying activated a strong response in the temporopolar region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. This finding supports our hypothesis that religious subjects, who consider their God to be ‘real’ and capable of reciprocating requests, recruit areas of social cognition when they pray. We argue that praying to God is an intersubjective experience comparable to ‘normal’ interpersonal interaction. PMID:19246473
Thoolen, B.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.; Gorter, K.; Rutten, G.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for nonparticipation and drop out in a diabetes self-management intervention. METHODS: A total of 468 recently screen-detected patients, receiving usual care or intensive pharmacological treatment, were invited and randomized into either a
Laws, Rachel A; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Jayasinghe, Upali W; McKenzie, Suzanne; Passey, Megan; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F
Previous research suggests that lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are effective, however little is known about factors affecting participation in such programs. This study aims to explore factors influencing levels of participation in a lifestyle modification program conducted as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of CVD prevention in primary care. This concurrent mixed methods study used data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 30 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organizations. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. In each practice up to 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years old, were invited to participate. Intervention practice staff were trained in lifestyle assessment and counseling and referred high risk patients to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) consisting of two individual and six group sessions over a nine month period. Data included a patient survey, clinical audit, practice survey on capacity for preventive care, referral and attendance records at the LMP and qualitative interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the LMP. Multi-level logistic regression modelling was used to examine independent predictors of attendance at the LMP, supplemented with qualitative data from interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the program. A total of 197 individuals were referred to the LMP (63% of those eligible). Over a third of patients (36.5%) referred to the LMP did not attend any sessions, with 59.4% attending at least half of the planned sessions. The only independent predictors of attendance at the program were employment status - not working (OR: 2.39 95% CI 1.15-4.94) and having high psychological distress (OR: 2.17 95% CI: 1.10-4.30). Qualitative data revealed that physical access to the program was a barrier, while GP/practice endorsement of the program and
Weiner, Michael W; Nosheny, Rachel; Camacho, Monica; Truran-Sacrey, Diana; Mackin, R Scott; Flenniken, Derek; Ulbricht, Aaron; Insel, Philip; Finley, Shannon; Fockler, Juliet; Veitch, Dallas
Recruitment, assessment, and longitudinal monitoring of participants for neuroscience studies and clinical trials limit the development of new treatments. Widespread Internet use allows data capture from participants in an unsupervised setting. The Brain Health Registry, a website and online registry, collects data from participants and their study partners. The Brain Health Registry obtains self and study partner report questionnaires and neuropsychological data, including the Cogstate Brief Battery, Lumos Labs Neurocognitive Performance Test, and MemTrax Memory Test. Participants provide informed consent before participation. Baseline and longitudinal data were obtained from nearly 57,000 and 28,000 participants, respectively. Over 18,800 participants were referred to, and nearly 1800 were enrolled in, clinical Alzheimer's disease and aging studies, including five observational studies and seven intervention trials. Online assessments of participants and study partners provide useful information at relatively low cost for neuroscience studies and clinical trials and may ultimately be used in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 the Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.
Stakeholder participation is now widely viewed as an essential component of environmental management projects. Although scholarship has identified and conceptualized numerous elements and components of high-quality participation, we argue that the processes of recruiting stakehol...
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Supplee, Lauren H; Parekh, Jenita; Johnson, Makedah
Precision medicine and precision public health focus on identifying and providing the right intervention to the right population at the right time. Expanding on the concept, precision prevention science could allow the field to examine prevention programs to identify ways to make them more efficient and effective at scale, including addressing issues related to engagement and retention of participants. Research to date on engagement and retention has often focused on demographics and risk factors. The current paper proposes using McCurdy and Daro (Family Relations, 50, 113-121, 2001) model that posits a complex mixture of individual, provider, program, and community-level factors synergistically affect enrollment, engagement, and retention. The paper concludes recommending the use of research-practice partnerships and innovative, rapid cycle methods to design and improve prevention programs related to participant engagement and retention at scale.
Leavitt, Leah; Abroms, Lorien; Johnson, Pamela; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer; Bushar, Jessica; Singh, Indira; Cleary, Sean D; McInvale, Whitney; Turner, Monique
Recruiting pregnant smokers into clinical trials is challenging since this population tends to be disadvantaged, the behavior is stigmatized, and the intervention window is limited. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of recruiting pregnant smokers into a smoking cessation trial by sending recruitment text messages to an existing subscriber list. Recruitment messages were sent to subscribers flagged as pregnant in Text4baby, a national text messaging program for pregnant women and mothers. Four recruitment messages were rotated to test the effectiveness of different emotional frames and a financial incentive. Study staff called subscribers who expressed interest to screen for eligibility and enroll eligible women. Between October 6, 2015 and February 2, 2016, 10,194 recruitment messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers flagged as pregnant, and 10.18% (1038) responded indicating interest. No significant increase in cancellation was observed compared to subscribers who received other ad hoc messages. Of respondents, 54.05% (561) were reached by phone for follow-up, and 21.97% (228) were found to be eligible. Among the eligible, 87% (199) pregnant smokers enrolled. The recruitment message with a pride emotional appeal had a significantly higher response (p = 0.02) compared to the recruitment message with no emotional appeal, but enrollment did not significantly differ between recruitment messages with different emotional appeals. The recruitment messages with a reference to financial incentive yielded higher response (p < 0.01) and enrollment (p = 0.03) compared to a recruitment message without. This study demonstrates success recruiting pregnant smokers using text message. Future studies should consider building on this approach for recruiting high-risk populations.
Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.J.
BACKGROUND: Low participation rates reduce effective sample size, statistical power and can increase risk for selection bias. Previous research suggests that offering choice of participation mode can improve participation rates. However, few head-to-head trials compared choice of participation mode
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs in Kenya. In this paper, we explore willingness of Kenyan MSM to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. In addition to individual and socio-cultural motivators and barriers that influence willingness to participate (WTP, we explore the associations or linkages that participants draw between their experiences with or knowledge of medical research both generally and within the context of HIV/AIDS, their perceptions of a future HIV vaccine and their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Methods Using a social network-based approach, we employed snowball sampling to recruit MSM into the study from Kisumu, Mombasa, and Nairobi. A field team consisting of seven community researchers conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 70 study participants. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed and the data was then analysed thematically. Results Most participants felt that an HIV vaccine would bring a number of benefits to self, as well as to MSM communities, including quelling personal fears related to HIV acquisition and reducing/eliminating stigma and discrimination shouldered by their community. Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials was highly motivated by various forms of altruism. Specific researcher responsibilities centred on safe-guarding the rights and well-being of participants were also found to govern WTP, as were reflections on the acceptability of a future preventive HIV vaccine. Conclusion
Janssen, Dirk P
Psychologists, psycholinguists, and other researchers using language stimuli have been struggling for more than 30 years with the problem of how to analyze experimental data that contain two crossed random effects (items and participants). The classical analysis of variance does not apply; alternatives have been proposed but have failed to catch on, and a statistically unsatisfactory procedure of using two approximations (known as F(1) and F(2)) has become the standard. A simple and elegant solution using mixed model analysis has been available for 15 years, and recent improvements in statistical software have made mixed models analysis widely available. The aim of this article is to increase the use of mixed models by giving a concise practical introduction and by giving clear directions for undertaking the analysis in the most popular statistical packages. The article also introduces the DJMIXED: add-on package for SPSS, which makes entering the models and reporting their results as straightforward as possible.
Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline D; Tanner, Andrea; Kim, Sei-Hill
Participation in clinical trials (CTs) is low among rural communities. Investigators report difficulty recruiting rural individuals for CTs. The study purpose was to identify recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies to help increase access to and participation in CTs in rural and urban communities. Qualitative focus groups/interviews. Rural and urban counties in one southeastern state. Two hundred twelve African-American and white men and women ages 21+. Nineteen focus groups and nine interviews were conducted. Audio files were transcribed and organized into NVivo10. Recurring themes were examined by geographic location. Although similar barriers, motivators, and strategies were reported by urban and rural groups, perceptions regarding their importance varied. Recruitment barriers mentioned in both rural and urban groups included fear, side effects, limited understanding, limited time, and mistrust. Rural groups were more mindful of time commitment involved. Both rural and urban participants reported financial incentives as the top motivator to CT participation, followed by personal illness (urban groups) and benefits to family (rural groups). Recruitment strategies suggested by rural participants involved working with schools/churches and using word of mouth, whereas partnering with schools, word of mouth, and media were recommended most by urban groups. Perceived recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies did not differ considerably between rural and urban groups. Major barriers identified by participants should be addressed in future CT recruitment and education efforts. Findings can inform recruitment and communication strategies for reaching both urban and rural communities.
Flood-Grady, Elizabeth; Clark, Virginia C; Bauer, Angie; Morelli, Lauren; Horne, Patrick; Krieger, Janice L; Nelson, David R
Although registries can rapidly identify clinical study participants, it is unknown which follow up methods for recruiting are most effective. Our goal is to examine the efficacy of three communication strategies for recruiting and enrolling patients who were identified via a contact registry (i.e., registry linked to a consent to re-contact program). Patients who met the study criteria were identified via the contact registry and targeted for recruitment. In condition 1, patients established in the university hepatology specialty clinics were contacted one time via phone call by the study coordinator and asked to participate (C1). In condition 2, non-established specialty clinic patients were mailed an IRB-approved letter with study information and instructions for calling the study coordinator to participate (C2). Condition 2A included patients who called within two weeks of receiving the letter (C2A); condition 2B included patients who did not call after receiving the letter but were subsequently contacted via phone call. A registry identified 1,060 patients, of which 661were eligible and targeted for recruiting. All 37 patients were reached in C1 and 17 (45.9%) were recruited. Nineteen of the 624 patients in C2A were reached and 10 were recruited whereas 120 of the 605 patients in C2B were reached and 53 (8.7%) were recruited. Seventy patients enrolled with C2B being the most effective (total, cost) recruitment strategy ( n = 50) ( p recruiting.
Idoko, Olubukola T; Owolabi, Olumuyiwa A; Odutola, Aderonke A; Ogundare, Olatunde; Worwui, Archibald; Saidu, Yauba; Smith-Sanneh, Alison; Tunkara, Abdoulie; Sey, Gibbi; Sanyang, Assan; Mendy, Philip; Ota, Martin O C
Clinical trials are increasingly being conducted as new products seek to enter the market. Deployment of such interventions is based on evidence obtained mainly from the gold standard of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCCT). A crucial factor in the ability of RCCTs to provide credible and generalisable data is sample size and retention of the required number of subjects at completion of the follow-up period. However, recruitment and retention in clinical trials are hindered by prevalent peculiar challenges in Africa that need to be circumvented. This article shares experiences from a phase II trial that recorded a high retention rate at 14 months follow-up at a new clinical trial site. Mothers bringing children less than two months of age to the health facility were given information and invited to have their child enrolled if the inclusion criteria were fulfilled. Participants were enrolled over 8 months. Trial procedures, duration and risks/benefits were painstakingly and sequentially explained to the communities, parents and relevant relatives before and during the trial period. The proportions of participants that completed or did not complete the trial were analyzed including the reasons for failure to complete all trial procedures. 1044 individuals received information regarding the trial of which 371 returned for screening. 300 (81%) of them who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and did not meet any exclusion criteria were enrolled and 94% of these completed the trial. Consent withdrawal was the main reason for not completing the trial largely (75%) due to the father not being involved at the point of consenting or parents no longer being comfortable with blood sampling. Participant retention in clinical trials remains a crucial factor in ensuring generalisability of trial data. Appropriate measures to enhance retention should include continuous community involvement in the process, adequate explanation of trial procedures and risks/benefits; and
Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N
Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.
Full Text Available Dolores P Langford,1,2 Lena Fleig,3–5 Kristin C Brown,3,4 Nancy J Cho,1,2 Maeve Frost,1 Monique Ledoyen,1 Jayne Lehn,1 Kostas Panagiotopoulos,1,6 Nina Sharpe,1 Maureen C Ashe3,4 1Vancouver Coastal Health, 2Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 3Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 4Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Freie Universität Berlin, Health Psychology, Berlin, Germany; 6Department of Orthopaedics, The University of British Columbia (UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objectives: Our primary aim of this pilot study was to test feasibility of the planned design, the interventions (education plus telephone coaching, and the outcome measures, and to facilitate a power calculation for a future randomized controlled trial to improve adherence to recovery goals following hip fracture.Design: This is a parallel 1:1 randomized controlled feasibility study.Setting: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Vancouver, BC, Canada.Participants: Participants were community-dwelling adults over 60 years of age with a recent hip fracture. They were recruited and assessed in hospital, and then randomized after hospital discharge to the intervention or control group by a web-based randomization service. Treatment allocation was concealed to the investigators, measurement team, and data entry assistants and analysts. Participants and the research physiotherapist were aware of treatment allocation.Intervention: Intervention included usual care for hip fracture plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using a patient-centered educational manual and four videos, and up to five postdischarge telephone calls from a physiotherapist to provide recovery coaching. The control group received usual care plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using the educational manual and videos.Measurement: Our primary outcome was feasibility, specifically recruitment
Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.
Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-...
Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken
Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.
Schwarz, Anne-Sophie; Bilberg, Randi; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov
- The Relay Model. METHOD/DESIGN: The study is a single-blind pragmatic randomized controlled trial including patients admitted to the hospital. The study group (n = 500) will receive an intervention, and the control group (n = 500) will be referred to treatment by usual procedures. All patients complete......://register.clinicaltrials.gov/by identifier: RESCueH_Relay NCT02188043 Project Relay Model for Recruiting Alcohol Dependent Patients in General Hospitals (TRN Registration: 07/09/2014)....
Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Williams, Christopher J; Kamel Boulos, Maged N
Google AdWords are increasingly used to recruit people into research studies and clinical services. They offer the potential to recruit from targeted control areas in cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but little is known about the feasibility of accurately targeting ads by location and comparing with control areas. To examine the accuracy and contamination of control areas by a location-targeted online intervention using Google AdWords in a pilot cluster RCT. Based on previous use of online cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and population size, we purposively selected 16 of the 121 British postcode areas and randomized them to three intervention and one (do-nothing) control arms. Two intervention arms included use of location-targeted AdWords, and we compared these with the do-nothing control arm. We did not raise the visibility of our research website to normal Web searches. Users who clicked on the ad were directed to our project website, which collected the computer Internet protocol (IP) address, date, and time. Visitors were asked for their postcode area and to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire (depression). They were then offered links to several online depression resources. Google Analytics largely uses IP methods to estimate location, but AdWords uses additional information. We compared locations assessed by (1) Analytics, and (2) as self-identified by users. Ads were shown 300,523 times with 4207 click-throughs. There were few site visits except through AdWord click-throughs. Both methods of location assessment agreed there was little contamination of control areas. According to Analytics, 69.75% (2617/3752) of participants were in intervention areas, only 0% (8/3752) in control areas, but 30.04% (1127/3752) in other areas. However, according to user-stated postcodes, only 20.7% (463/2237) were in intervention areas, 1% (22/2236) in control areas, but 78.31% (1751/2236) in other areas. Both location assessments suggested most
Merchant, Roland C; Romanoff, Justin; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose; Mayer, Kenneth H
The Internet is a commonly used medium for recruiting geographically dispersed, smaller populations quickly, such as young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM). One approach to improve reach and representativeness is to employ multiple Internet platforms to recruit this hard-to-reach population. The utility of this approach has not been studied adequately, and its impact on the study sample recruited is not yet known. Using data from a study of 18- to 24-year-old HIV-uninfected, Black, Hispanic, and White United States (US) YMSM, this investigation compared advertising and enrollment metrics and participant characteristics of those recruited across Internet platforms. Of the 2,444 participants, their median age was 22 years old; 21% were Black, 37% Hispanic, and 42% White; 90% had been tested for HIV at least once in their life; and 87% reported prior condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with another man. There were noticeable differences across platforms in the number of people accessing the study website, meeting study eligibility requirements, consenting to participate, consenting to participate per day of advertising and per click, as well as costs of advertising per consented participant. Participants recruited also varied across platform by race/ethnicity, geographic area of residence in the US, health-care insurance status, years of formal education, history of HIV testing, and CAI by partner type and sexual positioning. The investigation results indicate that the Internet platforms used for recruitment significantly impact not only enrollment but also diversity and characteristics of the sample obtained and consequently, the observations and conclusions rendered.
Saunders, C; Byrne, C D; Guthrie, B; Lindsay, R S; McKnight, J A; Philip, S; Sattar, N; Walker, J J; Wild, S H
To describe the proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland who meet eligibility criteria for inclusion in several large randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control to inform physicians and guideline developers about the generalizibility of trial results. A literature review was performed to identify large trials assessing the impact of glycaemic control on risk of macrovascular disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria from each trial were applied to data on the population of people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland in 2008 (n = 180,590) in a population-based cross-sectional study and the number and proportion of people eligible for each trial was determined. Seven trials were identified. The proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes who met the eligibility criteria for the trials ranged from 3.5 to 50.7%. Trial participants were younger at age of diagnosis of diabetes and at time of trial recruitment than in the Scottish study population. The application of upper age criteria excluded the largest proportion of patients, with up to 39% of people with Type 2 diabetes ineligible for a trial with the most stringent criteria based on age alone. We found that many of the large trials of glycaemic control among people with Type 2 diabetes have limited external validity when applied to a population-based cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes. In particular, the age distribution of trial participants often does not reflect that of people with Type 2 diabetes in a contemporary British population. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
Petosa, R L; Smith, L
In school settings, nurses lead efforts to improve the student health and well-being to support academic success. Nurses are guided by evidenced-based practice and data to inform care decisions. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the gold standard of scientific rigor for clinical trials. RCTs are critical to the development of evidence-based health promotion programs in schools. The purpose of this article is to present practical solutions to implementing principles of randomization to RCT trials conducted in school settings. Randomization is a powerful sampling method used to build internal and external validity. The school's daily organization and educational mission provide several barriers to randomization. Based on the authors' experience in conducting school-based RCTs, they offer a host of practical solutions to working with schools to successfully implement randomization procedures. Nurses play a critical role in implementing RCTs in schools to promote rigorous science in support of evidence-based practice.
Subasinghe, Asvini K; Nguyen, Margaret; Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M
Background Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Methods Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertiseme...
Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina; Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge
Interest in Internet-based epidemiologic research is growing given the logistic and cost advantages. Cohort recruitment to maximally diversify the sociodemographic profiles of participants, however, remains a contentious issue. The aim of the study was to characterize the sociodemographic profiles according to the recruitment mode of adult volunteers enrolled in a Web-based cohort. The French NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort was launched in 2009. Recruitment is ongoing and largely relies on recurrent multimedia campaigns. One month after enrollment, participants are asked how they learned about the study (eg, general newscast or a health program on television, radio newscast, newspaper articles, Internet, personal advice, leaflet/flyers) The sociodemographic profiles of participants recruited through operative communication channels (radio, print media, Internet, advice) were compared with the profiles of those informed through television by using polytomous logistic regression. Among the 88,238 participants enrolled through the end of 2011, 30,401 (34.45%), 16,751 (18.98%), and 14,309 (16.22%) learned about the study from television, Internet, and radio newscasts, respectively. Sociodemographic profiles were various, with 14,541 (16.5%) aged ≥60 years, 20,166 (22.9%) aged income income €3700/month. Compared to employed individuals, unemployed and retired participants were less likely to be informed about the study through other sources than through television (adjusted ORs 0.56-0.83, Pbased studies regarding the development of promising targeted or general population recruitment strategies.
Vemulakonda, Vijaya M; Jones, Jacqueline
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing treatment efficacy. However, pediatric surgical RCTs have been limited in their ability to recruit patients. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and motivators to pediatric participation in surgical RCTs. We conducted a series of two focus groups with parents and one focus group with urology providers for children aged analysis of focus group findings. Theme analysis was used for all qualitative transcribed text data obtained from focus groups and open-ended survey questions using team-based inductive approaches. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the remainder of the provider survey. Using qualitative text from stakeholders (n = 38) we identified four key themes across the data: responsibility to my child; responsibility to my patient; responsibility to the field; and irreversibility of surgery. Participants felt there was an obligation to be informed of relevant scientific research within a clinic research culture. However, there remains a disconnect for parents between randomized research studies that may ultimately benefit their child, depending on their age and concern their child is being treated as a 'guinea pig'. Some parents were willing to participate in RCTs but all were more open to participate in an observational study where the treatment decisions were felt to be under their control even when there was no "right answer" or multiple equivalent options for treatment. There was mixed opinion across the parents and providers whether research trial education and enrollment should be provided by the pediatrician or urologist. Active physician decisions were seen as critical within the context of a long term clinical relationship and provision of information of risks and benefits without pressure were considered essential for ethical research by both parents and providers. While some parents are open to participation in surgical RCTs, providers and
Adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs have used many different strategies and tools to recruit new students. A small sampling of Tennessee ABE programs shows the more effective recruitment strategies are word-of-mouth referrals; newspaper advertisements and articles; fliers; brochures; posters, radio messages, and public service…
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.
Objective: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. Method: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in
Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L.; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M.; Bock, Beth C.
Innovative treatments like yoga for men’s smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men’s SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18–65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±1...
Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky
American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and
Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Chang, Mabel; Cramer, Gregory D
The purpose of this article is to describe the methods for recruitment in a clinical trial on chiropractic care for lumbar spinal stenosis. This randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study investigated the efficacy of different amounts of total treatment dosage over 6 weeks in 60 volunteer subjects with lumbar spinal stenosis. Subjects were recruited for this study through several media venues, focusing on successful and cost-effective strategies. Included in our efforts were radio advertising, newspaper advertising, direct mail, and various other low-cost initiatives. Of the 1211 telephone screens, 60 responders (5.0%) were randomized into the study. The most successful recruitment method was radio advertising, generating more than 64% of the calls (776 subjects). Newspaper and magazine advertising generated approximately 9% of all calls (108 subjects), and direct mail generated less than 7% (79 subjects). The total direct cost for recruitment was $40 740 or $679 per randomized patient. The costs per randomization were highest for direct mail ($995 per randomization) and lowest for newspaper/magazine advertising ($558 per randomization). Success of recruitment methods may vary based on target population and location. Planning of recruitment efforts is essential to the success of any clinical trial. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Banck-Petersen, Anna; Olsen, Cecilie K; Djurhuus, Sissal S; Herrstedt, Anita; Thorsen-Streit, Sarah; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Østerlind, Kell; Osterkamp, Jens; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Vistisen, Kirsten; Mosgaard, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K; Højman, Pernille; Christensen, Jesper F
Low physical activity level is associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). To increase physical activity, technology-based platforms are emerging and provide intriguing opportunities to prescribe and monitor active lifestyle interventions. The "Interval Walking in Colorectal Cancer"(I-WALK-CRC) study explores the feasibility and efficacy a home-based interval-walking intervention delivered by a smart-phone application in order to improve cardio-metabolic health profile among CRC survivors. The aim of the present report is to describe the design, methods and recruitment results of the I-WALK-CRC study.Methods/Results: The I-WALK-CRC study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a home-based interval walking intervention compared to a waiting-list control group for physiological and patient-reported outcomes. Patients who had completed surgery for local stage disease and patients who had completed surgery and any adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced stage disease were eligible for inclusion. Between October 1st , 2015, and February 1st , 2017, 136 inquiries were recorded; 83 patients were eligible for enrollment, and 42 patients accepted participation. Age and employment status were associated with participation, as participants were significantly younger (60.5 vs 70.8 years, P CRC survivors was feasible but we aim to better the recruitment rate in future studies. Further, the study clearly favored younger participants. The I-WALK-CRC study will provide important information regarding feasibility and efficacy of a home-based walking exercise program in CRC survivors.
Guillemin, Marilys; Barnard, Emma; Walker, Hannah; Bennell, Kim; Hinman, Rana; Gillam, Lynn
This study explored participants' experiences of randomized controlled trial (RCT) participation to examine their understanding of the trial design and whether their consent was indeed informed. A nested qualitative interview study was conducted with 38 participants from a sample of 282 who participated in a complex RCT evaluating the effectiveness of laser compared with needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain. Overall participants had a good understanding of the RCT, and concepts such as randomization and placebo. Their experiences of being in the trial were largely positive, even if they did not experience any knee pain improvement. Their responses to unblinding at the end of the study were accepting. Participants had a good functional understanding of the RCT, sufficient for valid informed consent. © The Author(s) 2015.
Helen M Kirkby
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess: 1 the feasibility of electronic information provision; 2 gather evidence on the topics and level of detail of information potential research participant's accessed; 3 to assess satisfaction and understanding. DESIGN: Observational study with an embedded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Low risk intervention study based in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: White British & Irish, South Asian and African-Caribbean subjects aged between 40-74 years eligible for a blood pressure monitoring study. INTERVENTIONS: PDF copy of the standard paper participant information sheet (PDF-PIS and an electronic Interactive Information Sheet (IIS where participants could choose both the type and level of detail accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1 Proportion of participants providing an email address and accessing electronic information 2 Willingness to participate in a recruitment clinic. 3 Type and depth of information accessed on the IIS. 4 Participant satisfaction and understanding. RESULTS: 1160 participants were eligible for the study. Of these, 276 (24% provided an active email address, of whom 84 did not respond to the email. 106 responded to the email but chose not to access any electronic information and were therefore ineligible for randomisation. 42 were randomised to receive the PDF-PIS and 44 to receive the IIS (with consent rates of 48% and 36%, respectively; odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.4. Electronic observation of information accessed by potential participants showed 41% chose to access no information and only 9% accessed the detail presented on the Research Ethics Committee approved participant information sheet before booking to attend a recruitment clinic for the intervention study. 63 of the 106 participants (59% who chose not to access any electronic information also booked an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Current written information about research may not be read, emphasising the importance of the consent
Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J
Background Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. Objective To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues....
Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.
Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…
Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Cabrera, Julissa; Freyre, Rachel; Grossman, Melanie; Alvarez, Natalie; Mathur, Deepika; Guerrero, Maria; Delgadillo, Adriana T.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Stewart, Anita L.
Purpose: To conduct and evaluate a two-phased community-based approach to recruit lower socioeconomic status, minority, or Spanish-speaking adults at risk of developing diabetes to a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program delivered by a public health department. Design: Within geographic areas comprising our target population, 4 community organizations provided local space for conducting the study and program. Phase I—outreach in venues surrounding these organizations—included diabetes education, a short diabetes risk appraisal (DRA), and diabetes risk screening based on a fasting fingerstick glucose test. Phase II—trial recruitment—began concurrently for those found to be at risk of developing diabetes in Phase I by explaining the study, lifestyle program, and research process. Those interested and eligible enrolled in the 1-year study. Results: Over 2 years, approximately 5,110 individuals received diabetes education, 1,917 completed a DRA, and 1,164 were screened of which 641 (55%) had an elevated fingerstick result of ≥106 mg/dl. Of the study sampling frame—persons over age 25 at risk of developing diabetes (N = 544)—238 (43%) enrolled in the trial; of those who were study eligible (n = 427), 56% enrolled. In the final sample, mean age was 56 years (SD = 17), 78% were ethnic minorities, 32% were Spanish-speaking, and 15% had a high school education or less. Implications: Providing diabetes health education and screening prior to study recruitment may help overcome barriers to research participation in underserved communities, thus helping address difficulties recruiting minority and older populations into research, particularly research pertaining to chronic disease risk factors. PMID:21565823
Khatri, Chetan; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Bhangu, Aneel; Fitzgerald, J Edward
A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study. Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score. Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%). Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%). Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%), followed by Facebook (11.9%), Twitter (4.8%) and YouTube (1.5%). A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48%) of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout) score of 42/100 was obtained during this period. Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for maximising cost
Khatri, Chetan; Chapman, Stephen J.; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Bhangu, Aneel; Fitzgerald, J. Edward
Aims A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study. Methods Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score. Results Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%). Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%). Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%), followed by Facebook (11.9%), Twitter (4.8%) and YouTube (1.5%). A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48%) of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter ‘social influence’ (Klout) score of 42/100 was obtained during this period. Conclusions Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most
Full Text Available A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study.Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score.Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%. Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%. Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%, followed by Facebook (11.9%, Twitter (4.8% and YouTube (1.5%. A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48% of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout score of 42/100 was obtained during this period.Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for
Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Young, Myles D; Callister, Robin
Men are underrepresented in weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention studies. To determine the effectiveness of recruitment, and acceptability of the T2DM Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) Program-a gender-targeted, self-administered intervention for men. Men (18-65 years, high risk for T2DM) were randomized to intervention ( n = 53) or wait-list control groups ( n = 48). The 6-month PULSE Program intervention focused on weight loss, diet, and exercise for T2DM prevention. A process evaluation questionnaire was administered at 6 months to examine recruitment and selection processes, and acceptability of the intervention's delivery and content. Associations between self-monitoring and selected outcomes were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. A pragmatic recruitment and online screening process was effective in identifying men at high risk of T2DM (prediabetes prevalence 70%). Men reported the trial was appealing because it targeted weight loss, T2DM prevention, and getting fit, and because it was perceived as "doable" and tailored for men. The intervention was considered acceptable, with men reporting high overall satisfaction (83%) and engagement with the various components. Adherence to self-monitoring was poor, with only 13% meeting requisite criteria. However, significant associations were observed between weekly self-monitoring of weight and change in weight ( r s = -.47, p = .004) and waist circumference ( r s = -.38, p = .026). Men reported they would have preferred more intervention contact, for example, by phone or email. Gender-targeted, self-administered lifestyle interventions are feasible, appealing, and satisfying for men. Future studies should explore the effects of additional non-face-to-face contact on motivation, accountability, self-monitoring adherence, and program efficacy.
Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj
Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.
Stratton, Shawna L; Spencer, Horace J; Greenfield, William W; Low, Gordon; Hitt, Wilbur C; Quick, Charles M; Jeffus, Susanne K; Blackmon, Victoria; Nakagawa, Mayumi
Historically, recruitment and retention of young women in intervention-based clinical trials have been challenging. In August 2012, enrollment for a clinical trial testing of an investigational human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccine called PepCan was opened at our institution. This study was an open-label, single-arm, single-institution, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial. Women with recent Papanicolaou smear results showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or results that could not rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were eligible to enroll. Patients with biopsy-confirmed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were also eligible. Colposcopy was performed at the screening visit, and participants became eligible for vaccination when the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was confirmed with biopsy and other inclusion criteria were met. The aim of this study was to identify strategies and factors effective in recruitment and retention of study participants. Potential vaccine candidates were recruited through direct advertisement as well as referrals, including referrals through the Arkansas telecolposcopy network. The network is a federally funded program, administered by physicians and advanced practice nurses. The network telemedically links rural health sites and allows physician-guided colposcopy and biopsies to be conducted by advanced practice nurses. A variety of strategies were employed to assure good retention, including face-to-face contact with the study coordinator at the time of consent and most of study visits; frequent contact using text messaging, phone calls, and e-mails; and creation of a private Facebook page to improve communication among research staff and study participants. A questionnaire, inquiring about motivation for joining the study, occupation, education, household income, number of children, and number of sexual partners, was administered at the screening visit with the intent of
Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ciosek, Stephanie L; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A
Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18-55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS.
Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine G; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C
Innovative treatments like yoga for men's smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men's SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18-65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±13.7) who smoked on average 18.6 cigarettes/day (±8.3). Wellness (75.8 %) versus yoga (56 %) men attended more SC classes, p < 0.01. Sixty percent attended ≥1 yoga class. Men reported greater satisfaction with in-house versus community yoga classes. Wellness appears to be the preferred intervention; results indicated that it may be more feasible and showed increased attendance at smoking classes. To be fully feasible, yoga + SC may need to be a unified program offering all classes tailored for men and in the same location.
Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gortmaker, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.
Relatively little research has assessed the association between obesogenic behaviors in parents and their children. The objective of the present analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations in television (TV)/video viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and fast food intake between mothers and their pre-school aged children. We studied baseline data among 428 participants in High Five for Kids, a randomized controlled trial of behavior change among overweight and obese children age...
Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Wasserman, Danuta; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Keresztény, Agnes; Iosue, Miriam; Mars, Ursa; Musa, George; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Peeter; Varnik, Airi; Hoven, Christina W
Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness
Nikoo, Mohammadali; Vogel, Marc; Choi, Fiona; Song, Michael J; Burghardt, Jensen; Zafari, Zafar; Tabi, Katarina; Frank, Anastasia; Barbic, Skye; Schütz, Christian; Jang, Kerry; Krausz, Michael
Employment is one of the less studied but a significant outcome of medication-assisted treatment. Thus, we aimed to explore employment outcomes of medication-assisted treatment with hydromorphone (HDM) or diacetylmorphine (DAM). The secondary aim was to estimate characteristics of this population as well as treatment-related factors associated with these outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double blind controlled trial. A total of 102 and 100 participants were randomized to receive injectable DAM or HDM for 6 months respectively. In stage 2, 144 participants were randomized again to receive either oral or injectable forms of the medication they received for another 6 months. Participants were interviewed at 5 timepoints: before and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment assignment. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a logit link was fitted to determine factors related to paid work in the past 30 days. Mean age of participants was 44.3 (SD = 9.6) and 59 (29.2%) participants were men. At each timepoint, 6-8 (3.6%-4.1%) participants reported employment in the past 30 days and 40 to 52 (19.7%-26.7%) reported minimum 1 day of paid work. University or college education [OR = 2.12: 95% CI = (1.25, 3.62), P = 0.01] was significantly associated with paid work after adjustment for age, gender, treatment arms, timepoints, days receiving study treatment, physical health, psychological health and crack cocaine use in the past 30 days. The rate of employment was lower among participants of this study compared to similar studies on heroin-assisted treatment. Higher education was associated with increased odds of paid work. A large gap exists between employment rate and the proportion of participants who reported paid work. Supported employment and occupational therapy could optimize the employment outcomes of this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ryu, Kyoungho; Choi, Wonjun; Shim, Jaegeum; Song, Taejong
A pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) can effectively reduce post-laparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP). However, a high-pressure PRM may cause pulmonary barotrauma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a PRM using two different maximum inspiratory pressures (40 and 60cmH 2 O) for reducing PLSP. Patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30), a 40 cmH 2 O PRM group (n=30), and a 60 cmH 2 O PRM group (n=30). In the control group, residual carbon dioxide was removed by passive exsufflation through the port site. In the two intervention groups, the PRM consisting of five manual pulmonary inflations was performed at the end of surgery with a maximum pressure of 40 cmH 2 O or 60 cmH 2 O, respectively. Shoulder pain and wound pain were recorded using a visual analogue scale at 24 and 48h postoperatively. Wound pain scores at 24 and 48h post-surgery were not different between the three groups. The PLSP scores in the two intervention groups were significantly lower than that seen in the control group at 24 and 48h postoperatively (P=0.006 and P<0.001, respectively). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the PLSP scores between the two intervention groups. A low-pressure PRM (40cmH 2 O) is as effective as a high-pressure PRM (60cmH 2 O) for removing residual gas from the peritoneal cavity. PRM using a maximal inspiratory pressure of 40cmH 2 O is safe and efficacious for the reduction of PLSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Since November 1996, CNA has participated on a Technology Task Force established by the Commander, Navy Recruiting Command, to address several issues concerning the use of technology and Navy recruiting...
Würtzen, Hanne; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Kaae Andersen, Klaus
Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. RESULTS: Participants......BACKGROUND: Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. METHODS: We used...
Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.
Flexman, Alana M; Gooderham, Peter A; Griesdale, Donald E; Argue, Ruth; Toyota, Brian
Although recruitment maneuvers have been advocated as part of a lung protective ventilation strategy, their effects on cerebral physiology during elective neurosurgery are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure (SDP), brain relaxation score (BRS), and cerebral perfusion pressure among patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection. In this prospective crossover study, patients scheduled for resection of a supratentorial brain tumour were randomized to undergo either a recruitment maneuver (30 cm of water for 30 sec) or a "sham" maneuver (5 cm of water for 30 sec), followed by the alternative intervention after a 90-sec equilibration period. Subdural pressure was measured through a dural perforation following opening of the cranium. Subdural pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously. The blinded neurosurgeon provided a BRS at baseline and at the end of each intervention. During each treatment, the changes in SDP, BRS, and MAP were compared. Twenty-one patients underwent the study procedure. The increase in SDP was higher during the recruitment maneuver than during the sham maneuver (difference, 3.9 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 5.6; P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure decreased further in the recruitment maneuver than in the sham maneuver (difference, -9.0 mmHg; 95% CI, -12.5 to -5.6; P < 0.001). Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased 14 mmHg (95% CI, 4 to 24) during the recruitment maneuver. The BRS did not change with either maneuver. Our results suggest that recruitment maneuvers increase subdural pressure and reduce cerebral perfusion pressure, although the clinical importance of these findings is thus far unknown. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02093117.
Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; McGrath, Nuala; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa
To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants' comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant's comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy.
Burt, Richard D; Thiede, Hanne
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of peer-based study recruitment and analysis that incorporates features designed to limit and adjust for biases in traditional snowball sampling. It is being widely used in studies of hidden populations. We report an empirical evaluation of RDS's consistency and variability, comparing groups recruited contemporaneously, by identical methods and using identical survey instruments. We randomized recruitment chains from the RDS-based 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug users in the Seattle area into two groups and compared them in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, drug-associated risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and HIV testing frequency. The two groups differed in five of the 18 variables examined (P ≤ .001): race (e.g., 60% white vs. 47%), gender (52% male vs. 67%), area of residence (32% downtown Seattle vs. 44%), an HIV test in the previous 12 months (51% vs. 38%). The difference in serologic HIV status was particularly pronounced (4% positive vs. 18%). In four further randomizations, differences in one to five variables attained this level of significance, although the specific variables involved differed. We found some material differences between the randomized groups. Although the variability of the present study was less than has been reported in serial RDS surveys, these findings indicate caution in the interpretation of RDS results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn
Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…
Perspectives on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment for clinical trials among cancer center leaders, investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians: enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT).
Durant, Raegan W; Wenzel, Jennifer A; Scarinci, Isabel C; Paterniti, Debora A; Fouad, Mona N; Hurd, Thelma C; Martin, Michelle Y
The study of disparities in minority recruitment to cancer clinical trials has focused primarily on inquiries among minority populations. Yet very little is known about the perceptions of individuals actively involved in minority recruitment to clinical trials within cancer centers. Therefore, the authors assessed the perspectives of cancer center clinical and research personnel on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. In total, 91 qualitative interviews were conducted at 5 US cancer centers among 4 stakeholder groups: cancer center leaders, principal investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analyses of response data was focused on identifying prominent themes related to barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. The perspectives of the 4 stakeholder groups were largely overlapping with some variations based on their unique roles in minority recruitment. Four prominent themes were identified: 1) racial and ethnic minorities are influenced by varying degrees of skepticism related to trial participation, 2) potential minority participants often face multilevel barriers that preclude them from being offered an opportunity to participate in a clinical trial, 3) facilitators at both the institutional and participant level potentially encourage minority recruitment, and 4) variation between internal and external trial referral procedures may limit clinical trial opportunities for racial and ethnic minorities. Multilevel approaches are needed to address barriers and optimize facilitators within cancer centers to enhance minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Kaitlyn E. Brodar
Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.
Frew, Paula M; Shapiro, Eve T; Lu, Lu; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Keyserling, Harry L; Mulligan, Mark J
This investigation evaluated several factors associated with diverse participant enrollment of a clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity, and comparative viremia associated with administration of 17-D live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine given alone or in combination with human immune globulin. We obtained baseline participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed recruitment outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of 355 potential Yellow Fever vaccine study participants, 231 cases were analyzed. Strong interest in study participation was observed among racial and ethnically diverse persons with 36.34% eligible following initial study screening, resulting in 18.75% enrollment. The percentage of white participants increased from 63.66% (prescreened sample) to 81.25% (enrollment group). The regression model was significant with white race as a predictor of enrollment (OR=2.744, 95% CI=1.415-5.320, p=0.003).In addition, persons were more likely to enroll via direct outreach and referral mechanisms compared to mass advertising (OR=2.433, 95% CI=1.102-5.369). The findings indicate that racially diverse populations can be recruited to vaccine clinical trials, yet actual enrollment may not reflect that diversity.
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Banthia, Rajni; Gutierrez, Ivan; Varni, James W.
Multiple barriers contribute to the slow recruitment of participants to research studies, which in turn extends the time required to translate promising scientific discoveries into proven therapeutic interventions. A small but growing literature is developing on the extraordinary costs of recruiting participants to studies, and thereby demonstrating that underestimating the cost of participant recruitment can contribute to these recruitment problems. These recruitment challenges and costs are exacerbated when the participants’ study eligibility is determined by relatively narrowly defined illness parameters. Recruitment challenges are further compounded when dyads (two individuals engaged in a sociologically significant relationship, such as husbands and wives, siblings or extended families) must be recruited to an illness-focused study. For these latter groups, there are no data to guide researchers in how to anticipate those participant recruitment costs. This paper describes the staff costs for a variety of strategies used to recruit participants to a randomized supportive care study for couples who were within 18 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis. Pegged to the value of the U.S. dollar for the period, the average cost of staff time was $288 per recruited and enrolled dyad, plus a promised additional $100 incentive for study retention. Within the strategies used, the staff costs per recruited dyad ranged from $ 152 to $1,688. Accrual per strategy ranged from zero to 107 enrolled couples. When asked for secondary sources of information about the study, many participants reported more than one source of study referral, reflective of the multifaceted recruitment strategies deployed. In spite of innovative, culturally competent, and broad based recruitment methods, attainment of a diverse sample was difficult to accomplish in this study. Having estimates of the actual cost of recruiting dyads to research studies can help investigators prepare realistic study
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M
Relatively little research has assessed the association between obesogenic behaviors in parents and their children. The objective of the present analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations in television (TV)/video viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and fast food intake between mothers and their preschool aged children. We studied baseline data among 428 participants in High Five for Kids, a randomized controlled trial of behavior change among overweight and obese children of ages 2-6.9 years. The main exposures were whether mothers viewed TV/videos beverages, and ate fast food food beverages (73%), while few mothers viewed food goal (68%), but not the goals for sugar-sweetened beverages (31%) or TV/video viewing (13%). In adjusted models, the odds ratios for a child meeting the goal were 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 6.2) for TV/video viewing, 5.8 (95% CI 2.8, 12.0) for sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and 17.5 (95% CI 9.8, 31.2) for fast food intake if their mothers met the goal for the same behavior. Obesogenic behaviors of mothers and preschool aged children were strongly associated. Our findings lend support to obesity prevention strategies that target parental behavior and the family environment.
Fefelova, E A; Stolyarenko, A D; Yakushev, E Y; Gvozdev, V A; Klenov, M S
Proteins of the Piwi family and short Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) ensure the protection of the genome from transposable elements. We have previously shown that nuclear Piwi protein tends to concentrate in the nucleoli of the cells of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. It could be hypothesized that the function of Piwi in the nucleolus is associated with the repression of R1 and R2 retrotransposons inserted into the rDNA cluster. Here, we show that Piwi participates in recruiting Udd protein to nucleoli. Udd is a component of the conserved Selectivity Factor I-like (SL1-like) complex, which is required for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I. We found that Udd localization depends on Piwi in germline cells, but not in somatic cells of the ovaries. In contrast, knockdowns of the SL1-like components (Udd or TAF1b) do not disrupt Piwi localization. We also observed that the absence of Udd or TAF1b in germline cells, as well as the impairment of Piwi nuclear localization lead to the accumulation of late stage egg chambers in the ovaries, which could be explained by reduced rRNA transcription. These results allow us to propose for the first time a role for Piwi in the nucleolus that is not directly associated with transposable element repression.
Gollhofer, Sandra M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Schmidt, Martina E; Klassen, Oliver; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Oelmann, Jan; Hof, Holger; Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen
Over the past years knowledge about benefits of physical activity after cancer is evolving from randomized exercise intervention trials. However, it has been argued that results may be biased by selective participation. Therefore, we investigated factors influencing participation in a randomized exercise intervention trial for breast cancer patients. Non-metastatic breast cancer patients were systematically screened for a randomized exercise intervention trial on cancer-related fatigue. Participants and nonparticipants were compared concerning sociodemographic characteristics (age, marital status, living status, travel time to the training facility), clinical data (body-mass-index, tumor stage, tumor size and lymph node status, comorbidities, chemotherapy), fatigue, and physical activity. Reasons for participation or declination were recorded. 117 patients (52 participants, 65 nonparticipants) were evaluable for analysis. Multiple regression analyses revealed significantly higher odds to decline participation among patients with longer travel time (p = 0.0012), living alone (p = 0.039), with more comorbidities (0.031), previous chemotherapy (p = 0.0066), of age ≥ 70 years (p = 0.025), or being free of fatigue (p = 0.0007). No associations were found with BMI or physical activity. By far the most frequently reported reason for declination of participation was too long commuting time to the training facility. Willingness of breast cancer patients to participate in a randomized exercise intervention study differed by sociodemographic factors and health status. Neither current physical activity level nor BMI appeared to be selective for participation. Reduction of personal inconveniences and time effort, e.g. by decentralized training facilities or flexible training schedules, seem most promising for enhancing participation in exercise intervention trials. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01468766 (October 2011)
Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W; Haddock, Nicole M; Anderson, Melissa L; Chubak, Jessica; Green, Beverly B
Few studies use longitudinal data to identify predictors of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). We examined predictors of (1) initial CRCS during the first year of a randomized trial, and (2) repeat CRCS during the second year of the trial among those that completed FOBT in Year 1. The sample comprised 1247 participants of the Systems of Support to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (SOS) Trial (Group Health Cooperative, August 2008 to November 2011). Potential predictors of CRCS were identified with logistic regression and included sociodemographics, health history, and validated scales of psychosocial constructs. Prior CRCS (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.99-3.52) and intervention group (Automated: OR 2.06 95% CI 1.43-2.95; Assisted: OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.69-6.03; Navigated: OR 5.64, 95% CI 3.74-8.49) were predictors of CRCS completion at Year 1. For repeat CRCS at Year 2, prior CRCS at baseline (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.25-3.11), intervention group (Automated: OR 9.27, 95% CI 4.56-18.82; Assisted: OR 11.17, 95% CI 5.44-22.94; Navigated: OR 13.10, 95% CI 6.33-27.08), and self-efficacy (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00-1.73) were significant predictors. Self-efficacy and prior CRCS are important predictors of future screening behavior. CRCS completion increased when access barriers were removed through interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF).
Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L; Chilton, Mariana
Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full) and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %), never married (83.5 %), unemployed (94.2 %), and without a bank account (66.0 %). Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure), and depression (57.3 %). Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48.5 % of the fathers of the youngest child spent
The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF
Full Text Available Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Results Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %, never married (83.5 %, unemployed (94.2 %, and without a bank account (66.0 %. Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure, and depression (57.3 %. Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48
Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280
Avins Andrew L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meeting recruitment goals is challenging for many clinical trials conducted in primary care populations. Little is known about how the use of different recruitment strategies affects the types of individuals choosing to participate or the conclusions of the study. Methods A secondary analysis was performed using data from participants recruited to a clinical trial evaluating acupuncture for chronic back pain among primary care patients in a large integrated health care organization. We used two recruitment methods: mailed letters of invitation and an advertisement in the health plan's magazine. For these two recruitment methods, we compared recruitment success (% randomized, treatment completers, drop outs and losses to follow-up, participant characteristics, and primary clinical outcomes. A linear regression model was used to test for interaction between treatment group and recruitment method. Results Participants recruited via mailed letters closely resembled those responding to the advertisement in terms of demographic characteristics, most aspects of their back pain history and current episode and beliefs and expectations about acupuncture. No interaction between method of recruitment and treatment group was seen, suggesting that study outcomes were not affected by recruitment strategy. Conclusion In this trial, the two recruitment strategies yielded similar estimates of treatment effectiveness. However, because this finding may not apply to other recruitment strategies or trial circumstances, trials employing multiple recruitment strategies should evaluate the effect of recruitment strategy on outcome. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00065585.
George, Christine Marie; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; Singha, Ashit; Levy, Diane; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph
Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As) exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs) testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs...
Breaugh, James A
The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation.
Full Text Available To investigate changes of muscle recruitment and coordination following constraint-induced movement therapy, constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation, and traditional occupational therapy in treating hand dysfunction.In a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial, children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to receive constraint-induced movement therapy (n = 22, constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation (n = 23, or traditional occupational therapy (n = 23. Three groups received a 2-week hospital-based intervention and a 6-month home-based exercise program following hospital-based intervention. Constraint-induced movement therapy involved intensive functional training of the involved hand during which the uninvolved hand was constrained. Electrical stimulation was applied on wrist extensors of the involved hand. Traditional occupational therapy involved functional unimanual and bimanual training. All children underwent clinical assessments and surface electromyography (EMG at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Surface myoelectric signals were integrated EMG, root mean square and cocontraction ratio. Clinical measures were grip strength and upper extremity functional test.Constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation group showed both a greater rate of improvement in integrated EMG of the involved wrist extensors and cocontraction ratio compared to the other two groups at 3 and 6 months, as well as improving in root mean square of the involved wrist extensors than traditional occupational therapy group (p<0.05. Positive correlations were found between both upper extremity functional test scores and integrated EMG of the involved wrist as well as grip strength and integrated EMG of the involved wrist extensors (p<0.05.Constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation is likely to produce the best outcome in improving muscle recruitment
Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J
To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F
To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.
Slosky, Laura E.; Burke, Natasha L.; Siminoff, Laura A.
Background. In stressful situations, decision making processes related to informed consent may be compromised. Given the profound levels of distress that surrogates of children in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) experience, it is important to understand what factors may be influencing the decision making process beyond the informed consent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of clinician influence and other factors on decision making regarding participation in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Method. Participants were 76 children under sedation in a PICU and their surrogate decision makers. Measures included the Post Decision Clinician Survey, observer checklist, and post-decision interview. Results. Age of the pediatric patient was related to participation decisions in the RCT such that older children were more likely to be enrolled. Mentioning the sponsoring institution was associated with declining to participate in the RCT. Type of health care provider and overt recommendations to participate were not related to enrollment. Conclusion. Decisions to participate in research by surrogates of children in the PICU appear to relate to child demographics and subtleties in communication; however, no modifiable characteristics were related to increased participation, indicating that the informed consent process may not be compromised in this population. PMID:25161672
Effective recruitment of participants to a phase I study using the internet and publicity releases through charities and patient organisations: analysis of the adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D).
Heywood, James; Evangelou, Marina; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Anselmiova, Katerina; Guy, Catherine; O'Brien, Criona; Nutland, Sarah; Brown, Judy; Walker, Neil M; Todd, John A; Waldron-Lynch, Frank
A barrier to the successful development of new disease treatments is the timely recruitment of participants to experimental medicine studies that are primarily designed to investigate biological mechanisms rather than evaluate clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to analyse the performance of three recruitment sources and the effect of publicity events during the Adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D). The final study outcome, demography, disease duration, residence and the effect of publicity events on the performance of three recruitment sources (clinics, type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease register and the internet) were analysed from a bespoke DILT1D recruitment database. For the internet source, the origin of website hits in relation to publicity events was also evaluated. A total of 735 potentially eligible participants were approached to identify the final 45 DILT1D participants. A total of 477 (64%) were identified via the disease register, but only 59 (12%) responded to contact. A total of 317 individuals registered with the DILT1D study team. Self-referral via the study website generated 170 (54%) registered individuals and was the most popular and successful source, with 88 (28%) sourced from diabetes clinics and 59 (19%) from the disease register. Of those with known T1D duration (N = 272), the internet and clinics sources identified a larger number (57, 21%) of newly diagnosed T1D (promotional events from organisations supporting T1D research and treatment during the trial were essential to the success of the internet recruitment strategy. Analysis of the DILT1D study recruitment outcomes illustrates the utility of an active internet recruitment strategy, supported by patient groups and charities, funding agencies and sponsors, in successfully conducting an early phase study in T1D. This recruitment strategy should now be evaluated in late-stage trials to develop treatments for T1D and other diseases. NCT
Scales, Charles D; Moin, Tannaz; Fink, Arlene; Berry, Sandra H; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Mangione, Carol M; Kerfoot, B Price
Several barriers challenge resident engagement in learning quality improvement (QI). We investigated whether the incorporation of team-based game mechanics into an evidence-based online learning platform could increase resident participation in a QI curriculum. Randomized, controlled trial. Tertiary-care medical center residency training programs. Resident physicians (n = 422) from nine training programs (anesthesia, emergency medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry and general surgery) randomly allocated to a team competition environment (n = 200) or the control group (n = 222). Specialty-based team assignment with leaderboards to foster competition, and alias assignment to de-identify individual participants. Participation in online learning, as measured by percentage of questions attempted (primary outcome) and additional secondary measures of engagement (i.e. response time). Changes in participation measures over time between groups were assessed with a repeated measures ANOVA framework. Residents in the intervention arm demonstrated greater participation than the control group. The percentage of questions attempted at least once was greater in the competition group (79% [SD ± 32] versus control, 68% [SD ± 37], P= 0.03). Median response time was faster in the competition group (P= 0.006). Differences in participation continued to increase over the duration of the intervention, as measured by average response time and cumulative percent of questions attempted (each Ponline course delivering QI content. Medical educators should consider game mechanics to optimize participation when designing learning experiences. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.
R. Jason Faberman
To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.
Chung, Bowen; Ngo, Victoria K; Ong, Michael K; Pulido, Esmeralda; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; Stoker-Mtume, Norma; Johnson, Megan; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth Brooks; Sherbourne, Cathy; Miranda, Jeanne
Community engagement and planning (CEP) could improve dissemination of depression care quality improvement in underresourced communities, but whether its effects on provider training participation differ from those of standard technical assistance, or resources for services (RS), is unknown. This study compared program- and staff-level participation in depression care quality improvement training among programs enrolled in CEP, which trained networks of health care and social-community agencies jointly, and RS, which provided technical support to individual programs. Matched programs from health care and social-community service sectors in two communities were randomly assigned to RS or CEP. Data were from 1,622 eligible staff members from 95 enrolled programs. Primary outcomes were any staff trained (for programs) and total hours of training (for staff). Secondary staff-level outcomes were hours of training in specific depression collaborative care components. CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in any training (p=.006). Within health care sectors, CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in training (p=.016), but within social-community sectors, there was no difference in training by intervention. Among staff who participated in training, mean training hours were greater among CEP programs versus RS programs for any type of training (ptraining related to each component of depression care (p<.001) except medication management. CEP may be an effective strategy to promote staff participation in depression care improvement efforts in underresourced communities.
Jocelyne R Benatar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Information on the rights of subjects in clinical trials has become increasingly complex and difficult to understand. This study evaluates whether a simple booklet which is relevant to all research studies improves the understanding of rights needed for subjects to provide informed consent. METHODS: 21 currently used informed consent forms (ICF from international clinical trials were separated into information related to the specific research study, and general information on participants' rights. A booklet designed to provide information on participants' rights which used simple language was developed to replace this information in current ICF's Readability of each component of ICF's and the booklet was then assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading ease score (FK. To further evaluate the booklet 282 hospital inpatients were randomised to one of three ways to present research information; a standard ICF, the booklet combined with a short ICF, or the booklet combined with a simplified ICF. Comprehension of information related to the research proposal and to participant's rights was assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Information related to participants' rights contributed an average of 44% of the words in standard ICFs, and was harder to read than information describing the clinical trial (FK 25 versus (vs. 41 respectively, p = 0.0003. The booklet reduced the number of words and improved FK from 25 to 42. The simplified ICF had a slightly higher FK score than the standard ICF (50 vs. 42. Comprehension assessed in inpatients was better for the booklet and short ICF 62%, (95% confidence interval (CI 56 to 67 correct, or simplified ICF 62% (CI 58 to 68 correct compared to 52%, (CI 47 to 57 correct for the standard ICF, p = 0.009. This was due to better understanding of questions on rights (62% vs. 49% correct, p = 0.0008. Comprehension of study related information was similar for the simplified and standard ICF (60% vs. 64
Benatar, Jocelyne R; Mortimer, John; Stretton, Matthew; Stewart, Ralph A H
Information on the rights of subjects in clinical trials has become increasingly complex and difficult to understand. This study evaluates whether a simple booklet which is relevant to all research studies improves the understanding of rights needed for subjects to provide informed consent. 21 currently used informed consent forms (ICF) from international clinical trials were separated into information related to the specific research study, and general information on participants' rights. A booklet designed to provide information on participants' rights which used simple language was developed to replace this information in current ICF's Readability of each component of ICF's and the booklet was then assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading ease score (FK). To further evaluate the booklet 282 hospital inpatients were randomised to one of three ways to present research information; a standard ICF, the booklet combined with a short ICF, or the booklet combined with a simplified ICF. Comprehension of information related to the research proposal and to participant's rights was assessed by questionnaire. Information related to participants' rights contributed an average of 44% of the words in standard ICFs, and was harder to read than information describing the clinical trial (FK 25 versus (vs.) 41 respectively, p = 0.0003). The booklet reduced the number of words and improved FK from 25 to 42. The simplified ICF had a slightly higher FK score than the standard ICF (50 vs. 42). Comprehension assessed in inpatients was better for the booklet and short ICF 62%, (95% confidence interval (CI) 56 to 67) correct, or simplified ICF 62% (CI 58 to 68) correct compared to 52%, (CI 47 to 57) correct for the standard ICF, p = 0.009. This was due to better understanding of questions on rights (62% vs. 49% correct, p = 0.0008). Comprehension of study related information was similar for the simplified and standard ICF (60% vs. 64% correct, p = 0.68). A booklet
Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J; Chlan, Linda L; Savik, Kay
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients' preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process.
Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J.; Chlan, Linda L.; Savik, Kay
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients’ preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process. PMID:25574992
King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E
Existing research on the extensive Chinese censorship organization uses observational methods with well-known limitations. We conducted the first large-scale experimental study of censorship by creating accounts on numerous social media sites, randomly submitting different texts, and observing from a worldwide network of computers which texts were censored and which were not. We also supplemented interviews with confidential sources by creating our own social media site, contracting with Chinese firms to install the same censoring technologies as existing sites, and--with their software, documentation, and even customer support--reverse-engineering how it all works. Our results offer rigorous support for the recent hypothesis that criticisms of the state, its leaders, and their policies are published, whereas posts about real-world events with collective action potential are censored. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
George, Christine Marie; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; Singha, Ashit; Levy, Diane; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph
To reduce arsenic (As) exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs) testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source. Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63%) versus community-tester villages (44%). However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio = 0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77). At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost approach to reduce As exposure in many As-affected areas of
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63% versus community-tester villages (44%. However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77. At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost
Captación de participantes en el programa experimental de prescripción de estupefacientes en Andalucía (PEPSA The experimental drug prescription program in Andalusia (PEPSA: procedure for recruiting participants
Joan Carles March
Full Text Available Esta nota tiene como finalidad describir los pasos seguidos en el proceso de captación de los participantes en el ensayo andaluz de prescripción de heroína intravenosa. El programa experimental de prescripción de estupefacientes en Andalucía (PEPSA compara el tratamiento de heroína respecto a la metadona oral, en la mejoría de la salud física y mental y la integración social. Dada las características de la población diana (usuarios de heroína por vía intravenosa en situación de exclusión social para quienes no han sido efectivos los tratamientos disponibles, se planificó un abordaje específico para acercar dichas personas al estudio. Tras una investigación previa sobre la distribución de la población diana en la ciudad de Granada, se dividió ésta en 3 zonas. Se acudía a los principales centros de reunión (plazas, comedores sociales, dispensarios de metadona y se concretaba una cita con un médico del PEPSA. El trabajo apoyado en iguales ha sido una herramienta fundamental en este proceso de captación, y ha facilitado el acercamiento a la población diana. Asimismo, este trabajo ha permitido entablar contacto con usuarios de drogas que no acceden a los servicios sociosanitarios, por lo que la labor del equipo de captación también ha sido educar en la reducción de daños y ofrecer alternativas sociales y sanitarias más allá del ensayo.In this field note we describe the steps followed in the process of recruiting participants for the experimental drug prescription program in Andalusia (PEPSA. This trial is a comparative, randomized, open study of the difference between intravenous heroin treatment and oral methadone for socially excluded, opiate-dependent patients, in whom other available treatments have been unsuccessful. Because this is a hidden and hard-to-reach population, a specific approach was planned to put as many patients as possible in touch with the program. A previous study of the target population
Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
-factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...
Olstad, Dana Lee; Crawford, David A; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha Nd; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Ball, Kylie
The impacts of supermarket-based nutrition promotion interventions might be overestimated if participants shift their proportionate food purchasing away from their usual stores. This study quantified whether participants who received price discounts on fruits and vegetables (FV) in the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial (RCT) shifted their FV purchasing into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Participants were 642 females randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Participants self-reported the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at baseline, 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact and χ 2 tests assessed differences among groups in the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at each time point. Multinomial logistic regression assessed differences among groups in the change in proportionate FV purchasing over time. Post-intervention, 49% of participants purchased ≥50% of their FV in study supermarkets. Compared to all other groups, the price reduction group was approximately twice as likely (RRR: 1.8-2.2) to have increased proportionate purchasing of FV in study supermarkets from baseline to post-intervention (psupermarkets during the intervention period. Unless food purchasing data are available for all sources, differential changes in purchasing patterns can make it difficult to discern the true impacts of nutrition interventions. The SHELf trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials Registration ISRCTN39432901, Registered 30 June 2010, Retrospectively registered ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39432901 ).
Greenley, Rachel N; Gumidyala, Amitha P; Nguyen, Eve; Plevinsky, Jill M; Poulopoulos, Natasha; Thomason, Molly M; Walter, Jennifer G; Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Blank, Ellen; Gokhale, Ranjana; Kirschner, Barbara S; Miranda, Adrian; Noe, Joshua D; Stephens, Michael C; Werlin, Steven; Kahn, Stacy A
Medication nonadherence is associated with higher disease activity, greater health care utilization, and lower health-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Problem solving skills training (PSST) is a useful tool to improve adherence in patients with chronic diseases but has not been fully investigated in IBD. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of PSST in pediatric IBD. Recruitment occurred during outpatient clinic appointments. After completion of baseline questionnaires, families were randomized to a treatment group or wait-list comparison group. The treatment group received either 2 or 4 PSST sessions. Youth health-related quality of life was assessed at 3 time points, and electronic monitoring of oral medication adherence occurred for the study duration. Seventy-six youth (ages 11-18 years) on an oral IBD maintenance medication participated. High retention (86%) and treatment fidelity rates (95%) supported feasibility. High satisfaction ratings (mean values ≥4.2 on 1-5 scale) supported intervention acceptability. Modest increases in adherence occurred after 2 PSST sessions among those with imperfect baseline adherence (d = 0.41, P 0.05). Phone-delivered PSST was feasible and acceptable. Efficacy estimates were similar to those of lengthier interventions conducted in other chronic illness populations. Older adolescents benefited more from the intervention than their younger counterparts.
Liu, Enchi; Wang, Dai; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Stephen; Fox, Nick C; Blennow, Kaj; Scheltens, Philip; Schmidt, Mark E; Streffer, Johannes; Novak, Gerald; Einstein, Steve; Booth, Kevin; Ketter, Nzeera; Brashear, H Robert
To evaluate whether amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema/effusion (ARIA-E) observed in bapineuzumab clinical trials was associated with specific biomarker patterns. Bapineuzumab, an anti-β-amyloid monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Amyloid PET imaging, CSF biomarkers, or volumetric MRI (vMRI) were assessed. A total of 1,512 participants underwent one or more biomarker assessments; 154 developed incident ARIA-E. No differences were observed at baseline between ARIA-E and non-ARIA-E participants in brain amyloid burden by PET, the majority of vMRI measures, or CSF biomarkers, with the exception of lower baseline CSF Aβ 42 in APOE ε4 noncarrier ARIA-E vs non-ARIA-E groups (bapineuzumab non-ARIA-E p = 0.027; placebo non-ARIA-E p = 0.012). At week 71, bapineuzumab-treated participants with ARIA-E vs non-ARIA-E showed greater reduction in brain amyloid PET, greater reductions in CSF phosphorylated tau (p-tau) (all comparisons p < 0.01), and total tau (t-tau) (all comparisons p < 0.025), and greater hippocampal volume reduction and ventricular enlargement (all p < 0.05). Greater reduction in CSF Aβ 40 concentrations was observed for ARIA-E versus both non-ARIA-E groups (bapineuzumab/placebo non-ARIA-E p = 0.015/0.049). No group differences were observed at week 71 for changes in whole brain volume or CSF Aβ 42 . Baseline biomarkers largely do not predict risk for developing ARIA-E. ARIA-E was associated with significant longitudinal changes in several biomarkers, with larger reductions in amyloid PET and CSF p-tau and t-tau concentrations, and paradoxically greater hippocampal volume reduction and ventricular enlargement, suggesting that ARIA-E in bapineuzumab-treated cases may be related to increased Aβ efflux from the brain and affecting downstream pathogenic processes. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.
Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Eng, Janice J; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L; Goldsmith, Charles H
Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial. A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial at two sites will compare improvement in wheelchair mobility skills between an EPIC Wheels treatment group and a computer-game control group, with additional wheelchair use introduced as a second factor. A total of 40 community-dwelling manual wheelchair users at least 55 years old and living in two Canadian metropolitan cities (n = 20 × 2) will be recruited. Feasibility indicators related to study process, resources, management, and treatment issues will be collected during data collection and at the end of the study period, and evaluated against proposed criteria. Clinical outcome measures will be collected at baseline (pre-randomization) and post-intervention. The primary clinical outcome measure is wheelchair skill capacity, as determined by the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 4.1. Secondary clinical outcome measures include wheelchair skill safety, satisfaction with performance, wheelchair confidence, life-space mobility, divided-attention, and health-related quality of life. The EPIC Wheels training program offers several innovative features. The convenient, portable, economical, and adaptable tablet-based, home program model
So, Ryuhei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Aoki, Takuya; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Suganuma, Aya M; Furukawa, Toshi A
Low participation rates are one of the most serious disadvantages of Web-based studies. It is necessary to develop effective strategies to improve participation rates to obtain sufficient data. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email and the day of the week of sending the invitation email on the participation rate in a Web-based trial. We conducted a 2×2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. We contacted 2000 primary care physicians from members of the Japan Primary Care Association in January 2017 and randomly allocated them to 1 of 4 combinations of 2 subject lines (presence or absence of an emphasis on a lottery for an Amazon gift card worth 3000 yen or approximately US $30) and 2 delivery days (sending the invitation email on Tuesday or Friday). The primary outcome was the response rate defined as the number of participants answering the first page of the questionnaire divided by the number of invitation emails delivered. All outcomes were collected between January 17, 2017, and February 8, 2017. We analyzed data from 1943 out of 2000 participants after excluding those whose email addresses were invalid. The overall response rate was 6.3% (123/1943). There was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding incentive in the subject line: the risk ratio was 1.12 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.58) and the risk difference was 0.7% (95% CI -1.5% to 2.9%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding sending the email on Tuesday or Friday: the risk ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.38) and the risk difference was -0.1% (95% CI -2.3% to 2.1%). Neither emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email nor varying the day of the week the invitation email was sent led to a meaningful increase in response rates in a Web-based trial with primary care physicians. University Hospital
Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.
Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN
Ramsey, Thomas M; Snyder, Joni K; Lovato, Laura C; Roumie, Christianne L; Glasser, Steven P; Cosgrove, Nora M; Olney, Christine M; Tang, Rocky H; Johnson, Karen C; Still, Carolyn H; Gren, Lisa H; Childs, Jeffery C; Crago, Osa L; Summerson, John H; Walsh, Sandy M; Perdue, Letitia H; Bankowski, Denise M; Goff, David C
Background The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of 9,361 participants with hypertension who are ≥ 50 years old. The trial is designed to evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure goal recruitment strategies and lessons learned during recruitment of the SPRINT cohort and five targeted participant subgroups: pre-existing cardiovascular disease, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, age ≥ 75 years, women, and minorities. Methods In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Project Office and SPRINT Coordinating Center, five Clinical Center Networks oversaw clinical site selection, recruitment, and trial activities. Recruitment began November 8, 2010 and ended March 15, 2013 (about 28 months). Various recruitment strategies were used, including mass mailing, brochures, referrals from healthcare providers or friends, posters, newspaper ads, radio ads, and electronic medical record searches. Results Recruitment was scheduled to last 24 months to enroll a target of 9,250 participants; in just over 28 months, the trial enrolled 9,361 participants. The trial screened 14,692 volunteers, with 33% of initial screens originating from the use of mass mailing lists. Screening results show that participants also responded to recruitment efforts through referral by SPRINT staff, healthcare providers, or friends (45%); brochures or posters placed in clinic waiting areas (15%); and television, radio, newspaper, internet ads, or toll-free numbers (8%). The overall recruitment yield (number randomized /number screened) was 64% (9,361 randomized /14,692 screened), 77% for those with cardiovascular disease, 79% for those with chronic kidney disease, 70% for those age ≥ 75 years, 55% for women, and 61% for minorities. As recruitment was observed to lag behind expectations, additional clinics were included and inclusion criteria were broadened, keeping event rates
Wei, Wei; Shary, Judith R; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Anderson, Betsy; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L
Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy. Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Design: A total of 301 women who underwent BMD measurements at 12-20 wk of gestation and again at 0-14 wk postpartum were included in this analysis. Women were a subset of subjects who were recruited for a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy (400, 2000, or 4000 IU/d). Results: Treatment had no significant effect on changes in BMD that occurred between 12-20 wk of gestation and 0-14 wk postpartum. Similarly, changes in spine and femoral neck bone mineral contents (BMCs) were not significantly different in the treatment groups. In addition, vitamin D inadequacy (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, averaged across pregnancy, vitamin D supplementation on bone health and suggest that race/ethnicity and BMI play an important role in pregnancy bone health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00292591. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
van Wonderen, Karina E.; Mohrs, Jacob; Jff, Machteld I.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.; ter Riet, Gerben
Background: Patient participation in research studies is often difficult to achieve, and efforts to increase participation rates fail frequently. Given the paucity of evidence on interventions aimed at improving patient participation, we conducted a randomized trial. Objectives: The first was to
Oh, Bumjo; Yi, Ga-Hye; Han, Min Kyu; Kim, Jong Seung; Lee, Chang Hee; Cho, Belong; Kang, Hee Cheol
Due to the prevalence of the westernized dietary pattern and lack of physical activity, the numbers of overweight or obese individuals are increasing, resulting in a growing health burden because of various related diseases. A lifestyle modification approach has additional advantages compared with pharmacological therapies or bariatric surgery. In our randomized controlled trial conducted in 2015, we successfully used a ubiquitous health care (SmartCare) service for patients with metabolic syndrome to achieve a significant weight loss effect. Various useful apps have been developed for the SmartCare Service, which involves using a mobile phone to manage chronic diseases, minimizing time and space restrictions. Many studies have demonstrated weight loss effects using a SmartCare service, but limited data are available regarding the effect of active participation in relation to weight loss. We aimed to assess the weight loss effect achieved after using the SmartCare service in terms of adherence and participation. We divided the intervention group of the previous study according to participation level, and analyzed whether there was a significant difference in the outcome. We classified participants into 3 groups according to their adherence. Within the intervention group using the SmartCare service, the active group comprised those transmitting anthropometric measurement data using a mobile phone 3 or more times per week or who had a health consultation 5 or more times during a 24-week period. The passive group comprised those who did not adhere to these levels of engagement. The control group comprised those who did not use the SmartCare service. We compared changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference, and lipid profile among the 3 groups. We identified 422 participants and analyzed 405, excluding 17 who were missing necessary data for analysis. The active group consisted of 116 participants, compared with 80 in the
Duncan, Amy; Zajac, Ian; Flight, Ingrid; Stewart, Benjamin J R; Wilson, Carlene; Turnbull, Deborah
Men have a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with, and dying from, colorectal cancer (CRC) than women. Men also participate in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening at a lower rate than women. This study will determine whether strategies that target men's attitudes toward screening, and matched to stage of readiness to screen, increase men's FOBT participation compared to a standard approach. Eligible trial participants will be a national sample of 9,200 men aged 50 to 74 years, living in urban Australia and randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Trial participants will be mailed an advance notification letter, followed 2 weeks later by an invitation letter and a free fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit. The intervention is a factorial design, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with four trial arms, including a control. The content of the advance notification and invitation letters will differ by trial arm as follows: 1) standard advance notification and standard invitation (control arm); 2) targeted advance notification and standard invitation; 3) standard advance notification and targeted invitation; and 4) targeted advance notification and targeted invitation. The standard letters will replicate as closely as possible the letters included in the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). Modified advance notification and invitation letters will incorporate additional messages to target men in the precontemplation (advance notification) and contemplation stages (invitation). The primary outcome is return of the completed FIT within 12 weeks of invitation. Analysts will be blinded to trial assignment and participants will be blinded to the use of varying invitational materials. Subsamples from each trial arm will complete baseline and endpoint surveys to measure the psychological impact of the intervention, and qualitative interviews will be conducted to evaluate attitudes toward the intervention. The outcomes of
Kennedy, Betty M; Conlin, Paul R; Ernst, Denise; Reams, Patrice; Charleston, Jeanne B; Appel, Lawrence J
Recruiting practices employed by the four clinical centers participating in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial were examined to assess the most successful method of obtaining participants and to describe pertinent learning experiences gained as a result of the trial. The primary recruitment strategies employed by each center were mass mailing brochures (direct, coupon packs, or other) and mass media (advertisements in newspapers, radio, and television spots). Of 412 randomized participants, 265 (64%) were from mass distribution of brochures, 62 (15%) mass media, and 85 (21%) were prior study participants, referred by word-of-mouth, or reported coming from screening events and presentations. Although the most successful method of recruitment was mass mailing brochures, three times as many brochures were distributed to obtain similar success as in the initial DASH trial.
Crook, Bradley; Tomlins, Rose; Bancroft, Ann; Ogi, Laura
The importance of making research participation accessible for people with learning disabilities is emphasised in government and NHS research strategies. This evaluation explored the realities of this goal from the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and clinicians within an NHS learning disability service. People with learning…
Berge, Eivind; Stapf, Christian; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam
Background: The success of randomized-controlled stroke trials is dependent on the recruitment and retention of a sufficient number of patients, but fewer than half of all trials meet their target number of patients. Methods: We performed a search and review of the literature, and conducted...... a survey and workshop among 56 European stroke trialists, to identify barriers, suggest methods to improve recruitment and retention, and make a priority list of interventions that merit further evaluation. Results: The survey and workshop identified a number of barriers to patient recruitment...... and retention, from patients’ incapacity to consent, to handicaps that prevent patients from participation in trial-specific follow-up. Methods to improve recruitment and retention may include simple interventions with individual participants, funding of research networks, and reimbursement of new treatments...
Piantadosi, Cynthia; Chapman, Ian M; Naganathan, Vasi; Hunter, Peter; Cameron, Ian D; Visvanathan, Renuka
The difficulty of recruiting older people to clinical trials is well described, but there is limited information about effective ways to screen and recruit older people into trials, and the reasons for their reluctance to enrol. This paper examines recruitment efforts for a community-based health intervention study that targeted older adults. One year randomized control trial. Undernourished men and women, aged ≥ 65 years and living independently in the community were recruited in three Australian states. Participants were allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. Hospital admissions, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, and other variables were assessed. 4023 potential participants were identified and 767 were screened by a variety of methods: hospital note screening, referrals from geriatric health services, advertising and media segments/appearances. 53 participants (7% of total screened) were recruited. The majority of potentially eligible participants declined participation in the trial after reading the information sheet. Media was the more successful method of recruiting, whereas contacting people identified by screening a large number of hospital records was not successful in recruiting any participants. Recruitment of frail and older participants is difficult and multiple strategies are required to facilitate participation. Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066 date registered 4/5/2010.
O'Connor, Elodie; Farrow, Maree; Hatherly, Chris
Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups. Additionally, participants using the
O'Connor, Elodie; Hatherly, Chris
Background Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. Objective The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Methods Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Results Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups
Kaiser, Kathryn A; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B
Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment.
Limmer, Mirjam; Eibl, Angi Diana; Platen, Petra
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) is an alkalizing agent and its ingestion is used to improve anaerobic performance. However, the influence of alkalizing nutrients on anaerobic exercise performance remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of an alkalizing versus acidizing diet on 400-m sprint performance, blood lactate, blood gas parameters, and urinary pH in moderately trained adults. In a randomized crossover design, eleven recreationally active participants (8 men, 3 women) aged 26.0 ± 1.7 years performed one trial under each individual's unmodified diet and subsequently two trials following either 4 days of an alkalizing (BASE) or acidizing (ACID) diet. Trials consisted of 400-m runs at intervals of 1 week on a tartan track in a randomized order. We found a significantly lower 400-m performance time for the BASE trial (65.8 ± 7.2 s) compared with the ACID trial (67.3 ± 7.1 s; p = 0.026). In addition, responses were significantly higher following the BASE diet for blood lactate (BASE: 16.3 ± 2.7; ACID: 14.4 ± 2.1 mmol/L; p = 0.32) and urinary pH (BASE: 7.0 ± 0.7; ACID: 5.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.001). We conclude that a short-term alkalizing diet may improve 400-m performance time in moderately trained participants. Additionally, we found higher blood lactate concentrations under the alkalizing diet, suggesting an enhanced blood or muscle buffer capacity. Thus, an alkalizing diet may be an easy and natural way to enhance 400-m sprint performance for athletes without the necessity of taking artificial dietary supplements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention studies is challenging. Methods We conducted an analysis of recruitment techniques used for a prospective, randomized pilot study of physical activity in women at risk of breast cancer. We evaluated differences in proportion of eligible patients, enrolled patients, and successful patients identified by each individual recruitment method. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test (an extension of Fisher's exact test from 2 × 2 tables to general row by column tables was used to compare the success of different recruitment strategies. Results We received 352 inquiries from women interested in participating, of whom 171 (54% were eligible. Ninety-nine women completed a baseline activity evaluation, and 58 (34% of eligible; 16% of total inquiries were randomized. Recruitment methods fell into three broad categories: media techniques, direct contact with potential participants, and contacts with health care providers. Recruitment strategies differed significantly in their ability to identify eligible women (p = 0.01, and women who subsequently enrolled in the study (p = 0.02. Conclusion Recruitment techniques had varying success. Our data illustrate the challenges in recruiting to behavior modification studies, and provide useful information for tailoring future recruitment efforts for lifestyle intervention trials. Trial Registration No(s CDR0000393790, NCI-04-C-0276, NCI-NAVY-B05-001
Crane, Melissa M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Linnan, Laura A.
This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation. PMID:22577524
Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered problem-solving-occupational therapy intervention to reduce participation restrictions in rural breast cancer survivors undergoing chemotherapy.
Hegel, Mark T; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A
Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem-solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n = 15) and usual care (n = 16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life, and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methods are increasingly used to study the process of clinical trials and patients understanding of the rationale for trials, randomisation and reasons for taking part or refusing. Patients' understandings are inevitably influenced by the recruiting clinician's understanding of the trial, yet relatively little qualitative work has explored clinicians' perceptions and understandings of trials. This study interviewed surgeons shortly after the multi-centre, pragmatic RCT in which they had participated had been completed. Methods We used in-depth interviews with surgeons who participated in the Spine Stabilisation Trial (a pragmatic RCT to explore their understanding of the trial purpose and how this understanding had influenced their recruitment procedures and interpretation of the results. A purposive sample of eleven participating surgeons was chosen from 8 of the 15 UK trial centres. Results Although the surgeons thought that the trial was addressing an important question there was little agreement about what this question was: although it was a trial of 'equivalent' treatments, some thought that it was a trial of surgery, others a trial of rehabilitation and others that it was exploring what to do with patients in whom all other treatment options had been unsuccessful. The surgeons we interviewed were not aware of the rationale for the pragmatic inclusion criteria and nearly all were completely baffled about the meaning of 'equipoise'. Misunderstandings about the entry criteria were an important source of confusion about the results and led to reluctance to apply the results to their own practice. Conclusion The study suggests several lessons for the conduct of future multi-centre trials. Recruiting surgeons (and other clinicians may not be familiar with the rationale for pragmatic designs and may need to be regularly reminded about the purpose during the study. Reassurance may be necessary that a pragmatic
Meyerbröker, K; Morina, N; Emmelkamp, P M G
Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might help better cope with feared situations by reducing accompanying bodily sensations. In this controlled trial, fifty-six participants with specific phobia were randomly assigned to either 1) virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) plus YOH, 2) VRET plus Propranolol, or 3) VRET plus placebo. Participants in all conditions received three sessions of VRET over a period of two weeks. We conducted 2 × 3 repeated measures MANOVA's. Results showed a significant effect for time, with partial eta squared ranging from ηp2 = 0.647 to ηp2 = 0.692, for specific phobia, yet no significant interaction effects were found. No significant differences were found when VRET with YOH or a beta-blocker was compared to VRET with a non-active placebo. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient ‘deficit’ model – an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT (SPARE, CRUK/07/011 in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. Methods The qualitative study used a ‘Framework Analysis’ that included ‘constant comparison’ in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Results Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment. The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding ‘informed consent’, as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel. Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. Conclusions These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the ‘deficit’ model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients
Webster, Joan; Bucknall, Tracey; Wallis, Marianne; McInnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy
Participation in a clinical trial is believed to benefit patients but little is known about the post-trial effects on routine hospital-based care. To describe (1) hospital-based, pressure ulcer care-processes after patients were discharged from a pressure ulcer prevention, cluster randomised controlled trial; and (2) to investigate if the trial intervention had any impact on subsequent hospital-based care. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 133 trial participants who developed a pressure ulcer during the clinical trial. We compared outcomes and care processes between participants who received the pressure ulcer prevention intervention and those in the usual care, control group. We also compared care processes according to the pressure ulcer stage. A repositioning schedule was reported for 19 (14.3%) patients; 33 (24.8%) had a dressing applied to the pressure ulcer; 17 (12.8) patients were assessed by a wound care team; and 20 (15.0%) were seen by an occupational therapist. Patients in the trial's intervention group were more likely to have the presence of a pressure ulcer documented in their chart (odds ratio (OR) 8.18, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.64-18.36); to be referred to an occupational therapist OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.07; 0.54); to receive a pressure relieving device OR 0.31 (95% CI 0.14; 0.69); or a pressure relieving mattress OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.20; 0.96). Participants with Stage 2 or unstageable ulcers were more likely than others to have dressings applied to their wounds (p=pressure ulcer status and care is poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kathryn Ann Kaiser
Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46. Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively. There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02 and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04. Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on
Brindal, Emily; Freyne, Jill; Saunders, Ian; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Smith, Greg; Noakes, Manny
Obesity remains a serious issue in many countries. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of weight loss programs. Yet, many Internet-delivered weight loss studies include support from medical or nutritional experts, and relatively little is known about purely web-based weight loss programs. To determine whether supportive features and personalization in a 12-week web-based lifestyle intervention with no in-person professional contact affect retention and weight loss. We assessed the effect of different features of a web-based weight loss intervention using a 12-week repeated-measures randomized parallel design. We developed 7 sites representing 3 functional groups. A national mass media promotion was used to attract overweight/obese Australian adults (based on body mass index [BMI] calculated from self-reported heights and weights). Eligible respondents (n = 8112) were randomly allocated to one of 3 functional groups: information-based (n = 183), supportive (n = 3994), or personalized-supportive (n = 3935). Both supportive sites included tools, such as a weight tracker, meal planner, and social networking platform. The personalized-supportive site included a meal planner that offered recommendations that were personalized using an algorithm based on a user's preferences for certain foods. Dietary and activity information were constant across sites, based on an existing and tested 12-week weight loss program (the Total Wellbeing Diet). Before and/or after the intervention, participants completed demographic (including self-reported weight), behavioral, and evaluation questionnaires online. Usage of the website and features was objectively recorded. All screening and data collection procedures were performed online with no face-to-face contact. Across all 3 groups, attrition was high at around 40% in the first week and 20% of the remaining participants each week. Retention was higher for the supportive sites compared to the information-based site only
Turnbull, Alison E; O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M
Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion.
Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara L; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A; Arniella, Guedy
Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations that bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. The Community Action Board, consisting of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders, and advocates, used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of various strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led, diabetes prevention intervention. The board created five recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians; recruiting at large public events such as farmers markets; organizing special local recruitment events; recruiting at local organizations; and recruiting through a partner-led approach, in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned in a fasting state for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was highly successful, recruiting 68% of those enrolled. This strategy was also the most efficient; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%-17% enrolled through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated, Spanish-speaking women. This CBPR approach highlights the value of partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out to, and motivate a vulnerable population into participation in research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers but are nevertheless rigorous and effective.
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.
Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice
Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...
Vento, Giovanni; Pastorino, Roberta; Boni, Luca; Cota, Francesco; Carnielli, Virgilio; Cools, Filip; Dani, Carlo; Mosca, Fabio; Pillow, Jane; Polglase, Graeme; Tagliabue, Paolo; van Kaam, Anton H; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Tana, Milena; Tirone, Chiara; Aurilia, Claudia; Lio, Alessandra; Ricci, Cinzia; Gambacorta, Alessandro; Consigli, Chiara; D'Onofrio, Danila; Gizzi, Camilla; Massenzi, Luca; Cardilli, Viviana; Casati, Alessandra; Bottino, Roberto; Pontiggia, Federica; Ciarmoli, Elena; Martinelli, Stefano; Ilardi, Laura; Colnaghi, Mariarosa; Matassa, Piero Giuseppe; Vendettuoli, Valentina; Villani, Paolo; Fusco, Francesca; Gazzolo, Diego; Ricotti, Alberto; Ferrero, Federica; Stasi, Ilaria; Magaldi, Rosario; Maffei, Gianfranco; Presta, Giuseppe; Perniola, Roberto; Messina, Francesco; Montesano, Giovanna; Poggi, Chiara; Giordano, Lucio; Roma, Enza; Grassia, Carolina; Ausanio, Gaetano; Sandri, Fabrizio; Mescoli, Giovanna; Giura, Francesco; Garani, Giampaolo; Solinas, Agostina; Lucente, Maria; Nigro, Gabriella; Del Vecchio, Antonello; Petrillo, Flavia; Orfeo, Luigi; Grappone, Lidia; Quartulli, Lorenzo; Scorrano, Antonio; Messner, Hubert; Staffler, Alex; Gargano, Giancarlo; Balestri, Eleonora; Nobile, Stefano; Cacace, Caterina; Meli, Valerio; Dallaglio, Sara; Pasqua, Betta; Mattia, Loretta; Gitto, Eloisa; Vitaliti, Marcello; Re, Maria Paola; Vedovato, Stefania; Grison, Alessandra; Berardi, Alberto; Torcetta, Francesco; Guidotti, Isotta; di Fabio, Sandra; Maranella, Eugenia; Mondello, Isabella; Visentin, Stefano; Tormena, Francesca
Although beneficial in clinical practice, the INtubate-SURfactant-Extubate (IN-SUR-E) method is not successful in all preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, with a reported failure rate ranging from 19 to 69 %. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for the unsuccessful IN-SUR-E method, requiring subsequent re-intubation and mechanical ventilation, is the inability of the preterm lung to achieve and maintain an "optimal" functional residual capacity. The importance of lung recruitment before surfactant administration has been demonstrated in animal studies showing that recruitment leads to a more homogeneous surfactant distribution within the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the application of a recruitment maneuver using the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) modality just before the surfactant administration followed by rapid extubation (INtubate-RECruit-SURfactant-Extubate: IN-REC-SUR-E) with IN-SUR-E alone in spontaneously breathing preterm infants requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as initial respiratory support and reaching pre-defined CPAP failure criteria. In this study, 206 spontaneously breathing infants born at 24(+0)-27(+6) weeks' gestation and failing nCPAP during the first 24 h of life, will be randomized to receive an HFOV recruitment maneuver (IN-REC-SUR-E) or no recruitment maneuver (IN-SUR-E) just prior to surfactant administration followed by prompt extubation. The primary outcome is the need for mechanical ventilation within the first 3 days of life. Infants in both groups will be considered to have reached the primary outcome when they are not extubated within 30 min after surfactant administration or when they meet the nCPAP failure criteria after extubation. From all available data no definitive evidence exists about a positive effect of recruitment before surfactant instillation, but a rationale exists for testing the following hypothesis: a lung recruitment
Full Text Available Chin-Ying Dai,1,2 Yu-Hui Huang,3,4 Li-Wei Chou,5,6 Shiao-Chi Wu,7 Ray-Yau Wang,8 Li-Chan Lin9 1School of Nursing, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 7Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Introduction: The current study aims to investigate the effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation (VR on improving the measures of neglect, activities of daily living (ADL, balance, and falls of unilateral neglect (UN patients. Methods: This study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Both experimental (n = 24 and control groups (n = 24 received conventional rehabilitation. The experimental group undertook VR for a month. During the first and second weeks, a registered nurse trained the experimental group in VR. The primary caregivers in the experimental group supervised and guided their patients in VR during the third and fourth weeks. The outcome measures were neglect, ADL, balance, and falls. Results: The two groups of UN patients showed a significant improvement in neglect, ADL, and balance over time. Based on the generalized estimating equations model, an interaction was observed between groups and times. Significant interactions were observed between the VR group
Carlene J. Wilson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common disease risk clusters in families due to shared genetics, exposure to environmental risk factors, and because many health behaviours are established and maintained in family environments. This randomised controlled trial will test whether the provision of a family health history (FHH risk assessment tool increases intentions and engagement in health behaviors. Message distribution and collective behavior change within family networks will be mapped using social network analysis. The relative intervention impact will be compared between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and fifty mothers (50 Anglo-Australian, 50 Italian-Australian, 50 Vietnamese-Australian will be recruited, with four or more other family members across three generations, including a child (aged 10–18 years. Each family is randomly assigned to intervention or control. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, all participants complete surveys to assess dietary and physical activity intentions and behaviors, attitudes towards food, and perceived disease risk. Intervention families receive a visual pedigree detailing their FHH of diabetes, heart disease, breast and bowel cancer, a health education workbook to ascertain members’ disease risk (i.e. average or above average risk, and screening and primary prevention recommendations. After completion of follow-up assessments, controls will receive their pedigree and workbook. The primary hypothesis is that attitudes and lifestyle behaviors will improve more within families exposed to FHH feedback, although the extent of this improvement may vary between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the extent of improvement in the treatment group will be moderated by the level of family disease risk, with above-average risk leading to greater improvement. A secondary aim will explore different family members’ roles in message distribution and collective responses to
Wilson, Carlene J; de la Haye, Kayla; Coveney, John; Hughes, Donna L; Hutchinson, Amanda; Miller, Caroline; Prichard, Ivanka; Ward, Paul; Koehly, Laura M
Common disease risk clusters in families due to shared genetics, exposure to environmental risk factors, and because many health behaviours are established and maintained in family environments. This randomised controlled trial will test whether the provision of a family health history (FHH) risk assessment tool increases intentions and engagement in health behaviors. Message distribution and collective behavior change within family networks will be mapped using social network analysis. The relative intervention impact will be compared between families from different ethnic backgrounds. One hundred and fifty mothers (50 Anglo-Australian, 50 Italian-Australian, 50 Vietnamese-Australian) will be recruited, with four or more other family members across three generations, including a child (aged 10-18 years). Each family is randomly assigned to intervention or control. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, all participants complete surveys to assess dietary and physical activity intentions and behaviors, attitudes towards food, and perceived disease risk. Intervention families receive a visual pedigree detailing their FHH of diabetes, heart disease, breast and bowel cancer, a health education workbook to ascertain members' disease risk (i.e. average or above average risk), and screening and primary prevention recommendations. After completion of follow-up assessments, controls will receive their pedigree and workbook. The primary hypothesis is that attitudes and lifestyle behaviors will improve more within families exposed to FHH feedback, although the extent of this improvement may vary between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the extent of improvement in the treatment group will be moderated by the level of family disease risk, with above-average risk leading to greater improvement. A secondary aim will explore different family members' roles in message distribution and collective responses to risk using social network approaches and to compare
Study protocol, rationale and recruitment in a European multi-centre randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin maintenance therapy for 6 months in primary ciliary dyskinesia
Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Buchvald, Frederik F; Haarman, Eric G
maintenance therapy in PCD. METHODS: The BESTCILIA trial is a European multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The intervention is tablets of azithromycin 250/500 mg according to body weight or placebo administered three times a week for 6 months. Subjects...... prescribed in other chronic respiratory disorders. Furthermore, the trial will utilize the Lung clearance index and new, PCD-specific quality of life instruments as outcome measures for PCD. Recruitment is hampered by frequent occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, exacerbations at enrolment...
Laura E. Slosky
participate were not related to enrollment. Conclusion. Decisions to participate in research by surrogates of children in the PICU appear to relate to child demographics and subtleties in communication; however, no modifiable characteristics were related to increased participation, indicating that the informed consent process may not be compromised in this population.
Heiney, Sue P.; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M.; Johnson, Hiluv
Purpose/Objectives To describe the Heiney-Adams Recruitment Framework (H-ARF); to delineate a recruitment plan for a randomized, behavioral trial (RBT) based on H-ARF; and to provide evaluation data on its implementation. Data Sources All data for this investigation originated from a recruitment database created for an RBT designed to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic group convened via teleconference for African American women with breast cancer. Data Synthesis Major H-ARF concepts include social marketing and relationship building. The majority of social marketing strategies yielded 100% participant recruitment. Greater absolute numbers were recruited via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act waivers. Using H-ARF yielded a high recruitment rate (66%). Conclusions Application of H-ARF led to successful recruitment in an RBT. The findings highlight three areas that researchers should consider when devising recruitment plans: absolute numbers versus recruitment rate, cost, and efficiency with institutional review board–approved access to protected health information. Implications for Nursing H-ARF may be applied to any clinical or population-based research setting because it provides direction for researchers to develop a recruitment plan based on the target audience and cultural attributes that may hinder or help recruitment. PMID:20439201
Heiney, Sue P; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M; Johnson, Hiluv
To describe the Heiney-Adams Recruitment Framework (H-ARF); to delineate a recruitment plan for a randomized, behavioral trial (RBT) based on H-ARF; and to provide evaluation data on its implementation. All data for this investigation originated from a recruitment database created for an RBT designed to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic group convened via teleconference for African American women with breast cancer. Major H-ARF concepts include social marketing and relationship building. The majority of social marketing strategies yielded 100% participant recruitment. Greater absolute numbers were recruited via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act waivers. Using H-ARF yielded a high recruitment rate (66%). Application of H-ARF led to successful recruitment in an RBT. The findings highlight three areas that researchers should consider when devising recruitment plans: absolute numbers versus recruitment rate, cost, and efficiency with institutional review board-approved access to protected health information. H-ARF may be applied to any clinical or population-based research setting because it provides direction for researchers to develop a recruitment plan based on the target audience and cultural attributes that may hinder or help recruitment.
Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A
Knee osteoarthritis is a common joint problem leading to an increase of pain and a loss of function in older individuals. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if a participant who was randomly assigned to his preferred group improved his adherence to an effective walking program compared to a participant who did not receive his preferred group. This was a 9-month pilot randomized clinical trial, based on a patient treatment preferences design. The 69 eligible participants had a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: a supervised community-based or unsupervised walking program, based on the Ottawa Panel guidelines. At 6 months, participants who expressed a preference, either for the supervised or unsupervised program, and who were assigned to their preferred choice of program showed significantly higher adherence to walking sessions (supervised 60.7 ± 12.3%, P walking program, while ensuring the maintenance of clinical benefits of walking, among older adults susceptible to avoid or not properly engage in physical activity.
Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.; Sanders, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined
Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Hawk, Cheryl; Evans, Roni; Long, Cynthia R
To investigate the accrual rates and recruitment processes among 3 Midwestern sites during a pilot study on manual therapy for chronic pelvic pain. Multisite pilot study for a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three chiropractic institutions in or near major metropolitan cities in the Midwestern United States. Thirty-nine women aged 18 to 45 with chronic pelvic pain of at least 6 months duration, diagnosed by a board certified gynecologist. The method of recruitment was collected for each individual who responded to an advertisement and completed an interviewer-administered telephone screen. Participants who were willing and eligible after 3 baseline visits were entered into a randomized clinical trial. The number of responses and accrual rates were determined for the overall study, each of the 3 treatment sites, and each of the 5 recruitment efforts. In this study, 355 women were screened over the telephone and 39 were randomized, making the rate of randomization approximately 10%. The most effective recruitment methods leading to randomization were direct mail (38%) and radio advertisements (34%). However, success of the recruitment process differed by site. Based on the accrual of this multisite pilot study, a full-scale trial would not be feasible using this study's parameters. However, useful information was gained on recruitment effectiveness, eligibility criteria, and screening protocols among the 3 metropolitan sites.
Heffner, Jaimee L; Wyszynski, Christopher M; Comstock, Bryan; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan
Web-based behavioral interventions for substance use are being developed at a rapid pace, yet there is a dearth of information regarding the most effective methods for recruiting participants into web-based intervention trials. In this paper, we describe our successful recruitment of participants into a pilot trial of web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for smoking cessation and compare traditional and web-based methods of recruitment in terms of their effects on baseline participant characteristics, association with study retention and treatment outcome, yield, and cost-effectiveness. Over a 10-week period starting June 15, 2010, we recruited 222 smokers for a web-based smoking cessation study using a variety of recruitment methods. The largest portion of randomized participants were recruited through Google AdWords (36%), followed by medical Internet media (23%), standard media (14%), word of mouth (12%), broadcast emails (11%), and social media (6%). Recruitment source was not related to baseline participant characteristics, 3-month data retention, or 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the 3-month outcome assessment. Cost per randomized participant ranged from $5.27/participant for word of mouth to $172.76/participant for social media, with a mean cost of $42.48/participant. Our diversified approach to recruitment, including both traditional and web-based methods, enabled timely enrollment of participants into the study. Because there was no evidence of a substantive difference in baseline characteristics, retention, or outcomes based on recruitment channel, the yield and cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods may be the more critical considerations in developing a feasible recruitment plan for a web-based smoking cessation intervention study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa
Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than indivi...
VARIATIONS IN RECRUITMENT YIELD, COSTS, SPEED AND PARTICIPANT DIVERSITY ACROSS INTERNET PLATFORMS IN A GLOBAL STUDY EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF AN HIV/AIDS AND HIV TESTING ANIMATED AND LIVE-ACTION VIDEO AMONG ENGLISH- OR SPANISH-SPEAKING INTERNET OR SOCIAL MEDIA USERS.
Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortés, Dharma E; Merchant, Roland C
For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield), time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs), and costs/ completion; and by participants' demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78) and lowest costs / completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72) and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literay skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media plaforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/ social media or participant selection plaforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others.
Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.
Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Orlovska, Sonja; Fohlmann, Allan
Randomized trials targeting cannabis use disorders in patients with psychosis have generally been unsuccessful. One of the largest such trials was the CapOpus trial, which had an impact on the number of monthly joints used, but not on the number of days with cannabis use or positive or negative...
Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D
outpatient department. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand one hundred five community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older who had sustained at least one injurious fall. MEASUREMENTS: Marital status, housing tenure, income, comorbidity, hospitalization, fractures, and drug use before invitation to participate......OBJECTIVES: To address the external validity of a trial of multifactorial fall prevention through an analysis of differences between participants and nonparticipants regarding socioeconomic and morbidity variables. DESIGN: Analysis of nonresponse in a randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric...... nonparticipants of a trial of multifactorial fall prevention differed significantly from participants in terms of socioeconomic and morbidity variables and were more likely to be hospitalized or die during 6 months of follow-up. Because of the differences between the two populations, it is questionable whether...
LeBlanc, Thomas W; Lodato, Jordan E; Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P
Palliative care is increasingly viewed as a necessary component of cancer care, especially for patients with advanced disease. Rigorous clinical trials are thus needed to build the palliative care evidence base, but clinical research-especially participant recruitment-is difficult. Major barriers include (1) patient factors, (2) "gatekeeping," and (3) ethical concerns. Here we discuss an approach to overcoming these barriers, using the Palliative Care Trial (PCT) as a case study. The PCT was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of different service delivery models to improve pain control in the palliative setting. It used a recruitment protocol that fused evidence-based strategies with principles of "social marketing," an approach involving the systematic application of marketing techniques. Main components included (1) an inclusive triage algorithm, (2) information booklets targeting particular stakeholders, (3) a specialized recruitment nurse, and (4) standardization of wording across all study communications. From an eligible pool of 607 patients, the PCT enrolled 461 patients over 26 months. Twenty percent of patients referred to the palliative care service were enrolled (76% of those eligible after screening). Several common barriers were minimized; among those who declined participation, family disinterest was uncommon (5%), as was the perception of burden imposed (4%). Challenges to clinical trial recruitment in palliative care are significant but not insurmountable. A carefully crafted recruitment and retention protocol can be effective. Our experience with designing and deploying a social-marketing-based protocol shows the benefits of such an approach.
Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD
Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller
Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis...
Variations in recruitment yield, costs, speed and participant diversity across Internet platforms in a global study examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS and HIV testing animated and live-action video among English- or Spanish-speaking Internet or social media users
Full Text Available For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield, time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs, and costs/completion; and by participants’ demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78 and lowest costs/completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72 and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literacy skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media platforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/social media or participant selection platforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others.
Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Lyons, Karen S; Nail, Lillian M; Beer, Tomasz M
Prostate cancer can threaten quality of life for the patient and his spouse and the quality of his marital relationship. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effects of "Exercising Together" - a partnered strength training program for married couples coping with prostate cancer - on the physical and emotional health of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) and their spouses and on marital quality. We are conducting a 6-month randomized controlled trial with two groups: 1) Exercising Together - a progressive, supervised strength training program and 2) a usual care control condition. The primary aims of this exploratory study are to: 1) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health (muscle strength, physical function, body composition and self-report physical and mental health) in PCS, 2) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health in spouses and 3) Explore the effect of partnered strength training on marital quality (incongruence, communication, relationship quality, intimacy) of the PCS and spouse. Target accrual has been met in this study with 64 couples enrolled and randomized to exercise (n=32) or usual care (n=32) groups. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of this exercise format in both the chronically ill patient and spouse and explore benefits at the individual and couple level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van
Introduction: The purpose of this preliminary clinical trial was to investigate whether acupuncture has a positive influence on sleep and symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used. One hundred participants were recruited: 40
Paramasivan, S; Rogers, C A; Welbourn, R; Byrne, J P; Salter, N; Mahon, D; Noble, H; Kelly, J; Mazza, G; Whybrow, P; Andrews, R C; Wilson, C; Blazeby, J M; Donovan, J L
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving surgical procedures are challenging for recruitment and infrequent in the specialty of bariatrics. The pilot phase of the By-Band-Sleeve study (gastric bypass versus gastric band versus sleeve gastrectomy) provided the opportunity for an investigation of recruitment using a qualitative research integrated in trials (QuinteT) recruitment intervention (QRI). The QRI investigated recruitment in two centers in the pilot phase comparing bypass and banding, through the analysis of 12 in-depth staff interviews, 84 audio recordings of patient consultations, 19 non-participant observations of consultations and patient screening data. QRI findings were developed into a plan of action and fed back to centers to improve information provision and recruitment organization. Recruitment proved to be extremely difficult with only two patients recruited during the first 2 months. The pivotal issue in Center A was that an effective and established clinical service could not easily adapt to the needs of the RCT. There was little scope to present RCT details or ensure efficient eligibility assessment, and recruiters struggled to convey equipoise. Following presentation of QRI findings, recruitment in Center A increased from 9% in the first 2 months (2/22) to 40% (26/65) in the 4 months thereafter. Center B, commencing recruitment 3 months after Center A, learnt from the emerging issues in Center A and set up a special clinic for trial recruitment. The trial successfully completed pilot recruitment and progressed to the main phase across 11 centers. The QRI identified key issues that enabled the integration of the trial into the clinical setting. This contributed to successful recruitment in the By-Band-Sleeve trial-currently the largest in bariatric practice-and offers opportunities to optimize recruitment in other trials in bariatrics.
Severi, Ettore; Free, Caroline; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Edwards, Philip; Hoile, Elizabeth
Loss to follow-up of trial participants represents a threat to research validity. To date, interventions designed to increase participants' awareness of benefits to society of completing follow-up, and the impact of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher requesting follow-up have not been evaluated robustly. Trial 1 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of written information regarding the benefits of participation to society. Trial 2 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher. Two single-blind randomized controlled trials were nested within a larger trial, Txt2stop. In Trial 1, participants were allocated using minimization to receive a refrigerator magnet and a text message emphasizing the benefits to society of completing follow-up, or to a control group receiving a simple reminder regarding follow-up. In Trial 2, participants were randomly allocated to receive a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher, or to a control group receiving standard Txt2stop follow-up procedures. Trial 1: 33.5% (327 of 976) of the intervention group and 33.8% (329 of 974) of the control group returned the questionnaire within 26 weeks of randomization, risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.12. In all, 83.3% (813 of 976) of the intervention group and 82.2% (801 of/974) of the control group sent back the questionnaire within 30 weeks of randomization, RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.97, 1.05. Trial 2: 31% (20 of 65) of the intervention group and 32% (20 of 62) of the control group completed trial follow-up, RR 0.93; 95%CI 0.44, 1.98. In presence of other methods to increase follow-up neither experimental method (refrigerator magnet and text message emphasizing participation's benefits to society nor a telephone call from study's principal investigator) increased participant follow-up in the Txt2stop trial.
Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth
on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS...... no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs 43 m; P = .037......BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based...
Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J; Shireman, Theresa
Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n=210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27-45 kg/m(2), and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information on how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verena Strehlau, MD
Full Text Available Background: Homeless individuals with mental illness are challenging to recruit and retain in longitudinal research studies. The present study uses information from the Vancouver site of a Canadian multi-city longitudinal randomized controlled trial on housing first interventions for homeless individuals. We were able to recruit 500 participants and retain large number of homeless individuals with mental illness; 92% of the participants completed the 6-month follow up interview, 84% the 24-month follow up, while 80% completed all follow-up visits of the study. Purpose: In this article, we describe the strategies and practices that we considered as critical for successful recruitment and retention or participants in the study. Methods: We discuss issues pertaining to research staff hiring and training, involvement of peers, relationship building with research participants, and the use of technology and social media, and managing challenging situations in the context of recruitment and retention of marginalized individuals. Conclusions: Recruitment and retention of homeless participant with mental illness in longitudinal studies is feasible. It requires flexible, unconventional and culturally competent strategies. Longitudinal research projects with vulnerable and hidden populations may benefit from extensive outreach work and collaborative approaches that are based on attitudes of mutual respect, contextual knowledge and trust. Keywords: Housing first intervention, Homelessness, Mental illness, Recruitment, Retention, Longitudinal study
Raviotta, Jonathan M; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Zimmerman, Richard K
College-age men were recruited using Facebook™ advertisements (ads), as well as traditional recruitment methods, for a randomized controlled trial to compare immunological responses to human papillomavirus vaccine administered in two dosing schedules. This study compares enrollees who were recruited through traditional recruitment methods versus social networking sites (SNSs), including Facebook. Potential participants were recruited using flyers posted on and off campus(es), and distributed at health fairs, classes, sporting, and other campus events; e-mails to students and student organizations; and print advertisements in student newspapers and on city buses. Facebook ads were displayed to users with specific age, geographic, and interest characteristics; ads were monitored daily to make adjustments to improve response. A total of 220 males, aged 18 to 25 years enrolled between October 2010 and May 2011. The majority of participants (51%) reported print advertisements as the method by which they first heard about the study, followed by personal contact (29%) and Facebook or other SNSs (20%). The likelihood of a SNS being the source by which the participant first heard about the study compared with traditional methods was increased if the participant reported (a) being homosexual or bisexual or (b) posting daily updates on SNSs. Facebook and other SNSs are a viable recruitment strategy for reaching potential clinical trial participants among groups who typically use social media to stay connected with their friends and hard-to-reach groups such as young men who self-identify as homosexual or bisexual. © The Author(s) 2014.
Heine, Martin; Verschuren, Olaf; Hoogervorst, Erwin Lj; van Munster, Erik; Hacking, Hub Ga; Visser-Meily, Anne; Twisk, Jos Wr; Beckerman, Heleen; de Groot, Vincent; Kwakkel, Gert
Evidence supporting the effectiveness of aerobic training, specific for fatigue, in severely fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. To estimate the effectiveness of aerobic training on MS-related fatigue and societal participation in ambulant patients with severe MS-related fatigue. Patients ( N = 90) with severe MS-related fatigue were allocated to 16-week aerobic training or control intervention. Primary outcomes were perceived fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20r) fatigue subscale) and societal participation. An improvement of ⩾8 points on the CIS20r fatigue subscale was considered clinically relevant. Outcomes were assessed by a blinded observer at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Of the 89 patients that started treatment (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (interquartile range), 3.0 (2.0-3.6); mean CIS20r fatigue subscale (standard deviation (SD)), 42.6 (8.0)), 43 received aerobic training and 46 received the control intervention. A significant post-intervention between-group mean difference (MD) on the CIS20r fatigue subscale of 4.708 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.003-8.412; p = 0.014) points was found in favour of aerobic training that, however, was not sustained during follow-up. No effect was found on societal participation. Aerobic training in MS patients with severe fatigue does not lead to a clinically meaningful reduction in fatigue or societal participation when compared to a low-intensity control intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST. In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8 was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92% and 237 (94% participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by
Overcoming Addictions, a Web-Based Application, and SMART Recovery, an Online and In-Person Mutual Help Group for Problem Drinkers, Part 2: Six-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Feedback From Participants.
Campbell, William; Hester, Reid K; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Delaney, Harold D
Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions. We recruited 189 heavy drinkers through SR's website and in-person meetings throughout the United States. We began by randomly assigning participants to (1) SR meetings alone, (2) OA alone, and (3) OA and SR (OA+SR). Recruitment challenges compelled us to assign participants only to SR (n=86) or OA+SR (n=102). The experimental hypotheses were as follows: (1) Both groups will reduce their drinking and alcohol-related consequences at follow-up compared with their baseline levels, and (2) The OA+SR condition will reduce their drinking and alcohol or drug-related consequences more than the SR only condition. Additionally, we derived 3 groups empirically (SR, OA, and OA+SR) based on the participants' actual use of each intervention and conducted analyses by comparing them. Primary outcome measures included percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD), and alcohol or drug-related consequences. Postbaseline assessments were conducted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Secondary analyses explored whether clinical issues (eg, severity of alcohol problems, level of distress, readiness to change) or intervention-related factors (eg, Internet fluency, satisfaction with site) affected outcomes. Both intent-to-treat analyses and the actual-use analyses showed highly significant improvement from baseline to follow-ups for all 3 groups. Mean within-subject effect sizes were large (d>0.8) overall. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of improvement from baseline to
Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.
Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Tharavanij, Thipaporn; Phiphatpatthamaamphan, Kittichet; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Manuwong, Sudsayam; Curry, Parichat; Siramolpiwat, Sith; Punchaipornpon, Thanachai; Kanitnate, Supakit; Tammachote, Nattapol; Yamprasert, Rodsarin; Chanvimalueng, Waipoj; Kaewkumpai, Ruchirat; Netanong, Soiphet; Kitipawong, Peerapong; Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Karbwang, Juntra
This study aimed to test the applicability and effectiveness of the principles and informed consent form (ICF) template proposed by the Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER) across multiple clinical trials involving Thai research participants with various conditions. A single-center, randomized-controlled study nested with eight clinical trials was conducted at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. A total of 258 participants from any of the eight clinical trials were enrolled and randomly assigned to read either the SIDCER ICF (n = 130) or the conventional ICF (n = 128) of the respective trial. Their understanding of necessary information was assessed using the post-test questionnaire; they were allowed to consult a given ICF while completing the questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of the participants who had the post-test score of ≥80%, and the secondary endpoint was the total score of the post-test. The proportion of the participants in the SIDCER ICF group who achieved the primary endpoint was significantly higher than that of the conventional ICF group (60.8 vs. 41.4%, p = 0.002). The total score of the post-test was also significantly higher among the participants who read the SIDCER ICF than those who read the conventional ICF (83.3 vs. 76.0%, p study demonstrated that the SIDCER ICF was applicable and effective to improve Thai research participants' understanding of research information in diverse clinical trials. Using the SIDCER ICF methodology, clinical researchers can improve the quality of ICFs for their trials.
Fauconnier, Jérôme; Dickinson, Heather O; Beckung, Eva
with cerebral palsy; multilevel multivariable regression related participation to impairments, pain, and sociodemographic characteristics. SETTING: Eight European regions with population registers of children with cerebral palsy; one further region recruited children from multiple sources. PARTICIPANTS: 1174...... children aged 8-12 with cerebral palsy randomly selected from the population registers, 743 (63%) joined in the study; the further region recruited 75 children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Children's participation assessed by the Life-H questionnaire covering 10 main areas of daily life. Scoring ignored...
Ingersgaard, Marianne Vie; Tulstrup, Morten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld
AIM: To explore parents' and adolescents' motives for accepting/declining participation in the ALL2008 trials and adolescents' involvement in the decision-making process. BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology...... the adolescents' decision. There were no differences between motivations of preferences held by parents of children or adolescents, respectively. Decisions were based on subjective values attributed to cure contra toxicity and individual preferences for either standard or experimental treatment. The possibility....... FINDINGS: Adolescents and parents emphasized the importance of adolescents' active participation in decisions regarding enrolment into clinical trials. A majority of adolescents were either final or collaborative decision-makers. Parents stated that in case of disagreement, they would overrule...
Courneya, Kerry S; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sela, Rami A; Quinney, H Arthur; Rhodes, Ryan E; Jones, Lee W
The purpose of this study was to examine postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors who participated in the Group Psychotherapy and Home-Based Physical Exercise (GROUP-HOPE; Courneya, Friedenreich, Sela, Quinney, & Rhodes, 2002) trial. At the completion of the GROUP-HOPE trial, 46 of 51 (90%) participants in the exercise group completed measures of attribution theory constructs. A 5-week follow-up self-report of exercise was then completed by 30 (65%) participants. Correlational analyses indicated that program exercise, perceived success, expected success, and affective reactions were strong predictors of postprogram exercise. In multivariate stepwise regression analyses, program exercise and perceived success were the strongest predictors of postprogram exercise. Additionally, perceived success was more important than objective success in understanding the attribution process, and it interacted with personal control to influence expected success and negative affect. Finally, postprogram quality of life and changes in physical fitness were correlates of perceived success. We concluded that attribution theory may have utility for understanding postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors.
Butt, Debra A; Lock, Michael; Harvey, Bart J
Little evidence exists to guide investigators on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of various recruitment strategies in primary care research. The purpose of this study is to describe the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of eight clinical trial recruitment methods for postmenopausal women in a community-based setting. A retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of eight different recruitment methods: 1) family physician (FP) recruiters, 2) FP referrals, 3) community presentations, 4) community events, 5) newsletters, 6) direct mailings, 7) posters, and 8) newspaper advertisements that were used to recruit postmenopausal women to a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of gabapentin in treating hot flashes. We recruited 197 postmenopausal women from a total of 904 screened, with 291 of the remainder being ineligible and 416 declining to participate. Of the 904 women screened, 34 (3.8%) were from FP recruiters and 35 (3.9%) were from other FP referrals while 612 (67.7%) resulted from newspaper advertisements. Of the 197 women enrolled, 141 (72%) were from newspaper advertisements, with 26 (13%) following next from posters. Word of mouth was identified as an additional unanticipated study recruitment strategy. Metropolitan newspaper advertising at $112.73 (Canadian) per enrolled participant and posters at $119.98 were found to be cost-effective recruitment methods. Newspaper advertisements were the most successful method to recruit postmenopausal women into a community-based, primary care RCT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramsey, Thomas M; Snyder, Joni K; Lovato, Laura C; Roumie, Christianne L; Glasser, Steven P; Cosgrove, Nora M; Olney, Christine M; Tang, Rocky H; Johnson, Karen C; Still, Carolyn H; Gren, Lisa H; Childs, Jeffery C; Crago, Osa L; Summerson, John H; Walsh, Sandy M; Perdue, Letitia H; Bankowski, Denise M; Goff, David C
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of 9361 participants with hypertension who are ≥50 years old. The trial is designed to evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure goal recruitment strategies and lessons learned during recruitment of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial cohort and five targeted participant subgroups: pre-existing cardiovascular disease, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, age ≥75 years, women, and minorities. In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Project Office and Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial Coordinating Center, five Clinical Center Networks oversaw clinical site selection, recruitment, and trial activities. Recruitment began on 8 November 2010 and ended on 15 March 2013 (about 28 months). Various recruitment strategies were used, including mass mailing, brochures, referrals from healthcare providers or friends, posters, newspaper ads, radio ads, and electronic medical record searches. Recruitment was scheduled to last 24 months to enroll a target of 9250 participants; in just over 28 months, the trial enrolled 9361 participants. The trial screened 14,692 volunteers, with 33% of initial screens originating from the use of mass mailing lists. Screening results show that participants also responded to recruitment efforts through referral by Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial staff, healthcare providers, or friends (45%); brochures or posters placed in clinic waiting areas (15%); and television, radio, newspaper, Internet ads, or toll-free numbers (8%). The overall recruitment yield (number randomized/number screened) was 64% (9361 randomized/14,692 screened), 77% for those with cardiovascular disease, 79% for those with chronic kidney disease, 70% for those aged ≥75 years, 55% for women, and 61% for minorities. As recruitment was observed to lag behind expectations, additional
2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience. The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".
Heppe, Eline C M; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo
Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited. Adolescents on their way towards achieving these goals may benefit from the knowledge and experience of adults who have overcome similar difficulties. Therefore, a mentoring intervention, called Mentor Support, will be set up and studied in which adolescents with visual impairments are matched with successfully social participating adults with and without visual impairments. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mentor Support. Secondary aims are to distinguish the importance of the disability-specific experience of mentors, predictors of success, and mediating factors. The effect of Mentor Support will be tested in a randomized clinical trial, using pre-test one week before starting, post-test after 12 months, and follow-up after 18 months. Participants will be referred to one of the experimental groups or the control group, and this randomization will be stratified according to country region. Three groups are included in the trial: 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors with a visual impairment in combination with care-as-usual, 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors without visual impairments in combination with care-as-usual, and 40 participants will receive care-as-usual only. Mentor Support consists of 12 face-to-face meetings of the mentee with a mentor with an overall time period of one year. On a weekly basis, dyads have contact via email, the Internet, or telephone. The primary outcome measure is improved social participation within three domains (work/school, leisure activities, and social relationships). Mediator variables are psychosocial functioning and self-determination. Predictors such as demographics and personality are also investigated in order to distinguish
.... Sixty recruiters and staff personnel at the brigade, battalion and company echelons were randomly selected and interviewed on how the various national and local incentives motivate recruiters to meet...
Kelechi, Teresa J; Watts, Ashlee; Wiseman, Jan
To describe the strategies and costs associated with recruiting African American and white adults into a randomized controlled pilot trial. "Cryotherapy for Venous Disorders: A Pilot Study" is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effects of a cool gel wrap and leg elevation intervention versus a leg elevation alone intervention on skin temperature, skin microcirculation, quality of life, and pain in adults with stages 4 and 5 chronic venous disorders. We sought to recruit 60 participants (21 African Americans, 37 whites, and 2 Hispanic or Latino) to complete the study. These enrollment targets reflect the demographic distribution of the community in which the study was conducted (33% African American, 66% white, and 2% Latino). Proactive and reactive recruitment strategies were implemented to recruit subjects. Seventy-three individuals (9 African American men, 29 African American women, 11 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic woman) were screened, and of those, 67 were randomized (9 African American men, 25 African American women, 9 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic women). Fifty-eight completed the study, yielding an overall 11% attrition rate. An additional 8 subjects canceled or did not show up for a first appointment. Reactive recruitment strategies were most successful for recruiting men, women, African American, and white participants. The 3 most successful reactive strategies were referrals from providers/clinics (34%), flyers posted in the hospital elevators (22%), and targeted mailings from a business (16%). Of the healthcare provider referrals (19), wound care nurses referred 12 completed participants. The amount budgeted for advertisement was $5,000 (2% of the total grant award). The amount spent on recruitment including labor was $5,978, which averaged $103 per participant who completed the study (N = 58). Reactive strategies per participant completer proved more cost-efficient than proactive
Van Wely, Leontien; Balemans, Astrid Cj; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J
To determine the effects of a six-month physical activity stimulation programme on social participation, self-perception and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy. Multicentre randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessments and intention-to-treat analysis. Paediatric physiotherapy practices, special schools for children with a disability, and the child's own home. Forty-nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (28 male), aged 7-13 years, able to walk with and without walking aids. The intervention group followed a six-month physical activity stimulation programme involving counselling through motivational interviewing, home-based physiotherapy and four months of fitness training. The control group continued regular paediatric physiotherapy. Outcomes included social participation in domestic life, social participation in recreation and leisure (Life-Habits for Children questionnaire and Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment questionnaire), self-perception (Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children) and parent-reported quality of life (Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire). Assessments were performed at baseline, at six months (except quality of life) and at twelve months. Intervention resulted in a positive effect on social participation in domestic life at twelve months (mean between-group difference = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1 to 1.7 [1-10 scale], P = 0.03), but not at six months. No significant effects were found for social participation in recreation and leisure, self-perception at six months and twelve months or for quality of life at twelve months. The combination of counselling, home-based physiotherapy and fitness training was not effective in improving social participation in recreation and leisure, self-perception or quality of life, but did show a potential for improving social participation in domestic life over the longer term. © The Author(s) 2013.
Shah, Anand; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Halpern, Scott D.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Christodouleas, John P.; Coen, John J.; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Bekelman, Justin E.
Purpose: To investigate patients’ willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients’ stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients’ WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either “definitely” or “probably” participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would “definitely not” or “probably not” enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.
Robinson, Jodie L; Fuerch, Janene H; Winiewicz, Dana D; Salvy, Sarah J; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H
Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. This study determined the cost effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9+/-1.3) years in Western New York from February 2003 to November 2004, for a 2-year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n=46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n=17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1% (n=5) from other sources (e.g., word of mouth), and 2.9% (n=2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing.
Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David
This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hahn-Markowitz, Jeri; Berger, Itai; Manor, Iris; Maeir, Adina
We examined the effect of the Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) occupational therapy intervention on executive functions and participation among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a randomized, controlled study with a crossover design. One hundred and seven children age 7-10 yr diagnosed with ADHD were allocated to treatment or wait-list control group. The control group received treatment after a 3-mo wait. Outcome measures included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Significant improvements were found on both the BRIEF and COPM after intervention with large treatment effects. Before crossover, significant Time × Group interactions were found on the BRIEF. This study supports the effectiveness of the Cog-Fun intervention in improving executive functions and participation among children with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes. Methods Authors of published randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture were identified from PubMed search and invited to provide PILs for their trials. The collected PILs were subjected to content analysis and categorized based on degree of information disclosure on placebo. Blinding index (BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding was calculated and its association with different information disclosure was examined. The impact of different information disclosure from PILs on primary outcomes was estimated using a random effects model. Results In 65 collected PILs, approximately 57% of trials fully informed the participants of placebo control, i.e. full disclosure, while the rest gave deceitful or no information on placebo, i.e. no disclosure. Placebo groups in the studies with no disclosure tended to make more opposite guesses on the type of received intervention than those with disclosure, which may reflect wishful thinking (BI −0.21 vs. −0.16; p = 0.38. In outcome analysis, studies with no disclosure significantly favored acupuncture than those with full disclosure (standardized mean difference − 0.43 vs. −0.12; p = 0.03, probably due to enhanced expectations. Conclusions How participants are told about placebos can be another potential factor that may influence participant blinding and study outcomes by possibly modulating patient expectation. As we
Jøranson, Nina; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork; Ihlebaek, Camilla
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of robot-assisted group activity with Paro on quality of life in older people with dementia. Nursing home residents with severe dementia often experience social withdrawal and lower quality of life, which are suggested to be enhanced by non-pharmacological interventions. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Ten nursing home units were randomized to robot-assisted intervention or control group (treatment as usual). Data were collected between March 2013-September 2014. 27 participants participated in group activity for 30 minutes twice a week over 12 weeks, 26 participated in the control group. Change in quality of life was assessed by local nurses through the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia scale at baseline, after end of intervention and at 3 months follow-up. The scale and regular psychotropic medication were analysed stratified by dementia severity. Analysis using mixed model, one-way anova and linear regression were performed. An effect was found among participants with severe dementia from baseline to follow-up showing stable quality of life in the intervention group compared with a decrease in the control group. The intervention explained most of the variance in change in the total scale and in the subscales describing Tension and Well-being for the group with severe dementia. The intervention group used significantly less psychotropic medication compared with the control group after end of intervention. Pleasant and engaging activities facilitated by nursing staff, such as group activity with Paro, could improve quality of life in people with severe dementia. The trial is in adherence with the CONSORT statement and is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (study ID number: NCT02008630). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sharon A Brown
Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9 converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16. We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021 at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%. Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark
Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.
Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips Ii, Gregory; DuBois, L Zachary; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian; Ybarra, Michele L
Using social networking websites to recruit research participants is increasingly documented in the literature, although few studies have leveraged these sites to reach those younger than 18 years. To discuss the development and refinement of a recruitment protocol to reach and engage adolescent gay, bisexual, and other teenaged men who have sex with men (AGBM). Participants were recruited for development and evaluation activities related to Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention program. Eligibility criteria included being between 14 to 18 years old; being a cisgender male; self-identifying as gay, bisexual, and/or queer; being literate in English, exclusively owning a cell phone, enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan, intending to keep their current phone number over the next 6 months, and having used text messaging for at least the past 6 months. Recruitment experiences and subsequent steps to refine the Internet-based recruitment strategy are discussed for 4 research activities: online focus groups, content advisory team, beta test, and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Recruitment relied primarily on Facebook advertising. To a lesser extent, Google AdWords and promotion through partner organizations working with AGBM youth were also utilized. Facebook advertising strategies were regularly adjusted based on preidentified recruitment targets for race, ethnicity, urban-rural residence, and sexual experience. The result was a diverse sample of participants, of whom 30% belonged to a racial minority and 20% were Hispanic. Facebook advertising was the most cost-effective method, and it was also able to reach diverse recruitment goals: recruitment for the first focus group cost an average of US $2.50 per enrolled participant, and it took 9 days to enroll 40 participants; the second focus group cost an average of US $6.96 per enrolled participant, and it took 11 days to enroll 40 participants. Recruitment for the
Martin, Jennifer L; Song, Yeonsu; Hughes, Jaime; Jouldjian, Stella; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A
To test the effectiveness of a 4-week behavioral Sleep Intervention Program (SIP: sleep compression, modified stimulus control, and sleep hygiene) compared to a 4-week information-only control (IC) among older adults attending a VA Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-two individuals (mean age: 77 years, 93% male) enrolled in a VA ADHC program were randomized to receive SIP or IC. All completed in-person sleep and health assessments at baseline, post-treatment and 4-months follow-up that included 3 days/nights of wrist actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Mixed repeated measures analysis was used to compare sleep outcomes at post-treatment and 4-months follow-up, with baseline values as covariates. SIP participants (n = 21) showed significant improvement on actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = .007), number of nighttime awakenings (p = .016), and minutes awake at night (p = .001) at post-treatment, compared to IC participants (n = 21). Benefits were slightly attenuated but remained significant at 4-month follow-up (all p's sleep time between groups. There was significant improvement on PSQI factor 3 (daily disturbances) at 4-month follow-up (p = .016), but no differences were observed between SIP and IC on other PSQI components or ISI scores at post-treatment or 4-month follow-up. A short behavioral sleep intervention may have important benefits in improving objectively measured sleep in older adults participating in ADHC. Future studies are needed to study implementation of this intervention into routine clinical care within ADHC. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Latham, Nancy K.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.
Objectives This study examined whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture, and whether the mediation effect was different between different gender and age groups. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Setting Community Participants Two hundred and thirty two participants aged 79±9.4 years with hip fracture were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120) or attention control (n=112) groups. Interventions The 6-month intervention, the HIP Rehab, is a functionally-oriented, home-based exercise program. Data was collected at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and follow-up (9 months). Main outcome measure Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Results The mediation effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.21). Similarly, the mediation effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediation effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (≤79 years old) in comparison to the older group, and was significant in females in comparison to males. Conclusion Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role for the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the HIP Rehab intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in the future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and gender of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. PMID:25701101
Shah, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Scott D. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bekelman, Justin E., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Purpose: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either 'definitely' or 'probably' participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would 'definitely not' or 'probably not' enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.
A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in clients recruited from primary health-care settings in four countries.
Humeniuk, Rachel; Ali, Robert; Babor, Thomas; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Ling, Walter; McRee, Bonnie; Newcombe, David; Pal, Hemraj; Poznyak, Vladimir; Simon, Sara; Vendetti, Janice
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a brief intervention (BI) for illicit drugs (cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants and opioids) linked to the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST screens for problem or risky use of 10 psychoactive substances, producing a score for each substance that falls into either a low-, moderate- or high-risk category. Prospective, randomized controlled trial in which participants were either assigned to a 3-month waiting-list control condition or received brief motivational counselling lasting an average of 13.8 minutes for the drug receiving the highest ASSIST score. Primary health-care settings in four countries: Australia, Brazil, India and the United States. A total of 731 males and females scoring within the moderate-risk range of the ASSIST for cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants or opioids. ASSIST-specific substance involvement scores for cannabis, stimulants or opioids and ASSIST total illicit substance involvement score at baseline and 3 months post-randomization. Omnibus analyses indicated that those receiving the BI had significantly reduced scores for all measures, compared with control participants. Country-specific analyses showed that, with the exception of the site in the United States, BI participants had significantly lower ASSIST total illicit substance involvement scores at follow-up compared with the control participants. The sites in India and Brazil demonstrated a very strong brief intervention effect for cannabis scores (P Brazil (P illicit substance use and related risks is effective, at least in the short term, and the effect generalizes across countries. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.
Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046
Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K
The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.
Jaffee, William B; Bailey, Genie L; Lohman, Michelle; Riggs, Paula; McDonald, Leah; Weiss, Roger D
The present article reports on recruiting strategies in a 16-week, multi-site trial of osmotic-release methylphenidate combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder. A multifaceted recruiting strategy was employed that targeted multiple referral sources, used incentives, involved numerous staff members, emphasized the therapeutic alliance during prescreening, and utilized data to modify strategies based on results. Overall, 303 adolescents were randomized from 1,333 total referrals across 11 participating sites. Overall, existing treatment program sources, including treatment program staff, social services, the juvenile justice system, and mental health clinics provided a majority of referrals for pre-screening and randomization. These results support the feasibility of recruiting dually-diagnosed adolescents utilizing a multifaceted approach involving the entire study team.
McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat
A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...
Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Piña-Pozo, Fernando; Luque-Carrasco, Antonio; Herrera-Monge, Patricia
This study aimed to assess the immediate effects on masticatory muscle mechanosensitivity, maximal vertical mouth opening (VMO), and head posture in pain-free healthy participants after intervention with myofascial treatment in the temporalis and masseter muscles. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. The sample group included 48 participants (n=48), with a mean age of 21±2.47 years (18-29). Two subgroups were defined: an intervention group (n=24), who underwent a fascial induction protocol in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and a control group (n=24), who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The pressure pain threshold in 2 locations in the masseter (M1, M2) and temporalis (T1, T2) muscles, maximal VMO, and head posture, by means of the craniovertebral angle, were all measured. Significant improvements were observed in the intragroup comparison in the intervention group for the craniovertebral angle with the participant in seated (P.05). Myofascial induction techniques in the masseter and temporalis muscles show no significant differences in maximal VMO, in the mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles, and in head posture in comparison with a placebo intervention in which the therapist's hands are placed in the temporomandibular joint region without exerting any therapeutic pressure. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded......The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies...
Pett, S L; Wand, H; Law, M G; Arduino, R; Lopez, J C; Knysz, B; Pereira, L C; Pollack, S; Reiss, P; Tambussi, G
ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells > or =300 cells/microL. To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/muL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P
Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. This study provides valuable insight into participants' and providers' experiences and expectations with the online
Ellis, Shellie D; Bertoni, Alain G; Bonds, Denise E; Clinch, C Randall; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Blackwell, Caroline; Chen, Haiying; Lischke, Michael; Goff, David C
"Physicians-recruiting-physicians" is the preferred recruitment approach for practice-based research. However, yields are variable; and the approach can be costly and lead to biased, unrepresentative samples. We sought to explore the potential efficiency of alternative methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of 10 recruitment strategies used to recruit primary care practices to a randomized trial to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. We measured response and recruitment yields and the resources used to estimate the value of each strategy. Providers at recruited practices were surveyed about motivation for participation. Response to 6 opt-in marketing strategies was 0.40% (53/13290), ranging from 0% to 2.86% by strategy; 33.96% (18/53) of responders were recruited to the study. Of those recruited from opt-out strategies, 8.68% joined the study, ranging from 5.35% to 41.67% per strategy. A strategy that combined both opt-in and opt-out approaches resulted in a 51.14% (90/176) response and a 10.80% (19/90) recruitment rate. Cost of recruitment was $613 per recruited practice. Recruitment approaches based on in-person meetings (41.67%), previous relationships (33.33%), and borrowing an Area Health Education Center's established networks (10.80%), yielded the most recruited practices per effort and were most cost efficient. Individual providers who chose to participate were motivated by interest in improving their clinical practice (80.5%); contributing to CVD primary prevention (54.4%); and invigorating their practice with new ideas (42.1%). This analysis provides suggestions for future recruitment efforts and research. Translational studies with limited funds could consider multi-modal recruitment approaches including in-person presentations to practice groups and exploitation of previous relationships, which require the providers to opt-out, and interactive opt-in approaches which rely on borrowed networks. These
Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on
Unlu, B.; Cuijpers, P.; van t Hof, E.; Riper, H.
Ethnic minorities are underrepresented in mental health research, especially in randomized controlled trials. Recruiting ethnic minorities is challenging and there is a need to develop effective recruitment strategies. This study used data from a randomized controlled trial examining the
Johnson, Kathy A.; Peace, Jane
The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that th...
Chang, Feng-Hang; Latham, Nancy K; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M
To examine whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture and whether the mediating effect was different between sex and age groups. Randomized controlled trial. Community. Participants with hip fracture (N=232; mean age ± SD, 79±9.4y) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120, 51.7%) and attention control (n=112, 48.3%) groups. The 6-month intervention, the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation, is a functionally oriented, home-based exercise program. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6mo), and follow-up (9mo). Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care. The mediating effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.21). Similarly, the mediating effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediating effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (age, ≤79y) in comparison to the older group and was significant in women in comparison to men. Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role in the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and sex of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Elliott, Peter C; Le Grande, Michael R; Mitchell, Fiona; Navaratnam, Hema; Turner, Alyna; Grigg, Leeanne; Tatoulis, James; Goble, Alan J
While behavior change can improve risk factor profiles and prognosis after an acute cardiac event, patients need assistance to achieve sustained lifestyle changes. We developed the "Beating Heart Problems" cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing program to support patients to develop behavioral and cognitive self-management skills. We report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the program. Patients (n = 275) consecutively admitted to 2 Melbourne hospitals after acute myocardial infarction (32%), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (40%), or percutaneous coronary intervention (28%) were randomized to treatment (T; n = 139) or control (C; n = 136). T group patients were invited to participate in the 8-week group-based program. Patients underwent risk factor screening 6 weeks after hospital discharge (before randomization) and again 4 and 12 months later. At both the followups, T and C groups were compared on 2-year risk of a recurrent cardiac event and key behavioral outcomes, using both intention-to-treat and "completers only" analyses. Patients ranged in age from 32 to 75 years (mean = 59.0 years; SD - 9.1 years). Most patients (86%) were men. Compared with the C group patients, T group patients tended toward greater reduction in 2-year risk, at both the 4- and 12-month followups. Significant benefits in dietary fat intake and functional capacity were also evident. The "Beating Heart Problems" program showed modest but important benefit over usual care at 4 and, to a lesser extent, 12 months. Modifications to the program such as the inclusion of booster sessions and translation to online delivery are likely to improve outcomes.
Okhomina, Victoria I; Seals, Samantha R; Marshall, Gailen D
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) often employ multiple recruitment methods to attract participants, however, special care must be taken to be inclusive of under-represented populations. We examine how recruiting from an existing observational study affected the recruitment of African Americans into a RCT that included yoga-based interventions. In particular, we report the recruitment success of The Effects of Health Promoting Programs (HPP) on Cardiovascular Disease Risk (NCT02019953), the first yoga-based clinical trial to focus only on African Americans. To recruit participants, a multifaceted recruitment strategy was implemented exclusively in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort. The HPP recruited from the JHS cohort using direct mailings, signs and flyers placed around JHS study facilities, and through JHS annual follow-up interviews. Enrollment into HPP was open to all active JHS participants that were eligible to return for the third clinic exam (n = 4644). The target sample size was 375 JHS participants over a 24 month recruitment and enrollment period. From the active members of the JHS cohort, 503 were pre-screened for eligibility in HPP. More than 90% of those pre-screened were provisionally eligible for the study. The enrollment goal of 375 was completed after a 16-month enrollment period with over 25% (n = 97) of the required sample size enrolling during the second month of recruitment. The findings show that participants in observational studies can be successfully recruited into RCT. Observational studies provide researchers with a well-defined population that may be of interest when designing clinical trials. This is particularly useful in the recruitment of a high-risk, traditionally underrepresented populations for non-pharmacological clinical trials where traditional recruitment methods may prolong enrollment periods and extend study budgets.
McCaffrey, Nikki; Fazekas, Belinda; Cutri, Natalie; Currow, David C
Audits have been proposed for estimating possible recruitment rates to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but few studies have compared audit data with subsequent recruitment rates. To compare the accuracy of estimates of potential recruitment from a retrospective consecutive cohort audit of actual participating sites and recruitment to four Phase III multisite clinical RCTs. The proportion of potentially eligible study participants estimated from an inpatient chart review of people with life-limiting illnesses referred to six Australian specialist palliative care services was compared with recruitment data extracted from study prescreening information from three sites that participated fully in four Palliative Care Clinical Studies Collaborative RCTs. The predominant reasons for ineligibility in the audit and RCTs were analyzed. The audit overestimated the proportion of people referred to the palliative care services who could participate in the RCTs (pain 17.7% vs. 1.2%, delirium 5.8% vs. 0.6%, anorexia 5.1% vs. 0.8%, and bowel obstruction 2.8% vs. 0.5%). Approximately 2% of the referral base was potentially eligible for these effectiveness studies. Ineligibility for general criteria (language, cognition, and geographic proximity) varied between studies, whereas the reasons for exclusion were similar between the audit and pain and anorexia studies but not for delirium or bowel obstruction. The retrospective consecutive case note audit in participating sites did not predict realistic recruitment rates, mostly underestimating the impact of study-specific inclusion criteria. These findings have implications for the applicability of the results of RCTs. Prospective pilot studies are more likely to predict actual recruitment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
E-recruitment, also known as online or web-based recruitment, is little discussed in research from an organizational perspective. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to analyze and discuss the process of e-recruitment, its key constituents and organizing principles. In doing so I draw...... on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2008-2009, and on data stemming from industrial reports, articles from practitioner magazines, and in-depth interviews. The chapter provides a summary of e-recruitment properties and a composite matrix of the overall elements of e-recruitment organizing. E-recruitment...... is viewed as a case of virtual organizing- the organization of processes and activities which, via technology and human agents, facilitate time- and space-independent interaction and collaboration. In closure I offer a brief discussion of implications of the findings for HR managers and professionals...
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Elsass, Peter; Flyger, Henrik Lavlund; Sumbundu, Antonia; Johansen, Christoffer
Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. We used Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. Participants (N = 336) were found to be younger (p less recent diagnosis at invitation than decliners (N = 872; p statistically significant difference was also found between the two groups in use of psychologist sessions (p statistically significant differences in level of education, distress, anxiety, depression, well being and symptom burden. No differences were observed with regard to marital status, children living at home, affiliation to the work market, psychiatric caseness or any lifestyle measure. Our findings indicate that participants are younger, have a less recent diagnosis and have a higher level of education than those who refuse. This should be taken into account in designing and evaluating trials of psychosocial interventions and in planning mindfulness-based interventions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Fredrick Owino,1 Justin Mandala,2 Julie Ambia,3 Kawango Agot,1 Lut Van Damme2 1Impact Research and Development Organization, Kisumu, Kenya; 2Department of Global Health, Population, and Nutrition, FHI 360, Washington, DC, USA; 3KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Side effects of antiretroviral drug use by HIV-positive patients have been extensively studied; however, there are limited data on the side effects of antiretroviral drugs used as an HIV prophylaxis among healthy, HIV-negative individuals. Here we report on an unusual neuropathy in a 24-year-old participant in the FEM-PrEP trial. This was a Phase III randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg and emtricitabine (200 mg (TDF-FTC to prevent HIV. At the eighth week of taking TDF-FTC with moderate adherence, the participant complained of mild paresthesiae, numbness, and a tingling sensation in her upper limbs that was associated with pain and cold. After an additional 4 days, she developed a disabling weakness of her upper limbs and tremors in her hands. The study product was discontinued, and within 2 weeks she was free of all symptoms. One month after restarting the drug, she complained of posture-dependent numbness of her upper limbs. Results of clinical and neurological exams, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging are described here. Keywords: pre-exposure prophylaxis, toxic neuropathy, NRTI
Rayan, Gamal; Dawson, Laura A.; Bezjak, Andrea; Lau, Anthea; Fyles, Anthony W.; Yi, Q.-L.; Merante, Pat; Vallis, Katherine A.
Purpose: To determine whether breast pain affects quality of life (QOL) after breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen (TAM) with or without adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A randomized clinical trial was carried out at the Princess Margaret Hospital between 1992 and 2000 to evaluate the need for breast RT in addition to TAM in women ≥50 years treated with breast-conserving surgery for T1-T2N0 breast cancer. A companion study to assess breast pain was carried out during the last 2 years of the randomized clinical trial. The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL (QLQ-C30) and EORTC breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23) questionnaires were completed by patients within 1 week of randomization in the randomized clinical trial (baseline) and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Eighty-six patients participated in the breast pain study; 41 received RT plus TAM and 45 received TAM alone. The median age was 70 years (range 51-80). The baseline pain and QOL scores were similar for the two groups. No significant difference was found between the two groups for each scale of the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires at 3, 6, or 12 months (p>0.100), except that at 12 months, the score for role function (QLQ-C30) was higher in the RT plus TAM group than in the RT-only group (p=0.02). At 3 months, the difference between the mean scores for the SF-MPQ was 0.553 (p=0.47). At 12 months, the pain scores had decreased in both groups; the difference was 0.199 (p=0.71). The number of breast operations or surgical complications did not correlate with breast pain in either group. Acute RT toxicity scores did not correlate with breast pain or QOL scores at 12 months. Conclusion: These results suggest that breast RT does not significantly contribute to breast pain or adversely impact the QOL up to 12 months after treatment in postmenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer who take
Full Text Available The Phase 2b double-blinded, randomized Phambili/HVTN 503 trial evaluated safety and efficacy of the MRK Ad5 gag/pol/nef subtype B HIV-1 preventive vaccine vs placebo in sexually active HIV-1 seronegative participants in South Africa. Enrollment and vaccinations stopped and participants were unblinded but continued follow-up when the Step study evaluating the same vaccine in the Americas, Caribbean, and Australia was unblinded for non-efficacy. Final Phambili analyses found more HIV-1 infections amongst vaccine than placebo recipients, impelling the HVTN 503-S recall study.HVTN 503-S sought to enroll all 695 HIV-1 uninfected Phambili participants, provide HIV testing, risk reduction counseling, physical examination, risk behavior assessment and treatment assignment recall. After adding HVTN 503-S data, HIV-1 infection hazard ratios (HR vaccine vs. placebo were estimated by Cox models.Of the 695 eligible, 465 (67% enrolled with 230 from the vaccine group and 235 from the placebo group. 38% of the 184 Phambili dropouts were enrolled. Enrollment did not differ by treatment group, gender, or baseline HSV-2. With the additional 1286 person years of 503-S follow-up, the estimated HR over Phambili and HVTN 503-S follow-up was 1.52 (95% CI 1.08-2.15, p = 0.02, 82 vaccine/54 placebo infections. The HR was significant for men (HR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.49, 5.06, p = 0.001 but not for women (HR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.73, 1.72, p = 0.62.The additional follow-up from HVTN 503-S supported the Phambili finding of increased HIV-1 acquisition among vaccinated men and strengthened the evidence of lack of vaccine effect among women.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00413725 SA National Health Research Database DOH-27-0207-1539.
Ryu, Borim; Kim, Nari; Heo, Eunyoung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Keehyuck; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Joongseek; Jung, Se Young
Personal health record (PHR)-based health care management systems can improve patient engagement and data-driven medical diagnosis in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was (1) to demonstrate the development of an electronic health record (EHR)-tethered PHR app named MyHealthKeeper, which can retrieve data from a wearable device and deliver these data to a hospital EHR system, and (2) to study the effectiveness of a PHR data-driven clinical intervention with clinical trial results. To improve the conventional EHR-tethered PHR, we ascertained clinicians' unmet needs regarding PHR functionality and the data frequently used in the field through a cocreation workshop. We incorporated the requirements into the system design and architecture of the MyHealthKeeper PHR module. We constructed the app and validated the effectiveness of the PHR module by conducting a 4-week clinical trial. We used a commercially available activity tracker (Misfit) to collect individual physical activity data, and developed the MyHealthKeeper mobile phone app to record participants' patterns of daily food intake and activity logs. We randomly assigned 80 participants to either the PHR-based intervention group (n=51) or the control group (n=29). All of the study participants completed a paper-based survey, a laboratory test, a physical examination, and an opinion interview. During the 4-week study period, we collected health-related mobile data, and study participants visited the outpatient clinic twice and received PHR-based clinical diagnosis and recommendations. A total of 68 participants (44 in the intervention group and 24 in the control group) completed the study. The PHR intervention group showed significantly higher weight loss than the control group (mean 1.4 kg, 95% CI 0.9-1.9; Phealth tracker system and its potential to improve patient clinical profiles. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03200119; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03200119 (Archived by WebCite at http
Bodner, Michael E; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gao, Xiaomei; Lyna, Pauline; Alexander, Stewart C; Dolor, Rowena J; Østbye, Truls; Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A; Graves, Sidney; Irons, Alexis; Pollak, Kathryn I
Practice-based studies are needed to assess how physicians communicate health messages about weight to overweight/obese adolescent patients, but successful recruitment to such studies is challenging. This paper describes challenges, solutions, and lessons learned to recruit physicians and adolescents to the Teen Communicating Health Analyzing Talk (CHAT) study, a randomized controlled trial of a communication skills intervention for primary care physicians to enhance communication about weight with overweight/obese adolescents. A "peer-to-peer" approach was used to recruit physicians, including the use of "clinic champions" who liaised between study leaders and physicians. Consistent rapport and cooperative working relationships with physicians and clinic staff were developed and maintained. Adolescent clinic files were reviewed (HIPAA waiver) to assess eligibility. Parents could elect to opt-out for their children. To encourage enrollment, confidentiality of audio recordings was emphasized, and financial incentives were offered to all participants. We recruited 49 physicians and audio-recorded 391 of their overweight/obese adolescents' visits. Recruitment challenges included 1) physician reticence to participate; 2) variability in clinic operating procedures; 3) variability in adolescent accrual rates; 4) clinic open access scheduling; and 5) establishing communication with parents and adolescents. Key solutions included the use of a "clinic champion" to help recruit physicians, pro-active, consistent communication with clinic staff, and adapting calling times to reach parents and adolescents. Recruiting physicians and adolescents to audio-recorded, practice-based health communication studies can be successful. Anticipated challenges to recruiting can be met with advanced planning; however, optimal solutions to challenges evolve as recruitment progresses.
Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D
Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.
Luo, Jake; Chen, Weiheng; Wu, Min; Weng, Chunhua
Prior studies of clinical trial planning indicate that it is crucial to search and screen recruitment sites before starting to enroll participants. However, currently there is no systematic method developed to support clinical investigators to search candidate recruitment sites according to their interested clinical trial factors. In this study, we aim at developing a new approach to integrating the location data of over one million heterogeneous recruitment sites that are stored in clinical trial documents. The integrated recruitment location data can be searched and visualized using a map-based information retrieval method. The method enables systematic search and analysis of recruitment sites across a large amount of clinical trials. The location data of more than 1.4 million recruitment sites of over 183,000 clinical trials was normalized and integrated using a geocoding method. The integrated data can be used to support geographic information retrieval of recruitment sites. Additionally, the information of over 6000 clinical trial target disease conditions and close to 4000 interventions was also integrated into the system and linked to the recruitment locations. Such data integration enabled the construction of a novel map-based query system. The system will allow clinical investigators to search and visualize candidate recruitment sites for clinical trials based on target conditions and interventions. The evaluation results showed that the coverage of the geographic location mapping for the 1.4 million recruitment sites was 99.8%. The evaluation of 200 randomly retrieved recruitment sites showed that the correctness of geographic information mapping was 96.5%. The recruitment intensities of the top 30 countries were also retrieved and analyzed. The data analysis results indicated that the recruitment intensity varied significantly across different countries and geographic areas. This study contributed a new data processing framework to extract and integrate
Luo, Jake; Chen, Weiheng; Wu, Min; Weng, Chunhua
Background Prior studies of clinical trial planning indicate that it is crucial to search and screen recruitment sites before starting to enroll participants. However, currently there is no systematic method developed to support clinical investigators to search candidate recruitment sites according to their interested clinical trial factors. Objective In this study, we aim at developing a new approach to integrating the location data of over one million heterogeneous recruitment sites that are stored in clinical trial documents. The integrated recruitment location data can be searched and visualized using a map-based information retrieval method. The method enables systematic search and analysis of recruitment sites across a large amount of clinical trials. Methods The location data of more than 1.4 million recruitment sites of over 183,000 clinical trials was normalized and integrated using a geocoding method. The integrated data can be used to support geographic information retrieval of recruitment sites. Additionally, the information of over 6000 clinical trial target disease conditions and close to 4000 interventions was also integrated into the system and linked to the recruitment locations. Such data integration enabled the construction of a novel map-based query system. The system will allow clinical investigators to search and visualize candidate recruitment sites for clinical trials based on target conditions and interventions. Results The evaluation results showed that the coverage of the geographic location mapping for the 1.4 million recruitment sites was 99.8%. The evaluation of 200 randomly retrieved recruitment sites showed that the correctness of geographic information mapping was 96.5%. The recruitment intensities of the top 30 countries were also retrieved and analyzed. The data analysis results indicated that the recruitment intensity varied significantly across different countries and geographic areas. Conclusion This study contributed a new
Jøranson, Nina; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork; Ihlebæk, Camilla
To examine effects on symptoms of agitation and depression in nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia participating in a robot-assisted group activity with the robot seal Paro. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Ten nursing home units were randomized to either robot-assisted intervention or a control group with treatment as usual during 3 intervention periods from 2013 to 2014. Ten adapted units in nursing homes in 3 counties in eastern Norway. Sixty residents (67% women, age range 62-95 years) in adapted nursing home units with a dementia diagnosis or cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score lower than 25/30). Group sessions with Paro took place in a separate room at nursing homes for 30 minutes twice a week over the course of 12 weeks. Local nurses were trained to conduct the intervention. Participants were scored on baseline measures (T0) assessing cognitive status, regular medication, agitation (BARS), and depression (CSDD). The data collection was repeated at end of intervention (T1) and at follow-up (3 months after end of intervention) (T2). Mixed models were used to test treatment and time effects. Statistically significant differences in changes were found on agitation and depression between groups from T0 to T2. Although the symptoms of the intervention group declined, the control group's symptoms developed in the opposite direction. Agitation showed an effect estimate of -5.51, CI 0.06-10.97, P = .048, and depression -3.88, CI 0.43-7.33, P = .028. There were no significant differences in changes on either agitation or depression between groups from T0 to T1. This study found a long-term effect on depression and agitation by using Paro in activity groups for elderly with dementia in nursing homes. Paro might be a suitable nonpharmacological treatment for neuropsychiatric symptoms and should be considered as a useful tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care
Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi
Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in
Full Text Available Respondent-driven sampling (RDS is a variant of a link-tracing design intended for generating unbiased estimates of the composition of hidden populations that typically involves giving participants several coupons to recruit their peers into the study. RDS may generate biased estimates if coupons are distributed non-randomly or if potential recruits present for interview non-randomly. We explore if biases detected in an RDS study were due to either of these mechanisms, and propose and apply weights to reduce bias due to non-random presentation for interview.Using data from the total population, and the population to whom recruiters offered their coupons, we explored how age and socioeconomic status were associated with being offered a coupon, and, if offered a coupon, with presenting for interview. Population proportions were estimated by weighting by the assumed inverse probabilities of being offered a coupon (as in existing RDS methods, and also of presentation for interview if offered a coupon by age and socioeconomic status group.Younger men were under-recruited primarily because they were less likely to be offered coupons. The under-recruitment of higher socioeconomic status men was due in part to them being less likely to present for interview. Consistent with these findings, weighting for non-random presentation for interview by age and socioeconomic status group greatly improved the estimate of the proportion of men in the lowest socioeconomic group, reducing the root-mean-squared error of RDS estimates of socioeconomic status by 38%, but had little effect on estimates for age. The weighting also improved estimates for tribe and religion (reducing root-mean-squared-errors by 19-29%, but had little effect for sexual activity or HIV status.Data collected from recruiters on the characteristics of men to whom they offered coupons may be used to reduce bias in RDS studies. Further evaluation of this new method is required.
Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S
Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Thorndike, Anne N; Bright, Oliver-John M; Dimond, Melissa A; Fishman, Ronald; Levy, Douglas E
To conduct a pilot study to determine if improving the visibility and quality of fresh produce (choice architecture) in corner stores would increase fruit/vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Six stores were randomly assigned to choice architecture intervention or control. Store-level WIC sales data were provided by the state. Primary outcomes were WIC fruit/vegetable voucher and non-fruit/vegetable voucher sales, comparing trends from baseline (December 2012-October 2013) with the five-month intervention period (December 2013-April 2014). Secondary outcomes were differences in customer self-reported fruit/vegetable purchases between baseline and end of the intervention. Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income urban community. Adult customers (n 575) completing store exit interviews. During baseline, WIC fruit/vegetable and non-fruit/vegetable sales decreased in both intervention and control stores by $US 16/month. During the intervention period, WIC fruit/vegetable sales increased in intervention stores by $US 40/month but decreased in control stores by $US 23/month (difference in trends: $US 63/month; 95 % CI 4, 121 $US/month; P=0·036); WIC non-fruit/vegetable sales were not different (P=0·45). Comparing baseline and intervention-period exit interview responses by customers participating in WIC (n 134), intervention store customers reported increased fruit/vegetable purchases compared with control store customers (18 v. -2 %), but this did not achieve statistical significance (P=0·11). Placement of fruits/vegetables near the front of corner stores increased purchase of produce by customers using WIC. New policies that incentivize stores to stock and prominently display good-quality produce could promote healthier food choices of low-income families.
Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn
The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (p<0.0001), and meeting exercise guidelines (p<0.0001) were associated with fewer calories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.
Penney, Lisa M; Borman, Walter C; Bearden, Ronald M
.... the students were administered a trial predictor battery while at the school, and performance ratings and production data were collected after participants had been assigned to recruiting duty...
Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.
Park, Elyse R; Quinn, Virginia P; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Loudin, Beverly; Cummins, Sharon; Perry, Kristin; Rigotti, Nancy A
Recruiting pregnant smokers into smoking cessation intervention trials is challenging. Changes in health care systems offer new opportunities to overcome many of the obstacles encountered by researchers attempting to address the significant harm from maternal smoking. Investigators could facilitate smoking cessation study recruitment by collaborating with health care systems that systematically collect patient smoking status and record it in a centralized, retrievable fashion. This paper reports the results of utilizing this novel approach and compares it with a typical decentralized practice-based recruitment strategy. The study was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, from 2000 to 2005. Four hundred forty-two pregnant smokers were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered smoking counseling from two sources: a network-model managed care health plan and community-based practices (CBP). At the health plan, study recruitment was built on an existing system that permitted pregnant smokers to be identified centrally. At the CBPs, identification and referral systems had to be developed at each practice specifically for the study. The two strategies were compared on the efficiency of recruitment, characteristics of enrollees, and study outcome and process measures. The health plan strategy generated referrals nearly twice as fast as the CBP strategy (30.4 vs. 17.0 per month), but because referrals were not timely, a large proportion of women from the plan were too advanced in pregnancy to be eligible to enroll in the study. As a result, the two strategies yielded a comparable enrollment rate. Participants from the health plan were older, better educated, less racially diverse, more likely to be living with the baby's father, and less likely to have smokers in their environment. These differences were largely explained by the socioeconomic diversity of women recruited from the CBPs. Smoking cessation outcomes did
Thornton, Louise K; Harris, Keith; Baker, Amanda L; Johnson, Martin; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J
This study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting participants to addiction research via Facebook. Participants were recruited via an advertisement on Facebook, a local research register and university psychology courses. Participants completed a self-report survey regarding substance use, history of mental health issues and current psychological distress. The 524 participants recruited via Facebook cost $1.86 per participant; and 418 participants were recruited via more traditional methods. There were significantly fewer women in the Facebook sample compared with the non-Facebook sample (χ(2) = 196.61, P Facebook participants reported current use of tobacco (women: Facebook = 57%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2) = 39.71, P Facebook = 62%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2) = 32.429, P Facebook = 26%, non-Facebook = 7%, χ(2) = 14.364, P Facebook = 46%, non-Facebook = 24%, χ(2) = 6.765, P Facebook sample contained a higher percentage of high-severity cannabis users (women: Facebook = 24%, non-Facebook = 4%, χ(2) = 18.12, P Facebook = 43%, non-Facebook = 16%, χ(2) = 10.00, P Facebook, we were able to capture a greater proportion of people with high-severity substance use and mental health issues and were able to capture a greater and more severe range of substance use behaviours. This suggests social networking sites are efficient, cost-effective ways to recruit large numbers of participants, with relevant behaviours and conditions, to addiction research. [Thornton LK, Harris K, Baker AL, Johnson M, Kay-Lambkin FJ. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:494-502]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Westermeyer, Roger H
.... Recruiting and retaining this highly skilled workforce is a significant challenge for the Air Force due to the high public and private sector demand for people with IT and related engineering skills...
2007 hearing of the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Policy, Gregory Wilshusen, director of Information Technology at...Abbott Laboratories in Chicago, recruiters are reaching out to College students by offering flexible work schedules, telecommuting , full tuition
Overseas nurses account for 40 per cent of all new registrations in the UK and this may be rising to 50 per cent. This upward trend is likely to continue. International recruitment is to be part of the NHS's long-term strategy and is becoming the focus of increasing policy attention. The international labour market will become tighter: the US needs to recruit an extra million nurses of its own.
Johnson, Kathy A; Peace, Jane
The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that the relationship with the source of the research and the purpose of the engaged social network should be a consideration in Internet or social network recruitment strategies.
The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use
. This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life...... Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....
Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G
To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.
Kye, Steve H; Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D; Adams, Bradley; Nie, Wen-Xian; Mao, Jenny T
The ability to recruit qualified subjects who are willing to adhere to the study protocol in clinical trials is an essential component of translational research. Such tasks can be particularly challenging for chemoprevention studies when the targeted study population is healthy, at risk individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of the disease, and the study participation involves complex scheduling and invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy. In this report, we describe the recruitment process and evaluated the effectiveness of various recruitment strategies utilized in our National Cancer Institute sponsored lung cancer chemoprevention study with celecoxib. Heavy ex-smokers were recruited into the study through various methods such as radio advertisements, print media, mass mailings, flyers, internet postings and others. The number of inquiries, on-site screenees and randomization generated by each method determined the efficacy of that recruitment strategy. We prescreened 4470 individuals, invited 323 people for on-site screening and randomized 137 subjects. Radio advertisements (ads) generated the most inquiries (71.1%), followed by internet posting (11.8%), print media (6.0%), posted and racked flyers (4.4%), mass mailings (2.7%) and other strategies such as referrals from friends or family members or health care providers (2.3%). Radio ads, although costly, yielded the most subjects for on-site screening and randomization. Moreover, among the various types of radio stations, news radio stations were by far the most successful. Our results suggest that advertising on news radio is a highly effective recruitment method for successful accrual of ex-smokers into lung cancer chemoprevention trials.
Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S
To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S
Aims To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. Results The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Conclusions Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. PMID:24283948
Mastellos, Nikolaos; Bliźniuk, Grzegorz; Czopnik, Dorota; McGilchrist, Mark; Misiaszek, Andrzej; Bródka, Piotr; Curcin, Vasa; Car, Josip; Delaney, Brendan C; Andreasson, Anna
Recruitment of study participants is a challenging process for health professionals and patients. The Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) clinical trial tools enable automated identification, recruitment and follow-up in clinical trials, potentially saving time, effort and costs for all parties involved. This study evaluates the acceptability and feasibility of TRANSFoRm to improve clinical trial recruitment in primary care. A feasibility study was conducted in three general practices in Poland. Participants were physicians and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Semi-structured interviews were held to obtain feedback about the usefulness, ease of use and overall experience with the TRANSFoRm tools and to identify potential usability issues. Data were analysed thematically. A total of 5 physicians and 10 patients participated in the study. Physicians were satisfied with the usefulness of the system, as it enabled easier and faster identification, recruitment and follow-up of patients compared with existing methods. Patients found the TRANSFoRm apps easy to use to report patient outcomes. However, they also felt that the apps may not be useful for patients with limited exposure to smartphone and web technologies. Two main usability issues were identified: physicians could not access the result of the randomization at the end of each visit, and participants could not locate the follow-up reminder email. This study provides new evidence on the acceptability and feasibility of TRANSFoRm to enable automated identification, recruitment and follow-up of study participants in primary care trials. It also helps to better understand and address users' requirements in eHealth-supported clinical research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mulholland, Susan; Derdall, Michele
Recruitment issues in occupational therapy have been a long-standing concern for the profession. This descriptive study explored the strategies currently being used by employers to recruit occupational therapists for employment purposes. An 18-item survey was mailed to 251 sites where occupational therapists work in Alberta and Saskatchewan. There was a 64% response rate and data from 130 surveys were analyzed. The results indicate that employers continue to rely on a wide variety of strategies for advertising and recruiting, the most prevalent being word of mouth, postings at universities, and providing student fieldwork placements. In turn, the most effective recruitment strategies were listed as word of mouth, advertising in the general media, and providing student fieldwork placements. Various examples of financial incentives offered by employers were also listed. Many participants identified recent changes in recruitment strategies such as making a move towards web site job postings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results suggest strategies for employers to target for recruiting occupational therapists and illustrate to both employers and students the importance of fieldwork in recruitment and hiring.
Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter
The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their
outpatient disease s unknown and there are diagnostic difficulties in identifying S. neumoniae , these reports likely underestimate the true impact of...Outcome measures included S. pneumonia infections, any-cause neumonia , any-cause respiratory disease, recruit training clin- cal pneumonia (radiographically
Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H
Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.
The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.
Suggests ways community college journalism instructors can recruit and retain students in journalism classes (e.g., host a high school press day, fund a journalism scholarship, sponsor events for high school journalism teachers and advisers, serve as counselor for journalism majors, have a yearly journalism convocation, and involve campus…
Holm, Anna B.
tasks and subtasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. In addition, a new on-going task of maintaining a corporate career website has become an integral part of the new recruitment process. The new design is presented in the following, and its implications...
Yelland, Lisa N; Kahan, Brennan C; Dent, Elsa; Lee, Katherine J; Voysey, Merryn; Forbes, Andrew B; Cook, Jonathan A
Background/aims In clinical trials, it is not unusual for errors to occur during the process of recruiting, randomising and providing treatment to participants. For example, an ineligible participant may inadvertently be randomised, a participant may be randomised in the incorrect stratum, a participant may be randomised multiple times when only a single randomisation is permitted or the incorrect treatment may inadvertently be issued to a participant at randomisation. Such errors have the potential to introduce bias into treatment effect estimates and affect the validity of the trial, yet there is little motivation for researchers to report these errors and it is unclear how often they occur. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors and review current approaches for reporting these errors in trials published in leading medical journals. Methods We conducted a systematic review of individually randomised, phase III, randomised controlled trials published in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine and British Medical Journal from January to March 2015. The number and type of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors that were reported and how they were handled were recorded. The corresponding authors were contacted for a random sample of trials included in the review and asked to provide details on unreported errors that occurred during their trial. Results We identified 241 potentially eligible articles, of which 82 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These trials involved a median of 24 centres and 650 participants, and 87% involved two treatment arms. Recruitment, randomisation or treatment errors were reported in 32 in 82 trials (39%) that had a median of eight errors. The most commonly reported error was ineligible participants inadvertently being randomised. No mention of recruitment, randomisation
Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Canaud, Bernard; Davenport, Andrew; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Kircelli, Fatih; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Nube, Menso J.; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Woodward, Mark; Blankestijn, Peter J.
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates remain high for haemodialysis (HD) patients and simply increasing the HD dose to remove more small solutes does not improve survival. Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) provides additional clearance of larger toxins compared with standard HD. Randomized controlled trials
Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa
Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…
Sin, Jacqueline; Henderson, Claire; Spain, Debbie; Gamble, Catherine; Norman, Ian
Recruitment to clinical research studies can prove complex. This is particularly true of mental health research, given factors such as confidentiality, capacity and consent, or when attempting to recruit family members as opposed to service users themselves. This study investigated the challenges experienced and strategies employed in the recruitment of siblings of people with first episode psychosis using Early Intervention in Psychosis Services (EIPS) in England. As part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an e-health intervention for siblings, we conducted a process evaluation study whereby semistructured interview was undertaken with clinical and research staff involved in recruitment of siblings. Data were analysed thematically. Twelve participants from six EIPS were interviewed. Data analysis revealed seven key themes: (i) limited comprehensive family data available; (ii) data governance and consent issues; (iii) organizational factors; (iv) convoluted recruitment methods; (v) concerns about service users' opinions; (vi) fluidity in siblings' needs and expectations; and (vii) strategies to enhance recruitment. Recruitment challenges identified in this study concerned administrative, organizational, process and attitudinal issues. These are similar to other studies recruiting mental health service users as well as family members. Failure to recruit to target implies that studies are underpowered to detect potential statistically or clinically meaningful changes. Future studies should establish how best to enhance family inclusiveness in clinical practice and research. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chatters, Robin; Newbould, Louise; Sprange, Kirsty; Hind, Daniel; Mountain, Gail; Shortland, Katy; Powell, Lauren; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Chater, Tim; Keetharuth, Anju; Lee, Ellen; Woods, Bob
Recruiting isolated older adults to clinical trials is complex, time-consuming and difficult. Previous studies have suggested querying existing databases to identify appropriate potential participants. We aim to compare recruitment techniques (general practitioner (GP) mail-outs, community engagement and clinician referrals) used in three randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies assessing the feasibility or effectiveness of two preventative interventions in isolated older adults (the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years interventions). During the three studies (the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, the Lifestyle Matters RCT, the Putting Life In Years RCT) data were collected about how participants were recruited. The number of letters sent by GP surgeries for each study was recorded. In the Lifestyle Matters RCT, we qualitatively interviewed participants and intervention facilitators at 6 months post randomisation to seek their thoughts on the recruitment process. Referrals were planned to be the main source of recruitment in the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, but due to a lack of engagement from district nurses, community engagement was the main source of recruitment. District nurse referrals and community engagement were also utilised in the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years RCTs; both mechanisms yielded few participants. GP mail-outs were the main source of recruitment in both the RCTs, but of those contacted, recruiting yield was low (recruited. Participants recommended that direct contact with health professionals would be the most beneficial way to recruit. Recruitment to the Lifestyle Matters RCT did not mirror recruitment to the feasibility study of the same intervention. Direct district nurse referrals were not effective at recruiting participants. The majority of participants were recruited via GP mail-outs, which may have led to isolated individuals not being recruited to the trials. Further research is required into
Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone-corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Klose, Marianne
from baseline to the end of intervention. METHODS: The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day...
Hinshaw, Lisa B; Jackson, Sharon A; Chen, Michael Y
To analyze advertising, recruitment methods, and study participant demographics for the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) site at Wake Forest University School of Medicine to define efficient ways to recruit participants for general clinical trials. Recruitment method data, demographics, geographic location, and date of enrollment were collected from all 1,112 NLST participants. Marketing data and financial records were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of each recruitment method. The total amount spent on advertising was $144,668, with the cost of enrollment per participant averaging $130. For black participants, the recruitment cost per person was $406, whereas for white and other race participants, the cost was $122 (PTV ads cost $382 per participant. Direct mailing to a targeted group was the most efficient way to recruit participants. Printed advertising methods, that is, newspaper ads and brochures, were quite effective, whereas television ads were expensive. Appropriate minority recruitment needs sufficient attention and resources to ensure census groups are adequately represented.
Lars Øystein Ursin
Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697
Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel; Leder, Gilah; McLeod, Amber
Surveys are commonly used to determine how people feel about a specific issue. The increasing availability of the internet and popularity of social networking sites have opened up new possibilities for conducting surveys and, with limited additional costs, enlarge the pool of volunteer respondents with the desired background, experience, or…
Pett, S. L.; Wand, H.; Law, M. G.; Arduino, R.; Lopez, J. C.; Knysz, B.; Pereira, L. C.; Pollack, S.; Reiss, P.; Tambussi, G.
BACKGROUND: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells >
The objectives of this article were to provide a comprehensive overview of the recruitment experience and participant characteristics in an antihypertensive dietary educational intervention pilot trial among Chinese Canadians. The recruitment was conducted in a community centre. Two recruitment approaches, self-referral and proactive recruitment, were used. Among 618 Chinese Canadians in the blood pressure screening, 105 (17.0%) individuals were eligible to participate in this trial. Of the 105 eligible individuals, 45 (42.9%) declined enrollment and 60 (57.1%) consented to participate in the trial and were recruited. The most common reason for refusal was being unable to access to the education location (n=19, 42.2%) followed by being too busy to participate (n=18, 40.0%). All participants were Chinese immigrants and the mean number of years living in Canada was 9.2. Most participants had low English proficiency, accepted Chinese culture more than Western culture, and had strong traditional health beliefs. It is concluded that both self-referral and proactive recruitment approaches were effective. Home-based interventions using Internet and telephone should be used as alternative delivery approaches to improve recruitment rate and facilitate participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heppe, E.C.M.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.
Background: Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited. Adolescents on their way towards achieving these goals may
The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF)
Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L.; Chilton, Mariana
Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support inte...
Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171
Full Text Available Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions.International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374.
Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O'Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen
Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374.
Mboizi, Robert B; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okoye, Michael; Kampmann, Beate; Roca, Anna; Idoko, Olubukola T
Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants. The Speaking Book was developed in the 2 most widely spoken local languages. Four-hundred and 9 parents of trial infants gave consent to participate in this nested study and were included in the baseline assessment of their knowledge about trial participation. An additional assessment was conducted approximately 90 d later, following completion of the clinical trial protocol. All parents received a Speaking Book at the start of the trial. Trial knowledge was already high at the baseline assessment with no differences related to socio-economic status or education. Knowledge of key trial information was retained at the completion of the study follow-up. The Speaking Book (SB) was well received by the study participants. We hypothesize that the SB may have contributed to the retention of information over the trial follow-up. Further studies evaluating the impact of this innovative tool are thus warranted.
Doshi, Aalap; Connally, Lisa; Spiroff, Meghan; Johnson, Anita; Mashour, George A
UMHealthResearch is the University of Michigan's digital health research recruitment platform. It allows health researchers to connect efficiently with potentially eligible volunteers. In 2013, the UMHealthResearch team strategically adapted a consumer behavior model, the buying funnel, to create the Digital Health Research Participation Funnel. The Digital Health Research Participation Funnel was then used to design a more active way for potential participants to volunteer for research studies through UMHealthResearch. In the 5 years before the redesign (2007-2012), an average of 1844 new accounts were created every year, whereas in the completed years after the redesign (2013-2016) the annual average improved to 3906, an increase of 111%. Although a randomized design was not possible in this instance, these preintervention and postintervention data suggest that the focus on user experience is an effective strategy for improving web-based research recruitment platforms.
Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E; Cohen, I Glenn
It is not uncommon for multiple clinical trials at the same institution to recruit concurrently from the same patient population. When the relevant pool of patients is limited, as it often is, trials essentially compete for participants. There is evidence that such a competition is a predictor of low study accrual, with increased competition tied to increased recruitment shortfalls. But there is no consensus on what steps, if any, institutions should take to approach this issue. In this article, we argue that an institutional policy that prioritises some trials for recruitment ahead of others is ethically permissible and indeed prima facie preferable to alternative means of addressing recruitment competition. We motivate this view by appeal to the ethical importance of minimising the number of studies that begin but do not complete, thereby exposing their participants to unnecessary risks and burdens in the process. We then argue that a policy of prioritisation can be fair to relevant stakeholders, including participants, investigators and funders. Finally, by way of encouraging and helping to frame future debate, we propose some questions that would need to be addressed when identifying substantive ethical criteria for prioritising between studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Tompkins, D Andrew; Sides, Jessica A; Harrison, Joseph A; Strain, Eric C
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) represent a large public health burden with relatively few efficacious pharmacotherapies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for new AUD therapies can be hampered by ineffective recruitment, leading to increased trial costs. The current analyses examined the effectiveness of recruitment efforts during two consecutive outpatient RCTs of novel AUD pharmacotherapies conducted between 2009 and 2012. During an initial phone screen, participants identified an ad source for learning about the study. Qualified persons were then scheduled for in-person screens. The present analyses examined demographic differences amongst the eight ad sources utilized. Recruitment effectiveness was determined by dividing the number of persons meeting criteria for an in-person screen by the total number of callers from each ad source. Cost-effectiveness was determined by dividing total ad source cost by number of screens, participants randomized, and completers. 1,813 calls resulted in 1,005 completed phone screens. The most common ad source was TV (34%), followed by print (29%), word-of-mouth (11%), flyer (8%), internet (5%), radio (5%), bus ad (2%), and billboard (1%). Participants reporting bus ads (46%), billboard (44%), or print ads (34%) were significantly more likely than the other sources to meet criteria to be scheduled for in-person screens. The most cost-effective ad source was print ($2,506 per completer), while bus ad was the least cost-effective ($13,376 per completer). Recruitment in AUD RCTs can be successful using diverse advertising methods. The present analyses favored use of print ads as most cost-effective.
Kidd, Pamela; Parshall, Mark; Wojcik, Susan; Struttmann, Tim
Recruiting workers in small construction companies and securing their participation in voluntary safety programs or safety research poses unique challenges. Worker turnover and worksite changes contribute to difficulties in locating and enrolling participants. Economic pressures and time demands potentially threaten ongoing participation. Six simulation exercises designed to reduce back and fall injuries in small construction companies were developed based on data from focus groups of workers and company owners. Working with a workers' compensation insurer, we had access to owner-operators of general, heavy, and special trade construction companies reporting less than $10,000 in payroll expenses. Recruitment methods included a participation incentive, mailed invitations followed by phone contacts, and follow-up reminders. Despite using recruitment methods recommended in the literature, participation rates were low over a 2-year intervention period. Because of these difficulties, factors affecting participation or nonparticipation became an additional research focus. Owners' perceptions of already having a good safety record and of the time demands of participation were the most commonly cited reasons for not participating. Literature on recruitment emphasizes processes and procedures under investigator control rather than understanding potential participants' judgments about the adequacy of their existing practices and the potential benefits of intervention participation relative to potential time and productivity trade-offs. Greater attention to such judgments may enhance recruitment and participation in under-studied and difficult to access populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hoddinott, John; Ahmed, Ishita; Ahmed, Akhter; Roy, Shalini
To examine the impact on infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of mothers who were neighbors of mothers participating in a nutrition Behavior Change Communication (BCC) intervention in rural Bangladesh. We analyzed data from 300 mothers whose neighbor participated in a nutrition BCC intervention and 600 mothers whose neighbor participated in an intervention that did not include BCC. We constructed measures capturing mothers' knowledge of infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) and measures of food consumption by children 6-24m. The effect on these outcomes of exposure to a neighbor receiving a nutrition BCC intervention was estimated using ordinary least squares and probit regressions. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Study ID: NCT02237144). Having a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention increased non-participant mothers' IYCN knowledge by 0.17 SD (translating to 0.3 more correct answers). They were 14.1 percentage points more likely to feed their 6-24m children legumes and nuts; 11.6 percentage points more likely to feed these children vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables; and 10.0 percentage points more likely to feed these children eggs. Children of non-participant mothers who had a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention were 13.8 percentage points more likely to meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for minimum diet diversity, 11.9 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum acceptable diet, and 10.3 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum meal frequency for children who continue to be breastfed after age 6m. Children aged 0-6m of non-participant mothers who are neighbors of mothers receiving BCC were 7.1 percentage points less likely to have ever consumed water-based liquids. Studies of nutrition BCC that do not account for information spillovers to non-participants may underestimate its benefits in terms of IYCN knowledge
Full Text Available To examine the impact on infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of mothers who were neighbors of mothers participating in a nutrition Behavior Change Communication (BCC intervention in rural Bangladesh.We analyzed data from 300 mothers whose neighbor participated in a nutrition BCC intervention and 600 mothers whose neighbor participated in an intervention that did not include BCC. We constructed measures capturing mothers' knowledge of infant and young child nutrition (IYCN and measures of food consumption by children 6-24m. The effect on these outcomes of exposure to a neighbor receiving a nutrition BCC intervention was estimated using ordinary least squares and probit regressions. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Study ID: NCT02237144.Having a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention increased non-participant mothers' IYCN knowledge by 0.17 SD (translating to 0.3 more correct answers. They were 14.1 percentage points more likely to feed their 6-24m children legumes and nuts; 11.6 percentage points more likely to feed these children vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables; and 10.0 percentage points more likely to feed these children eggs. Children of non-participant mothers who had a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention were 13.8 percentage points more likely to meet World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for minimum diet diversity, 11.9 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum acceptable diet, and 10.3 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum meal frequency for children who continue to be breastfed after age 6m. Children aged 0-6m of non-participant mothers who are neighbors of mothers receiving BCC were 7.1 percentage points less likely to have ever consumed water-based liquids.Studies of nutrition BCC that do not account for information spillovers to non-participants may underestimate its benefits in terms of
Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A
Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Background: Although Web-based interventions have been shown to be effective, they are not widely implemented in regular care. Nonadherence (ie, participants not following the intervention protocol) is an issue. By studying the way Web-based interventions are used and whether there are differences
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark
Background: Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and
Winter, Paul A.
A model was developed for recruiting experienced educators, extending the recruitment-as-marketing theory. To assess the model's utility, 168 experienced female teachers posed as job applicants responding to position advertisements. Participant reactions were more favorable when advertisements contained intrinsic job attributes, a personal tone,…
Ionel, C. [Enerflex Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
This presentation provided details of Enerflex, a leading supplier of products and services to the oil and gas industry, and outlined their personnel hiring policies. Enerflex's core values include community involvement and divisional logo branding. The extensive training that is provided places an emphasis on employee empowerment. The company also places an emphasis on employee safety, diversity, and team building. Competitive salaries are offered along with generous equipment allowances and a flexible benefits program. Benefits include travel and overtime rates; health benefits; retirement savings; scholarship programs; career opportunities; and apprenticeship programs. External technical training is provided. An employee referral program has been developed, and the company's recruitment program also advertises in remote newspapers to develop career streams within remote communities. tabs., figs.
Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A; Botkin, Jeffrey R
A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kelders, Saskia M; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc
Although Web-based interventions have been shown to be effective, they are not widely implemented in regular care. Nonadherence (ie, participants not following the intervention protocol) is an issue. By studying the way Web-based interventions are used and whether there are differences between adherers (ie, participants that started all 9 lessons) and nonadherers, more insight can be gained into the process of adherence. The aims of this study were to (1) describe the characteristics of participants and investigate their relationship with adherence, (2) investigate the utilization of the different features of the intervention and possible differences between adherers and nonadherers, and (3) identify what use patterns emerge and whether there are differences between adherers and nonadherers. Data were used from 206 participants that used the Web-based intervention Living to the full, a Web-based intervention for the prevention of depression employing both a fully automated and human-supported format. Demographic and baseline characteristics of participants were collected by using an online survey. Log data were collected within the Web-based intervention itself. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. In all, 118 participants fully adhered to the intervention (ie, started all 9 lessons). Participants with an ethnicity other than Dutch were more often adherers (χ²₁=5.5, P=.02), and nonadherers used the Internet more hours per day on average (F₁,₂₀₃=3.918, P=.049). A logistic regression showed that being female (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.04; P=.046) and having a higher need for cognition (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; P=.02) increased the odds of adhering to the intervention. Overall, participants logged in an average of 4 times per lesson, but adherers logged in significantly more times per lesson than nonadherers (F₁,₂₀₄=20.710; Ppatterns, we saw that early nonadherers seemed to use fewer sessions and spend less time than late
Hart, Karen A
In today's competitive health care recruitment environment, one of the most cost-effective and successful recruitment strategies is alumni or "boomerang" recruitment. A proven business model, alumni recruitment is just beginning to be used in a significant way in the health care arena. The cost to recruit alumni is much lower than for those in the general workforce and the alumni population is a known quantity. Alumni will assimilate much more easily into your corporate culture, will need less orientation and onboarding, and will be more productive.
Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa
Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.
Issa, Omar M; Roberts, Rhonda; Mark, Daniel B; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Rosenberg, Yves; Lewis, Eldrin F; Guarneri, Erminia; Drisko, Jeanne; Magaziner, Allan; Lee, Kerry L; Lamas, Gervasio A
In a prespecified subgroup analysis of participants not on statin therapy at baseline in the TACT, a high-dose complex oral multivitamins and multimineral regimen was found to have a large unexpected benefit compared with placebo. The regimen tested was substantially different from any vitamin regimen tested in prior clinical trials. To explore these results, we performed detailed additional analyses of participants not on statins at enrollment in TACT. TACT was a factorial trial testing chelation treatments and a 28-component high-dose oral multivitamins and multiminerals regimen versus placebo in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients 50 years or older. There were 460 (27%) of 1,708 TACT participants not taking statins at baseline, 224 (49%) were in the active vitamin group and 236 (51%) were in the placebo group. Patients were enrolled at 134 sites around the United States and Canada. Daily high-dose oral multivitamins and multiminerals (6 tablets, active or placebo). The primary end point of TACT was time to the first occurrence of any component of the composite end point: all-cause mortality, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. The primary end point occurred in 137 nonstatin participants (30%), of which 51 (23%) of 224 were in the active group and 86 (36%) of 236 were taking placebo (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.87; P=.006). Results in the key TACT secondary end point, a combination of cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or recurrent MI, was consistent in favoring the active vitamin group (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.75; P=.002). Multiple end point analyses were consistent with these results. High-dose oral multivitamin and multimineral supplementation seem to decrease combined cardiac events in a stable, post-MI population not taking statin therapy at baseline. These unexpected findings are being retested in the ongoing TACT2. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
Broers, N.J.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Heerden, J.
Discusses the practices used in psychology departments at 7 Dutch universities in 1976-1977 and 1986-1987 to recruit Ss for participation in experimental research studies. Differences in time requirements, compensation, and recruitment methods are considered.
Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging and costly. Innovative recruitment methods are needed. Facebook targeted advertisement offers a low-cost alternative to traditional methods that has been successfully used in research study recruitment. This primer offers nurse researchers a method utilizing social media as a recruitment tool and details Facebook targeted advertisement for research recruitment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....
Slaughter, Jerel E; Cable, Daniel M; Turban, Daniel B
The purpose of this study was to understand how an important construct in social psychology-confidence in one's beliefs-could both (a) influence the effectiveness of organizations' recruiting processes and (b) be changed during recruitment. Using a sample of recruits to a branch of the United States military, the authors studied belief confidence before and after recruits' formal visits to the organization's recruiting stations. Personal sources of information had a stronger influence on recruits' belief confidence than impersonal sources. Moreover, recruits' confidence in their initial beliefs affected how perceptions of the recruiter changed their employer images. Among participants with low-initial confidence, the relation between recruitment experiences and employer images was positive and linear across the whole range of recruitment experiences. Among recruits with high-initial confidence, however, the recruitment experience-image relationship was curvilinear, such that recruitment experiences were related to images only at more positive recruitment experiences. The relationship between recruitment experiences and changes in belief confidence was also curvilinear, such that only more positive recruitment experiences led to changes in confidence. These results indicate not only that belief confidence influences the effectiveness of recruiting efforts but also that recruiting efforts can influence belief confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Laine, M A; Tolvanen, M; Pienihäkkinen, K; Söderling, E; Niinikoski, H; Simell, O; Karjalainen, S
The aim was to study the impact of dietary intervention on the properties of paraffin-stimulated saliva, and on dental caries. At 7 months of age 1062 infants (540 intervention; 522 controls) started in the prospective, randomized Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP) aimed at restricting the child's saturated fat and cholesterol intake to prevent atherosclerosis of adult age (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00223600). At 3 years of age, every fifth child was invited to an oral sub-study, and 148 (78 boys) children attended. At 6, 9, 12 and 16 years of age 135, 127, 114 and 88 children were restudied, respectively. Dietary intakes of carbohydrates, protein, saturated fat, calcium, phosphate, and fibre were regularly recorded using 4-day food records. Height and weight were regularly monitored. Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were collected at 6, 9, 12 and 16 years of age, and analyzed for flow rate, buffer capacity, calcium, phosphate and proteins. Dental health was recorded and expressed as d3mft/D3MFT, and as time of caries onset. Dietary intakes of calcium, phosphate and fibre, and salivary flow rate increased with time in both groups (pparaffin-stimulated salivary flow rate. The concentration of salivary calcium was directly correlated to dental health. Higher salivary flow rate in the intervention group is believed to be due to higher fibre intake in the intervention group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Bentley, Georgina F; Turner, Katrina M; Goodred, Joanna K; Fox, Kenneth R; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Lucas, Patricia J
Parenting programs could provide effective routes to increasing children's physical activity and reducing screen-viewing. Many studies have reported difficulties in recruiting and retaining families in group parenting interventions. This paper uses qualitative data from the Teamplay feasibility trial to examine parents' views on recruitment, attendance and course refinement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention and 10 control group parents of 6-8 year old children. Topics discussed with the intervention group included parents' views on the recruitment, structure, content and delivery of the course. Topics discussed with the control group included recruitment and randomization. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Many parents in both the intervention and control group reported that they joined the study because they had been thinking about ways to improve their parenting skills, getting ideas on how to change behavior, or had been actively looking for a parenting course but with little success in enrolling on one. Both intervention and control group parents reported that the initial promotional materials and indicative course topics resonated with their experiences and represented a possible solution to parenting challenges. Participants reported that the course leaders played an important role in helping them to feel comfortable during the first session, engaging anxious parents and putting parents at ease. The most commonly reported reason for parents returning to the course after an absence was because they wanted to learn new information. The majority of parents reported that they formed good relationships with the other parents in the group. An empathetic interaction style in which leaders accommodated parent's busy lives appeared to impact positively on course attendance. The data presented indicate that a face-to-face recruitment campaign which built trust and emphasized how the program was
McKay H Garth
Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based health behavior change programs can reach large groups of disparate participants and thus they provide promise of becoming important public health tools. Data on participant rurality can complement other demographic measures to deepen our understanding of the success of these programs. Specifically, analysis of participant rurality can inform recruitment and social marketing efforts, and facilitate the targeting and tailoring of program content. Rurality analysis can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions across population groupings. Methods We describe how the RUCAs (Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes methodology can be used to examine results from two Randomized Controlled Trials of Web-based tobacco cessation programs: the ChewFree.com project for smokeless tobacco cessation and the Smokers' Health Improvement Program (SHIP project for smoking cessation. Results Using RUCAs methodology helped to highlight the extent to which both Web-based interventions reached a substantial percentage of rural participants. The ChewFree program was found to have more rural participation which is consistent with the greater prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in rural settings as well as ChewFree's multifaceted recruitment program that specifically targeted rural settings. Conclusion Researchers of Web-based health behavior change programs targeted to the US should routinely include RUCAs as a part of analyzing participant demographics. Researchers in other countries should examine rurality indices germane to their country.
Participation rates in the selection of population controls in a case-control study of colorectal cancer using two recruitment methods Tasas de participación en la selección de controles poblacionales en un estudio de casos y controles de cáncer colorrectal usando dos métodos de reclutamiento
Full Text Available Objectives: Low participation rates in the selection of population controls are an increasing concern for the validity of case-control studies worldwide. Methods: We conducted a pilot study to assess two approaches to recruiting population controls in a study of colorectal cancer, including a face-to-face interview and blood sample collection. In the first approach, persons identified through a population roster were invited to participate through a telephone call by an interviewer telephoning on behalf of our research center. In the second approach, individuals were identified from the lists of selected family practitioners and were telephoned on behalf of the family practitioner. Results: When the second method was used, participation rates increased from 42% to 57% and the percentage of refusals decreased from 47% to 13%. The reasons for refusing to participate did not differ significantly between the two methods. Conclusions: Contact through the family practitioner yielded higher response rates in population controls in the study area.Objetivos: Las bajas tasas de participación de controles poblacionales son una preocupación para la validez de los estudios de casos y controles. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio piloto utilizando dos estrategias de reclutamiento de controles poblacionales en un estudio de cáncer colorrectal, incluyendo una entrevista personal y una extracción de sangre. Con la primera estrategia, una entrevistadora llamaba en nombre del centro de investigación a los sujetos de un censo. Con la segunda estrategia, los sujetos fueron seleccionados a partir de los listados de población asignada a los médicos de familia y la llamada se hacía en nombre del médico. Resultados: Las tasas de participación aumentaron del 42% al 57% usando el segundo método; el porcentaje de rechazos disminuyó del 47% al 13%. Las razones de rechazo no diferían según la estrategia. Conclusiones: El contacto a través del médico de familia
Anna L Barker
Full Text Available There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in the acute hospital setting. The 6-PACK falls prevention program includes a fall-risk tool; 'falls alert' signs; supervision of patients in the bathroom; ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach; toileting regimes; low-low beds; and bed/chair alarms. This study explored the acceptability of the 6-PACK program from the perspective of nurses and senior staff prior to its implementation in a randomised controlled trial. A mixed-methods approach was applied involving 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including: Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on program acceptability (suitability, practicality and benefits was obtained by surveys, focus groups and interviews. Survey data were analysed descriptively, and focus group and interview data thematically. The survey response rate was 60%. Twelve focus groups (n = 96 nurses and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Falls were identified as a priority patient safety issue and nurses as key players in falls prevention. The 6-PACK program was perceived to offer practical benefits compared to current practice. Nurses agreed fall-risk tools, low-low beds and alert signs were useful for preventing falls (>70%. Views were mixed regarding positioning patients' walking aid within reach. Practical issues raised included access to equipment; and risk of staff injury with low-low bed use. Bathroom supervision was seen to be beneficial, however not always practical. Views on the program appropriateness and benefits were consistent across nurses and senior staff. Staff perceived the 6-PACK program as suitable, practical and beneficial, and were open to adopting the program. Some practical concerns were raised
The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...
Rosser, Sue V.
Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.
Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm
Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory......, and ind