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Sample records for randomly oriented sections

  1. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

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    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 μm in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  2. Scattering from randomly oriented scatterers with strong permittivity fluctuations

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    Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    Strong permittivity fluctuation theory is used to solve the problem of scattering from a medium composed of completely randomly oriented scatterers under a low frequency limit. Gaussian statistics are not assumed for the renormalized scattering sources. Numerical results on effective permittivity are illustrated for oblate and prolate spheroidal scatterers and compared with the results for spherical scatterers. The results are consistent with discrete scatterer theory. The effective permittivity of a random medium embedded with nonspherical scatterers shows a higher imaginary part than the spherical scatterer case with equal correlation volume. Under the distorted Born approximation, the polarimetric covariance matrix for the backscattered electric field is calculated for half-space randomly oriented scatterers. The nonspherical geometry of the scatterers shows significant effects on the cross-polarized backscattering returns, and the correlation coefficient between HH and VV returns. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients can provide useful information in distinguishing the geometry of scatterers.

  3. Failure process in heterogeneous materials with randomly oriented fibers

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    Sbiaai, H.; Hader, A.; Bakir, R.; Achik, I.; Tarras, I.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Our aim in this study is to investigate the failure process in heterogeneous materials with randomly oriented fibers. In our proposed system, the fiber bundle model assumes that all the fibers are randomly oriented in all directions relative to the vertical one. Our calculations are performed in the framework of the local load-sharing rule, which states that the applied load of a broken fiber is redistributed only to its neighboring ones. The results show that this system presents a greater resistance than the classical one where the fibers are arranged parallel to the applied load. We found that the density of the broken fibers exhibited a power law and was linearly correlated with the applied load and temperature. However, the results show that the failure process of the considered system is characterized by an avalanche phenomenon with two different regimes. We also studied the crossover behavior of lifetime of the materials versus both applied load and temperature. We compared these results with those obtained from the classical model.

  4. Differential cross sections for the ionization of oriented H2 molecules by electron-impact

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    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Kaiser, C [UNIV MANCHESTER; Madison, D H [MISSOURI INST.; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV; Balance, J [ROLLINS COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    A nonperturbative close-coupling technique is used to calculate differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of H{sub 2} at an energy of 35.4 eV. Our approach allows cross sections for any orientation of the molecule with respect to the incident electron beam to be analyzed. New features in the resulting cross sections are found compared with the case where the molecular orientation is averaged, and also with cross sections for He at equivalent electron kinematics. When averaged over all possible molecular orientations, good agreement is found with recent experimental results.

  5. Orienteering section as a form of extracurricular activities in physical education

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    Vukadinović Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracurricular activities offer students the opportunity to learn and train sports not provided by curriculum of physical education. Staying active in nature in terms of the orientation movement is greatly beneficial for the development of mental and physical abilities. The aim of this paper is to present opportunities for the organizing orienteering section in elementary school. Descriptive method was applied to be shown plan and program of the section designed so that teachers of physical education in their schools provide implementation of orienteering section for 30 classes. The expected outcome of orienteering section is to enable students to independently perform at competitions. Training is done through the implementation of goals and objectives of sections, using methodological procedures with respect to the pupils' age, prior knowledge and the pace of overcoming the training. Plan and program section includes mastering the basic technique in orienteering, through theoretical and practical work. In working with students who are for the first time in orienteering, the main focus should be on reading the maps, and understanding the relationship between nature and maps. In primary schools there are possibilities to organize orienteering section, and there is a significant correlation with other subjects. The presented model provides the optimal level of theoretical and practical knowledge that students can apply in school competitions.

  6. Visualization of nerve fiber orientation in gross histological sections of the human brain.

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    Axer, H; Berks, G; Keyserlingk, D G

    2000-12-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) allows visualization of the orientation of the nervous fibers in the living brain. For comparison, a method was developed to examine the orientation of fibers in histological sections of the human brain. Serial sections through the entire human brain were analyzed regarding fiber orientation using polarized light. Direction of fibers in the cutting plane was obtained by measuring the azimuth with the lowest intensity value at each point, and inclination of fibers in the section was evaluated using fuzzy logic approximations. Direction and inclination of fibers revealing their three-dimensional orientation were visualized by colored arrows mapped into the images. Using this procedure, various fiber tracts were identified (pyramidal tract, radiatio optica, radiatio acustica, arcuate fascicle, and 11 more). Intermingled fibers could be separated from each other. The orientation of the fiber tracts derived from polarized light microscopy was validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy in a defined volume of the internal capsule, where the fiber orientation was studied in four human brains. The polarization method visualizes the high degree of intermingled fiber bundles in the brain, so that distinct fiber pathways cannot be understood as solid, compact tracts: Neighbouring bundles of fibers can belong to different systems of fibers distinguishable by their orientation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Robotic virtual reality simulation plus standard robotic orientation versus standard robotic orientation alone: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Vaccaro, Christine M; Crisp, Catrina C; Fellner, Angela N; Jackson, Christopher; Kleeman, Steven D; Pavelka, James

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of virtual reality simulation training plus robotic orientation versus robotic orientation alone on performance of surgical tasks using an inanimate model. Surgical resident physicians were enrolled in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial. Residents were randomized to receive either (1) robotic virtual reality simulation training plus standard robotic orientation or (2) standard robotic orientation alone. Performance of surgical tasks was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Nine of 33 modules from the da Vinci Skills Simulator were chosen. Experts in robotic surgery evaluated each resident's videotaped performance of the inanimate model using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills-modified for robotic-assisted surgery (rOSATS). Nine resident physicians were enrolled in the simulation group and 9 in the control group. As a whole, participants improved their total time, time to incision, and suture time from baseline to repeat testing on the inanimate model (P = 0.001, 0.003, virtual reality simulation improve surgical skills on an inanimate model, although this may be a function of the initial "practice" on the inanimate model and repeat testing of a known task. However, robotic virtual reality simulation training increases GRS pass rates consistent with improved robotic technical skills learned in a virtual reality environment.

  8. Magnetic field alignment of randomly oriented, high aspect ratio silicon microwires into vertically oriented arrays.

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    Beardslee, Joseph A; Sadtler, Bryce; Lewis, Nathan S

    2012-11-27

    External magnetic fields have been used to vertically align ensembles of silicon microwires coated with ferromagnetic nickel films. X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the degree of vertical orientation of the microwires. The degree of vertical alignment and the minimum field strength required for alignment were evaluated as a function of the wire length, coating thickness, magnetic history, and substrate surface properties. Nearly 100% of 100 μm long, 2 μm diameter, Si microwires that had been coated with 300 nm of Ni could be vertically aligned by a 300 G magnetic field. For wires ranging from 40 to 60 μm in length, as the length of the wire increased, a higher degree of alignment was observed at lower field strengths, consistent with an increase in the available magnetic torque. Microwires that had been exposed to a magnetic sweep up to 300 G remained magnetized and, therefore, aligned more readily during subsequent magnetic field alignment sweeps. Alignment of the Ni-coated Si microwires occurred at lower field strengths on hydrophilic Si substrates than on hydrophobic Si substrates. The magnetic field alignment approach provides a pathway for the directed assembly of solution-grown semiconductor wires into vertical arrays, with potential applications in solar cells as well as in other electronic devices that utilize nano- and microscale components as active elements.

  9. Predicting factors of positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing: A quantitative cross-sectional study.

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    Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelein, Stynke; Jansen, Wiebren; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have identified various reasons for students to choose a career in nursing. Students at the start of their programme hold a great variety of images and perceptions of nursing which can affect their orientation and attitudes towards their future profession. This paper aims to examine nursing students' orientation and attitudes towards nursing at the beginning of their educational programme, and to explore predictors of positive orientation and attitudes. The study used a quantitative cross-sectional design. A survey was conducted among first-year nursing students at four nursing universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were administered to all students enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme (n=1414) at these universities. Respondents completed a survey consisting of: 1) Nursing Orientation Tool, 2) Nursing Attitude Questionnaire, and 3) demographic data such as gender, living status, nursing experience, preliminary training, first-choice programme, and career choice. Kruskal Wallis tests, with post hoc Mann Whitney U tests, were used to compare group scores. Multiple regression was performed to investigate predictors of positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing. Students in this study sample (n=1244) strongly agreed with statements related to caring, nursing expertise, professional nursing knowledge and the application of this knowledge. Predictors of positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing include having nursing/caring experience, indicating nursing as the first choice for study, preliminary vocational training, and a desire to make a career in nursing. Data from this survey suggest a link between personal and environmental characteristics and motivations to select nursing as a career. Understanding which factors predict positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing could offer educators a tool in the recruitment and selection assessment of new students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Orientation of Dental Professionals in India towards Integrative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Garhnayak, Mirna; Naik, Eslavath Seena

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand on our health care system, including Dentistry, to shift from a bio-medical approach to Integrative model of care. The attitudes of health professionals towards Integrative Medicine (IM) are an important factor that influences this transition. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the orientation of the dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of Integrative Medicine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 286 dental faculty and postgraduate students from three dental schools in India. The participants voluntarily and anonymously completed the "Integrative Medicine-30' questionnaire, a 30 item self-report instrument that measures the health care provider's orientation towards Integrative Medicine in five subscales. Data analysis included summary statistics and intergroup comparisons by gender and professional status with independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. The overall orientation of the dental professionals towards IM was almost neutral. While the use of learning resources on Complementary and Alternative Medicine was lower, they showed a more positive orientation towards patient-centred care. Compared to postgraduate students of Dentistry, the dental faculty were more oriented towards IM (median score of 82 vs. 79.5, porientation (82 vs. 78, porientation of dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of IM.

  11. Magnetic field computation in a non-oriented sheet cross-section considering the hysteresis phenomenon

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    Boukhtache, Sebti, E-mail: sebti_boukhtache@yahoo.f [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Batna, Rue Chahid Med Boukhlouf, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Yakhlef, Malika, E-mail: malika_yakhlef@yahoo.f [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Batna, Rue Chahid Med Boukhlouf, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Chabane, Mabrouk, E-mail: machabane@yahoo.co [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Batna, Rue Chahid Med Boukhlouf, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present work is the numerical computation of the average magnetic induction in the cross-section of a non-oriented 3% Si-Fe sheet by solving the magnetic diffusion equation. Jiles' dynamic model is used to describe the magnetization law. The obtained results are compared with those of the measurements carried out for frequencies of 0.5, 50, 200 and 500 Hz. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between both types of results.

  12. Microwave single-scattering properties of randomly oriented soft-ice hydrometeors

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    D. Casella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Large ice hydrometeors are usually present in intense convective clouds and may significantly affect the upwelling radiances that are measured by satellite-borne microwave radiometers – especially, at millimeter-wavelength frequencies. Thus, interpretation of these measurements (e.g., for precipitation retrieval requires knowledge of the single scattering properties of ice particles. On the other hand, shape and internal structure of these particles (especially, the larger ones is very complex and variable, and therefore it is necessary to resort to simplifying assumptions in order to compute their single-scattering parameters.

    In this study, we use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA to compute the absorption and scattering efficiencies and the asymmetry factor of two kinds of quasi-spherical and non-homogeneous soft-ice particles in the frequency range 50–183 GHz. Particles of the first kind are modeled as quasi-spherical ice particles having randomly distributed spherical air inclusions. Particles of the second kind are modeled as random aggregates of ice spheres having random radii. In both cases, particle densities and dimensions are coherent with the snow hydrometeor category that is utilized by the University of Wisconsin – Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS cloud-mesoscale model. Then, we compare our single-scattering results for randomly-oriented soft-ice hydrometeors with corresponding ones that make use of: a effective-medium equivalent spheres, b solid-ice equivalent spheres, and c randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders. Finally, we extend to our particles the scattering formulas that have been developed by other authors for randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders.

  13. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

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    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  14. 75 FR 33821 - Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys

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    2010-06-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief... provides HUD with a fast, inexpensive way to estimate Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in areas not... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent...

  15. Cellular compatibility of RGD-modified chitosan nanofibers with aligned or random orientation

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    Wang Yanyan; Lue Lanxin; Feng Zhangqi; Xiao Zhongdang; Huang Ningping, E-mail: nphuang@seu.edu.c, E-mail: zdxiao@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aligned and randomly oriented chitosan nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The fibers were modified with the RGD cell-adhesive peptide through a heterobifunctional crosslinker containing a segment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG rendered the surface hydrophilic and provided flexible spacers, allowing the preservation of the bioactivity of further captured RGD peptides. NIH 3T3 cells were used to test the cellular compatibility of these chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds. Cell morphology and viability were investigated by SEM, fluorescent staining and cell counting. The results indicate that RGD-modified surfaces significantly improve the cellular compatibility of chitosan nanofibers and suggest a good candidate as a scaffold employed in tissue engineering.

  16. Public attitudes toward child undervaccination: A randomized experiment on evaluations, stigmatizing orientations, and support for policies.

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    Carpiano, Richard M; Fitz, Nicholas S

    2017-07-01

    Child undervaccination is a complex public health problem and a contentious social and political issue. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage require understanding how the public evaluates different reasons for child undervaccination, which may influence attitudes, stigmatizing behaviors, and support for vaccination policies. We conducted a vignette experiment with a United States national online sample (n = 1469) to investigate how and why different undervaccination actions shape evaluations (blame, anger, sympathy, differentness, credibility, dangerousness), stigmatizing orientations (social distance, discrimination), and support for particular policies (e.g., research funding, belief exemptions, fines). Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that described a mother who either refused vaccines, delayed vaccines, encountered social barriers to obtaining vaccines, or was up-to-date on vaccines for her child. Compared to the up-to-date condition, each undervaccination action predicted significantly more negative evaluations and stigmatizing orientations. Vaccine refusal was the most negatively appraised. Differences in social distance and discrimination were explained by negative evaluations about the parent. These evaluations and orientations predicted support for a range of policies. Negative parental evaluations were associated with increased support for more severe policies. We discuss the implications of these findings for addressing undervaccination and informing health scholarship on stigma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vibration Analysis of Randomly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Based on FGM Beam Using Timoshenko Theory

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    Mohammad Amin Rashidifar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbon nanotube (CNT reinforced functionally graded materials (FGM are expected to be the new generation materials having wide range of unexplored potential applications in various technological areas such as aerospace and structural and chemical industry. The present work deals with the finite element modeling and free vibration analysis of CNT based functionally graded beam using three-dimensional Timoshenko beam theory. It has been assumed that the material properties of CNT based FG beam vary only along the thickness and these properties are evaluated by rule of mixture. The extended Hamilton principle has been applied to find out the governing equations of CNT based FG beam. Finite element method is used to solve governing equation with the exact shape functions. Initial analysis deals with CNTs assumed to be oriented along the length direction only. But practically it is not possible. So, further work deals with the free vibration analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite beams reinforced by randomly oriented straight single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. The Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach based on an equivalent fiber is used to investigate the material properties of the beam. Results are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of carbon nanotube orientations, slenderness ratios, and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of the beam.

  18. Real-Space x-ray tomographic reconstruction of randomly oriented objects with sparse data frames.

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    Ayyer, Kartik; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Elser, Veit; Gruner, Sol M

    2014-02-10

    Schemes for X-ray imaging single protein molecules using new x-ray sources, like x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), require processing many frames of data that are obtained by taking temporally short snapshots of identical molecules, each with a random and unknown orientation. Due to the small size of the molecules and short exposure times, average signal levels of much less than 1 photon/pixel/frame are expected, much too low to be processed using standard methods. One approach to process the data is to use statistical methods developed in the EMC algorithm (Loh & Elser, Phys. Rev. E, 2009) which processes the data set as a whole. In this paper we apply this method to a real-space tomographic reconstruction using sparse frames of data (below 10(-2) photons/pixel/frame) obtained by performing x-ray transmission measurements of a low-contrast, randomly-oriented object. This extends the work by Philipp et al. (Optics Express, 2012) to three dimensions and is one step closer to the single molecule reconstruction problem.

  19. Effect of NICU Department Orientation Program on Mother’s Anxiety: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Leila Valizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal intensive care unit induces the high level of anxiety for mothers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of NICU orientation program on the anxiety of mothers who had preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (three parallel groups. Participants included 99 mothers with preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU of Al- Zahra hospital, affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (film, booklet, and control. Mothers completed the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory before entering to the NICU, and then mothers in the experiment groups became familiar with the NICU environment through watching a film or reading booklet. After the first NICU visit, all mothers completed the STAI and Cattell's Anxiety Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 13 software. Results: There was no significant difference between three groups regarding state- trait anxiety before the intervention. After the first NICU visit, a significant reduction in maternal state anxiety was seen in the both experiment groups. There was no statistical significant difference regarding trait anxiety. Data obtained from Cattell's anxiety questionnaire after intervention, showed significant difference in state anxiety between groups. Conclusion: Employing film and booklet orientation strategy after preterm delivery can reduce the mother’s anxiety and beneficent for the mother, baby, family and health care system.

  20. Guiding the orientation of smooth muscle cells on random and aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers.

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    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-09-01

    Fabricating scaffolds that can simulate the architecture and functionality of native extracellular matrix is a huge challenge in vascular tissue engineering. Various kinds of materials are engineered via nano-technological approaches to meet the current challenges in vascular tissue regeneration. During this study, nanofibers from pure polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane/collagen in two different morphologies (random and aligned) and in three different ratios of polyurethane:collagen (75:25; 50:50; 25:75) are fabricated by electrospinning. The fiber diameters of the nanofibrous scaffolds are in the range of 174-453 nm and 145-419 for random and aligned fibers, respectively, where they closely mimic the nanoscale dimensions of native extracellular matrix. The aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers expressed anisotropic wettability with mechanical properties which is suitable for regeneration of the artery. After 12 days of human aortic smooth muscle cells culture on different scaffolds, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells on hybrid polyurethane/collagen (3:1) nanofibers was 173% and 212% higher than on pure polyurethane scaffolds for random and aligned scaffolds, respectively. The results of cell morphology and protein staining showed that the aligned polyurethane/collagen (3:1) scaffold promote smooth muscle cells alignment through contact guidance, while the random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) also guided cell orientation most probably due to the inherent biochemical composition. Our studies demonstrate the potential of aligned and random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) as promising substrates for vascular tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Deducing fast electron density changes in randomly orientated uncrystallized biomolecules in a pump-probe experiment.

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    Pande, K; Schwander, P; Schmidt, M; Saldin, D K

    2014-07-17

    We propose a method for deducing time-resolved structural changes in uncrystallized biomolecules in solution. The method relies on measuring the angular correlations of the intensities, when averaged over a large number of diffraction patterns from randomly oriented biomolecules in solution in a liquid solvent. The experiment is somewhat like a pump-probe version of an experiment on small angle X-ray scattering, except that the data expected by the algorithm are not just the radial variation of the averaged intensities. The differences of these correlation functions as measured from a photoexcited and dark structure enable the direct calculation of the difference electron density with a knowledge of only the dark structure. We exploit a linear relation we derive between the difference in these correlation functions and the difference electron density, applicable for small structural changes.

  2. Patient-oriented rehabilitation in the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Paoloni, M; Tavernese, E; Cacchio, A; Tattoli, M; Melis, L; Ronconi, R; Santilli, V

    2013-06-01

    Management of chronic mechanical neck pain (CMNP) still represents a challenge. A patient-oriented (Pa-O) therapeutic approach could be considered as the one in which therapies are scheduled at the start of each therapeutic session according to the patient's current physical status, and differs from a prescription-oriented (Pr-O) therapeutic approach, in which therapies are prescribed at the first medical referral and are not adjusted at any time during the treatment period. To determine if a Pa-O approach may be more beneficial for CMNP patients when compared to a Pr-O one. Randomized controlled trial. 220 CMNP outpatients randomized to either Pa-O group (N.=114) or Pr-O group (N.=106). Each group received 10 therapeutic sessions over 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain assessment, evaluated by Visual-Analog-Scale (VAS), and disability level, evaluated by the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS-I). Secondary outcome measures included patients' response to treatment and treatment failures. Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0) and 1 month after treatment ended (T1). Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Patients in both groups displayed at T1 a significant reduction in VAS and NPDS-I scores. The relative changes at T1 were greater in Pa-O group when compared with Pr-O group both for VAS (61.5% versus 48.8%; Pup in suffers from CMNP. However, the occurrence of a performance-bias due to the increased level of attention from physicians to patients in Pa-O group, cannot be ruled-out. A Pa-O approach should be considered for CMNP also in an outpatient facility.

  3. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section A--Orientation.

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    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "orientation and safety" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: orientation and general shop safety. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP; learning…

  4. Effect of SiC Nano powder on Multiaxial Woven and Chopped Randomly Oriented Flax/Sisal Fiber Reinforced composites

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    Kalagi Ganesh R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out to investigate effect of SiC Nano powder on tensile and impact properties of Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites. It has been observed that tensile strength and impact strength were improved using 6% of SiC Nanopowder into Multiaxial layer (+45º/-45º, 0º/90º of Flax and Sisal where as randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites are improved in its stiffnes for the same composition of fiber, epoxy and SiC Nano powder. SEM Analysis are done to analyse the distribution of SiC in both Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites.

  5. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

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    Bertrand, Sophie; Joo, Rocío; Fablet, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW) models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1) providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2) using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3) studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  6. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms’ Movements

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    Bertrand, Sophie; Joo, Rocío; Fablet, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW) models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1) providing a synthetic and pattern–oriented description of movement, (2) using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3) studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities. PMID:26172045

  7. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

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    Sophie Bertrand

    Full Text Available How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD. GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS, both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1 providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2 using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3 studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  8. Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carina K Y; Cameron, Linda D

    2012-06-01

    Self-regulation theory and research suggests that different types of mental imagery can promote goal-directed behaviors. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of approach imagery (attainment of desired goal states) and process imagery (steps for enacting behavior) in promoting physical activity among inactive individuals. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 182 inactive adults who received one of four interventions for generating mental images related to physical activity over a 4-week period, with Approach Imagery (approach versus neutral) and Process Imagery (process versus no process) as the intervention strategies. Participants received imagery training and practiced daily. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that Approach Imagery: (1) increased approach motivations for physical activity at Week 4; (2) induced greater intentions post-session, which subsequently induced more action planning at Week 4; (3) enhanced action planning when combined with process images at post-session and Week 1; and (4) facilitated more physical activity at Week 4 via action planning. These findings suggest that inducing approach orientation via mental imagery may be a convenient and low-cost technique to promote physical activity among inactive individuals.

  9. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  10. Processing of X-ray snapshots from crystals in random orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabsch, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    A functional expression is introduced that relates scattered X-ray intensities from a still or a rotation snapshot to the corresponding structure-factor amplitudes. The new approach was implemented in the program nXDS for processing monochromatic diffraction images recorded by a multi-segment detector where each exposure could come from a different crystal. For images containing indexable spots, the intensities of the expected reflections and their variances are obtained by profile fitting after mapping the contributing pixel contents to the Ewald sphere. The varying intensity decline owing to the angular distance of the reflection from the surface of the Ewald sphere is estimated using a Gaussian rocking curve. This decline is dubbed `Ewald offset correction', which is well defined even for still images. Together with an image-scaling factor and other corrections, an explicit expression is defined that predicts each recorded intensity from its corresponding structure-factor amplitude. All diffraction parameters, scaling and correction factors are improved by post-refinement. The ambiguous case of a lower point group than the lattice symmetry is resolved by a method reminiscent of the technique of `selective breeding'. It selects the indexing alternative for each image that yields, on average, the highest correlation with intensities from all other images. Processing a test set of rotation images by XDS and treating the same images by nXDS as snapshots of crystals in random orientations yields data of comparable quality, clearly indicating an anomalous signal from Se atoms.

  11. Predicting factors of positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing : A quantitative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelein, Stynke; Jansen, Wiebren; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie

    Background: Previous studies have identified various reasons for students to choose a career in nursing. Students at the start of their programme hold a great variety of images and perceptions of nursing which can affect their orientation and attitudes towards their future profession. Objectives:

  12. Nursing students' changing orientation and attitudes towards nursing during education : A quantitative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelijn, Stynke; Jansen, W.S.; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petri

    Previous studies have identified various reasons for students to choose a career in nursing. Students at the start of their programme hold a great variety of images and perceptions of nursing which can affect their orientation and attitudes towards their future profession.

  13. Formation of Fast-Spread Ocean Crust : Crystallographic Preferred Orientations From a Reference Lower Crust Section in the Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonse, B.; Mueller, T.; Mock, D.; Koepke, J.

    2016-12-01

    About 20 years ago, two competing models were proposed for the formation of the lower, gabbroic crust at fast-spreading ridges. The lower crust is either formed by downward flow of mushy material from the shallow axial melt lens (gabbro glacier), or by sill intrusions (sheeted sills). To further test these end-member models, we characterized the vertical distribution of Crystallographic Preferred Orientations (CPO) in Wadi Gideah gabbro section (Sumail ophiolite, Sultanate Oman), using the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. CPO were measured on 67 gabbro samples, documenting a 5 km thick section, with an average interval of 80 m between samples. EBSD data sets were processed using MTEX, a free Matlab toolbox. Average misorientation in grains (angle between each pixel orientation and mean orientation of the grain) is very low ( 0.25°). This is consistent with magmatic flow in these rocks, and the paucity of crystal-plastic overprint. The strength (J index) of plagioclase CPO increases down-section, with a more pronounced variability in the layered gabbros. For clinopyroxene, the difference between upper (foliated) and lower (layered) gabbros is stronger, with low J in upper gabbros, and higher and more variable J in lower gabbros. In upper gabbros the symmetry of plagioclase and clinopyroxene CPO progressively evolves downward to progressively more oblate. Continuing down-section, the trend reverses, with progressively more prolate CPO in lower gabbros. The crystallographic fabric variability in the lower crust section calls for distinct formation mechanisms in the upper and lower gabbros. It is consistent with a hybrid model for crustal formation (Boudier et al., 1996, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00167-7). The genesis of the upper foliated gabbro can be at least partly explained by the gabbro glacier model, while the continuous emplacement of sheeted sills at various depths is a more plausible model for the lower layered gabbro section.

  14. Bilateral robotic priming before task-oriented approach in subacute stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wang, Wei-En; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chang, Ku-Chou; Chen, Chih-Chi; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the treatment effects of bilateral robotic priming combined with the task-oriented approach on motor impairment, disability, daily function, and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. A randomized controlled trial. Occupational therapy clinics in medical centers. Thirty-one subacute stroke patients were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to receive bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach (i.e., primed group) or to the task-oriented approach alone (i.e., unprimed group) for 90 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The primed group began with the bilateral priming technique by using a bimanual robot-aided device. Motor impairments were assessed by the Fugal-Meyer Assessment, grip strength, and the Box and Block Test. Disability and daily function were measured by the modified Rankin Scale, the Functional Independence Measure, and actigraphy. Quality of life was examined by the Stroke Impact Scale. The primed and unprimed groups improved significantly on most outcomes over time. The primed group demonstrated significantly better improvement on the Stroke Impact Scale strength subscale ( p = 0.012) and a trend for greater improvement on the modified Rankin Scale ( p = 0.065) than the unprimed group. Bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach elicited more improvements in self-reported strength and disability degrees than the task-oriented approach by itself. Further large-scale research with at least 31 participants in each intervention group is suggested to confirm the study findings.

  15. Local radial basis function meshless scheme for vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-02-20

    A local radial basis function meshless scheme (LRBFM) is developed to solve polarized radiative transfer in participating media containing randomly oriented axisymmetric particles in which radial basis functions augmented with polynomial basis are employed to construct the trial functions, and the vector radiative-transfer equation based on the discrete-ordinates approach is discretized directly by collocation method. The LRBFM belongs to a class of truly meshless methods that do not need any mesh or any numerical integration scheme. Performances of the LRBFM are verified with analytical solutions and other numerical results reported earlier in the literature via five various test cases. The predicted angular distribution of brightness temperature and Stokes vector by the LRBFM agree very well with the benchmark. It is demonstrated that the LRBFM is accurate to solve vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

  16. Sexual orientation identity and tobacco and hazardous alcohol use: findings from a cross-sectional English population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Michie, Susan; Semlyen, Joanna; West, Robert; Meads, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between tobacco and hazardous alcohol use and sexual orientation and whether such an association could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2014–2016. Setting England, UK. Participants Representative English population sample (pooled n=43 866). Main outcomes Sexual orientation identity (lesbian/gay, bisexual, heterosexual, prefer-not-to-say); current tobacco and hazardous alcohol use (defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Score ≥8). All outcomes were self-reported. Results Due to interactions between sexual orientation and gender for substance use, analyses were stratified by gender. Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher among lesbian/gay (women: 24.9%, 95% CI 19.2% to 32.6%; men: 25.9%, 95% CI 21.3% to 31.0%) and bisexual participants (women: 32.4%, 95% CI 25.9% to 39.6%; men: 30.7%, 95% CI 23.7% to 30.7%) and significantly lower for prefer-not-to-say participants in women (15.5%, 95% CI 13.5% to 17.8%) but not men (22.7%, 95% CI 20.3% to 25.3%) compared with heterosexual participants (women: 17.5%, 95% CI 17.0% to 18.0%; men: 20.4%, 95% CI 19.9% to 21.0%; psexual orientation groups among both women and men. By contrast, sexual orientation differences in hazardous alcohol use remained even after adjustment among women but not for bisexual and gay men. Conclusions In England, higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority men and women appear to be attributable to other sociodemographic factors. Higher rates of hazardous alcohol use among sexual minority men may also be attributable to these factors, whereas this is not the case for sexual minority women. PMID:29074508

  17. Techniques for wound closure at caesarean section: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I. M.; Oude Rengerink, K.; Wiersma, I. C.; Donker, M. E.; Mol, B. W.; Pajkrt, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear which technique for skin closure should be used at caesarean section (CS) in order to get the best cosmetic result. Study design: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the cosmetic result of different techniques for skin closure after CS. A two-center

  18. Photodissociation in quantum chaotic systems: Random-matrix theory of cross-section fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyodorov, Y.V. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-GH Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany); Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Task-Oriented Training with Computer Games for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Hand Osteoarthritis: A Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2016-09-13

    To examine the feasibility of a clinical trial on a novel, home-based task-oriented training with conventional hand exercises in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. To explore the experiences of participants who completed their respective home exercise programmes. Thirty volunteer participants aged between 30 and 60 years and diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis were proposed for a single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01635582). Participants received task-oriented training with interactive computer games and objects of daily life or finger mobility and strengthening exercises. Both programmes were home based and were done four sessions per week with 20 minutes each session for 6 weeks. Major feasibility outcomes were number of volunteers screened, randomized, and retained; completion of blinded assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data management; and clinical outcomes of hand function. Reaching the recruitment target in 18 months and achieving exercise compliance >80% were set as success criteria. Concurrent with the trial, focus group interviews explored experiences of those participants who completed their respective programmes. After trial initiation, revisions in inclusion criteria were required to promote recruitment. A total of 17 participants were randomized and 15 were retained. Completion of assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data collection and management demonstrated excellent feasibility. Both groups improved in hand function outcomes and exercise compliance was above 85%. Participants perceived both programmes as appropriate and acceptable. Participants who completed task-oriented training also agreed that playing different computer games was enjoyable, engaging, and motivating. Findings demonstrate initial evidence on recruitment, feasibility of trial procedures, and acceptability of

  20. Disclosure of sexual orientation to health professionals in China: results from an online cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Tang, Songyuan; Liu, Chuncheng; Mollan, Katie; Cao, Bolin; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Hudgens, Michael; Qin, Yilu; Han, Larry; Ma, Baoli; Yang, Bin; Ma, Wei; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-02-06

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are "in the closet." The low rate of disclosure may impact sexual behaviours, testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and diseases transmission. This study examines factors associated with overall sexual orientation disclosure and disclosure to healthcare professionals. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September 2014 to October 2014 in China. Participants completed questions covering socio-demographic information, sexual behaviours, HIV/STI testing history, and self-reported HIV status. We defined healthcare professional disclosure as disclosing to a doctor or other medical provider. A total of 1819 men started the survey and 1424 (78.3%) completed it. Among the 1424 participants, 62.2% (886/1424) reported overall disclosure, and 16.3% (232/1424) disclosed to healthcare professionals. In multivariate analyses, the odds of sexual orientation disclosure were 56% higher among MSM who used smartphone-based, sex-seeking applications [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-2.95], but were lower among MSM reporting sex while drunk or recreational drug use. The odds of disclosure to a healthcare professional were greater among MSM who had ever tested for HIV or STIs (aOR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.50-4.51 for HIV, and aOR = 4.92, 95% CI: 3.47-6.96 for STIs, respectively) or self-reported as living with HIV (aOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.93-2.72). Over 80% of MSM had not disclosed their sexual orientation to health professionals. This low level of disclosure likely represents a major obstacle to serving the unique needs of MSM in clinical settings. Further research and interventions to facilitate MSM sexual orientation disclosure, especially to health professionals, are urgently needed.

  1. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  2. The isector: a simple and direct method for generating isotropic, uniform random sections from small specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    1992-01-01

    The very simple and strong principle of vertical sections devised by Baddeley et al. has been a major advance in stereology when any kind of anisotropy is present in the specimen under study. On the other hand, some important stereological estimators still require isotropic, uniform random sectio....... This paper deals with a simple technique for embedding specimens in rubber moulds with spherical cavities. After the embedding, any handling or the resulting sphere independent of the specimen will induce isotropy of the final histological sections....

  3. Barbed sutures versus conventional sutures for uterine closure at cesarean section; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed A; Fouda, Usama M; Elsetohy, Khaled A; Zayed, Shereef M; Hashem, Ahmed T; Youssef, Mohamed A

    2017-10-29

    The aim of this randomized control trial was to compare the operative data and the early postoperative outcomes of cesarean sections in which the uterine incision was closed with a barbed suture (STRATAFIX™ Spiral PDO Knotless Tissue Control Device, SXPD2B405, Ethicon Inc.) with those of cesarean sections in which the uterine incision was closed with a conventional smooth suture (VICRYL™; Ethicon Inc.). One hundred pregnant patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the Stratafix group or the Vicryl group. The uterine incision was closed by two layers of sutures in both groups. In the Vicryl group, the first layer was continuous and the second layer was interrupted. In the Stratafix group, both layers were continuous. The uterine closure time was significantly lower in the Stratafix group (224 ± 46 versus 343 ± 75 s, p Stratafix group required additional sutures to achieve hemostasis (p value = .009). The mean blood loss during closure of uterine incision and mean hospital stay were lower in the Stratafix group but these differences failed to reach statistical significance. The use of barbed suture for uterine incision closure at cesarean section is associated with shorter uterine closure time and similar early perioperative complications compared with conventional smooth suture. The difference between both groups in the technique of suturing the second layer of the uterine incision may be the cause of the reduction in the uterine closure time and the need for additional sutures to achieve hemostasis during suturing the uterine incision with a barbed suture. Further, well designed randomized controlled trials should be conducted to investigate the association between the type of suture (barbed or conventional smooth) and remote complications of cesarean section (infertility, pelvic pain, abnormal placentation and rupture uterus).

  4. Proteins in vacuo. A more efficient means of calculating orientationally-averaged collision cross sections of protein ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C T Reimann

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of understanding solvent effects in protein folding, unfolding, stability and dynamic behavior, studies of protein ions in vacuo have become popular in recent years. One experimental descriptor which gives a general overview of ionic structure is the orientationally-averaged collision cross section, which is obtained from ion drift mobility (IDM and other kinds of measurements. In modelling protein structures in vacuo with molecular dynamics simulations, it is necessary to calculate for a plurality of model structures for comparison with experiments. The collision cross section is sensitive to the roughness (concavity of the protein surface because of the possibility of multiple collisions during an encounter between a given bath gas particle and the protein. Calculations of, though in principle straightforward, are time consuming. In the work presented below, it was investigated whether a more efficient calculation scheme can be employed without sacrificing too much accuracy. In the new scheme, atomic-scale protein surface granularity is smoothed out by a collected-atoms approach, while large-scale concavity of the protein is essentially preserved.

  5. Economic evaluation of schema therapy and clarification-oriented psychotherapy for personality disorders: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamelis, Lotte L M; Arntz, Arnoud; Wetzelaer, Pim; Verdoorn, Ryanne; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2015-11-01

    To compare from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual for patients with avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, and/or narcissistic personality disorder. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial, single-blind parallel design, was conducted between May 2006 and December 2011 in 12 Dutch mental health institutes. Data from 320 patients (diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria) randomly assigned to schema therapy (n = 145), treatment as usual (n = 134), or clarification-oriented psychotherapy (n = 41) were analyzed. Costs were repeatedly measured during 36 months by interview and patient registries. Primary outcome measures were proportion of recovered patients as measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders for the cost-effectiveness analysis, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the cost-utility analysis. Bootstrap replications in the cost-effectiveness and the cost-utility planes were used to estimate the probability that one treatment was more cost-effective than the other. Mixed gamma regression on net monetary benefit for different levels of willingness to pay for extra effects was used as sensitivity analysis. Additional sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of the results. Due to higher clinical effects and lower costs, schema therapy was dominant over the other treatments in the cost-effectiveness analyses. Schema therapy has the probability of being the most cost-effective treatment (78% at €0 to 96% at €37,500 [$27,375] willingness to pay per extra recovery). Treatment as usual was more cost-effective than clarification-oriented psychotherapy due to lower costs. In the cost-utility analysis, schema therapy had a stable 75% probability of being cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. The results support the cost-effectiveness of schema

  6. Dilatation or no dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section (Dondi Trial): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscht, Jade; Weiss, Christel; Nickol, Jana; Berlit, Sebastian; Tuschy, Benjamin; Hoch, Benjamin; Trebin, Amelie-Verena; Große-Steffen, Thomas; Sütterlin, Marc; Kehl, Sven

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of mechanical dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section on postoperative morbidity. A total of 447 women with elective cesarean section were included in the Dondi trial (Dilatation or no dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section). The primary outcome measure of this randomized controlled trial was postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) within 6 weeks. Infectious morbidity (puerperal fever, endometritis, wound infection, and urinary tract infection), blood loss (need for blood transfusion or change in hemoglobin levels), and operating time were also evaluated. The rate of PPH within 6 weeks was not different between the two groups [dilatation group: 5 (2.4 %), no dilatation group: 3 (1.2 %), p = 0.479]. Infectious morbidity, blood loss, and operating time were not diverse as well. The only significant difference between the two groups was the rate of retained products of conception with fewer cases after cervical dilatation (0 versus 6.2 %, p Dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section compared with no dilatation of the cervix did not influence the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. However, there were fewer cases with retained products of conception after dilatation.

  7. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  8. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  9. Object-oriented Markov random model for classification of high resolution satellite imagery based on wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Liu, Cun; Yang, Kun; Deng, Ming

    2013-07-01

    The high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) have higher spatial resolution and less spectrum number, so there are some "object with different spectra, different objects with same spectrum" phenomena. The objective of this paper is to utilize the extracted features of high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) obtained by the wavelet transform(WT) for segmentation. WT provides the spatial and spectral characteristics of a pixel along with its neighbors. The object-oriented Markov random Model in the wavelet domain is proposed in order to segment high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI). The proposed method is made up of three blocks: (1) WT-based feature extrcation.the aim of extraction of feature using WT for original spectral bands is to exploit the spatial and frequency information of the pixels; (2) over-segmentation object generation. Mean-Shift algorithm is employed to obtain over-segmentation objects; (3) classification based on Object-oriented Markov Random Model. Firstly the object adjacent graph (OAG) can be constructed on the over-segmentation objects. Secondly MRF model is easily defined on the OAG, in which WT-based feature of pixels are modeled in the feature field model and the neighbor system, potential cliques and energy functions of OAG are exploited in the labeling model. Experiments are conducted on one HRSI dataset-QuickBird images. We evaluate and compare the proposed approach with the well-known commercial software eCognition(object-based analysis approach) and Maximum Likelihood(ML) based pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed the method in this paper obviously outperforms the other methods.

  10. Magnetic localization and orientation of the capsule endoscope based on a random complex algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He XQ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoqi He,1 Zizhao Zheng,1,2 Chao Hu1 1Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, People's Republic of China; 2Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China Abstract: The development of the capsule endoscope has made possible the examination of the whole gastrointestinal tract without much pain. However, there are still some important problems to be solved, among which, one important problem is the localization of the capsule. Currently, magnetic positioning technology is a suitable method for capsule localization, and this depends on a reliable system and algorithm. In this paper, based on the magnetic dipole model as well as magnetic sensor array, we propose nonlinear optimization algorithms using a random complex algorithm, applied to the optimization calculation for the nonlinear function of the dipole, to determine the three-dimensional position parameters and two-dimensional direction parameters. The stability and the antinoise ability of the algorithm is compared with the Levenberg–Marquart algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that in terms of the error level of the initial guess of magnet location, the random complex algorithm is more accurate, more stable, and has a higher “denoise” capacity, with a larger range for initial guess values. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet, optimization 

  11. Effect of Primary Dendrite Orientation on Stray Grain Formation in Cross-Section Change Region During the Directional Solidification of Ni-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Li, Chuantao; Zhao, Dengke; Wang, Baojun; Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Xi; Cao, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    The effect of primary dendrite orientation on stray grain formation in a cross-section change region during the directional solidification of Ni-based superalloy is investigated through both experimental observations and numerical simulation. The results clearly show that the orientation of primary dendrite affects the formation of stray grains in the cross-section change region. It is observed that, for the primary dendrite without misorientation, no stray grain is formed in the cross-section change region; for the primary dendrite with a moderate misorientation (15 deg), stray grains are formed only on the side converging from the mold wall in the cross-section change region. When the misorientation is 25 deg, stray grains are formed on both the side converging from the mold wall and the side diverging from the mold wall in the cross-section change region (the converging side and the diverging side for short). The simulation results are in accordance with experimental results. Furthermore, the correlation among factors such as stray grain formation, primary dendrite orientation, and withdrawal velocity has been analyzed. The mechanism of stray grain formation in various oriented primary dendrites is discussed.

  12. The PULSAR Specialist Care protocol: a stepped-wedge cluster randomized control trial of a training intervention for community mental health teams in recovery-oriented practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Brophy, Lisa; Bruxner, Annie; Fossey, Ellie; Inder, Brett; Julian, John; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Weller, Penelope; Wilson-Evered, Elisabeth; Edan, Vrinda; Slade, Mike; Meadows, Graham N

    2017-05-08

    Recovery features strongly in Australian mental health policy; however, evidence is limited for the efficacy of recovery-oriented practice at the service level. This paper describes the Principles Unite Local Services Assisting Recovery (PULSAR) Specialist Care trial protocol for a recovery-oriented practice training intervention delivered to specialist mental health services staff. The primary aim is to evaluate whether adult consumers accessing services where staff have received the intervention report superior recovery outcomes compared to adult consumers accessing services where staff have not yet received the intervention. A qualitative sub-study aims to examine staff and consumer views on implementing recovery-oriented practice. A process evaluation sub-study aims to articulate important explanatory variables affecting the interventions rollout and outcomes. The mixed methods design incorporates a two-step stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) examining cross-sectional data from three phases, and nested qualitative and process evaluation sub-studies. Participating specialist mental health care services in Melbourne, Victoria are divided into 14 clusters with half randomly allocated to receive the staff training in year one and half in year two. Research participants are consumers aged 18-75 years who attended the cluster within a previous three-month period either at baseline, 12 (step 1) or 24 months (step 2). In the two nested sub-studies, participation extends to cluster staff. The primary outcome is the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery collected from 756 consumers (252 each at baseline, step 1, step 2). Secondary and other outcomes measuring well-being, service satisfaction and health economic impact are collected from a subset of 252 consumers (63 at baseline; 126 at step 1; 63 at step 2) via interviews. Interview-based longitudinal data are also collected 12 months apart from 88 consumers with a psychotic disorder

  13. Emergency Department Management of Sepsis Patients: A Randomized, Goal-Oriented, Noninvasive Sepsis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Win Sen; Ibrahim, Irwani; Leong, Benjamin S H; Jain, Swati; Lu, Qingshu; Cheung, Yin Bun; Mahadevan, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    The noninvasive cardiac output monitor and passive leg-raising maneuver has been shown to be reasonably accurate in predicting fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We examine whether using a noninvasive protocol would result in more rapid lactate clearance after 3 hours in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department. In this open-label randomized controlled trial, 122 adult patients with sepsis and serum lactate concentration of greater than or equal to 3.0 mmol/L were randomized to receive usual care or intravenous fluid bolus administration guided by measurements of change of stroke volume index, using the noninvasive cardiac output monitor after passive leg-raising maneuver. The primary outcome was lactate clearance of more than 20% at 3 hours. Secondary outcomes included mortality, length of hospital and ICU stay, and total hospital cost. Analysis was intention to treat. Similar proportions of patients in the randomized intervention group (70.5%; N=61) versus control group (73.8%; N=61) achieved the primary outcome, with a relative risk of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77 to 1.19). Secondary outcomes were similar in both groups (P>.05 for all comparisons). Hospital mortality occurred in 6 patients (9.8%) each in the intervention and control groups on or before 28 days (relative risk=1.00; 95% CI 0.34 to 2.93). Among a subgroup of patients with underlying fluid overload states, those in the intervention group tended to receive clinically significantly more intravenous fluids at 3 hours (difference=975 mL; 95% CI -450 to 1,725 mL) and attained better lactate clearance (difference=19.7%; 95% CI -34.6% to 60.2%) compared with the control group, with shorter hospital lengths of stay (difference=-4.5 days; 95% CI -9.5 to 2.5 days). Protocol-based fluid resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock with the noninvasive cardiac output monitor and passive leg-raising maneuver did not result in better

  14. Disclosure of sexual orientation to health professionals in China: results from an online cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Over 80% of MSM had not disclosed their sexual orientation to health professionals. This low level of disclosure likely represents a major obstacle to serving the unique needs of MSM in clinical settings. Further research and interventions to facilitate MSM sexual orientation disclosure, especially to health professionals, are urgently needed.

  15. Axial shear modulus of a fiber-reinforced composite with random fiber cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bose

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the effective axial shear modulus of a fiber reinforced material with random fiber cross-sections so that the micromechanics is governed by stochastic differential equations. A coarse-graining procedure is adopted to investigate the macroscopic behavior of the material. This analysis leads to the formula for the effective axial shear modulus μ∗=μ1/{1−2c(μ2−μ1/(μ2+μ1},where μ1 and μ2 are the shear modulus of the matrix and fibers respectively and c is the concentration of the fibers less that 0.5. For c>0.5, the fiber and matrix moduli are to be interchanged and c is to be replaced by 1−c. The results of this study are compared with those of the theory of fibre reinforced materials. Finally, a numerical example is presented with graphical representation.

  16. Early skin-to-skin contact after cesarean section: A randomized clinical pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kollmann

    Full Text Available Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response.This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria between September 2013 and January 2014. Women were randomly assigned to intraoperative ("early" SCC (n = 17 versus postoperative ("late" SCC (n = 18. Main variables investigated were neonatal transition (Apgar score, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and temperature, maternal pain perception and both maternal and neonatal stress response by measuring the stress biomarkers salivary free cortisol and salivary alpha amylase.There was no evidence for differences in parameters reflecting neonatal transition or stress response between the 'Early SSC Group' and the 'Late SSC Group'. Maternal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as maternal wellbeing and pain did not differ between the groups. However, the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the 'Early SSC Group' compared to the 'Late SSC Group' (p = 0.004.This study did not reveal significant risks for the newborn in terms of neonatal transition when early SSC is applied in the operating room. Maternal condition and stress marker levels did not differ either, although the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the 'Early SSC Group' compared to the 'Late SSC Group', which may indicate a stressor sign due to intensive activation of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary-system. This needs to be further evaluated in a larger prospective randomized trial.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01894880.

  17. Intrathecal Fentanyl Lidocaine combination for cesarean section: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal anesthesia can be associated with hemodynamic changes and some other complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding fentanyl to lidocaine on the spinal anesthesia time and its complications for cesarean section.Methods: Sixty pregnant women with gestational age of 37- 42 weeks and ASA physical status I and II undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in a randomized double blinded clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to receive spinal anesthesia with lidocaine-normal saline (LS: 75 mg lidocaine 5% with 0.3 ml normal saline lidocaine-fentanyl (LF group (75 mg lidocaine 5% with 50 μg fentanyl. The duration of initiation of sensory block to achieve T4 level, time to return of sensory level to T12, time to first analgesic request, ephedrine requirement, nausea and vomiting during and after the surgery, pruritus, respirator depression, headache and apgar score of the new born  at 1st and 5th minutes were assessed. Results: There was no significant difference between time to achieve T4 level, ephedrine dose, post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV, pruritus and headache in study groups. Time to return of sensory level to T12 was significantly longer in LF group (152.6±14.7 vs. 66.2±11.2 min, P=0.0009. Time to first analgesic request was also longer in LF group (164.2±20.8 vs. 68.1±11.3 min, P=0.0009. The incidence of nausea and vomiting during surgery was significantly more in LF group (20% vs. 0%, P=0.023. No case of respiratory depression was observed in groups. The 1st and 5th minute's apgar score were comparable between groups and were between 7 and 10.Conclusions: Addition of fentanyl to intrathecal lidocaine in patients undergoing elective cesarean section results in increasing of the block duration and time to first analgesic request without significant maternal or neonatal side-effects, without effect on 1st and 5th minutes apgar score

  18. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  19. The effect of integrated emotion-oriented care versus usual care on elderly persons with dementia in the nursing home and on nursing assistants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnema, E.J.; Dr�es, R.M.; Ettema, T.P.; Ooms, M.E.; Adèr, H.J.; Ribbe, M.W.; van Tilburg, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of integrated emotion-oriented care on nursing home residents with dementia and nursing assistants. Design: A multi-site randomized clinical trial with matched groups, and measurements at baseline and after seven months. Setting: Sixteen psychogeriatric wards in

  20. The effect of integrated emotion-oriented care versus usual care on elderly persons with dementia in the nursing home and on nursing assistants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnema, E.J.; Dr�es, R.M.; Ettema, T.P.; Ooms, M.E.; Adèr, H.J.; Ribbe, M.W.; Tilburg, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of integrated emotion-oriented care on nursing home residents with dementia and nursing assistants. DESIGN: A multi-site randomized clinical trial with matched groups, and measurements at baseline and after seven months. SETTING: Sixteen psychogeriatric wards in

  1. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students – A randomized cross-sectional stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangYun Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV. The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS test evaluated academic performance. Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170 than non-PBL students (n=83 (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p < 0.01. Subscale CT-scores were significant in favor of PBL in six of the seven subscales (truth seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, maturity. There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11. There was no significant correlation between CCS scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7, but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.

  2. Standard practice for X-Ray determination of retained austenite in steel with near random crystallographic orientation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of retained austenite phase in steel using integrated intensities (area under peak above background) of X-ray diffraction peaks using chromium Kα or molybdenum Kα X-radiation. 1.2 The method applies to carbon and alloy steels with near random crystallographic orientations of both ferrite and austenite phases. 1.3 This practice is valid for retained austenite contents from 1 % by volume and above. 1.4 If possible, X-ray diffraction peak interference from other crystalline phases such as carbides should be eliminated from the ferrite and austenite peak intensities. 1.5 Substantial alloy contents in steel cause some change in peak intensities which have not been considered in this method. Application of this method to steels with total alloy contents exceeding 15 weight % should be done with care. If necessary, the users can calculate the theoretical correction factors to account for changes in volume of the unit cells for austenite and ferrite resulting from vari...

  3. Embodying pervasive discrimination: a decomposition of sexual orientation inequalities in health in a population-based cross-sectional study in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; Linander, Ida; Mosquera, Paola A

    2017-01-21

    Studies from Sweden and abroad have established health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual people. Few studies have examined the underpinnings of such sexual orientation inequalities in health. To expand this literature, the present study aimed to employ decomposition analysis to explain health inequalities between people with heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation in Sweden, a country with an international reputation for heeding the human rights of non-heterosexual people. Participants (N = 23,446) came from a population-based cross-sectional survey in the four northernmost counties in Sweden in 2014. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires, covering sexual orientation, mental and general physical health, social conditions and unmet health care needs, and sociodemographic data was retrieved from total population registers. Sexual orientation inequalities in health were decomposed by Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Results showed noticeable mental and general health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation groups. Health inequalities were partly explained (total explained fraction 64-74%) by inequalities in degrading treatment (24-26% of the explained fraction), but to a considerable degree also by material conditions (38-45%) and unmet care needs (25-43%). Psychosocial experiences may be insufficient to explain and understand health inequalities by sexual orientation in a reputedly 'gay-friendly' setting. Less overt forms of structural discrimination may need to be considered to capture the pervasive material discrimination that seems to underpin the embodiment of sexual minority inequalities. This ought to be taken into consideration in research, policy-making and monitoring aiming to work towards equity in health across sexual orientations.

  4. Self-Study and Evaluation Guide/1968 Edition. Section D-2B: Orientation on Mobility Services. (Dog Guide Program Only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

    This self-study and evaluation guide on orientation and mobility services (dog guide program emphasis) is one of 28 guides designed for organizations undertaking a self-study as part of the process for accreditation from the National Accreditation Council (NAC) for agencies serving the blind and visually handicapped. Provided are lists of…

  5. Financial ties of principal investigators and randomized controlled trial outcomes: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Rosa; Woodbridge, Alexandra; Abraham, Ann; Saba, Susan; Korenstein, Deborah; Madden, Erin; Boscardin, W John; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2017-01-17

     To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding.  Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).  Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013.  Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy.  Association between financial ties of principal investigators and study outcome.  A total of 190 papers describing 195 studies met inclusion criteria. Financial ties between principal investigators and the pharmaceutical industry were present in 132 (67.7%) studies. Of 397 principal investigators, 231 (58%) had financial ties and 166 (42%) did not. Of all principal investigators, 156 (39%) reported advisor/consultancy payments, 81 (20%) reported speakers' fees, 81 (20%) reported unspecified financial ties, 52 (13%) reported honorariums, 52 (13%) reported employee relationships, 52 (13%) reported travel fees, 41 (10%) reported stock ownership, and 20 (5%) reported having a patent related to the study drug. The prevalence of financial ties of principal investigators was 76% (103/136) among positive studies and 49% (29/59) among negative studies. In unadjusted analyses, the presence of a financial tie was associated with a positive study outcome (odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.1). In the primary multivariate analysis, a financial tie was significantly associated with positive RCT outcome after adjustment for the study funding source (odds ratio 3.57 (1.7 to 7.7). The secondary analysis controlled for additional RCT characteristics such as study phase, sample size, country of first authors, specialty, trial registration, study design, type of analysis, comparator, and outcome measure. These characteristics did not appreciably affect the relation between financial ties and study outcomes (odds ratio 3.37, 1

  6. Effect of oriental medicine music therapy on patients with Hwa-byung: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Cheon, Chun-Hoo; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Song-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Sun-Yong; Kim, Jong-Woo; Jeon, Chan-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyeong; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2012-09-11

    Hwa-byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome with both psychological and somatic symptoms, is also known as 'anger syndrome'. It includes various physical symptoms including anxiety, a feeling of overheating, a sensation of pressure on the chest, heart palpitations, respiratory stuffiness, insomnia, and anxiety. The proposed study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms: an oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT) group and a control music therapy (CMT) group. In total, 48 patients will be enrolled into the trial. The first visit will be the screening visit. At baseline (visit 2), all participants fulfilling both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria will be split and randomly divided into two equal groups: the OMMT and the CMT (n = 24 each). Each group will receive treatment sessions over the course of 4 weeks, twice per week, for eight sessions in total. The primary outcome is the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the secondary outcomes are the Hwa-byung scale (H-scale), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hwa-byung visual analogue scale (H-VAS) for primary symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), and levels of salivary cortisol. Patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at the baseline visit (visit 2), after the last treatment session (visit 9), and at 4 weeks after the end of all trial sessions (visit 10). From the baseline (visit 2) through the follow-up (visit 10), the entire process will take a total of 53 days. This proposed study targets patients with Hwa-byung, especially those who have exhibited symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, the primary outcome is set to measure the level of anxiety. OMMT is music therapy combined with traditional Korean medicinal theories. Unlike previously reported music therapies, for which patients simply listen to music passively, in OMMT, patients actively move their bodies and play the

  7. Effect of oriental medicine music therapy on patients with Hwa-byung: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hwa-byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome with both psychological and somatic symptoms, is also known as ‘anger syndrome’. It includes various physical symptoms including anxiety, a feeling of overheating, a sensation of pressure on the chest, heart palpitations, respiratory stuffiness, insomnia, and anxiety. Methods/design The proposed study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms: an oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT) group and a control music therapy (CMT) group. In total, 48 patients will be enrolled into the trial. The first visit will be the screening visit. At baseline (visit 2), all participants fulfilling both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria will be split and randomly divided into two equal groups: the OMMT and the CMT (n = 24 each). Each group will receive treatment sessions over the course of 4 weeks, twice per week, for eight sessions in total. The primary outcome is the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the secondary outcomes are the Hwa-byung scale (H-scale), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hwa-byung visual analogue scale (H-VAS) for primary symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), and levels of salivary cortisol. Patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at the baseline visit (visit 2), after the last treatment session (visit 9), and at 4 weeks after the end of all trial sessions (visit 10). From the baseline (visit 2) through the follow-up (visit 10), the entire process will take a total of 53 days. Discussion This proposed study targets patients with Hwa-byung, especially those who have exhibited symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, the primary outcome is set to measure the level of anxiety. OMMT is music therapy combined with traditional Korean medicinal theories. Unlike previously reported music therapies, for which patients simply listen to music passively, in OMMT, patients

  8. Effect of oriental medicine music therapy on patients with Hwa-byung: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jeong-Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hwa-byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome with both psychological and somatic symptoms, is also known as ‘anger syndrome’. It includes various physical symptoms including anxiety, a feeling of overheating, a sensation of pressure on the chest, heart palpitations, respiratory stuffiness, insomnia, and anxiety. Methods/design The proposed study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms: an oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT group and a control music therapy (CMT group. In total, 48 patients will be enrolled into the trial. The first visit will be the screening visit. At baseline (visit 2, all participants fulfilling both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria will be split and randomly divided into two equal groups: the OMMT and the CMT (n = 24 each. Each group will receive treatment sessions over the course of 4 weeks, twice per week, for eight sessions in total. The primary outcome is the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and the secondary outcomes are the Hwa-byung scale (H-scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the Hwa-byung visual analogue scale (H-VAS for primary symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF, and levels of salivary cortisol. Patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at the baseline visit (visit 2, after the last treatment session (visit 9, and at 4 weeks after the end of all trial sessions (visit 10. From the baseline (visit 2 through the follow-up (visit 10, the entire process will take a total of 53 days. Discussion This proposed study targets patients with Hwa-byung, especially those who have exhibited symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, the primary outcome is set to measure the level of anxiety. OMMT is music therapy combined with traditional Korean medicinal theories. Unlike previously reported music therapies, for which patients simply listen to music passively, in

  9. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  10. The Influence of Coping-oriented Hypnotic Suggestions on Chronic Pain in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): A Randomized Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone; Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge

    Background and aims: Coping-oriented hypnotic suggestions aimed at reducing pain catastrophizing have been shown to reduce pain in people with chronic tension-type headache and experimental pain in healthy volunteers during hypnosis (Kjøgx et al., 2016). However, the effect on pain post-hypnosis...... is unknown. The aim is to investigate the effect of coping-oriented hypnotic suggestions on chronic pain post-hypnosis. Methods: Seventy-five SCI-patients with chronic pain (>3, NRS 0-10) are randomized into one of three conditions; 1) coping-oriented hypnosis plus current treatment, 2) neutral hypnosis plus...... Strategies Questionnaire), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Patients’ global impression of change and side effects of the hypnosis are also assessed for 14 days post-intervention. Results: Preliminary results will be presented...

  11. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. An influence of aerobic activities on special endurance of students in groups with a sports orientation (sectional activities of table tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Hrynko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimentally to reveal the influence on the special endurance of aerobic activities (cross training and basic aerobics, which are included in the program of higher educational institutions of groups with sports orientation (sectional occupations table tennis, and to explore the need to include these classes in the curriculum for physical education. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of literary sources, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, modeling. In the experiment, 106 first-year students took part: (53 – control group and 53 – experimental. Results: technique of revealing the influence of aerobic training on the special endurance of students of groups with a sports orientation was tested; the effectiveness of the experimental technique of training for increasing special endurance was developed and proved. Conclusion: at this stage of the experiment, the effectiveness of the program was substantiated and proved with the inclusion of aerobic activities (cross training and basic aerobic elements in the training groups on sporting orientation (sectional occupations table tennis.

  13. Omitted data in randomized controlled trials for anxiety and depression: A systematic review of the inclusion of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C; Mirabito, Lucas A; LeMaire, Kelly; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the frequency with which randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral and psychological interventions for anxiety and depression include data pertaining to participant sexual orientation and nonbinary gender identities. Using systematic review methodology, the databases PubMed and PsycINFO were searched to identify RCTs published in 2004, 2009, and 2014. Random selections of 400 articles per database per year (2,400 articles in total) were considered for inclusion in the review. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were read and coded by the research team to identify whether the trial reported data pertaining to participant sexual orientation and nonbinary gender identities. Additional trial characteristics were also identified and indexed in our database (e.g., sample size, funding source). Of the 232 articles meeting inclusion criteria, only 1 reported participants' sexual orientation, and zero articles included nonbinary gender identities. A total of 52,769 participants were represented in the trials, 93 of which were conducted in the United States, and 43 acknowledged the National Institutes of Health as a source of funding. Despite known mental health disparities on the basis of sexual orientation and nonbinary gender identification, researchers evaluating interventions for anxiety and depression are not reporting on these important demographic characteristics. Reporting practices must change to ensure that our interventions generalize to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Monfrance, Maurice; Geers, Richard P J; Bakx, Wilbert; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M

    2014-03-31

    Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2 × 30 min/day. A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures. Arm hand performance improved in chronic stroke

  15. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  16. Effects of exercise and Kinesio taping on abdominal recovery in women with cesarean section: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürşen, Ceren; İnanoğlu, Deniz; Kaya, Serap; Akbayrak, Türkan; Baltacı, Gül

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal muscle strength decreases and fat ratio in the waist region increases following cesarean section. Kinesio taping (KT) is an easily applicable method and stimulates muscle activation. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effects of KT combined with exercise in women with cesarean section on abdominal recovery compared to the exercise alone. Twenty-four women in between the fourth and sixth postnatal months who had cesarean section were randomly assigned to KT + exercise (n = 12) group or exercise group (n = 12). KT was applied twice a week for 4 weeks on rectus abdominis, oblique abdominal muscles and cesarean incision. All women were instructed to carry out posterior pelvic tilt, core stabilization and abdominal correction exercises. Outcome measures were evaluated with the manual muscle test, sit-up test, abdominal endurance test, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), circumference measurements and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data. p exercise group was significantly greater compared to the exercise group in terms of the strength of the rectus abdominis muscle, sit-up test, VAS, measurements of the waist circumference and RMDQ (p exercises in the postnatal physiotherapy program provides greater benefit for the abdominal recovery in women with cesarean section. Further studies with larger sample sizes and long-term follow-up are needed to verify these results.

  17. Economic evaluation of schema therapy and clarification-oriented psychotherapy for personality disorders: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamelis, L.L.M.; Arntz, A.; Wetzelaer, P.; Verdoorn, R.; Evers, S.M.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual for patients with avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, and/or narcissistic personality disorder. Method:

  18. Ion-damage-free planarization or shallow angle sectioning of solar cells for mapping grain orientation and nanoscale photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Luria, Justin; Sun, Yu; Moore, Andrew; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Aindow, Mark; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2017-05-01

    Ion beam milling is the most common modern method for preparing specific features for microscopic analysis, even though concomitant ion implantation and amorphization remain persistent challenges, particularly as they often modify materials properties of interest. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), on the other hand, can mechanically mill specific nanoscale regions in plan-view without chemical or high energy ion damage, due to its resolution, directionality, and fine load control. As an example, AFM-nanomilling (AFM-NM) is implemented for top-down planarization of polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cells, with a resulting decrease in the root mean square (RMS) roughness by an order of magnitude, even better than for a low incidence FIB polished surface. Subsequent AFM-based property maps reveal a substantially stronger contrast, in this case of the short-circuit current or open circuit voltage during light exposure. Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) imaging also becomes possible upon AFM-NM, enabling direct correlations between the local materials properties and the polycrystalline microstructure. Smooth shallow-angle cross-sections are demonstrated as well, based on targeted oblique milling. As expected, this reveals a gradual decrease in the average short-circuit current and maximum power as the underlying CdS and electrode layers are approached, but a relatively consistent open-circuit voltage through the diminishing thickness of the CdTe absorber. AFM-based nanomilling is therefore a powerful tool for material characterization, uniquely providing ion-damage free, selective area, planar smoothing or low-angle sectioning of specimens while preserving their functionality. This enables novel, co-located advanced AFM measurements, EBSD analysis, and investigations by related techniques that are otherwise hindered by surface morphology or surface damage.

  19. Ion-damage-free planarization or shallow angle sectioning of solar cells for mapping grain orientation and nanoscale photovoltaic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Luria, Justin; Sun, Yu; Moore, Andrew; Aguirre, Brandon A; Cruz-Campa, Jose L; Aindow, Mark; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D

    2017-05-05

    Ion beam milling is the most common modern method for preparing specific features for microscopic analysis, even though concomitant ion implantation and amorphization remain persistent challenges, particularly as they often modify materials properties of interest. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), on the other hand, can mechanically mill specific nanoscale regions in plan-view without chemical or high energy ion damage, due to its resolution, directionality, and fine load control. As an example, AFM-nanomilling (AFM-NM) is implemented for top-down planarization of polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cells, with a resulting decrease in the root mean square (RMS) roughness by an order of magnitude, even better than for a low incidence FIB polished surface. Subsequent AFM-based property maps reveal a substantially stronger contrast, in this case of the short-circuit current or open circuit voltage during light exposure. Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) imaging also becomes possible upon AFM-NM, enabling direct correlations between the local materials properties and the polycrystalline microstructure. Smooth shallow-angle cross-sections are demonstrated as well, based on targeted oblique milling. As expected, this reveals a gradual decrease in the average short-circuit current and maximum power as the underlying CdS and electrode layers are approached, but a relatively consistent open-circuit voltage through the diminishing thickness of the CdTe absorber. AFM-based nanomilling is therefore a powerful tool for material characterization, uniquely providing ion-damage free, selective area, planar smoothing or low-angle sectioning of specimens while preserving their functionality. This enables novel, co-located advanced AFM measurements, EBSD analysis, and investigations by related techniques that are otherwise hindered by surface morphology or surface damage.

  20. Timing of elective cesarean section and neonatal morbidity: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Kindberg, Sara Fevre; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    of gestation. Material and methods Participants were randomized to either ECS performed at 38+3 weeks of gestation (± two days) or ECS performed at 39+3 weeks of gestation (± two days). Eligibility criteria were uncomplicated pregnancies with a single fetus and a reliable due date decided by ultrasound....... Diabetics and women with an estimated high risk of having ECS before 39 weeks and 5 days of gestation were excluded. The primary outcome was admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit within 48 hours of birth. Results From March 2009 to June 2011 1274 women from seven Danish hospitals were enrolled...

  1. Adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate for spinal anesthesia in the cesarean section: A prospective double blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabalameli, Mitra; Pakzadmoghadam, Seyed Hamid

    2012-01-01

    There is uncertainty as to whether addition of magnesium sulfate to spinal local anesthetics improves quality and duration of block in the caesarean section. In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, we investigated the effect of adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in the caesarean section. After institutional approval and obtaining informed patient consent, 132 ASA physical status I-II women undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia were randomized to four groups: 1 - 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc normal saline (group C) 2 - 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.1 cc normal saline+ 0.1 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(50)) 3- 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.05 cc normal saline+ 0.15 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(75)) 4- 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(100)). Patients and staff involved in data collections were unaware of the patient group assignment. We recorded the following: onset and duration of block, time to complete motor block recovery, and analgesic requirement. Magnesium sulfate caused a delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade. The duration of sensory and motor block were longer in M(75) and M(100) groups than group C (P motor blockade, and prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade, without increasing major side effects.

  2. The Effect of Honey Gel on Abdominal Wound Healing in Cesarean Section: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nikpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether honey can accelerate the wound healing in women undergoing cesarean section. Methods: This was a triple blinded randomized prospective clinical trial. Women with cesarean section were randomly designated as drug (37 cases and placebo (38 cases groups. The drug group received local honey gel 25% while the placebo group received similar free-honey gel on abdominal cesarean incision twice a day for 14 days. REEDA scale (Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation of wound edges was used to assess wound healing. Results: The mean REEDA was 2.27 ± 2.46 and 3.91 ± 2.74 (p=0.008 on the 7th day and 0.47 ± 0.84 and 1.59± 1.95 (p=0.002 on the 14th day for the drug and placebo groups, respectively. Redness, edema and hematoma in the drug group were significantly lower on the 7th and 14th days. Conclusion: Honey was effective in healing the cesarean section incision. Using topical honey is suggested as a natural product with rare side effects in order to reduce the complications of cesarean wounds.

  3. Randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of intramyometrial and intravenous oxytocin during elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinaga, Chieko; Uchizaki, Sakiko; Kurita, Tadayoshi; Taniguchi, Mizuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akira; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Itoh, Hiroaki; Tani, Shigeki; Sato, Shigehito; Terui, Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Obstetricians sometimes administer intramyometrial oxytocin to stimulate uterine contraction during cesarean section, but its effects have not been well investigated. We performed a randomized, double-blind study to test the hypothesis that a small dose of intramyometrial oxytocin would induce acceptable uterine contractility more quickly and with fewer hemodynamic side-effects than the same dose administered intravenously. Forty women with a single fetus at ≥36 weeks of gestational age scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to the intravenous and intramyometrial groups to receive oxytocin at 0.07 IU/kg. The drug was administered immediately after umbilical cord clamping. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, intraoperative blood loss, uterine tone, total amount of intraoperative oxytocin, and additional uterotonic drugs administered in the first 24 h were compared. Maximum uterine contractility was achieved after 2 and 10 min for the intravenous and intramyometrial groups, respectively. The mean hemodynamic parameters of the intramyometrial group were stable. In contrast, the intravenous group showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure after 2-4 min and increased heart rate after 1-2 min. Intraoperative blood loss, total oxytocin dose, and frequency of additional uterotonic drugs were comparable between the two groups. Although intraoperative blood loss was comparable, a small dose of intramyometrial oxytocin was inappropriate to obtain a prompt and acceptable uterine contraction during cesarean section. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Spatially balanced provision of health equipment: a cross-sectional study oriented to the identification of challenges to access promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Lein, Adriana; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig

    2017-12-04

    Access to health services is in part defined by the spatial distribution of healthcare equipment. To ensure equity in the provision of health services, it is important to examine availability across different health care providers taking into account population demand. Given the importance of the equitable provision of health equipment, we evaluate its spatial distribution in Brazil. This study is classified as cross-sectional with an ecological design. We evaluate Brazilian data on distance to available health equipment considering: dialysis machines (385), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (257), hospital beds (3675) and bone densitometers (429). We define two distance thresholds (50 km and 200 km) from a municipality to the center of services provision. The balance between infrastructure capacity and potential demand was evaluated to identify a lack or surplus of health services. The distribution of dialysis equipment and bone densitometers is not balanced across Brazilian states, and unmet demand is high. With respect to MRIs, the large capacity of this equipment results in a large excess of supply. However, this characteristic alone cannot account for excesses of supply of over 700%, as is the case of the Federal District when the range is limited to 50 km. At the same time, four states in the Northeastern region of Brazil show a net excess of demand. Some regions do not meet the standard amount of supply defined by Brazilian Ministry of Health. The quantity and distribution of hospital beds are not sufficient to provide full coverage to the population. Our main focus was to evaluate the network of the provision of health equipment in Brazil, considering both private and public sectors conjointly. We take into account two main aspects of a spatially balanced health system: the regional availability of health equipment and the geographic distance between its demand and supply at the municipality level. Some regions do not meet the minimum requirement defined

  5. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jie Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents.

  6. Adverse Effects of Carbetocin versus Oxytocin in the Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage after Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mannaerts

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the incidence of nausea, vomiting, and arterial hypotension between carbetocin and oxytocin to prevent haemorrhage after caesarean section (CS. Methods. A randomized controlled trial in term pregnant women undergoing planned CS. Groups were randomized to carbetocin or oxytocin. Blood pressure (BP, heart rate, presence of nausea/vomitus, and need for vasopressors were evaluated throughout surgery. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels were compared. Results. Fifty-eight women were randomized (carbetocin n=32; oxytocin n=26. Both medications had hypotensive effect, difference in BP for carbetocin versus oxytocin: systolic (14.4 ± 2.4 mmHg versus 8.5 ± 1.8 mmHg; diastolic (7.8 ± 1.6 mmHg versus 8.9 ± 3.0 mmHg without significant difference between the drugs (p=0.1 and p=0.7. Both groups had similar needs for vasopressors. The presence of nausea was not rare, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.4. Average blood loss was slightly lower in the carbetocin group but not statistically significant (p=0.8. Conclusion. In planned CS, a possible clinical significant lower incidence of nausea after carbetocin was noted but this was not statistically significant. There were no differences regarding BP, heart rate, the need for vasopressor, and blood loss. The study was registered in the International Journal of Clinical Trials (ISRCTN 95504420, 2/2017.

  7. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in the Management of Acute Postoperative Pain Syndrome after Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Pierfrancesco; Cofini, Vincenza; Petrucci, Emiliano; Scimia, Paolo; Pozone, Tullio; Paladini, Giuseppe; Carta, Gaspare; Necozione, Stefano; Borghi, Battista; Marinangeli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The international literature is unclear regarding the analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) after a Caesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to determine whether a correctly performed ultrasound-guided TAPB (USG-TAPB) could provide better control of acute postoperative pain during the first 72 hours after CS and if it could provide a faster postoperative recovery. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial on pregnant women who underwent CS. Pain clinic and Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit in an academic hospital. A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted with 96 patients who underwent CS. The patients in both groups received subarachnoid anesthesia (SAB) with 13 mg of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine. The patients were randomized so that some received USG-TAPB with local anesthetic, and the remainder received USG-TAPB with saline. The patients' demographic information and data regarding anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, side effects, acute rest and incident postoperative pain, painkiller consumption, recovery time of bowel function, and the time of hospital discharge were recorded. Our data reinforce the assumption that if TAP block is performed correctly and is part of a multimodal analgesic scheme, effective pain control is possible both for somatic and visceral acute pain. Furthermore, the need for painkillers is reduced, and their related side effects are moderate, yielding a positive benefit/cost ratio. USG-TAPB provides good analgesia for acute postoperative somatic pain, but opiates were still needed for the management of visceral acute postoperative pain. These results could confirm the assumption that the correct performance of an USG-TAPB as part of a multimodal analgesic treatment could represent a viable alternative to common analgesic procedures performed for acute postoperative pain control after a CS.Key words: Bowel function, Caesarian section, incident pain, local anesthetics

  8. Randomized comparison of effectiveness of unimodal opioid analgesia with multimodal analgesia in post–cesarean section pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,1 Oluseyi Olaboyede A Atanda21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: Postoperative pain leads to patient discomfort, decreased level of satisfaction, prolonged recovery, and higher health costs. Acute pain control therefore improves the overall quality of life in patients undergoing cesarean section. Pain relief is a fundamental human right, but there is no gold standard for post–cesarean section pain management.Objective: To compare the efficacy of pentazocine and tramadol used in unimodal and multimodal (in combination with piroxicam approach, in the management of post–cesarean section pain.Materials and methods: This study employed a random allocation design to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular pentazocine (60 mg or tramadol (100 mg as single analgesic agent and in combination with daily intramuscular piroxicam 20 mg, for the management of post–cesarean section pain during the immediate 12 hours after surgery. The primary outcome measure was control of postoperative pain, while the secondary outcome measures were the analgesic agent onset of action, duration of action, patient satisfaction, and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Data obtained were entered into a predesigned sheet and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Means ± standard deviation (SD were calculated for the quantitative variables, and the difference between two independent groups was compared using unpaired Student's t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05.Results: A total of 120 patients were equally and randomly allocated to four study groups – two that received unimodal analgesia (the pentazocine group and the tramadol group and two that received multimodal analgesia (the pentazocine

  9. Baricity of Bupivacaine on Maternal Hemodynamics after Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Atashkhoei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: After spinal anesthesia, patients undergoing cesarean section are more likely to develop hemodynamic changes. The baricity of local anesthetic has an important role on spinal blockade effects. The aim of this study was to compare the isobar and hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% plus fentanyl on maternal hemodynamics after spinal anesthesia for C/S. Methods: In this double-blind study, 84 healthy pregnant women undergoing C/S using bupivacaine 0.5% isobar (study group, n=42 or hyperbaric (control group, n=42 for spinal anesthesia were scheduled. The study was conducted from 21 April 2014 to 21 November 2014 at Al-Zahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Parameters such as maternal hemodynamics, block characteristics, side effects, and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, and student’s t test. Results: The incidence of hypotension in the isobar group was lower than the hyperbaric group, although it was not statistically significant (40.47% vs. 61.9%, P=0.08. The duration of hypotension was shorter in the study group (1.6±7.8 min vs. 7.4±12.5 min, P=0.004. The dose of ephedrine was lower in the study group (2.4±6.6 mg vs. 5.3±10.7 mg, P=0.006. The main maternal side effect is sustained hypotension that was seen in 0 patients of the isobar and 7 (16.66% of hyperbaric groups (P=0.006. None of the neonates had Apgar score≤7 at 5 min of delivery (P=1.0. Sensory and motor block duration was shorter in the study group (P=0.01. Conclusion: Isobaric bupivacaine is associated with more hemodynamic stability and shorter sensory and motor blockade in mothers under spinal anesthesia for C/S. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201401287013N7

  10. A Randomized Trial to Measure the Efficacy of Applying Task Oriented Role Assignment to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-06

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL W ING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANOUMFORSGVT ATTN: MAJ CARRIE LITKE-WAGER...Author Litke· Wager, Carrie 0-4/Major 959/CSPS/ 59MDW/SGVT b. Mu, Thornton 0-5/LTC MCH E-ZDP-N SA MMC c. Delaney, Heather 0-4/ MAJ MCHE-ZDP-N SA MMC d...78234-2715 15 June 2016 Maj Carrie Litke-Wager, MD Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board A Randomized Trial to Measure the

  11. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Center for Vacuum, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Heyoung, E-mail: kdhh@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  12. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Soon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of angular correlations recovers quantities from diffraction patterns of randomly oriented particles, as expected to be measured with an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL, proportional to quadratic functions of the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the diffraction volume of a single particle. We have previously shown that it is possible to reconstruct a randomly oriented icosahedral or helical virus from the average over all measured diffraction patterns of such correlations. We point out in this paper that a structure of even simpler particles of 50 Å or so in diameter and consisting of heavier atomic elements (to enhance scattering that has been used as a test case for reconstructions from XFEL diffraction patterns can also be solved by this technique. Even though there has been earlier work on similar objects (prolate spheroids, one advantage of the present technique is its potential to also work with diffraction patterns not only due to single particles as has been suggested on the basis on nonoverlapping delta functions of angular scattering. Accordingly, we calculated from the diffraction patterns the angular momentum expansions of the pair correlations and triple correlations for general particle images and reconstructed those images in the standard way. Although the images looked pretty much the same, it is not totally clear to us that the angular correlations are exactly the same as different numbers of particles due to the possibility of constructive or destructive interference between the scattered waves from different particles. It is of course known that, for a large number of particles contributing to a diffraction parttern, the correlations converge to that of a single particle. It could be that the lack of perfect agreement between the images reconstructed with one and two particles is due to uncancelling constructive and destructive conditions that are not found in the case of solution scattering.

  13. Efficacy of a Peer-Led, Recovery-Oriented Shared Decision-Making System: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sosei; Taneda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Asami; Sasaki, Natsuki; Mizuno, Masashi; Sawada, Yumiko; Sakata, Masuhiro; Fukui, Satoe; Hisanaga, Fumie; Bernick, Peter; Ito, Junichiro

    2017-12-01

    The effects of a comprehensive shared decision-making system based on the CommonGround approach and incorporating peer support and a computerized decision aid were investigated. A pilot randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up was conducted in Japan. Fifty-six outpatients with mental illness were randomly allocated to a shared decision-making system (intervention) group or treatment as usual (control) group. The implementation process and several outcomes were compared between groups. The core components and processes of shared decision making were observed in the intervention group more frequently than in the control group. The intervention group also reported a significantly more positive participants' view of the relationship with their doctor than the control group. The intervention did not have a significant effect on most clinical and recovery-related outcomes. The shared decision-making system appeared to partly improve patients' perceptions of communication and relationships with doctors but did not have a significant effect on other patient-level outcomes.

  14. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among patients undergoing cesarean section under general and spinal anesthesia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl İçel Saygı

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: As the rates of cesarean births have increased, the type of cesarean anesthesia has gained importance. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of general and spinal anesthesia on maternal and fetal outcomes in term singleton cases undergoing elective cesarean section.DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary-level public hospital.METHODS: Our study was conducted on 100 patients who underwent cesarean section due to elective indications. The patients were randomly divided into general anesthesia (n = 50 and spinal anesthesia (n = 50 groups. The maternal pre and postoperative hematological results, intra and postoperative hemodynamic parameters and perinatal results were compared between the groups.RESULTS: Mean bowel sounds (P = 0.036 and gas discharge time (P = 0.049 were significantly greater and 24th hour hemoglobin difference values (P = 0.001 were higher in the general anesthesia group. The mean hematocrit and hemoglobin values at the 24th hour (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively, urine volume at the first postoperative hour (P < 0.001 and median Apgar score at the first minute (P < 0.0005 were significantly higher, and the time that elapsed until the first requirement for analgesia was significantly longer (P = 0.042, in the spinal anesthesia group.CONCLUSION: In elective cases, spinal anesthesia is superior to general anesthesia in terms of postoperative comfort. In pregnancies with a risk of fetal distress, it would be appropriate to prefer spinal anesthesia by taking the first minute Apgar score into account.

  15. Maternal and Neonatal Effects of Vasopressors Used for Treating Hypotension after Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Study.

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    Soxhuku-Isufi, Alma; Shpata, Vjollca; Sula, Hektor

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the study was to examine whether ephedrine and phenylephrine were different in their efficacy for managing maternal hypotension and their effect of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. A double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy pregnant women ASA physical status 2, which underwent elective caesarian delivery under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either phenylephrine (Ph group) or ephedrine (E group) immediately after the episode of hypotension after spinal anesthesia. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were recorded. Two hundred and two (202) pregnant women at term were entered in this study. There were no differences between group E and group Ph regarding the incidence of hypotension after vasopressor therapy, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting. There was no significant difference between groups in the first-minute and the 5th minute Apgar score, none of the neonates had the true fetal acidosis. Ephedrine and phenylephrine have the same efficacy in treating hypotension after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section. The use of Phenylephrine was associated with better fetal acid-base status, and there were no differences on Apgar score values and on the incidence of maternal bradycardia and hypotension.

  16. Improvements in Orientation and Balancing Abilities in Response to One Month of Intensive Slackline-Training. A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study.

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    Dordevic, Milos; Hökelmann, Anita; Müller, Patrick; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Slackline-training has been shown to improve mainly task-specific balancing skills. Non-task specific effects were assessed for tandem stance and preferred one-leg stance on stable and perturbed force platforms with open eyes. It is unclear whether transfer effects exist for other balancing conditions and which component of the balancing ability is affected. Also, it is not known whether slackline-training can improve non-visual-dependent spatial orientation abilities, a function mainly supported by the hippocampus. Objective: To assess the effect of one-month of slackline-training on different components of balancing ability and its transfer effects on non-visual-dependent spatial orientation abilities. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to the training group (T) (n = 25, 23.2 ± 2.5 years; 12 females) and the control group (C) (n = 25, 24.4 ± 2.8 years; 11 females). Professional instructors taught the intervention group to slackline over four consecutive weeks with three 60-min-trainings in each week. Data acquisition was performed (within 2 days) by blinded investigators at the baseline and after the training. Main outcomes Improvement in the score of a 30-item clinical balance test (CBT) developed at our institute (max. score = 90 points) and in the average error distance (in centimeters) in an orientation test (OT), a triangle completion task with walking and wheelchair conditions for 60°, 90°, and 120°. Results: Training group performed significantly better on the closed-eyes conditions of the CBT (1.6 points, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.6 points vs. 0.1 points, 95% CI: -1 to 1.1 points; p = 0.011, [Formula: see text] = 0.128) and in the wheelchair (vestibular) condition of the OT (21 cm, 95% CI: 8-34 cm vs. 1 cm, 95% CI: -14-16 cm; p = 0.049, [Formula: see text] = 0.013). Conclusion: Our results indicate that one month of intensive slackline training is a novel approach for enhancing clinically relevant balancing

  17. Comparison of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance and conventional occupational therapy on occupational performance in individuals with stroke: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Ahn, Si-Nae; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae-Yean; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach based on cognitive strategy in occupational therapy. To investigate the effects of CO-OP approach on occupational performance in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study was designed as a 5-week, randomized, single-blind. Forty-three participants who had a diagnosis of first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 23). The experimental group conducted CO-OP approach while the control group conducted conventional occupational therapy based on occupational performance components. This study measured Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. After training, the scores of COPM and PQRS in trained task were significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group. In addition, the non-trained task was significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group in COPM and the PQRS. This study suggests that the CO-OP approach is beneficial effects on the occupational performance to improvement in individuals with hemiparetic stroke, and have positive effects on generalization and transfer of acquired skills.

  18. Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in early-phase treatment of borderline personality disorder: a pilot study of a randomized trial.

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    Kramer, Ueli; Berger, Thomas; Kolly, Stéphane; Marquet, Pierre; Preisig, Martin; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Caspar, Franz

    2011-04-01

    Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR, also called complementary therapeutic relationship) was postulated to be a particularly helpful therapeutic ingredient in the early-phase treatment of patients with personality disorders, in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present pilot study of randomized controlled trial using an add-on design aims to investigate the effects of MOTR in early-phase treatment (up to session 10), with BPD patients on therapeutic alliance, session impact, and outcome. In total, N = 25 patients participated in the study. BPD patients were randomly allocated to a manual-based investigation process in 10 sessions or to the same investigation process infused with MOTR. Adherence ratings were performed and yielded satisfactory results. The results suggested a specific effectiveness of MOTR on the interpersonal problem area, on the quality of the therapeutic alliance and the quality of the therapeutic relationship, as rated by the patient. These results may have important clinical implications for the early-phase treatment of patients presenting with BPD.

  19. Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment of borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Kramer, Ueli; Kolly, Stéphane; Berthoud, Laurent; Keller, Sabine; Preisig, Martin; Caspar, Franz; Berger, Thomas; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR) was postulated to be a particularly helpful therapeutic ingredient in the early treatment phase of patients with personality disorders, in particular with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present randomized controlled study using an add-on design is the first study to test this assumption in a 10-session general psychiatric treatment with patients presenting with BPD on symptom reduction and therapeutic alliance. A total of 85 patients were randomized. They were either allocated to a manual-based short variant of the general psychiatric management (GPM) treatment (in 10 sessions) or to the same treatment where MOTR was deliberately added to the treatment. Treatment attrition and integrity analyses yielded satisfactory results. The results of the intent-to-treat analyses suggested a global efficacy of MOTR, in the sense of an additional reduction of general problems, i.e. symptoms, interpersonal and social problems (F1, 73 = 7.25, p < 0.05). However, they also showed that MOTR did not yield an additional reduction of specific borderline symptoms. It was also shown that a stronger therapeutic alliance, as assessed by the therapist, developed in MOTR treatments compared to GPM (Z55 = 0.99, p < 0.04). These results suggest that adding MOTR to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments of BPD is promising. Moreover, the findings shed additional light on the perspective of shortening treatments for patients presenting with BPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement versus CBT for co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial.

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    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Tronnier, Christine D; Graves, Rebecca; Kelley, Karen

    2016-02-01

    In many clinical settings, there is a high comorbidity between substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and traumatic stress. Novel therapies are needed to address these co-occurring issues efficiently. The aim of the present study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) for previously homeless men residing in a therapeutic community. Men with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, as well as extensive trauma histories, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of group treatment with MORE (n = 64), CBT (n = 64), or TAU (n = 52). Study findings indicated that from pre-to post-treatment MORE was associated with modest yet significantly greater improvements in substance craving, post-traumatic stress, and negative affect than CBT, and greater improvements in post-traumatic stress and positive affect than TAU. A significant indirect effect of MORE on decreasing craving and post-traumatic stress by increasing dispositional mindfulness was observed, suggesting that MORE may target these issues via enhancing mindful awareness in everyday life. This pragmatic trial represents the first head-to-head comparison of MORE against an empirically-supported treatment for co-occurring disorders. Results suggest that MORE, as an integrative therapy designed to bolster self-regulatory capacity, may hold promise as a treatment for intersecting clinical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeling Thanks and Saying Thanks: A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining If and How Socially Oriented Gratitude Journals Work.

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    O'Connell, Brenda H; O'Shea, Deirdre; Gallagher, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effect of a reflective interpersonal gratitude journal, a reflective-behavioral interpersonal gratitude journal and an active control journal, on primary qualities of well-being and depression. Participants (n = 192; 67.2% female) completed this 3-month longitudinal randomized controlled design. Participants in the reflective-behavioral condition experienced the greatest improvements in affect balance and reductions in depression at immediate posttest. Both gratitude interventions improved affect balance at 1 month, compared to the control. Changes in affect balance for those in the reflective-behavioral condition were mediated by the rate at which people expressed gratitude in their existing relationships. This effect was moderated by participant's baseline depressive status. Expressing felt gratitude to others appears to be a crucial step in deriving benefits, and these benefits may not be limited to the emotionally healthy. Given the applied popularity of gratitude interventions, understanding not only if but also how they work is essential. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison between colloid preload and crystalloid co-load in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Tawfik, M M; Hayes, S M; Jacoub, F Y; Badran, B A; Gohar, F M; Shabana, A M; Abdelkhalek, M; Emara, M M

    2014-11-01

    Hypotension is a common problem during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Intravenous fluid loading is used to correct preoperative dehydration and reduce the incidence and severity of hypotension. Different fluid regimens have been studied but colloid preload and crystalloid co-load have not been compared. In this randomized double-blind study, 210 patients scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 500 mL before spinal anesthesia (colloid preload) or Ringer's acetate solution 1000 mL administered rapidly starting with intrathecal injection (crystalloid co-load). Maternal hypotension (systolic blood pressure colloid preload group and 102 in the crystalloid co-load group. There were no significant differences in the incidence of hypotension (52.4% vs. 42.2%; P=0.18) or severe hypotension (15.5% vs. 9.8%; P=0.31) between colloid preload and crystalloid co-load groups, respectively. The median [range] ephedrine dose was 5 [0-45]mg in the colloid preload group and 0 [0-35]mg in the crystalloid co-load group (P=0.065). There were no significant differences in maternal nausea or vomiting or neonatal outcomes between groups. The use of 1000 mL crystalloid co-load has similar effect to 500 mL colloid preload in reducing the incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Neither technique can totally prevent hypotension and should be combined with vasopressor use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ventilatory function during exercise in multiple sclerosis and impact of training intervention: cross-sectional and randomized controlled trial.

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    Hansen, D; Wens, I; Keytsman, C; Verboven, K; Dendale, P; Eijnde, B O

    2015-10-01

    Patients with MS (pwMS) often experience resting ventilatory anomalies. Ventilatory function during exercise and impact of long-term training intervention remains however uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the ventilatory function during exercise and impact of a 6-month training intervention in pwMS. Combination of a cross-sectional (part 1) and randomized controlled trial (part 2). University rehabilitation facility. Caucasian patients with MS and healthy controls. In part 1, the ventilatory function during submaximal endurance exercise was compared between pwMS (N.=37) and healthy participants (N.=15). In part 2, pwMS were then randomly assigned to a 6-month training intervention (N.=16) or usual care (N.=11). Following training intervention, ventilatory function during exercise was re-evaluated. Despite comparable relative exercise testing intensities between groups in part 1, significantly elevated steady-state exercise dead space/tidal volume ratio, O2 uptake and CO2 output equivalent, end-tidal O2 pressure, ratings of perceived exertion and lowered end-tidal CO2 pressure and O2 pulse was observed in pwMS (Ptraining intervention, ventilatory dysfunction remained present during endurance exercise (P>0.05). Patients with MS experience a ventilatory dysfunction during endurance exercise, which is related to worse exercise tolerance. This ventilatory anomaly remains present after long-term training intervention. Patients with MS experience ventilatory dysfunction during exercise. This dysfunction is related to exercise tolerance and ratings of perceived exertion. Long-term exercise training did not remediate this ventilatory dysfunction. The systematic examination of the pulmonary/cardiovascular system at rest and during exercise is recommended in MS.

  4. Suture Closure versus Non-Closure of Subcutaneous Fat and Cosmetic Outcome after Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Heinrich Husslein

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of subcutaneous fat suture closure versus non-closure at cesarean section (CS on long-term cosmetic outcome.Women undergoing planned or unplanned CS were randomized to either subcutaneous fat suture closure or non-closure using a 1∶1 allocation algorithm. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Scar evaluation was performed after two and six months. Primary outcome measures were Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS summary scores six months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS summary scores, retraction of the scar below the level of the surrounding skin, duration of surgery, and development of hematoma, seroma, surgical site infection (SSI or wound disruption. Data were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.A total of 116 women were randomized and 91 participants, 47 in the closure and 44 in the non-closure group, completed the trial and were analyzed. There were no differences in patient morphometrics or surgery indications between groups. At two and six months no significant differences were found with respect to POSAS or VSS scores between groups. After two months significantly more women in the non-closure group described their scar as being retracted below the level of the skin (36% vs. 15%, p = 0.02 whereas no difference was observed at six months. There were significantly more hematomas in the non-closure (25% compared to the closure group (4% (p = 0.005. There was no difference in duration of surgery, SSI, seroma formation or wound disruption between groups.Suture closure of the subcutaneous fat at CS does not affect long-term cosmetic outcome. (Level I evidence.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01542346.

  5. Short-term outcome of newborn infants: spinal versus general anesthesia for elective cesarean section. A prospective randomized study.

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    Kavak, Z N; Başgül, A; Ceyhan, N

    2001-12-10

    To compare general and spinal anesthesia with respect to the short-term outcome of newborns born by elective cesarean deliveries. Pregnant women admitted to our hospital from January 1999 to July 2000, for whom elective repeat cesareans were planned after 37 weeks gestation, were allocated randomly after their informed consent to spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia. Maternal age, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar's score, hospital stay duration, and duration of cesarean section time were all noted. The rate of the neonatal respiratory depression, perinatal asphyxia, and admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit of the infants were documented. We also studied arterial samples withdrawn from the cord for the pH, bicarbonate, PaO(2) (oxygen pressure, arterial), and PaCO(2) (carbon dioxide pressure, arterial). The serum levels of creatine kinase with myocardial-specific isoform, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total cortisol levels of the newborns were measured and served in ruling out perinatal stress and in confirming the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia (and of myocardial damage). Statistical analyses was performed with the use of an unpaired Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and a power calculation was done. From the randomly selected patients, we had 38 (45.2%) infants for general anesthesia and 46 (54.8%) for spinal anesthesia. None of our primary endpoints favored any of the study groups, and the clinical short-term outcome of the infants was similar in the neonates born both by spinal and general anesthesia (P>0.05). The biochemical assays did not rule out or confirm any differences in the occurrence of perinatal stress (P>0.05). Anesthesia type does not seem to influence the short-term outcome of the newborn infants for the elective cesarean deliveries. We believe that both spinal and general anesthesia could be performed in elective term cesarean deliveries without any risk to the newborn infants.

  6. Many randomized clinical trials may not be justified: a cross-sectional analysis of the ethics and science of randomized clinical trials.

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    De Meulemeester, Julie; Fedyk, Mark; Jurkovic, Lucas; Reaume, Michael; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Stotts, Grant; Shamy, Michel

    2018-01-03

    We have proposed that three scientific criteria are important for the ethical justification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs): (1) they should be designed around a clear hypothesis; (2) uncertainty should exist around that hypothesis; (3) that uncertainty should be as established through a systematic review. We hypothesized that the majority of a sample of recently published RCTs would not explicitly incorporate these criteria, therefore rendering them potentially unjustified on scientific grounds. Cross-sectional analysis of all RCTs published in the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2015. Each article and protocol was reviewed for: (1) a clearly stated central hypothesis; (2) references to "equipoise," or "consensus;" (3) some indication of evidentiary uncertainty; (4) a meta-analysis or systematic review surrounding the hypothesis or study question. We included 208 RCT articles and 199 protocols. Among combined articles and protocols, 76% had a clearly stated hypothesis, 99% referenced some form of uncertainty, and 54% cited a relevant systematic review or meta-analysis. Only 44% of combined texts contained all three scientific criteria. There were few references to "equipoise" (10%) or "consensus" (11%), and those references to equipoise were most often inconsistent with accepted definitions. The majority of RCTs (56%) did not meet the three scientific criteria described previously and therefore may be scientifically and therefore ethically unjustified. We recommend that "equipoise," "clinical equipoise," and "lack of consensus" be abandoned as scientific criteria for RCTs and be replaced by an expectation that RCTs have a clearly stated, meaningful hypothesis around which uncertainty has been established through a systematic review of the literature. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The comparison between suppository diclofenac and pethidine in post-cesarean section pain relief: a randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Ziba Zahiri Soroori

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcotic drugs are usually used for postoperative pain control which could cause several complications such as respiratory depression and apnea. Therefore, replacement of these drugs with safer analgesics is recommended. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of suppository diclofenac and pethidine in post-cesarean section (C/S patients. METHODS: In this clinical trial, pregnant women who were admitted to Alzahrah Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between August and February 2004 and met the inclusion criteria were recruited. After obtaining informed consent, the patients were randomly assigned (block randomization to two groups. In group A, 100 mg rectal suppository diclofenac was used after operation at four time points: at the end of operation and 8, 16 and 24 hours after the operation. Group B received pethidine 1 mg/kg intramuscularly at similar time points. The pain scores were assessed at 2, 10, 18 and 26 hours after C/S using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Age, gestational age, parity, history of previous abortion, C/S and abdominal surgery, level of education, pain score, side effects and satisfaction level were assessed. Analysis was carried out with ANCOVA model and χ2 Mantel Haenszel tests by SPSS.10 software. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Two hundred forty patients met inclusion criteria. Age, parity, history of previous abortion, history of previous C/S and abdominal surgery, level of education and satisfaction level were similar in the two groups (P>0.05. There was no significant difference between side effects in the two groups except for dizziness in 11 cases in group B. There were significant statistical difference between pain intensity in 10, 18 and 26 hours after C/S in group A and group B (2.05 ± 2.07, 1.4 ± 1.6 and 0.5 ± 1.1 vs. 2.6 ± 2.2, 2.3 ± 2.2 and 1.3 ± 1.9 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that the use of suppository diclofenac is an

  8. Mobile Augmented Reality as a Feature for Self-Oriented, Blended Learning in Medicine: Randomized Controlled Trial

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    2017-01-01

    Background Advantages of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) application-based learning versus textbook-based learning were already shown in a previous study. However, it was unclear whether the augmented reality (AR) component was responsible for the success of the self-developed app or whether this was attributable to the novelty of using mobile technology for learning. Objective The study’s aim was to test the hypothesis whether there is no difference in learning success between learners who employed the mobile AR component and those who learned without it to determine possible effects of mAR. Also, we were interested in potential emotional effects of using this technology. Methods Forty-four medical students (male: 25, female: 19, mean age: 22.25 years, standard deviation [SD]: 3.33 years) participated in this study. Baseline emotional status was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. Dermatological knowledge was ascertained using a single choice (SC) test (10 questions). The students were randomly assigned to learn 45 min with either a mobile learning method with mAR (group A) or without AR (group B). Afterwards, both groups were again asked to complete the previous questionnaires. AttrakDiff 2 questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceived usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities. For capturing longer term effects, after 14 days, all participants were again asked to complete the SC questionnaire. All evaluations were anonymous, and descriptive statistics were calculated. For hypothesis testing, an unpaired signed-rank test was applied. Results For the SC tests, there were only minor differences, with both groups gaining knowledge (average improvement group A: 3.59 [SD 1.48]; group B: 3.86 [SD 1.51]). Differences between both groups were statistically insignificant (exact Mann Whitney U, U=173.5; P=.10; r=.247). However, in the follow-up SC test after 14 days, group A had retained more knowledge (average decrease of the

  9. Mobile Augmented Reality as a Feature for Self-Oriented, Blended Learning in Medicine: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christoph; von Jan, Ute; Raap, Ulrike; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2017-09-14

    Advantages of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) application-based learning versus textbook-based learning were already shown in a previous study. However, it was unclear whether the augmented reality (AR) component was responsible for the success of the self-developed app or whether this was attributable to the novelty of using mobile technology for learning. The study's aim was to test the hypothesis whether there is no difference in learning success between learners who employed the mobile AR component and those who learned without it to determine possible effects of mAR. Also, we were interested in potential emotional effects of using this technology. Forty-four medical students (male: 25, female: 19, mean age: 22.25 years, standard deviation [SD]: 3.33 years) participated in this study. Baseline emotional status was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. Dermatological knowledge was ascertained using a single choice (SC) test (10 questions). The students were randomly assigned to learn 45 min with either a mobile learning method with mAR (group A) or without AR (group B). Afterwards, both groups were again asked to complete the previous questionnaires. AttrakDiff 2 questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceived usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities. For capturing longer term effects, after 14 days, all participants were again asked to complete the SC questionnaire. All evaluations were anonymous, and descriptive statistics were calculated. For hypothesis testing, an unpaired signed-rank test was applied. For the SC tests, there were only minor differences, with both groups gaining knowledge (average improvement group A: 3.59 [SD 1.48]; group B: 3.86 [SD 1.51]). Differences between both groups were statistically insignificant (exact Mann Whitney U, U=173.5; P=.10; r=.247). However, in the follow-up SC test after 14 days, group A had retained more knowledge (average decrease of the number of correct answers group A: 0

  10. Leg elevation decreases the incidence of post-spinal hypotension in cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Hasanin, Ahmed; Aiyad, Ahmed; Elsakka, Ahmed; Kamel, Atef; Fouad, Reham; Osman, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Ali; Refaat, Sherin; Hassabelnaby, Yasmin

    2017-04-24

    Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section (CS). In this study we investigated the role of leg elevation (LE) as a method for prevention of post-spinal hypotension (PSH) for cesarean section. One hundred and fifty full term parturients scheduled for CS were included in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group LE (leg elevation group, n = 75) and group C (Control group, n = 75). Spinal block was performed in sitting position after administration of 10 mL/Kg Ringer's lactate as fluid preload. After successful intrathecal injection of local anesthetic, Patients were positioned in the supine position. Leg elevation was performed for LE group directly after spinal anesthesia and maintained till skin incision. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters (Arterial blood pressure and heart rate), intra-operative ephedrine consumption, incidence of PSH, and incidence of nausea and vomiting were reported. LE group showed lower incidence of PSH (34.7% Vs 58.7%, P = 0.005) compared to the control group. Arterial blood pressure was higher in the LE group compared to the control group in the first two readings after spinal block. Other readings showed comparable arterial blood pressure and heart rate values between both study groups; however, LE showed less ephedrine consumption (4.9 ± 7.8 mg Vs 10 ± 11 mg, P = 0.001). LE performed immediately after spinal block reduced the incidence of PSH in parturients undergoing CS. The study was registered at Pan African Clinical Trials Registry system on 5/10/2015 with trial number PACTR201510001295348 .

  11. Effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine on shivering after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Nasseri K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Karim Nasseri,1,2 Negin Ghadami,1 Bijan Nouri2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; 2Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Background: Shivering is among the common troublesome complications of spinal anesthesia (SA, and causes discomfort and discontentment in parturients undergoing cesarean sections (CSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in the prevention of shivering in those who underwent CS under SA.Subjects and methods: Fifty parturients planned for elective CSs under SA were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded, controlled study and randomly divided into two equal groups. Spinal block was achieved with 12.5 mg 0.5% heavy bupivacaine plus 5 µg dexmedetomidine (BD group or 0.5 mL 0.9% normal saline (BN group. The incidence and intensity of shivering, peripheral and core body temperature, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events was recorded.Results: The incidence of shivering was significantly higher in the BN group (52% than the BD group (24% (P=0.04. Likewise, the intensity of shivering was significantly higher in the BN group than the BD group (P=0.04. The incidence of adverse events, such as hypotension, nausea/vomiting, and bradycardia, was not significantly different between the two groups, although the grade of sedation was higher in the BD group than the BN group (P=0.004.Conclusion: We conclude that intrathecal dexmedetomidine is effective in lowering the incidence and intensity of shivering in parturients undergoing CSs under SA without major adverse effects. Keywords: dexmedetomidine, shivering, spinal anesthesia, cesarean sections, bupivacaine

  12. Perioperative analgesia after intrathecal fentanyl and morphine or morphine alone for cesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

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    Weigl, Wojciech; Bieryło, Andrzej; Wielgus, Monika; Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Świetlana; Kołacz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Michał J

    2017-12-01

    Intrathecal morphine is used in the postoperative management of pain after caesarean section (CS), but might not be optimal for intraoperative analgesia. We hypothesized that intrathecal fentanyl could supplement intraoperative analgesia when added to a local anesthetic and morphine without affecting management of postoperative pain. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study included 60 parturients scheduled for elective CS. Spinal anesthesia consisted of bupivacaine with either morphine 100 μg (M group), or fentanyl 25 μg and morphine 100 μg (FM group). The frequency of intraoperative pain and pethidine consumption in the 24 hours postoperatively was recorded. Fewer patients in the FM group required additional intraoperative analgesia (P fentanyl and morphine may provide better perioperative analgesia than morphine alone in CS and could be useful when the time from anesthesia to skin incision is short. However, an increase in PONV and possible acute spinal opioid tolerance after addition of intrathecal fentanyl warrants further investigation using lower doses of fentanyl.

  13. Impairment-oriented training or Bobath therapy for severe arm paresis after stroke: a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, T; Eickhof, C; van Kaick, S; Engel, U; Pinkowski, C; Kalok, S; Pause, M

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of augmented exercise therapy time for arm rehabilitation as either Bobath therapy or the impairment-oriented training (Arm BASIS training) in stroke patients with arm severe paresis. Single blind, multicentre randomized control trial. Three inpatient neurorehabilitation centres. Sixty-two anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients. Random assignment to three group: (A) no augmented exercise therapy time, (B) augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy and (C) augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training. Fugl-Meyer arm motor score. Secondary measure: Action Research Arm Test (ARA). Ancillary measures: Fugl-Meyer arm sensation and joint motion/pain scores and the Ashworth Scale (elbow flexors). An overall effect of augmented exercise therapy time on Fugl-Meyer scores after four weeks was not corroborated (mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) of change scores: no augmented exercise therapy time (n=20) 8.8, 5.2-12.3; augmented exercise therapy time (n=40) 9.9, 6.8-13.9; p = 0.2657). The group who received the augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training (n=20) had, however, higher gains than the group receiving the augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy (n=20) (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath 7.2, 2.6-11.8; BASIS 12.6, 8.4-16.8; p = 0.0432). Passive joint motion/pain deteriorated less in the group who received BASIS training (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath -3.2, -5.2 to -1.1; BASIS 0.1, -1.8-2.0; p = 0.0090). ARA, Fugl-Meyer arm sensation, and Ashworth Scale scores were not differentially affected. The augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training enhanced selective motor control. Type of training was more relevant for recovery of motor control than therapeutic time spent.

  14. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  15. Noninvasive bipolar double-pulsed-field-gradient NMR reveals signatures for pore size and shape in polydisperse, randomly oriented, inhomogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Ozarslan, Evren; Adiri, Tal; Basser, Peter J; Cohen, Yoram

    2010-07-28

    Noninvasive characterization of pore size and shape in opaque porous media is a formidable challenge. NMR diffusion-diffraction patterns were found to be exceptionally useful for obtaining such morphological features, but only when pores are monodisperse and coherently placed. When locally anisotropic pores are randomly oriented, conventional diffusion NMR methods fail. Here, we present a simple, direct, and general approach to obtain both compartment size and shape even in such settings and even when pores are characterized by internal field gradients. Using controlled porous media, we show that the bipolar-double-pulsed-field-gradient (bp-d-PFG) methodology yields diffusion-diffraction patterns from which pore size can be directly obtained. Moreover, we show that pore shape, which cannot be obtained by conventional methods, can be directly inferred from the modulation of the signal in angular bp-d-PFG experiments. This new methodology significantly broadens the types of porous media that can be studied using noninvasive diffusion-diffraction NMR.

  16. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

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    Hélène Dumesnil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD and the factors associated with their decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%. We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar and disease intensity (mild/severe. GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8% or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%. They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27, patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98, GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81 and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82. The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52, patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18, and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89. These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GPs' choices for

  17. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesnil, Hélène; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Verdoux, Hélène; Sebbah, Rémy; Paraponaris, Alain; Verger, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs) manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD) and the factors associated with their decisions. In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%). We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar) and disease intensity (mild/severe). GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8%) or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%). They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27), patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98), GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81) and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82). The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52), patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18), and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89). These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. GPs' choices for treating severe MD complied with clinical guidelines better than those for

  18. Effect of education and health locus of control on safe use of pesticides: a cross sectional random study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Sherine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Egypt, many pesticides are used to control pests in agricultural farms. Our study aimed to investigate knowledge and behaviors of farmers related to pesticide use and their relation to educational level and health locus of control. Health locus of control is the degree to which individuals believe that their health is controlled by internal or external factors. Methods A cross-sectional randomized approach was used to collect data from 335 farmers in Mahmoudiya region, Egypt using an interview questionnaire. Results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student t-test and ANOVA. Results The average age of farmers was 34 years and 61% of them didn't receive school education. School education was related to higher levels of knowledge and behaviors. Farmers who received school education had more knowledge about the negative effects of pesticides on health and routes of contamination with pesticides. They also had higher scores on reading labels of pesticides containers and taking precautions after coming in contact with pesticides. Regarding health locus of control, higher internal beliefs were significantly related to higher knowledge and behaviors scores, while there was no significant relation between chance and powerful others beliefs with knowledge or behaviors. Conclusion In the present study, higher level of education and lower level of internal beliefs were related to better knowledge and safer use of pesticides among Egyptian farmers. We recommend that strategies for raising internal beliefs must be included in health education programs that aim to ameliorate pesticides use among farmers.

  19. Arm rehabilitation in post stroke subjects: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of myoelectrically driven FES applied in a task-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Johanna; Thorsen, Rune; Aprile, Irene; Galeri, Silvia; Spannocchi, Giovanna; Beghi, Ettore; Bianchi, Elisa; Montesano, Angelo; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Motor recovery of persons after stroke may be enhanced by a novel approach where residual muscle activity is facilitated by patient-controlled electrical muscle activation. Myoelectric activity from hemiparetic muscles is then used for continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (MeCFES) of same or synergic muscles to promote restoration of movements during task-oriented therapy (TOT). Use of MeCFES during TOT may help to obtain a larger functional and neurological recovery than otherwise possible. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eighty two acute and chronic stroke victims were recruited through the collaborating facilities and after signing an informed consent were randomized to receive either the experimental (MeCFES assisted TOT (M-TOT) or conventional rehabilitation care including TOT (C-TOT). Both groups received 45 minutes of rehabilitation over 25 sessions. Outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE) scores and Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Sixty eight subjects completed the protocol (Mean age 66.2, range 36.5-88.7, onset months 12.7, range 0.8-19.1) of which 45 were seen at follow up 5 weeks later. There were significant improvements in both groups on ARAT (median improvement: MeCFES TOT group 3.0; C-TOT group 2.0) and FMA-UE (median improvement: M-TOT 4.5; C-TOT 3.5). Considering subacute subjects (time since stroke < 6 months), there was a trend for a larger proportion of improved patients in the M-TOT group following rehabilitation (57.9%) than in the C-TOT group (33.2%) (difference in proportion improved 24.7%; 95% CI -4.0; 48.6), though the study did not meet the planned sample size. This is the first large multicentre RCT to compare MeCFES assisted TOT with conventional care TOT for the upper extremity. No adverse events or negative outcomes were encountered, thus we conclude that MeCFES can be a safe adjunct to rehabilitation that could promote recovery of

  20. Arm rehabilitation in post stroke subjects: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of myoelectrically driven FES applied in a task-oriented approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jonsdottir

    Full Text Available Motor recovery of persons after stroke may be enhanced by a novel approach where residual muscle activity is facilitated by patient-controlled electrical muscle activation. Myoelectric activity from hemiparetic muscles is then used for continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (MeCFES of same or synergic muscles to promote restoration of movements during task-oriented therapy (TOT. Use of MeCFES during TOT may help to obtain a larger functional and neurological recovery than otherwise possible.Multicenter randomized controlled trial.Eighty two acute and chronic stroke victims were recruited through the collaborating facilities and after signing an informed consent were randomized to receive either the experimental (MeCFES assisted TOT (M-TOT or conventional rehabilitation care including TOT (C-TOT. Both groups received 45 minutes of rehabilitation over 25 sessions. Outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE scores and Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire.Sixty eight subjects completed the protocol (Mean age 66.2, range 36.5-88.7, onset months 12.7, range 0.8-19.1 of which 45 were seen at follow up 5 weeks later. There were significant improvements in both groups on ARAT (median improvement: MeCFES TOT group 3.0; C-TOT group 2.0 and FMA-UE (median improvement: M-TOT 4.5; C-TOT 3.5. Considering subacute subjects (time since stroke < 6 months, there was a trend for a larger proportion of improved patients in the M-TOT group following rehabilitation (57.9% than in the C-TOT group (33.2% (difference in proportion improved 24.7%; 95% CI -4.0; 48.6, though the study did not meet the planned sample size.This is the first large multicentre RCT to compare MeCFES assisted TOT with conventional care TOT for the upper extremity. No adverse events or negative outcomes were encountered, thus we conclude that MeCFES can be a safe adjunct to rehabilitation that could promote recovery

  1. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: Longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-01

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft

  2. Effects of Recitation of Holy Quran on Anxiety of Women before Cesarean Section: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mir Bagher AjorPaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.

    Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members and experimental group (50 members. Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001, but not in the control group.(P=0.98 Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002.

    Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.

  3. Motives for physical exercise participation as a basis for the development of patient-oriented exercise interventions in osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Inga; Katzmarek, Uwe; Rieger, Monika A; Sudeck, Gorden

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercises are effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). There is consensus that exercise interventions should take into account the patient's preferences and needs in order to improve compliance to exercise regimes. One important personal factor is the patient's motivation for physical exercise. Health improvement is a relevant motive for exercise participation. Accordingly, exercise interventions primarily focus on health related needs such as strengthening and pain reduction. However exercising provides further many-faceted incentives that may foster exercise adherence. The present study aimed to characterize target groups for person-tailored exercise interventions in OA according to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability and Health (ICF). Target groups should be classified by similar individual exercise participation motive profiles and further described by their disease-related symptoms, limitations and psychological determinants of exercise behavior. Observational study via self-administered questionnaires. Community. We enrolled 292 adults with hip/knee OA living independently of assistance. Participants completed the Bernese Motive and Goal Inventory in Leisure and Health Sports (BMZI), the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for Osteoarthritis, the WOMAC-Index (pain/stiffness), the General Self-efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on perceived barriers to exercise participation. The BMZI-scales served as active variables for cluster analysis (Ward's method), other scales were used as passive variables to further describe the identified clusters. Four clusters were defined using five exercise participation motives: health, body/appearance, esthetics, nature, and contact. Based on the identified motive profiles the target groups are labelled health-focused sports people; sporty, nature-oriented individualists; functionalists primarily motivated by maintaining or improving health through exercise; and nature-oriented

  4. Remifentanil vs dexmedetomidine for severely preeclamptic parturients scheduled for cesarean section under general anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, Ahmed A.; Ali M. Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effect of remifentanil vs dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic response of noxious stimuli and neonatal outcome in preeclamptic parturient underwent C.S. under G.A. Methods: This blinded, prospective, randomized trial included 50 preeclamptic parturients underwent C.S under G.A., randomized into two equal groups [25 patients each]: group R [remifentanil]: received 1 μg/kg loading and 0.05 μg/kg/min infusion doses and group D [dexmedetomidine] received 1/kg loading and ...

  5. Skill-building through Task-Oriented Motor Practice (STOMP) intervention for activities of daily living: study protocol for a randomized, single blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, C A; Stoner, J; Prodan, C; Hershey, L

    2016-01-01

    Progressive disability in activities of daily living (ADL) is inevitable for people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Attempts to slow or prevent ADL disability have been unsuccessful despite making progress in behavioral training methods. Missing from this research is an emphasis on how we maximize a patient's engagement during training and the rigorous examination of implementation protocols (dosing and training methods) which may advantage learning in people with ADRD. Our team addressed this gap with the development of the STOMP (Skill-building through Task-Oriented Motor Practice) intervention which creates methods for obtaining ADL goals that support "personhood" and tests high-intensity protocols that appear to advantage learning and sustained learning over time. Through this study, we aim to evaluate differential outcomes by dose levels as well as assess the moderating effects of attention to task during training. Randomized-controlled trial with 32 participants with dementia assigned to either the original, intensive STOMP protocol (3 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) or a less-intensive STOMP protocol (1 hour/day, 2 days/week for 2 weeks) delivered by an occupational therapy assistant in the home. ADL training is delivered using motor learning theory techniques of blocked practice, continuous verbal praise, errorless learning and intense dosing schedules. Inclusion criteria: English speaking, adults 50-80 years old that live with a legally-authorized representative that can provide consent, who can follow a one-step command, have three ADL goals they want to address and can participate in an intense therapy protocol. Exclusions include diagnoses of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Dementia, delirium or receptive/global aphasia. Recruitment will occur through direct mailing, physician referral and media/support group presentations. Blinded occupational therapists will complete baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up assessments in the

  6. Evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashem Jack Meitei; Okram Rubina; Laithangbam PKS; Joyshankar Singh I.; Dilip Ingudum; Mithun Raj R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Following caesarean operation, a painless early ambulation is necessary to mother for caring of the neonate. Aim of the study is to compare more effective analgesic by intrathecal bupivacaine or combination with butorphanol or dexmedetomidine. Methods: Ninety parturients undergoing elective caesarean section were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=30). Group B: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 0.5 ml of normal saline (NS); group BB, bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 25 mcg b...

  7. Health-care disparities stemming from sexual orientation of Italian patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A cross-sectional web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorgna, Luigi; Moccia, Marcello; Russo, Antonio; Palladino, Raffaele; Riccio, Lucia; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bonavita, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) patients might experience unique difficulties and barriers to treatment of chronic diseases related to their sexual orientation. Thus, we investigated concerns experienced by LGBT patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a web-based survey using a multi-choice questionnaire published in an Italian social-network (www.smsocialnetwork.com) for MS patients. The survey investigated: socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, MS-related health status and LGBT specific issues (e.g. friendliness to their sexual orientation and eventual homophobic behaviors in the MS Center). Among MS patients willing to use psychological services, LGBT patients were associated with a smaller number of psychological consultations, compared to heterosexuals (Coeff.=-0.449; phomophobic behaviors (p=0.036; rho=0.234). LGBT MS patients more frequently changed MS Center and had a reduced use of psychological services, compared to heterosexuals. The attitude towards LGBT MS patients might affect resource utilizations and LGBTs health status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of propofol versus thiopental on Apgar scores in newborns and peri-operative outcomes of women undergoing emergency cesarean section: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumukunde, Janat; Lomangisi, Dlamini Diana; Davidson, Ocen; Kintu, Andrew; Joseph, Ejoku; Kwizera, Arthur

    2015-04-29

    General and regional anesthesia are the two main techniques used in cesarean section. Regional anesthesia is preferred, but under certain circumstances, such as by patient request and in patients with back deformities, general anesthesia is the only option. Commonly used induction agents include thiopental, ketamine, and propofol, depending on availability and the maternal clinical condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of thiopental and propofol on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal recovery time following emergency cesarean section in order to determine the superior agent for mothers and neonates. This single-blinded randomized clinical trial included 150 ASA I and II patients block-randomized equally between the two study arms. Pregnant women at term scheduled to undergo cesarean section and their neonates were enrolled. The primary outcomes were the Apgar scores through 10-min postpartum, resuscitation requirement, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The secondary outcome was the maternal recovery times. At 0 min (umbilical cord clamp time), 43 (57.3%) neonates in the propofol group had an Apgar score Apgar scores do not differ significantly whether thiopental or propofol is used for anesthetic induction in women undergoing general anesthesia for an emergency cesarean section. Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry (#PACTR201306000536344) http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=atm_portal_page_mytrials.

  9. Sexual orientation identity disparities in health behaviors, outcomes, and services use among men and women in the United States: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Jackson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research shows that sexual minorities (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals experience higher levels of discrimination, stigma, and stress and are at higher risk of some poor health outcomes and health behaviors compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, the majority of studies have examined sexual orientation disparities in a narrow range of health outcomes and behaviors using convenience samples comprised of either men or women living in restricted geographic areas. Methods To investigate the relationship between sexual orientation identity and health among U.S. women and men, we used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios for health behaviors, outcomes, and services use comparing sexual minorities to heterosexual individuals using 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 69,270. Results Three percent of the sample identified as sexual minorities. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbian (prevalence ratio (PR = 1.65 [95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 2.37] and bisexual (PR = 2.16 [1.46, 3.18] women were more likely to report heavy drinking. Lesbians had a higher prevalence of obesity (PR = 1.20 [1.02, 1.42], stroke (PR = 1.96 [1.14, 3.39], and functional limitation (PR = 1.17 [1.02, 1.34] than heterosexual women. Gay men were more likely to have hypertension (PR = 1.21 [1.03, 1.43] and heart disease (PR = 1.39 [1.02, 1.88]. Despite no difference in health insurance status, sexual minorities were more likely than heterosexual individuals to delay seeking healthcare because of cost; however, members of this group were also  more likely to have received an HIV test and initiated HPV vaccination. Conclusion Sexual minorities had a higher prevalence of some poor health behaviors and outcomes.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of a family-oriented self-management program to improve self-efficacy, glycemic control and quality of life among Thai individuals with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichit, Nutchanath; Mnatzaganian, George; Courtney, Mary; Schulz, Paula; Johnson, Maree

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a theoretically-derived family-oriented intervention aimed to improve self-efficacy, self-management, glycemic control and quality of life in individuals living with Type 2 diabetes in Thailand. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 140 volunteer individuals with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from a diabetes clinic in rural Thailand, were randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Those in the intervention arm received routine care plus a family-oriented program that included education classes, group discussions, a home visit, and a telephone follow-up while the control arm only received routine care. Improvement in outcomes over time (baseline, Week 3, and Week 13 following intervention) was evaluated using Generalized Estimating Equations multivariable analyses. Except for age, no between-group significant differences were observed in all other baseline characteristics. Diabetes self-efficacy, self-management, and quality of life improved in the intervention arm but no improvement was observed in the controls. In the risk-adjusted multivariable models, compared to the controls, the intervention arm had significantly better self-efficacy, self-management, outcome expectations, and diabetes knowledge (plife or glycemic control, however, in the risk-adjusted multivariable models, higher self-management scores were associated with significantly decreased HbA1c levels (plife (pfamily-oriented program improved patients' self-efficacy and self-management, which in turn could decrease HbA1c levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal and Neonatal Effects of Vasopressors Used for Treating Hypotension after Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Study

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    Alma Soxhuku-Isufi

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Ephedrine and phenylephrine have the same efficacy in treating hypotension after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section. The use of Phenylephrine was associated with better fetal acid-base status, and there were no differences on Apgar score values and on the incidence of maternal bradycardia and hypotension.

  12. Effects of the oriental herbal medicine Bofu-tsusho-san in obesity hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group controlled trial (ATH-D-14-01021.R2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Haku, Sona; Wakui, Hiromichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Ohki, Kohji; Dejima, Toru; Maeda, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Tatsuo; Oshikawa, Jin; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Koichiro; Azushima, Chieko; Takeshita, Yasuyo; Fujino, Ryota; Uchida, Ken; Shibuya, Ken; Ando, Daisaku; Tokita, Yasuo; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    There is no clinical evidence that supports the benefit of integrative medicine, defined as combination therapy of oriental and western medicine, on obesity-related hypertension. This study evaluates the efficacy of Bofu-tsusho-san (BOF), an oriental herbal medicine, on the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profile in hypertensive patients with obesity. The study design was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group controlled trial in 107 hypertensive patients with obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the conventional control therapy or BOF add-on therapy. In both groups antihypertensive therapy was aimed at achieving the target clinic BP. The primary outcome was change in the ambulatory BP profile from baseline to 24 weeks after randomization. Daytime systolic BP variability, an important parameter of ambulatory BP profile, was decreased in the BOF group, and the difference in the changes in daytime systolic BP variability was significant between the BOF and control group (Control vs BOF; the change from baseline in daytime systolic BP variability, 1.0±3.3 vs -1.0±3.3%; p=0.006). The BOF add-on therapy effectively improved the ambulatory BP variability. This is the first report suggesting that an integrative medicine approach may exert favorable effects on obesity-related hypertension compared with conventional pharmaceutical treatment. UMIN000003878. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Mint Extract on the Incidence and Severity of Nausea and Vomiting after Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sahhinfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common complications of cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Recently, the use of drugs has decreased and non-pharmaceutical and traditional alternative medicine are often preferred. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mint extract on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with placebo. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed 92 pregnant women who underwent cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. They were randomly divided into two groups of control and intervention. The intervention group received 25 drops of mint extract mixed in 30 cc of water and the control group only received 30 cc of water 1 h before the surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting during the surgery, as well as two and four h after the surgery was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical tests in SPSS. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of maternal age, fasting and surgery duration, as well as other confounding factors (P>0.05. According to independent t-test, there was a significant relationship between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity of nausea (26.1% and 52.2% for the intervention and control groups, respectively; P

  14. A prospective randomized study for evaluation of wound retractors in the prevention of incision site infections after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, T D; Chatzigeorgiou, K N; Zepiridis, L; Papanicolaou, A; Vavilis, D; Tzevelekis, F; Tarlatzis, B C

    2011-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after cesarean section appear to be more common than generally believed. We prospectively evaluated 231 consecutive pregnant women who underwent elective or emergency cesarean section, and were assigned to have either the Alexis wound retractor (study group) or a conventional Doyen retractor (control group) during the operation. There was no evidence of SSI, defined as wound dehiscence, pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen, localized swelling, redness, heat or purulent discharge from the wound in any woman in the study group. Moreover, no endometritis occurred in this patient collective. There were three SSI in the control group, but no endometritis. Our preliminary data show excellent protection of wound infections with an additive protective effect to that given by antibiotic cover. After a short learning curve, the handling of the Alexis device became easier and the median insertion time was 18 sec.

  15. GOAL ORIENTED ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A PREGNANT PATIENT WITH BRAIN TUMOR POSTED FOR EMERGENCY CAESARIAN SECTION AND V-P SHUNT

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanveer; Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women with brain tumors are uncommon; however pregnancy itself may aggravate the natural history of an intracranial tumor and may even unmask a previously unknown diagnosis. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and experience and hence this study aims to highlight the major issues and provide an overview to the case of the pregnant patients with brain tumor posted for emergency caesarean section including pre-anaesthetic ...

  16. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  17. Exploring the Cross-sectional Association between Transit-Oriented Development Zoning and Active Travel and Transit Usage in the United States, 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eThrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to traditional zoning codes that contribute to car-dependent, sprawling, and disconnected neighborhoods, communities are reforming their land use laws to create pedestrian-friendly areas that promote physical activity. One such reform is the adoption of transit-oriented developments or districts (TODs. TODs are higher-density, compact, mixed use areas located around transit stops that are designed to encourage walking.Purpose: To identify the characteristics of communities that have adopted TODs in their land use laws and examine if communities that have included TODs in their zoning codes are more likely to have adults that commute by any form of active transportation (i.e., walking, biking, or public transportation or by using public transportation specifically.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were obtained for a purposeful sample of the largest 3,914 municipal jurisdictions located in 473 of the most populous US counties and consolidated cities within 48 states and the District of Columbia. They were evaluated to determine whether they included TOD districts or regulations using a coding tool developed by the study team. Descriptive statistics together with t-tests and Pearson’s chi-squared independence test were used to compare characteristics of jurisdictions with and without TOD zoning. Multivariate linear regressions were used to compute the adjusted association between TOD zoning and taking public or active transportation to work.Results: Jurisdictions with TOD zoning were located more in the South and West than non-TOD jurisdictions and were more populous, higher income, more racially diverse, and younger. Jurisdictions with TOD zoning had significantly higher percentages of occupied housing with no vehicle than those without TOD zoning. TOD zoning was associated with significantly higher rates of public transportation to work (β=2.10, 95% CI=0.88, 3.32 and active transportation to work (β=2.48, 95

  18. [Perioperative warming with a thermal gown prevents maternal temperature loss during elective cesarean section. A randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, Ricardo Caio Gracco de; Siaulys, Monica Maria; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in body temperature is common during general and regional anesthesia. Forced-air warming intraoperative during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia seems not able to prevent it. The hypothesis considers that active warming before the intraoperative period avoids temperature loss during cesarean. Forty healthy pregnant patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia received active warming from a thermal gown in the preoperative care unit 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery (Go, n=20), or no active warming at any time (Ct, n=20). After induction of spinal anesthesia, the thermal gown was replaced over the chest and upper limbs and maintained throughout study. Room temperature, hemoglobin saturation, heart rate, arterial pressure, and tympanic body temperature were registered 30min before (baseline) spinal anesthesia, right after it (time zero) and every 15min thereafter. There was no difference for temperature at baseline, but they were significant throughout the study (pcontrol group had baseline temperature of 36.4±0.4°C, measured 36.3±0.3°C at time zero and reached 35.4±0.4°C (F=32.53; 95% CI 0.45-0.86; p<0.001). Hemodynamics did not differ throughout the study for both groups of patients. Active warming 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery prevented a fall in body temperature in full-term pregnant women during elective cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Perioperative warming with a thermal gown prevents maternal temperature loss during elective cesarean section. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernardis, Ricardo Caio Gracco; Siaulys, Monica Maria; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in body temperature is common during general and regional anesthesia. Forced-air warming intraoperative during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia seems not able to prevent it. The hypothesis considers that active warming before the intraoperative period avoids temperature loss during cesarean. Forty healthy pregnant patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia received active warming from a thermal gown in the preoperative care unit 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery (Go, n=20), or no active warming at any time (Ct, n=20). After induction of spinal anesthesia, the thermal gown was replaced over the chest and upper limbs and maintained throughout study. Room temperature, hemoglobin saturation, heart rate, arterial pressure, and tympanic body temperature were registered 30min before (baseline) spinal anesthesia, right after it (time zero) and every 15min thereafter. There was no difference for temperature at baseline, but they were significant throughout the study (pcontrol group had baseline temperature of 36.4±0.4°C, measured 36.3±0.3°C at time zero and reached 35.4±0.4°C (F=32.53; 95% CI 0.45-0.86; p<0.001). Hemodynamics did not differ throughout the study for both groups of patients. Active warming 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery prevented a fall in body temperature in full-term pregnant women during elective cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined use of hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine significantly improves hemodynamic characteristics in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZheFeng Quan

    Full Text Available To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study.Parturients (n = 136 undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B. Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis.Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7] and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P < 0.001, both. The incidence rates for hypotension, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in Group A (13%, 10%, and 3%, respectively than Group B (66%, 31%, and 13%; P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.028.Combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622.

  1. Pattern recognition in bees : orientation discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Srinivasan, M.V.; Wait, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera, worker) were trained to discriminate between two random gratings oriented perpendicularly to each other. This task was quickly learned with vertical, horizontal, and oblique gratings. After being trained on perpendicularly-oriented random gratings, bees could discriminate

  2. Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Grässel, David

    2002-01-01

    A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D...

  3. The Effect of Levocarnitine on Dynamics of the Brain Bioelectrical Activity Formation in Term Infants Delivered by Cesarean Section: Open Randomized Study Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Tumaevа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain activity of a newborn affects postnatal adaptation, the disorder of which can cause dysfunction of organs and systems of the immature organism and the development of diseases in more distant periods of maturation.Objective: Our aim was to study the effect of levocarnitine on dynamics of the brain bioelectrical activity formation in term infants delivered by cesarean section.Methods. The study included term infants (gestation period 38–40 weeks delivered by cesarean section, with perinatal hypoxic lesion of the central nervous system (cerebral ischemia. Children were randomized into groups of standard (recommended treatment and standard treatment enhanced with levocarnitine (plus levocarnitine — 30% oral solution at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day for 3 weeks starting from the 7th day of life. The brain bioelectrical activity was assessed with electroencephalography (EEG of the natural sleep period on the 3rd–6th day and then at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results. 45 children were randomized into groups of standard treatment and standard treatment plus levocarnitine, of which 44 and 40 children completed the study, respectively. Initially, the delayed formation of age-related brain activity was detected in 16/40 (40% children receiving levocarnitine and in 19/44 (43% in the experimental group (p = 0.767, disturbances in the EEG sleep pattern with generation of background anomalies — in 17 (43% and 16 (36% (p = 0.565, pathological graph elements — in 1 (3% and 2 (5% children (p = 0.536, respectively. According to the dynamic EEG control results, it was found that after 1 year the cerebral dysfunction was registered less frequently in children receiving levocarnitine — in 32 (80% vs. 42 (96% children in the group of standard treatment (p = 0.028.Conclusion. Adminisration of levocarnitine in the neonatal period reduces the risk of developing cerebral dysfunction by the end of the first year of life. 

  4. Efficacy of intravenous tramadol and low-dose ketamine in the prevention of post-spinal anesthesia shivering following cesarean section: a double-blinded, randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Girmay Fitiwi; Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Gebregzi, Amare Hailekiros; Desta, Yilkal Tadesse; Kassa, Adugna Aregawi

    2017-01-01

    Shivering is a frequent and undesirable complication of spinal anesthesia. It is a physiologic response to increase the body core temperature in an attempt to raise metabolic heat production. However, shivering may trigger myocardial ischemia; increase intraocular and intracranial pressures, increase wound pain, delay wound healing and interfere with pulse rate, blood pressure and electrocardiogram monitoring. We aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous (IV) ketamine with IV tramadol for the prevention of shivering in patients who underwent cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted. One hundred and twenty-three American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients, aged between 18 and 39 years, who underwent cesarean section were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group S (n=41; control group) received saline, group K (n=41) received ketamine 0.2 mg/kg and group T (n=41) received tramadol 0.5 mg/kg. Incidence and grade of shivering and side effects between the treatment groups were recorded. The incidence of shivering was significantly reduced in the ketamine and tramadol groups (41.5% and 53.7%, respectively) compared to the saline group (70.7%; p=0.028). Grade 3 shivering occurred in 16 (39%) patients in the saline group, compared to 9 (22%) in the tramadol group and 8 (19.5%) in the ketamine group (p=0.011). Only two cases in the saline group developed grade 4 shivering (p<0.01). Neonatal outcome and perioperative complications were comparable among the three groups. The prophylactic administration of low-dose IV ketamine or IV tramadol is effective for reducing the incidence and intensity of shivering. We recommend low-dose IV ketamine or tramadol prophylaxis for parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

  5. Manual removal versus spontaneous delivery of the placenta at cesarean section in developing countries: a randomized controlled trial and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; El-Mazny, Akmal; Salah, Emad; Ramadan, Wafaa; Hussein, Ahmed M; Hany, Ayman

    2017-08-30

    Cesarean section (CS) rates have increased; this is especially concerning in developing countries. The mode of placental delivery contributes to morbidity associated with CS and determines blood loss during CS. We aimed to compare manual removal versus spontaneous delivery of the placenta at CS. In a randomized controlled trial, 574 women admitted for primary or repeat elective CS were randomized into two groups. In group A, the placenta was manually removed, whereas in group B, the placenta was left for spontaneous delivery. Blood loss, operative and postoperative data were recorded. Blood loss was 875.2 ± 524.2 ml in group A versus 731.8 ± 426.7 ml in group B (p = .001), with a significant drop in postoperative HB (p = .015) and HCT (p = .031). In group A, odds ratios for blood loss (>1000 ml), HB drop (> 4g/dl), postpartum hemorrhage and blood transfusion were 2.581, 2.850, 2.614 and 1.665, respectively. However, the total operative time (p = .326), duration of hospital stay (p = .916) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = .453) were not statistically different between the two groups. Manual removal of the placenta at CS is associated with a higher risk of blood loss, postpartum hemorrhage and blood transfusion, with no decrease in operative time.

  6. Patient orientation and professional orientation of Dutch dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruers, J Josef M; Felling, Albert J A; Truin, Gert Jan; van't Hof, Martin A; van Rossum, Ger M J M

    2004-04-01

    By providing dental health care, dentists dedicate themselves to the preservation and/or improvement of oral health in their patients. By adequately carrying out this care providers' role, dentists will gain recognition, esteem and respect from both patients and colleagues. This analysis aims to assess the patient and professional orientation of dentists and investigate which of their personal and practice characteristics can be regarded determining for these two aspects of their role as care providers. In the year 2000, data was collected via a written questionnaire sent to a random, stratified sample of 790 dentists, of whom 607 (77%) responded. Multivariate regression analysis shows that the preventive treatment concept, professional satisfaction and the number of hours per week that household tasks are performed are positive determinants for dentists' patient orientation. Also, the longer dentists are active in their profession, the more patient oriented they will be, and with more hours per week support from oral hygienists they are less patient oriented. As for professional orientation, dentists' preventive treatment concept and their professional satisfaction can also be considered positive determinants. Furthermore, dentists are more profession oriented when their partner works in the practice, with more hours per week support from oral hygienist(s) and with more collaboration contacts with other care providers. Compared to men, women are on average less profession oriented. Among Dutch dentists, there exist clear differences in the way they take on their role as care providers with regard to patient orientation and professional orientation.

  7. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  8. Comparison of Prophylactic Infusion of Phenylephrine with Ephedrine for Prevention of Hypotension in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesi: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Moslemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal anesthesia is an accepted technique in elective cesarean sections. However, hypotension, resulted from sympathectomy is a common problem, especially in pregnant women. Prevention of this complication by sympathomimetic agents is of potential clinical significance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of prophylactic infusion of Phenylephrine versus Ephedrine in the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section. Methods: Eighty-three patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into three groups. Group Ph received phenylephrine infusion, group E received ephedrine infusion while group P were delivered placebo. Vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation were recorded throughout the surgery. Maternal and neonatal perioperative complications were also controlled and recorded. Results: There was an insignificant difference in demographic data between the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the phenylephrine group than control, but not higher than the ephedrine group. Maternal dysrhythmias were more common in ephedrine and phenylephrine groups than the control group. Vomiting was more common in ephedrine group (P<0.05. In addition, the fifth-minute Apgar score of neonates was higher in phenylephrine and ephedrine groups than the control group (P<0.05. Neonates of phenylephrine group had less acidosis than the other groups. Conclusion: Prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine can effectively decrease spinal anesthesia related hypotension without any significant complication for mother or her fetus. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012120911700N1

  9. Awareness and apgar score in elective Cesarean section under general anesthesia with propofol or Isoflurane: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Somayeh; Naghibi, Khosrou; Azarnoush, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Awareness is a postoperative recall of events experienced under general anesthesia. In this study, we compared the incidence of awareness between two routine methods used, inhalation (Isoflurane) and intravenous protocol (Propofol), in elective Cesarean section, and also evaluated the effect of these two different methods on the apgar score of newborns. In this prospective, clinical trial study, 90 pregnant women candidates for elective Cesarean section were randomly enrolled, after taking written consent. Induction of anesthesia in both groups was provided by propofol and succinylcholine in the same manner, and maintenance of anesthesia in Group 1 was provided by propofol 100 μg/kg/minute and in Group 2 with isoflurane 1 MAC, to maintain the bispectral index (BIS) between 45 and 60. Blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography (ECG), and also Etco2 and o2sat were recorded throughout the surgery and finally analyzed and compared. From 90 patients, four cases of confirmed awareness were found in the propofol group and three cases in the Isoflurane group (8/9% vs. 6/7%), but the apgar scores were comparable between the two groups. Meanwhile there were no significant differences between the two groups in basic information, neonatal apgar scores, hemodynamic changes, and BIS, Electromyography (EMG), and signal quality index (SQI) values. According to the patient's state, diagnosis of the anesthesiologist, and other criteria like price and its availability, we could use these drugs in general anesthesia during Cesarean section, although it is recommended that more studies be done to compare the effect of these two drugs in larger groups.

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation.

  11. Singularities in primate orientation maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, K; Blasdel, G G

    1997-04-01

    We report the results of an analysis of orientation maps in primate striate cortex with focus on singularities and their distribution. Data were obtained from squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys of different ages. We find the approximately 80% of singularities that are nearest neighbors have the opposite sign and that the spatial distribution of singularities differs significantly from a random distribution of points. We do not find evidence for consistent geometric patterns that singularities may form across the cortex. Except for a different overall alignment of orientation bands and different periods of repetition, maps obtained from different animals and different ages are found similar with respect to the measures used. Orientation maps are then compared with two different pattern models that are currently discussed in the literature: bandpass-filtered white noise, which accounts very well for the overall map structure, and the field analogy model, which specifies the orientation map by the location of singularities and their properties. The bandpass-filtered noise approach to orientation patterns correctly predicts the sign correlations between singularities and accounts for the deviations in the spatial distribution of singularities away from a random dot pattern. The field analogy model can account for the structure of certain local patches of the orientation map but not for the whole map. Neither of the models is completely satisfactory, and the structure of the orientation map remains to be fully explained.

  12. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  14. Soft and Hard Tissue Changes around Tissue-Oriented Tulip-Design Implant Abutments: A 1-Year Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmacher, Zvi; Levi, Guy; Blumenfeld, Israel; Machtei, Eli E

    2015-10-01

    The advantages of platform switching using narrower abutments remain controversial. Many researchers suggest that platform switching can yield enhanced clinical results, while others remain skeptical. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of platform switching might be associated with the degree of reduction in size of the abutment. To radiographically and clinically examine a new abutment design created to move the implant-abutment interface farther medially. This was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial that included 27 patients (41 MIS Lance Plus® implants; MIS Implant Technologies, Karmiel, Israel). The patients' age ranged from 39 to 75 years. At the second stage of the surgery, the implants were randomly assigned to either the new platform switch Tulip abutment (TA) design or to the standard platform abutment (SA). Implant probing depth (IPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 12 months. Standardized periapical radiographs were taken (at baseline and at 12 months) and the marginal bone height measured. All implants were successfully integrated. The mean IPD at 1 year post-op was 2.91 mm for the SA group and 2.69 mm for the TA group (p > .05). Similarly, the BOP at 1 year was almost identical in both groups. The mean values of bone resorption at baseline were 0.98 ± 0.37 mm and 0.69 ± 0.20 for the TA and SA groups, respectively (p > .05). Bone loss (baseline to 12 months) was significantly greater in the SA group compared with the TA group. Use of the new TA, with its significantly downsized diameter, resulted in reduced bone loss at 1 year. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effect of this abutment on peri-implant health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Suitability of random forest analysis for epidemiological research: Exploring sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of overweight in a cross-sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kontto, Jukka; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Männistö, Satu

    2017-10-01

    Factors that contribute to the development of overweight are numerous and form a complex structure with many unknown interactions and associations. We aimed to explore this structure (i.e. the mutual importance or hierarchy of sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of being overweight) using a machine-learning technique called random forest (RF). The results were compared with traditional logistic regression (LR) analysis. The cross-sectional FINRISK 2007 Study included 4757 Finns (aged 25-74 years). Information on participants' lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics were collected with questionnaires. Diet was assessed, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 were classified as overweight. R-statistical software was used to run RF analysis ('randomForest') to derive estimates for variable importance and out-of-bag error, which were compared to a LR model. In total, 704 (32%) men and 1119 (44%) women had normal BMI, whereas 1502 (69%) men and 1432 (57%) women had BMI ≥25. Estimated error rates for the models were similar (RF vs. LR: 42% vs. 40% for men, 38% vs. 35% for women). Both models ranked age, education and physical activity as the most important risk factors for being overweight, but RF ranked macronutrients (carbohydrates and protein) as more important compared to LR. RF did not demonstrate higher power in variable selection compared to LR in our study. The features of RF are more likely to appear beneficial in settings with a larger number of predictors.

  16. Safety and effectiveness of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure during general anesthesia for cesarean section: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretha, D; Fligou, F; Kiekkas, P; Messini, C; Panteli, E; Zintzaras, E; Karanikolas, M

    2017-05-01

    During cesarean section, the supine position reduces functional residual capacity and worsens lung compliance. We tested the hypothesis that alveolar recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure improve lung compliance in women undergoing general anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety women undergoing cesarean section were randomly assigned to one of two groups in a prospective, double-blind trial. In the alveolar recruitment maneuver group, pressure-control ventilation was used and inspiratory time was increased to 50% after delivery; positive end-expiratory pressure was increased to 20cmH 2 O and peak airway inspiratory pressure gradually increased to 45-50cmH 2 O. Volume-control ventilation was then used with low tidal volumes (6mL/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure was reduced stepwise to 8cmH 2 O. In the control group, alveolar recruitment maneuvers were not used. Data were collected before and 3, 10 and 20min after the alveolar recruitment maneuver, before extubation and postoperatively at 10 and 20min. Dynamic compliance, peak airway inspiratory pressure, PaO 2 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 were significantly different in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls at all time points during surgery except at baseline. Oxygen saturation was significantly greater in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group at 10 and 20min and before extubation. Dynamic compliance was 29.7-42.5% higher and peak airway inspiratory pressure 3.6-10.2% lower in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls. The PaO 2 , PaO 2 /FiO 2 and oxygen saturation were higher (9.4-12%, 10.3-11.9% and 0.4-1.3%, respectively) in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group. Postoperatively, PaO 2 and oxygen saturation were significantly higher in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls (PaO 2 9.2% at 10min and 8.4% at 20min, oxygen saturation 0.8% at 10min and 1.1% at 20min). There were no significant differences in hemodynamic stability or

  17. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (% was assessed during 90 sec trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial-subtractions conditions. RESULTS: During DT, gait speed decreased (p<0.003 and stride time variability increased (p<0.004 in all groups. Cross-sectional comparisons indicated that stride time variability was lower in the TC-expert vs. TC-naïve group, significantly so during DT (2.11% vs. 2.55%; p=0.027; in contrast, gait speed during both undisturbed and DT conditions did not differ between groups. Longitudinal analyses of TC-naïve adults randomized to 6 months of TC training or usual care identified improvement in DT gait speed in both groups. A small improvement in DT stride time variability (effect size = 0.2 was estimated with TC training, but no significant differences between groups were observed. Potentially important improvements after TC training could not be excluded in this small study. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy active older adults, positive effects of short- and long-term TC were observed only under cognitively challenging DT conditions and only for stride time variability. DT stride variability offers a potentially sensitive metric for monitoring TC’s impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  18. [Prophylaxis for hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized trial comparing hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 to ephedrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseyran Samper, F; Errando, C L; Plaza Lloret, M; Díaz Cambronero, O; García Gregorio, N; de Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2011-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice for scheduled or emergency cesarean section, but the prevalence of hypotension is high in this setting. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of a colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch [HES] 130/0.4) to ephedrine for preventing hypotension. Patients undergoing elective or emergency cesarean section (in non-life-threatening situations) were enrolled. Patients were randomized to 3 groups for prophylaxis. The first ephedrine group received 5 mg of ephedrine intravenously (EPHE-5); the second ephedrine group received 10 mg of the drug intravenously (EPHE-10); and the HES group received 500 mL of HES 130/0.4 in rapid infusion n 15 minutes. We recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate after 10 minutes in the operating room and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after injection of the anesthetic. We also assessed the sensory and motor blockades on both sides 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after injection. Neonatal status was assessed by Apgar score and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Ninety-six patients, 33 in each ephedrine group and 30 in the HES group, were enrolled. Blood pressure decreased similarly in all 3 groups (36% EPHE-5 group, 36% EPHE-10 group and 40% HES group); no significant between-group differences were observed. Nor were there significant differences in the percentages of patients requiring bolus doses of ephedrine to treat hypotension (23% in the HES group vs 33% in the EPHE-5 group and 27% in the EPHE-10 group) or in the cumulative doses of ephedrine. Neonatal status was also similarly satisfactory in all 3 groups. HES 130/0.4 is as useful for hypotension prophylaxis as 5-mg or 10-mg intravenous doses of ephedrine. HES 130/0.4 might be a substitute for sympathomimetic agents if adverse effects are predicted or contraindications to the use of such drugs are present.

  19. Cancer detection and cancer characteristics in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC)--Section Rotterdam. A comparison of two rounds of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Renske; Schröder, Fritz H; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Hoedemaeker, Robert F; Vis, Andre N; Roobol, Monique J; van der Kwast, Theodorus H

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the features, rates, and characteristics of prostate cancer detected during two subsequent screening rounds. Data were retrieved from the database of European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), section Rotterdam. Men, ages 55-74 yr were screened with a 4-yr interval. Different biopsy indications were used in the first and second screens in the PSA range sextant biopsies were recorded for Gleason score and tumour extent, and 550 radical prostatectomy specimens were evaluated for Gleason score, pathologic T category, and tumour volume. Clinical stage, Gleason score, involvement of biopsy by tumour, and PSA levels were more favourable in patients of the second round compared with those of the first round. The number of men chosen for watchful waiting increased from 98 (10%) to 123 (22%) in the second round (pfirst and second screening round was 0.65 and 0.45 ml (p=0.001). Minimal cancer (cancer first and 60 (42.6%) in the second screening round (p=0.03). The 5-yr PSA progression-free survival after radical prostatectomy was 87%. Despite the 4-yr interval an important shift of all prognostic factors occurred in favour of round 2. In those men who underwent radical prostatectomy, 42.6% fulfilled the criteria of minimal cancer. These data suggest that overdiagnosis increases with repeat screening.

  20. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Tai Chi Training may Reduce Dual Task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk, in Healthy Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Peter M; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Lough, Matthew; Gow, Brian J; Lipsitz, Lewis; Novak, Vera; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Manor, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC's impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown. To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5 ± 12 years experience) older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (Coefficient of Variation %) were assessed during 90 s trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial subtractions) conditions. During DT, gait speed decreased (p sensitive metric for monitoring TC's impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  2. Immediate breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact during cesarean section decreases maternal oxidative stress, a prospective randomized case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Beril; Ital, Ilker; Balaban, Onur; Kocak, Emel; Seven, Ali; Kucur, Suna Kabil; Erbakirci, Mehmet; Keskin, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Immediate skin-to-skin contact (ISSC) and early breastfeeding are recommended for the wellbeing of the neonate. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of ISSC and early breastfeeding on maternal oxidative stress and postoperative pain. A total of 90 patients were randomized into two groups based on the timing of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding. Group 1 (n = 45) was provided ISSC and breastfeeding in the operating room during the cesarean section (C/S). Group 2 (n = 45) breastfed their babies 1 h after the C/S. As markers of oxidative stress, maternal serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress indices (OSI) were evaluated. Maternal oxytocin levels and the relation between these parameters and postoperative pain were also evaluated. The postoperative TAS levels were significantly higher, whereas TOS and OSI levels were lower in Group 1 than Group 2. Negative correlations between oxytocin level and postoperative TOS and OSI were observed, as was a positive correlation between oxytocin level and postoperative TAS. The effect of ISSC and early breastfeeding on mothers was documented for the first time in this study. Our results demonstrated ISSC and early breastfeeding during C/S reduce maternal oxidative stress.

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  4. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  8. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  10. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  16. Number of Screening Rounds and Postscreening Prostate Cancer Incidence: Results from the Finnish Section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarainen, Tomi; Raitanen, Jani; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Tammela, Teuvo L; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-09-01

    The multicenter European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer (PC) mortality by prostate-specific antigen-based screening, with substantial overdiagnosis. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence of PC after screening in relation to the number of screening rounds attended in the Finnish section of the trial. To evaluate the possible reduction in PC incidence following completed screening cycles in relation to the number of screening rounds attended. The participants in the screening arm of the Finnish screening trial (29 298 men) were divided into subgroups of men who had participated at one, two, or three screening rounds. A reference group was formed of the 43 151 men in the control arm by selecting age-matched controls for each subgroup of the screening participants. PC cases diagnosed after screening were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry until the end of 2011. Follow-up of the screened men started 12 mo (365 d) after the last screening attendance and a similar date was assigned to the men in the control arm. A total of 1514 new PCs cases (cumulative incidence 5.2%) were diagnosed among the screened men after the last screening attendance. In the reference group formed from the control arm, 2683 cases (6.2%) occurred. The hazard ratio (HR) for PC among nonparticipants in the screening arm was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.99) compared with their controls. Among participants, the HR in those who participated once was 1.39 (95% CI 1.22-1.57), among men who participated twice the HR was 0.97 (95% CI 0.86-1.10), and among men screened three times the HR was 0.57 (95% CI 0.49-0.68). A limitation of the study was that the comparison by attendance is not based on randomization. The postscreening PC incidence is reduced after attending three screening rounds, but not after only one or two rounds. Thus, the increased cancer detection at screening is compensated by a subsequent risk

  17. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

  18. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  19. Orientation games in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Pišek, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the area of general orientation and orientation of the child. The focus is placed on orientation games for preschool children. The first part outlines different definitions of orientation, types of orientation, accessories for orientation and major errors in orientation. It also presents the development of spatial orientation of preschool children, the development of the concept of space according to the level of cognitive development in line with the theory by Piaget,...

  20. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  7. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  17. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  18. Comparative evaluation of two doses of tranexamic acid used prophylactically in anemic parturients for lower segment cesarean section: A double-blind randomized case control prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH and anemia thereafter can be a life threatening condition in parturients undergoing lower segment cesarean section (LSCS, especially when anemia is present. Aim: The objective of this study was to assess two doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing intra operative blood loss and incidence of PPH, in terms of both efficacy and safety profiles, when used prophylactically. Methods: A monocenter prospective case control double blind randomized study was carried out on a consecutive series of 90 anemic patients undergoing LSCS, with hemoglobin between 7-10 g percent. Three random groups were formed. Group T1 (n=30 received 10mg/kg TXA in 20 ml of 5% dextrose intravenously, while T2 group (n=30 received 15mg/kg. Group C (n=30 received a placebo. Drug was administered prophylactically 20 min before skin incision. Blood loss was measured from placental delivery up to 24 hours by method of weight and volume. Staistical Analysis: To compare quantitative data between two groups, t-test, and for more than two groups ANOVA was used. To compare the mean for non- parametric data between two groups Mann - Whitney test was used, while in case of more than two groups Kruskal - Wallis test was employed. Probability (p value was considered significant when it was 0.05 or less. Results: TXA significantly reduced blood loss in both the study groups. Mean total blood loss was 527.17±88.666 ml, 376.83±31.961ml and 261.17±56.777 ml in group C, T1, and T2 respectively. While reduction of blood loss in T1 group compared to control group was 146.34±56.32ml, it was 262±31.51ml in T2 group. Difference between T1 and T2 was 115.66±24.81ml, which was statistically significant (P<0.05. Postoperative blood loss was insignificant in all three groups. Pre- and post-operative hemoglobin levels differed significantly when compared to control group. Blood transfusion was needed in two patients in the control group, whereas no patient in

  19. Photoinduced orientation in natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nara C.; Cavalheri, Adriana S.; Brito, Jackeline B.; Job, Aldo E.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Giacometti, José A.; Silva, Josmary R.

    2012-04-01

    Azobenzene molecules and their derivatives have been widely investigated for their potential applications in optical and electrooptical devices. We have prepared a new guest-host system from natural rubber (NR) impregnated with azobenzene derivative Sudan Red B (SRB). The effects of stretching and immersion time on photoinduced orientation were investigated by birefringence signal measurements. We have found that the molecular orientation increase when the samples are stretched and decrease with the increase of immersion time. The first behavior was explained by using the random coil model and the latter was attributed to increase of the aggregation of SRB into NR matrix.

  20. Transport theory of deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions based on a random-matrix model. III. Calculation of cross sections. Comparison with the reaction Ar+Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agassi, D.; Ko, C.M.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1979-02-01

    The transport equation deduced previously is cast into a form which allows for numerical computation of cross sections. The approximations, especially the moments approach, are exhibited, as are the essential points of the numerical procedure. The validity of the Einstein relation is discussed. Doubly differential cross sections for various fragments produced in the reaction /sup 40/Ar+/sup 232/Th are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  1. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Martinez; Nadine Attal; Bertrand Vanzo; Eric Vicaut; Jean Michel Gautier; Didier Bouhassira; Michel Lantéri-Minet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain...

  2. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage

    OpenAIRE

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J.; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Garrett, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Methods Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-na?ve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected...

  3. COMPARISON OF EIGENMODE-BASED AND RANDOM FIELD-BASED IMPERFECTION MODELING FOR THE STOCHASTIC BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF I-SECTION BEAM–COLUMNS

    KAUST Repository

    STAVREV, A.

    2013-03-01

    The uncertainty of geometric imperfections in a series of nominally equal I-beams leads to a variability of corresponding buckling loads. Its analysis requires a stochastic imperfection model, which can be derived either by the simple variation of the critical eigenmode with a scalar random variable, or with the help of the more advanced theory of random fields. The present paper first provides a concise review of the two different modeling approaches, covering theoretical background, assumptions and calibration, and illustrates their integration into commercial finite element software to conduct stochastic buckling analyses with the Monte-Carlo method. The stochastic buckling behavior of an example beam is then simulated with both stochastic models, calibrated from corresponding imperfection measurements. The simulation results show that for different load cases, the response statistics of the buckling load obtained with the eigenmode-based and the random field-based models agree very well. A comparison of our simulation results with corresponding Eurocode 3 limit loads indicates that the design standard is very conservative for compression dominated load cases. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. Fractional CO2 laser treatment of caesarean section scars-A randomized controlled split-scar trial with long term follow-up assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine E; Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Wulff, Camilla B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caesarean section (c-section) scars can be pose functional and cosmetic challenges and ablative fractional laser (AFXL) treatment may offer benefit to patients. We evaluated textural and color changes over time in AFXL-treated versus untreated control scars. MATERIALS......-treated scars. At 6 months follow-up, a majority of patients (64%) favored subsequent AFXL-treatment of their untreated control scar tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Scar remodeling is initiated 1 month after AFXL treatment, but overall scar improvement is concealed until laser-induced color changes resolve. At 6 months...

  5. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  6. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derseree Archary

    Full Text Available Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, but no study has yet formally compared these two methods.Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines.The majority (94% of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029. Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001. In MCs, 42/48 (88% cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54% in CVL (p<0.001. Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7% were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005 and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001 correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL.MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  7. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J.; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Garrett, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Methods Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. Results The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. Conclusions MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples. PMID:26147923

  8. Market orientation in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuian, S N; Abdul-Gader, A

    1997-01-01

    Using the more recent methodological developments in the assessment of the unidemensionality, reliability, and validity, the authors developed and examined a scale of market orientation for the hospital industry. The scale is based on a clear definition of the content of the construct of market orientation in the hospital industry. To this end, a national random sample of 237 hospital administrators was used. In addition to the support for the reliability and validity, the scale promises parsimony, pragmatism, and wide-ranging applicability.

  9. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  10. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  11. Localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Zhenzhu; Han Yanling [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: wanghong745@sohu.com, E-mail: w_pearl2008@163.com [Center of Information and Laboratory, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Using a 4x4 transfer matrix method, localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium have been investigated. We confirm that localized modes origin from the randomness of spatial orientation of optical axes. The misalignment of the optical axe provides the opportunity for a rearrangement of the localized modes. The number of localize mode also closely relative to the spatial orientation of optical axis. Numerical results indicate that it is possible to adjust the localized modes through altering the relative orientation of the optical axes of scatterers. This study is an importance for well understanding of localization of light wave and lasing action in anisotropic random media.

  12. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  13. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. Methods We used “e” case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight “e” case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive “e” case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. Results From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. Conclusions The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies. PMID:24747826

  14. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic, etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain. We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. RESULTS: From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%, 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4% and 319 (25.2% of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3% were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6% were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5% used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%. However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2% than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%, cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8% and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%. When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%. The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%, gabapentine (43.9%, amiptriptylline (23.2% and duloxetine (18.2%. However, ibuprofen (11%, acetaminophen-codeine (29.5% and clonazepam (10% were still prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  15. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  16. Self-declared stock ownership and association with positive trial outcome in randomized controlled trials with binary outcomes published in general medical journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Describe the prevalence and types of conflicts of interest (COI) in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in general medical journals with a binary primary outcome and assess the association between conflicts of interest and favorable outcome. Parallel-group RCTs with a binary primary outcome published in three general medical journals during 2013-2015 were identified. COI type, funding source, and outcome were extracted. Binomial logistic regression model was performed to assess association between COI and funding source with outcome. A total of 509 consecutive parallel-group RCTs were included in the study. COI was reported in 74% in mixed funded RCTs and in 99% in for-profit funded RCTs. Stock ownership was reported in none of the non-profit RCTs, in 7% of mixed funded RCTs, and in 50% of for-profit funded RCTs. Mixed-funded RCTs had employees from the funding company in 11% and for-profit RCTs in 76%. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that stock ownership in the funding company among any of the authors was associated with a favorable outcome (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.59-7.86; p company among authors is associated with a favorable outcome.

  17. A prospective, randomized comparison of the effects of thiopental and propofol on bispectral index during caesarean section till delivery of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Arzu; El-Kerdawy, Hala; Khalil, Mohamed; Al-Subaie, Hannan; Bakhamees, Hassan Salem

    2012-06-01

    Since in caesarean operations skin incision to delivery time is very short, induction agent could be still effective on BIS level till the time of delivery. Therefore this study was designed to analyze the effect on maintaining adequate bispectral index levels till delivery of neonate of propofol and thiopental as an induction agent for caesarean section. Eighty two patients undergoing caesarean section were allocated into two groups. In the group T anesthesia induction was performed with thiopental (5 mg/kg) and in the group P with propofol (2.5 mg/kg). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane. Heart rates, blood pressures and BIS values during significant events of surgery and anesthesia till delivery, durations of surgery, induction to skin incision and to delivery and Apgar scores were recorded. For statistical analysis T-test was used for comparison of means of independent samples. The groups were comparable with respect to age, weight and gestational age. The patients in the group P had significantly lower levels of bispectral index values during uterus incision; 40.6 vs. 59.5 (p = 0.019) and delivery; 41 vs. 62.9 (p = 0.018). Anesthesia induction with propofol in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg maintains lower levels of heart rate, blood pressure and BIS till delivery when compared with thiopental in a dose of 5 mg/kg. There is no financial support taken from any kind of company or person. There are no financial relationships between authors and commercial interests with a vested interest in the outcome of study.

  18. Use of wireless phones and serum β-trace protein in randomly recruited persons aged 18-65 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hardell, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    There are studies suggesting effects on sleep from pulse-modulated radiofrequency fields used in mobile and cordless phones. So far, reports of adverse effects in observational studies are of limited value for risk assessment while effects from experimental studies seem to be more consistent but unclear as to their importance for health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of wireless phones is associated with lower concentrations of β-trace protein (lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase), a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-promoting neurohormone. Three hundred and fourteen people, aged 18-65 years and living in the municipality of Örebro, Sweden, were recruited randomly using the population registry. Total and age-specific linear regression analyses adjusted for known covariates were used to calculate associations between levels of β-trace protein and short- and long-term use of wireless phones. Overall, no statistically significant association between use of wireless phones and the serum concentration of β-trace protein was found, neither with respect to short-term nor long-term use. Age-specific analyses, however, yielded negative associations for long-term use (cumulative hours of use) and β-trace protein in the youngest age group (18-30 years). This study provided no overall evidence of an association between wireless phone use and serum concentrations of β-trace protein. While the findings in the 18-30 year age group indicating lower concentrations with more cumulative hours of use should be further investigated, no causal inferences can be made from the results of the present study.

  19. Non-random temporary emigration and the robust design: Conditions for bias at the end of a time series: Section VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.

  20. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal...... influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  1. Summary Time Oriented Record (STOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Q.E. Whiting; Simborg, Donald W.

    1980-01-01

    STOR is a computerized three component, time-oriented, summary, medical record designed to partially replace the traditional paper chart in the outpatient clinics at the University of California San Francisco. Information from at least four distributed databases functioning independently is brought together in a single paper document. Informationally, STOR is prioritized, displays inter-problem and chronological relationships, provides a high degree of physician control over the display and provides a great deal of information with little manual physician effort. Besides the usual issues of cost, impact, and acceptance, the evaluation will address the question of the informational competence of STOR in two single blind randomized controlled trials.

  2. The effect of low dose fentanyl as a premedication before induction of general anesthesia on the neonatal apgar score in cesarean section delivery: randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Seyyed Hasan; Derakhshan, Pooya

    2016-01-01

    The administration of opioids before induction of general anesthesia can be considered as a problem in cesarean section. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intravenous Fentanyl as a premedication before induction of general anesthesia versus placebo on maternal hemodynamic parameters and on the first and fifth minutes Apgar score in the neonates in elective cesarean delivery. This double- blinded, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted in 2014-2015 at Vali-e-Asr hospital, Birjand, Iran. Ninety full term pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section delivery under general anesthesia were selected. The participants were randomly classified into two groups: The Fentanyl group and the placebo. Iintravenous Fentanyl 1μg/kg was administrated three minutes before anesthesia induction for the Fentanyl group, and 2 milliliter normal saline was administered for the placebo group. Maternal mean arterial pressure, heart rate before the start of anesthesia induction and thirty seconds after intubation were measured. Also, the first and fifth minutes Apgar scores of the neonates were evaluated and recorded by a blinded anesthesiologist. The clinical trial registration number was IRCT2015010320112N3. Maternal mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the Fentanyl group than the placebo group after intubation. Heart rate was significantly higher in the placebo group before the start of anesthesia induction and after intubation compared to the Fentanyl group. The first and fifth minutes' Apgar scores of the neonates were not statistically different between the two groups. Administration of 1μg/Kg intravenous Fentanyl before the induction of anesthesia for cesarean section delivery decreases maternal hemodynamic changes after intubation. In addition, it does not have any effect on Apgar scores of the neonate in the 1st and 5th minutes after birth.

  3. Semiconductor monolayer assemblies with oriented crystal faces

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Guijun

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of two-dimensional monolayers of crystalline oxide and oxynitride particles was attempted on glass plate substrates. X-Ray diffraction patterns of the assemblies show only specific crystal facets, indicative of the uniform orientation of the particles on the substrate. The selectivity afforded by this immobilization technique enables the organization of randomly distributed polycrystalline powders in a controlled manner.

  4. Orientation correlations in aluminium deformed by ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Mishin, Oleg; Prangnell, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of boundary misorientations measured in an Al–0.13%Mg alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion to a von Mises effective strain of 10, have been compared to misorientation distributions generated from a random mix of orientations present in the microstructure. A significan...

  5. Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkal Midilli, Tulay; Ciray Gunduzoglu, Nazmiye

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.

  6. Random Walks and Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available These notes provide an elementary and self-contained introduction to branching random walks. Section 1 gives a brief overview of Galton–Watson trees, whereas Section 2 presents the classical law of large numbers for branching random walks. These two short sections are not exactly indispensable, but they introduce the idea of using size-biased trees, thus giving motivations and an avant-goût to the main part, Section 3, where branching random walks are studied from a deeper point of view, and are connected to the model of directed polymers on a tree. Tree-related random processes form a rich and exciting research subject. These notes cover only special topics. For a general account, we refer to the St-Flour lecture notes of Peres [47] and to the forthcoming book of Lyons and Peres [42], as well as to Duquesne and Le Gall [23] and Le Gall [37] for continuous random trees.

  7. On object-orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.

    2010-01-01

    Although object-orientation has been around for several decades, its key concept abstraction has not been exploited for proper application of object-orientation in other phases of software development than the implementation phase. We mention some issues that lead to a lot of confusion and obscurity

  8. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  9. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  10. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lena; Letterstål, Anna; Engström, Marie-Louise; Berglund, Anders; Enlund, Mats

    2014-07-09

    Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital.

  11. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an adverse metabolic profile. Although dietary changes are advocated, optimal nutritional management remains uncertain. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, improve metabolic health, but their therapeutic potential in PCOS is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the associations between plasma PUFAs and metabolic and hormonal aspects of PCOS to investigate the efficacy of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation and to support the findings with mechanistic cellular studies. DESIGN: We selected a cross-sectional PCOS cohort (n = 104) and conducted a principal component analysis on plasma fatty acid profiles. Effects of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and postprandial metabolic and hormonal markers were determined in PCOS subjects (n = 22) by a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention. Direct effects of n-6 (omega-6) compared with n-3 PUFAs on steroidogenesis were investigated in primary bovine theca cells. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data showed that a greater plasma n-6 PUFA concentration and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were associated with higher circulating androgens and that plasma LC n-3 PUFA status was associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05), with the greatest reductions in subjects who exhibited greater reductions in plasma n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The treatment of bovine theca cells with n-6 rather than with n-3 PUFAs up-regulated androstenedione secretion (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional data suggest that PUFAs modulated hormonal and lipid profiles and that supplementation with LC n-3 PUFAs improves androgenic profiles in PCOS. In bovine theca cells, arachidonic acid modulated androstenedione secretion, which suggests an indirect effect of n-3 PUFAs through the displacement of or increased competition with n-6 PUFAs. This trial was

  12. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B

    2005-07-01

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

  13. Partial wave analysis of oriented collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. L.; Amami, S.; Saxton, T.; Madison, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We present fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for two collision processes with oriented atoms. The first collision is electron-impact ionization of oriented Mg (3p), and the second collision is electron-impact excitation-ionization (EI) of helium with an oriented final state He+(2p0) ion. Surprisingly, the theoretical functional form of the FDCS is the same for both processes, despite the fact that the only physical similarity is an oriented excited state in both processes. We present FDCS as a function of orientation angle and ejected electron angle for both ionization of oriented Mg(3p) and EI of helium in order to explore possible physical similarities between the two processes. We examine the contributions to the FDCS of individual partial waves of the ionized electron and projectile. For the ionization of oriented Mg, we show that the FDCS are dominated by larger partial waves of the ejected electron, with the dominant partial waves having a dependence on scattering angle and outgoing electron energy sharing. For the EI process, the FDCS is dominated by the L = 2 partial wave, independent of scattering angle or energy sharing. Also, for EI it is possible to have angular momentum transferred from either the target helium atom or the incident projectile.

  14. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...... the general public’s WVO can be used to check against the orientation of other specific groups such as landowners and hunters. It can also prove useful for developing specific hunting and wildlife policies such as certification of wildlife managers....

  15. WITHDRAWN: Reality orientation for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, A; Orrell, M; Davies, S; Woods, B

    2007-07-18

    Reality Orientation (RO) was first described as a technique to improve the quality of life of confused elderly people, although its origins lie in an attempt to rehabilitate severely disturbed war veterans, not in geriatric work. It operates through the presentation of orientation information (eg time, place and person-related) which is thought to provide the person with a greater understanding of their surroundings, possibly resulting in an improved sense of control and self-esteem. There has been criticism of RO in clinical practice, with some fear that it has been applied in a mechanical fashion and has been insensitive to the needs of the individual. There is also a suggestion that constant relearning of material can actually contribute to mood and self-esteem problems. There is often little consistent application of psychological therapies in dementia services, so a systematic review of the available evidence is important in order to identify the effectiveness of the different therapies. Subsequently, guidelines for their use can be made on a sound evidence base. To assess the evidence of effectiveness for the use of Reality Orientation (RO) as a classroom-based therapy on elderly persons with dementia. Computerised databases were searched independently by 2 reviewers entering the terms 'Reality Orientation, dementia, control, trial or study'. Relevant web sites were searched and some hand searching was conducted by the reviewer. Specialists in the field were approached for undocumented material, and all publications found were searched for additional references. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and all controlled trials with some degree of concealment, blinding or control for bias (second order evidence) of Reality Orientation as an intervention for dementia were included. The criteria for inclusion/exclusion involved systematic assessment of the quality of study design and the risk of bias, using a standard data extraction form. A measure of

  16. Orientation statistics of non-spherical particles sedimenting in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramel, Stefan; Tierney, Lydia; Rees, Wyatt; Voth, Greg A.; Menon, Udayshankar; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Donald L.

    2016-11-01

    We study the sedimentation of non-spherical particles in turbulence. The particle orientation is determined by a competition between inertial torques causing a preferential alignment and turbulence randomizing the orientation. The relative importance is quantified by a settling number SF defined as the ratio of the tumbling-rate from inertial torques and from turbulence. The experiments focus on the orientation statistics of particles formed from several slender arms, including fibers and particles with three arms in planar symmetry (triads), which allows us to study alignment of both fibers and disk-like particles. We measure the time-resolved 3D orientations of the particles along with the fluid velocity field around them in a vertical water tunnel. An active jet array with 40 individually controllable jets enables us to adjust the turbulence intensity and observe the transition from strongly aligned particles to randomized orientations as SF is decreased. Results are compared to simulations and theory based on slender body theory.

  17. SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanculea Liana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented architecture (SOA supply methods for systems development and integration where work interoperable services. A SOA suppose application functionality distribution in distinct units called services that communicate with each other. This ser

  18. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  19. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  20. Antibody orientation on biosensor surfaces: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Beekwilder, Jules; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-03-21

    Detection elements play a key role in analyte recognition in biosensors. Therefore, detection elements with high analyte specificity and binding strength are required. While antibodies (Abs) have been increasingly used as detection elements in biosensors, a key challenge remains - the immobilization on the biosensor surface. This minireview highlights recent approaches to immobilize and study Abs on surfaces. We first introduce Ab species used as detection elements, and discuss techniques recently used to elucidate Ab orientation by determination of layer thickness or surface topology. Then, several immobilization methods will be presented: non-covalent and covalent surface attachment, yielding oriented or random coupled Abs. Finally, protein modification methods applicable for oriented Ab immobilization are reviewed with an eye to future application.

  1. Flake Orientation Effects On Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sweetgum Flakeboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; E.W. Price

    2001-01-01

    Research was initiated to determine the effect of flake orientation on the physical and mechanical properties offlakeboard. The panel fabrication techniques investigated were single-layer panels with random and oriented flake distribution, three-layer, five-layer, and seven-layer panels. Single-layer oriented panels had panel directional property ratios of 11.8 and 12....

  2. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  3. 46 CFR 131.320 - Safety orientation for offshore workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety orientation for offshore workers. 131.320 Section... OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 131.320 Safety orientation for offshore workers. (a) Before a... informing each offshore worker of— (1) In general terms, emergency and evacuation procedures; (2) Locations...

  4. Western Image of the Orient and Oriental in Agatha Christie’s Death on the Nile: A Postcolonial Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüde ZENGİN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to read Agatha Christie’s Death on the Nile (1937, a Hercule Poirot detective novel from a postcolonial stand in general but in particular it seeks traces of Orientalism in it. Expertly plotted and set in Egypt, an exotic background, Death on the Nile is analyzed in this study, through Edward W. Said’s critique of Orientalism, to detect the novel’s projection of the Orient and oriental. Orientalism is defined by Edward Said in his groundbreaking book Orientalism (1978 as a scholarly discipline involving the negative portrayal of the East and eastern people, values and culture by westerners and as western construction of the Orient in occidental discourse through western perspective. Composed of two sections the essay begins with a brief introduction to postcolonial criticism and the critique of Orientalism. Next Death on the Nile is analyzed in the light of the criticism of Orientalism in the second section. The projection of the Orient and oriental people, places, values, concepts and so forth detected in the novel are presented in two subsections of this part. The study concludes that Death on the Nilebeing a detective novel has an orientalist quality when it comes to the reflection of the Orient and oriental though Christie does not foreground this quality of the novel. Another conclusion reached at the end of this study is that for Christie, the Queen of detective fiction has been considered to be a best-selling novelist of all time, her novel, Death on the Nile with its orientalist attitude to the East and easterner, must have contributed to the construction of a negative and false image of the Orient in western mind and discourse

  5. Orientation relationship between diamond and magnesiochromite inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross; Nimis, Paolo; Milani, Sula; Harris, Jeff; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    partial orientation between inclusion and host. A (111) plane of each inclusion is sub-parallel to a {111} plane of their diamond host, but with random orientations of the magnesiochromite [100], [010] and [001] relative to the diamond. In one case, where a single inclusion comprised a magnesiochromite-olivine touching pair, the magnesiochromite was oriented as noted above and the olivine showed a random orientation. The implications of these observations for the mechanisms of diamond growth will be explored and the results will be compared and combined with previous work. This work was supported by ERC starting grant "INDIMEDEA" (307322) to F. Nestola and by the MIUR-SIR grant "MILE DEEp" (RBSI140351) to M. Alvaro. References Angel R. J. et al., J. Appl. Crystallogr. 48, 1330-1334 (2015). Wiggers de Vries D.F. et al., Contrib Mineral Petr 161, 565-579 (2011). Dobson D. P. et al., Nat. Geosci. 6, 575-578 (2013). Frank-Kamenetsky V.A. The nature of structural impurities and inclusions in minerals. Leningrad, Gos. Univ. (1964) Futergendler S.I. and Frank-Kamenetsky V.A. Zap Vsesoyuzn Mineral Obs 90, 230 (1961). Nestola F. et al., Int. Geol. Rev. 56(13), 1658-1667 (2014).

  6. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  7. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the patient experience of ICU recovery from a longitudinal perspective by analysing follow-up consultations at three time-points. BACKGROUND: After a stay in the intensive care unit, patients risk physical and psychological problems during recovery. Follow-up after...... narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...... was obtained in steady-state or progressive recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the process of intensive care recovery. Recovery evolves through narratives of mortal danger, risk of relapse and moving forward towards a new orientation in life. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL...

  8. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  9. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  10. Measuring market orientation: further evidence on Narver and Slater's three-component scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Subhra; Rogé, Joseph N

    2003-12-01

    A mail survey of a national random sample of 2,000 marketing managers was conducted. The data provided by 222 respondents were analyzed to assess the dimensionality of Narver and Slater's 15-item measure of market orientation. A confirmatory factor analysis, using LISREL 8.53, provided support for each of the separate dimensions of customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination. However, a combined 3-factor model of market orientation was not supported. Directions for research are suggested.

  11. Spatial Orientation in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34 antigravity " muscles such as hip and knee extensors. These vestibular reflexes, of course, help keep the body upright with respect to the direction of...Vestibular-visual conflict need not even be in relation to motion but can be in relation to static orientation: some people become sick in " antigravity

  12. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deirdre Beneken genaamd Kolmer; René Schalk; Renske J.M. van der Zwet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  13. Sexual Orientations in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnets, Linda D.

    2002-01-01

    Discuess how sexuality is determined by multiple influences, including sociocutural factors. Presents a new paradigm that analyzes categories of human sexual behavior. A model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity and examines overlapping identities and statuses of culture, age, race, ethnicity, class, and disability.…

  14. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  15. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  16. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity of anxiety (continuous and Psychological stress (dichotomous as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based "study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition" and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001 and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001 after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001 and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001. Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population.

  17. Goal Orientation Dan Subjective Well Being Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between goal orientation and subjective well-being in the elderly, which includes psychological well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being. The research subjects consisted of 90 elderly from the elderly group Adi Yuswo and Wulandaru Semarang obtained through simple random sampling. The data were obtained using a measuring instrument goal orientation (18 items, α = .87), psychological well-being (33 items, α = .92), social well-being (33...

  18. Fabricación de compuesto de matriz epoxi reforzado con fibras largas de henequén orientadas aleatoriamente//Fabrication of a composite with epoxy matrix and henequen fibers as reinforcement long and with random orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Rodríguez Soto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el procedimiento para la fabricación de un material compuesto con matriz de epoxi reforzado con fibras de henequén largas orientadas aleatoriamente. Fueron diseñados y elaborados seis moldes de tipo caja para la fabricación por el método de prensado en frío. Se produjeron 37 placas con 0, 6, 9, 12, 16, 22, 26 y 28 % de fibras en relación másica. La inclusión de los refuerzos fue manual y los materiales fabricados se sometieron a un proceso de cura a 70 ºC por 24 horas. Los especímenes obtenidos presentaron buena calidad estando libres de defectos y asegurando la distribución correcta de las fibras. El método de fabricación es adecuado para placas con pequeñas y grandes cantidades de fibra.Palabras claves: plásticos reforzados con fibras (PRF, fibras vegetales, compuesto de matriz termoestable, moldeo por compresión en frío.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIs presented a procedure for the fabrication of the composite material with epoxy as matrix reinforced with henequen fibers, long and random. Was designed and fabricated six molds of box type for the manufacture of the plates using cold pressing procedure. Was make 37 plates with 0, 6, 9, 12, 16, 22, 26 and 28 % of fiber´s inclusions in mass relation. The inclusion of the reinforcements was making manually and the obtained materials was submitted to a process of cure bellow 70ºC during 24 hours. The obtained specimens showed a good quality being free of defects and guarantee the correct distribution of the fibers. The fabrication method is de adequate for plates with small and large quantities of fiber.Key words: fiber reinforced plastics (FRP, natural fibers, composite with thermoset matrix, cold compression molded.

  19. Random sequential adsorption of cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-14

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  20. Two-pulse laser control for selective photofragment orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear wave packet dynamics in the potential well of a bound molecule can be controlled by an intense infrared (IR)-laser pulse. The phase of the nuclear wave packet motion is shown to depend on the phase of the laser field and the initial orientation of the molecule. We demonstrate......, for diatomic heteronuclear molecules, that these spatial effects can be used to control the angular distribution of photofragments by selective dissociation of molecules with a given initial orientation from a sample of randomly oriented molecules. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(99)01131-9]....

  1. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep.......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...

  2. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  3. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  4. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  5. MEDLEARN:an orientation to MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soben, P; Tidball, C S

    1974-04-01

    (***)MEDLEARN(***), an orientation to MEDLINE, was developed to educate members of the biomedical community to become competent on-line searchers. It appears in two complementary forms: an interactive terminal presentation available on the TYMSHARE Network and a supporting hard-copy manual which contains the didactic portions of the computer program as well as additional items which are not suitable for on-line presentation. (***)MEDLEARN(***), a flexible instructional tool, is divided into forty sections which may be selected in various sequences depending on the user's previous experience. Two MEDLINE simulations and feedback sections after practice on MEDLINE provide motivation for continued learning. The orientation program was evaluated at several medical centers with uniformly favorable results.

  6. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  7. Reality orientation for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, A; Orrell, M; Davies, S; Woods, B

    2000-01-01

    Reality Orientation (RO) was first described as a technique to improve the quality of life of confused elderly people, although its origins lie in an attempt to rehabilitate severely disturbed war veterans, not in geriatric work. It operates through the presentation of orientation information (eg time, place and person-related) which is thought to provide the person with a greater understanding of their surroundings, possibly resulting in an improved sense of control and self-esteem. There has been criticism of RO in clinical practice, with some fear that it has been applied in a mechanical fashion and has been insensitive to the needs of the individual. There is also a suggestion that constant relearning of material can actually contribute to mood and self-esteem problems. There is often little consistent application of psychological therapies in dementia services, so a systematic review of the available evidence is important in order to identify the effectiveness of the different therapies. Subsequently, guidelines for their use can be made on a sound evidence base. To assess the evidence of effectiveness for the use of Reality Orientation (RO) as a classroom-based therapy on elderly persons with dementia. Computerised databases were searched independently by 2 reviewers entering the terms 'Reality Orientation, dementia, control, trial or study'. Relevant websites were searched and some handsearching was conducted by the reviewer. Specialists in the field were approached for undocumented material, and all publications found were searched for additional references. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and all controlled trials with some degree of concealment, blinding or control for bias (second order evidence) of Reality Orientation as an intervention for dementia were included. The criteria for inclusion/exclusion involved systematic assessment of the quality of study design and the risk of bias, using a standard data extraction form. A measure of cognitive

  8. Additional benefit of using a risk-based selection for prostate biopsy: an analysis of biopsy complications in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Peter K; Alberts, Arnout R; Venderbos, Lionne D F; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate biopsy complications and hospital admissions that could be reduced by the use of European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators. All biopsies performed in the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC between 1993 and 2015 were included. Biopsy complications and hospital admission data were prospectively recorded in questionnaires that were completed 2 weeks after biopsy. The ERSPC risk calculators 3 (RC3) and 4 (RC4) were applied to men attending the first and subsequent rounds of screening, respectively. Applying the predefined RC3/4 probability thresholds for prostate cancer (PCa) risk of ≥12.5% and high-grade PCa risk ≥3%, we assessed the number of complications, admissions and costs that could be reduced by avoiding biopsies in men below these thresholds. A total of 10 747 biopsies with complete questionnaires were included. For these biopsies a complication rate of 67.9% (7294/10 747), a post-biopsy fever rate of 3.9% (424/10747) and a hospital admission rate of 0.9% (92/10747) were recorded. The fever rate was found to be static over the years, but the hospital admission rate tripled from 0.6% (1993-1996) to 2.1% (2009-2015). Among 7704 biopsies which fit the criteria for RC3 or RC4, 35.8% of biopsies (2757/7704), 37.4% of complications (1972/5268), 39.4% of fever events (128/325) and 42.3% of admissions (30/71) could have been avoided by using one of the risk calculators. More complications could have been avoided if RC4 had been used and for more recent biopsies (2009-2015). Our findings show that 35.9% of the total cost of biopsies and complication treatment could have been avoided. A significant proportion of biopsy complications, hospital admissions and costs could be reduced if biopsy decisions were based on ERSPC risk calculators instead of PSA only. This effect was most prominent in more recent biopsies and in men with repeated biopsies or screening. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU

  9. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...... modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  10. Presenting the Students' Academic Achievement Causal Model based on Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Pour-Safar, Ali; Taheri, Mahdokht; Sedighi Pashaky, Abdullah; Asadi Louyeh, Ataollah

    2017-10-01

    Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual's excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69%) Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9%) Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs) and the students' Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (Pacademic achievement.The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Results showed that the students' academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students' achievement in learning.

  11. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  12. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim

  13. The Sexual Orientation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Ian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses Scalia’s contribution to a series of cases, spanning much of his thirty years tenure on the court, which addressed issues relating to sexual orientation discrimination. The argument put forward is that these cases severely undermine any claim that Scalia might make to having been a distinguished judge in an intellectual or juridical sense. The pervasive theme of Scalia’s opinions in these matters is that of a constant failure to respect traditional tenets of legal reasoning and a compulsive inclination to engage in abusive castigation both of the litigants challenging the discriminatory laws and his judicial colleagues who did not agree with his viewpoint.

  14. Schopenhauer e o Oriente

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Luiz de Almeida Mesquita

    2007-01-01

    Essa dissertação analisa a influência oriental recebida por Schopenhauer durante a formação de sua filosofia e a conseqüência gerada em seus textos tardios no conceito de religião. Enfoca-se, principalmente, a obra em latim Oupnek\\'hat, que possui 50 das 108 Upaniñad, traduzida por Anquetil-Duperron e publicada em 1801/1802. Tal obra foi estudada por Schopenhauer a partir de 1814. Nela estão presentes conceitos orientais como Maya, \\"Illos tu és\\" (Isto és tu - Tat tvam asi) e trimurti, que f...

  15. 49 CFR 382.305 - Random testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random testing. 382.305 Section 382.305... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.305 Random testing. (a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as...

  16. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random testing. 655.45 Section 655.45... of Testing § 655.45 Random testing. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing shall be 50 percent of covered...

  17. Teachers' orientations towards writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

  18. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  19. Milestones Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Villalón-Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 10, 1947, the University of Oriente is founded with the presence of local authorities and the historic Bell of the Damajagua. Since then it has generated outstanding events that have drawn guidelines in its history. These landmarks have taken place in different spheres of social, political and economic life. We have found that most workers and students from the University know less than fifty percent of such events, and we assume that the population outside the walls must have a greater ignorance. The present paper aims to spread these crucial events because knowing them will help appreciate better the real prestige of this house of higher learning through its rich  history, which will result in feelings of admiration and respect for this university. Thus, it is necessary to make a wider propagation through the press, radio and television programs and digital media such as Multimedia, Web Pages and the Internet.The theme landmark at the Universidad de Oriente of the subject Historical and Contemporary Debates implemented in the disciplines of all careers at this university gives freshmen the opportunity to investigate and learn about these remarkable  facts with some impact outside our national territory.

  20. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Pour cette première étape de la Coupe Genevoise de printemps, une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés dans les bois de Cossonay (Vd) pour découvrir un des cinq circuits proposés par le Club de Lausanne-Jorat. Ces circuits techniques et rapides ont été appréciés par la majorité des concurrents. Les vainqueurs du jour sont : technique long, Christophe Vuitton (CO CERN) s’imposant d’une seconde devant Grégoire Schrago (CO Rosé) ; technique moyen, Pekka Marti (Ol Bienne) ; technique court, David Cuenin (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Nicolas Muller (CO Lausanne-Jorat) et pour finir facile court, Julien Vuitton (CO CERN). Les résultats complets - avec temps intermédiaires – sont consultables sur http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Le prochain rendez-vous est pr&...

  1. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Coupe de printemps Le coup d’envoi de la coupe de printemps a été donné le 17 mars au Flon près de Lausanne. Cinq parcours de différents niveaux ont accueilli environ 90 concurrents. Mathieu Mazuez du club OLG Bern a remporté le parcours Technique long en 51:46 devant Berni Wehrle du CO CERN en 52:52 pour 16 balises. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps se déroulera à Challex (74) le samedi 21 avril. Le club vous proposera une course type longue distance avec des départs entre 13 h 00 et 15 h 00 (détails sur cette course disponible sur le site internet). À bientôt dans la nature, le Club d’Orientation du CERN.

  2. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

      Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2011 Nouvelle saison – nouveau programme Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses pour la coupe de printemps. Elles se dérouleront des deux cotés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 19 mars: Vidy/Dorigny (Vd) - Score Samedi 26 mars: Attalens (Vd) Samedi 2 avril: Vulbens (74) Samedi 9 avril: Challex (74) Samedi 16 avril: Vernand-Dessus (Vd) Samedi 7 mai: Trelex (Vd) Samedi 14 mai: Chancy/Valleiry (Ge/74) Samedi 21 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 28 mai : Semnoz (74) Samedi 18 juin: La Faucille (01) – Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé...

  3. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

    La première course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise de printemps a eu lieu près de Cossonay samedi 19 mars ; une bonne soixantaine de coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les vainqueurs sont : technique long, Domenico Lepori (Care Vevey) s’imposant d’une minute devant Yannick Gagneret (O’Jura) ; technique moyen, Jean-Rodolphe Knuchel (CO Lausanne-Jorat) devant Cédric Wehrle (CO CERN) ; technique court, Marie Droz (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Elia Martarelli devant Konstantinos Haider (CO CERN); facile court, Sarah Stuber (CO Lausanne-Jorat). Prochain rendez-vous à noter : samedi 26 mars dans la forêt d’Attalens (Canton de Vaud), parking au terrain de foot. Les inscriptions et départs de la course populaire se feront entre 13h et 15h. Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas l’orientation, c’est l&am...

  4. Experimental scattering matrices of clouds and randomly oriented particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, O.; Hovenier, J.W.; Kolokolova, L.; Hough, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the atmospheres of planets and satellites, liquid particles may occur in the form of clouds, hazes, fog, and rain. The liquid can be water as is the case in the atmosphere of the Earth but also other materials, like sulfuric acid that occurs in the atmosphere of Venus. These liquid particles can

  5. Differences in Self-Concept, Academic Orientation and Vocational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated differences in self-concept, academic orientation and vocational interests between normal children and institutionalized street children in Lagos Metropolis. A sample of 120 children randomly selected from 2 rehabilitation homes, 2 private and 2 public schools within Lagos Metropolis was used.

  6. Task-Oriented Gaming for Transfer to Prosthesis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Ludger; Sluis, van der Corry K.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the effect of task-oriented video gaming on using a myoelectric prosthesis in a basic activity of daily life (ADL). Forty-one able-bodied right-handed participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups. In three of these groups the participants trained to

  7. Deteminants of market orientation among cassava producers in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to empirically investigate determinants of market orientation among cassava producers in Abia State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the respondents. A multi-stage randomized sampling procedure was used to select 96 respondents for the study. The data collected ...

  8. Fit between Future Thinking and Future Orientation on Creative Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…

  9. French Orientational Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of describing the French final accent – and French accentuation in general – is fulfilled by different and very heterogenous approaches, analyzing this prosodic feature in French from both substantial and functional points of view. Viewed through pragmatical frame, the final accent is a one of the key aspects in shaping the acoustical image of spoken French and b a strategic tool for the speaker to build the coherence and sense of uttering. The distribution of final accents, i. e. forming accentual units, helps the speaker and his adressee to form a refined strategy in generating and perceiving the spoken text. From the discourse point of view it is therefore justified to define the French final accent as an orientational prosodic feature.

  10. Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranske, Edward P

    2009-02-01

    Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy pays particular attention to the roles that religious and spiritual beliefs, practices, and experiences play in the psychological life of the client. Contemporary psychoanalytic theorists offer multiple approaches to understand the functions of religious experience. Spirituality provides a means to address existential issues and provide a context to form personal meaning. Religious narratives present schemas of relationship and models of experiences salient to mental health, such as hope. God images or other symbolic representations of the transcendent have the power to evoke emotions, which in turn, influence motivation and behavior. While employing theories and techniques derived from psychodynamic psychotherapy, this therapeutic approach encourages the analysis of the functions religion and spirituality serve, while respecting the client's act of believing in faith. Psychotherapists address a client's spirituality by exploring the psychological meaning of such personal commitments and experiences and refrain from entering into discussion of faith claims. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  12. Investigating factors of self-care orientation and self-medication use in a Greek rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, M; Zavras, D; Niakas, D

    2014-01-01

    Self-care oriented people are more likely to undertake self-care activities in order to treat lay self-diagnosed symptoms and restore their own health without professional assistance. One of these activities is self-medication, which refers to the use of medications without medical consultation. The absence of permanent doctors in rural Greece encourages self-medication practices. The main objectives of this article were to detect factors that determine self-care orientation and to predict the use of prescription medications without a doctor's prescription as well as to study the impact of self-care orientation in using medical care in a Greek rural area. A cross-sectional study was designed and 150 face-to-face interviews were randomly conducted during January and February 2011, by using a research instrument with 46 questions. These included information about self-rated health, existence of chronic disease, self-medication behavior, use of prescription and non-prescription drugs and sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. Logistic regression as well as Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the results. The majority of the respondents (80%) were found to be self-care oriented and 54.7% had used prescription medications without a doctor's prescription. The orientation to self-care seems to be determined by gender (p self-medication were female gender (odds ratio (OR): 3.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-8.66), the absence of chronic disease (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.098-0.92) and higher educational level (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05-2.58). However, self-care orientation was not found to affect the use of medical services (p(Fisher's exact test)>0.05). The likelihood of using prescription medications without a doctor's prescription is defined by self-care orientation (p self-medication with prescription drugs are self-care oriented (OR: 6.16, 95% CI: 2.38-15.89) and they probably have lower self-rated health status (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-0.99). The high

  13. Cumulative growth with fibonacci approach, golden section and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueyuekkilic, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova - Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: fevzi.buyukkilic@ege.edu.tr; Demirhan, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova - Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a physical quantity belonging to a physical system in its stages of orientation towards growth has been formulated using Fibonacci recurrence approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers emerging in this process have been expressed as a power law for the first time as far as we are aware. The golden sections {tau}{sub p} are related to the growth percent rates {lambda}{sub p}. With this mechanism, the physical origins of the mathematical forms of e{sub q}(x) and ln{sub q}(x) encountered in Tsallis thermostatistics have been clarified. It has been established that Fibonacci p-numbers could be taken as elements of generalized random Cantor set. The golden section random cantor set is used by M.S. El Naschie in his fundamental works in high energy physics and is also considered in the present work. Moreover, we conclude that the cumulative growth mechanism conveys the consequences of the discrete structure of space and memory effect.

  14. Analysis on fibre orientation of thermal bonded nonwoven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Atiyyah; Gong, Rong Hugh; Nasir, Eryna; Baharudin, Aznin; Tulos, Najua

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research is to produce some three-dimensional (3D) nonwoven fabrics with variation in weight and type of fibre and then analyse their fibre orientation distribution by fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. Three different fibres were used: polyester, polypropylene and blended polyester and polypropylene. Fabric weight varied from 20 to 180 g/m2. The processes of web formation and consolidation were based on the principle of air-laid and hot through-air thermal bonding technique. The result of the fibre orientation showed a random distribution of the fibres for all the samples. It indicated that there was no relationship between the variables and fibre orientation distribution. The position of 3D web whether from the top or side part did not show any variation and thus they did not have the influence towards the fibre orientation.

  15. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  16. Orientation dependence in the four-atom reaction of OH + HBr using the single-state oriented OH radical beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Che, Dock-Chil; Nakamura, Masaaki; Lin, King-Chuen; Kasai, Toshio

    2010-03-20

    The orientation dependence for the Br atom formation in the reaction of the oriented OH radicals with HBr molecules at 0.26 eV collision energy has been observed for the first time using the hexapole electric field, and we found that the reaction cross-section for O-end attack is more favorable than that for H-end attack by a factor of 3.4 +/- 2.3.

  17. The theory of experience orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Legaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the theory of experience orientation, which builds on the division of experiences in two categories: Goal-oriented and Omni-oriented. The theory comes from preliminary studies of userexperiences in a work-context, where I have found this distinction to be beneficial....... In this paper I explain the theory behind it and the practical application of such a distinction when designing for an experience....

  18. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction...... to the applied orientation direction, which forces the polymer backbone into a perpendicular position. Finally, UV-vis spectra indicate that changes in the backbone conformation of certain polystannanes might be induced by applying mechanical stress....

  19. Oriented Molecule Interactions with Atoms and Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. Scott

    Mutual orientation of reagents is second only to the energy requirement for a chemical reaction to take place. Since the introduction of the hexapole field focusing and orientation of symmetric-top molecules in 1965, considerable insight has been gained on the role of orientation in reactive scattering dynamics. The degree of laboratory orientation has been measured for (CH_3) _3CBr and has been found to follow the sequence (CH_3)_3CBr > (CH_3) _3CI > CH_3 I for previous measurements. Oriented molecule beams of thirteen different molecules have been scattered by a graphite(0001) surface. The results show a large diversity in the sign and magnitude of the steric effect (i.e., "heads" vs. "tails"). It appears from the bulk of data that the origin of the steric effect is the anisotropic molecule-graphite interaction potential, which is governed by the charge density distribution of the molecule. The steric effects have been quantitatively measured for seven of the molecules and have been analyzed in terms of a two component model which yields estimates for the anisotropy of the trapping probability. An effusive oven of Sr was used in a crossed beam reaction of Sr + CH_3I. In order to detect weak product signal, a sensitive detection technique utilizing single photon ionization of the reaction product was developed. By changing the relative velocity of the reactants, the excitation function (reactive cross section vs. collision energy) was measured. The experimental results were simulated by a modified angle dependent line -of-centers model, which gives the reaction potential energy surface. Excitation functions of other alkyl halides reactions, Sr + RX (R = H, CH_3, C_2H _5,C_3H_7, C_4H_9; X = Br, I), were also explored.

  20. Do orientation programs help new graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ester; Ovnat, Chaya; Gonen, Ayala; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Mizrahi, Ayala

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for effective orientation programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent, and effective patient care. However, little is known regarding the overall effectiveness of these programs for nursing graduates. To determine whether the transition of the graduates into their working place included a structured orientation program, and to assess the effectiveness of the program from the graduate's perspective. Cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from four different institutions in Israel. A questionnaire was divided among 100 graduate nurses and had a response rate of 79%. A questionnaire was designed and included closed and open questions. It was evaluated for internal consistency by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients (Cronbach's alpha was between 0.91 and 0.96). Only 50.6% of the nurses in the sample reported having a structured orientation program. We found positive significant correlations between having a structured orientation program to adaptation of the graduate nurses to the ward, satisfaction of the graduates on the ward. Positive correlations were also found between support that the graduates received to their satisfaction on the ward. Retention on the ward was highly correlated with having a program, satisfaction, adaptation, and support. We found differences in acclimation indices by religiosity. Different delivery approaches of orientation programs may determine satisfaction of the graduates. A transition program which overlooks individual needs or an informal individual approach may lead to dissatisfaction. A program which is "tailored" to the graduate, by an assigned one-to-one appointment of a preceptor, may lead to satisfaction, which in turn may assure an ongoing supply of competent RNs who will remain in those settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...... created for this purpose. Participants will receive all the information about how to access the virtual learning environment (Moodle) prior to the pre-orientation workshop. In this report we cover only the two first stages. Jørgen Bang, as a part of the Community of Practice activity, will be facilitating...

  2. Orientation-and-Location Controlled Single-Grain TFTs on Glass Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Location controlled single-grain TFT by ?-Czochralski process has attracted a lot of interest due to its high field effect mobility which is comparable to SOI. However, the major challenge is the random orientation of the grains due to the lack of seed layer to control the orientation. This will

  3. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  4. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  5. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2010-01-01

    Du Mont Mussy à Lamoura C’est au Mont Mussy près de Divonne que s’est déroulée la deuxième course comptant pour la coupe d’automne. Une bonne centaine de participants n’ont pas hésité à venir découvrir, sous un magnifique soleil, les 5 parcours proposés par la famille Williams/Hatzifotiadou. La plupart des participants ont couru en individuel, certains ont choisi de chercher les balises en famille. C’est un effet une possibilité qu’offrent nos courses d’orientation du samedi, à savoir que l’on peut pratiquer individuellement, en famille ou entre amis. Les résultats sur les 5 parcours sont les suivants : Technique long : Yannick Gagneret en 1.08:09, suivi par F. Janod en 1.09:41 et de Bruno Barge en 1.11:23. Technique moyen : Victoire pour Rémi...

  6. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

      Finale de la coupe d’automne La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 23 octobre après 7 épreuves. Les deux dernières courses se sont déroulées en l’espace de 24 heures, puisque le club organisait une course type nocturne vendredi 22 octobre sur le site du CERN et la dernière étape avait lieu dans la forêt de Merdisel sous la forme d’une course aux points samedi 23 après-midi. Les participants avaient à cœur de bien terminer lors de ces deux épreuves pour consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement général. Le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 4 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit ...

  7. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  8. Club d’orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’orientation

    2010-01-01

    On s’approche vers la finale ! Samedi 29 juin, le club d’orientation de Lausanne-Jorat (Canton de Vaud) a accueilli le relais inter-club. Douze équipes de deux coureurs étaient venues s’affronter sur le parcours de type «facile», et vingt-six équipes de trois coureurs du côté «technique». Tous ces parcours étaient proposés sur une zone semi-urbaine où il fallait alterner entre habitations, rues, bois, parc et adapter sa vitesse de course. Le suspens était bien présent notamment sur le relais technique. La victoire est revenue à l’équipe de l’OLG Huttwil composée de Thomas Hofer, Janick Zappa et Philipp Zappa en un temps de 2:14:07. Juste derrière à 50 secondes on trouve l’équipe CO CERN T1 avec Emese&am...

  9. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  10. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

    Coupe d’automne Samedi 25 septembre, certains courageux ont osé affronter le temps pluvieux et frais et se sont rendus aux Pléiades pour participer à la quatrième étape de la coupe Genevoise d’automne. Le Club du CARE-Vevey avait préparé 5 jolis circuits : 3 techniques et 2 faciles. Félicitations à tous les concurrents et plus particulièrement aux vainqueurs de chaque parcours. Les résultats complets sont sur le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Technique long : 1. Samy Vaehaenen (CO CERN), 2. Clément Poncet (O’Jura), 3. Bernhard Wehrle (CO CERN). Technique moyen : 1. Sampo Vallotton (RTB), 2. Guillaume Ladine (RTB), 3. Anne Godel (CA Rosé). Technique court : 1. Miles Marston (Gimel), 2. Alison High (CARE Vevey), 3. Emese Szwuyog (CO CERN). Facile moyen : 1. Nicolas M&u...

  11. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  1er mai: muguet et balises à Vulbens Les week-ends s’enchainent et les courses aussi. La quatrième manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club sous la direction de J. Zosso, J. Iven et W. Heinze a eu lieu sur le site de Genolier (canton de Vaud) samedi dernier. Le soleil a, une nouvelle fois, accompagné les participants sur les cinq circuits proposés. On notera la jolie performance de Sami Vaehaenen élite finlandais (CO CERN) sur le parcours technique long en 49:09 avec une avance de presque 10 mm sur le second concurrent, le junior Clément Poncet (O’Jura). Les résultats complets de cette étape sont consultables en ligne à l’adresse suivante : http://cern.ch/club-orientation. La prochaine étape est prévue dans la forêt de Vulbens (Haute Savoie) samedi 1er mai sur une toute nouvelle carte. Les...

  12. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Tous à vos boussoles, cap sur une nouvelle saison! Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose à nouveau une série de courses comptant pour la coupe genevoise. Le coup d’envoi sera donné samedi 17 mars au Flon dans le canton de Vaud  avec une course longue distance. Puis le programme sera le suivant: Samedi 21 avril : Challex Samedi 28 avril : Vulbens Samedi 5 mai : Trelex Samedi 12 mai : Chancy Samedi 19 mai : Lausanne/Sauvabelin Samedi 2 juin: La Faucille Samedi 9 juin: Bonmont/La Rippe Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour participer aux épreuves sur le territoire français, il faut être en possession soit ...

  13. The mediating role of demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour and employee distress: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lornudd, Caroline; Tafvelin, Susanne; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Bergman, David

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between leadership and employee distress is well established, however, the processes involved in this relationship remain largely unclear. For a stretched nursing workforce, understanding in what ways leadership may influence employee distress is particularly important. To examine possible mediating effects of the work environment factors demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation and employee distress. Cross-sectional study design. The study was conducted at a large county council in Sweden providing both institutional and non-institutional care. A random sample of 1249 employees (primarily nurses, but also a wide range of other healthcare professionals and administrative staff), who had a healthcare manager that was about to enter a leadership development programme (n=171), responded to a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 62%. The employees rated their healthcare managers' behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation, as well as their own perceptions of level of demand, control (subdivided into decision authority and skill discretion), and five distress outcomes. Multilevel analysis was performed. The mediators demand, decision authority, and skill discretion were significant predictors of all five distress outcomes for all three leadership orientations. In eight of 15 regressions, the mediators fully explained the relationships between leadership orientations and outcomes. Four of five relationships with distress outcomes were fully mediated for change-oriented leadership, whereas two of five outcomes were fully mediated for production- and employee-oriented leadership. In all three leadership orientations, the relationship between the mediator skill discretion and the distress measure disengagement were particularly strong, with B-coefficients (-.44, pmanagers' change-oriented behaviour, and how that aspect is related to employee distress, is

  14. Different facets of market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2009-01-01

    two aims: firstly, we will discuss the different facets of the market orientation of the main UK and German parties in their respective 2005 General Elections through an exploratory content analysis, and secondly, we will compare characteristics of market orientation between the two countries. Whilst...

  15. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  16. Problem-Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare

    This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...... to sociology and social science and their relation to humanities, technical knowledge and natural science....

  17. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  18. Nano-scale orientation mapping of graphite in cast irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuwissen, Koenraad; Lacaze, Jacques [Institut CARNOT CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, ENSIACET, CS 44362, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Véron, Muriel [SIMAP, CNRS-Grenoble INP, BP 46 101 rue de la Physique, 38402 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Laffont, Lydia, E-mail: lydia.laffont@ensiacet.fr [Institut CARNOT CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, ENSIACET, CS 44362, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-09-15

    A diametrical section of a graphite spheroid from a ductile iron sample was prepared using the focused ion beam-lift out technique. Characterization of this section was carried out through automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. This new technique automatically collects electron diffraction patterns and matches them with precalculated templates. The results of this investigation are crystal orientation and phase maps of the specimen, which bring new light to the understanding of growth mechanisms of this peculiar graphite morphology. This article shows that mapping the orientation of carbon-based materials such as graphite, which is difficult to achieve with conventional techniques, can be performed automatically and at high spatial resolution using automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. - Highlights: • ACOM/TEM can be used to study the crystal orientation of carbon-based materials. • A spheroid is formed by conical sectors radiating from a central nuclei. • Misorientations exist within the conical sectors, defining various orientation domains.

  19. A non-randomized confirmatory trial of segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-section computed tomography (JCOG1211).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aokage, Keiju; Saji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Mizutani, Tomonori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shibata, Taro; Watanabe, Syunichi; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-05-01

    Lobectomy has been the standard surgery for even stage I lung cancer since the validity of limited resection for stage I lung cancer was denied by the randomized study reported in 1995. The aim of this non-randomized confirmatory going on since September 2013 is to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-slice computed tomography. A total of 390 patients from 42 Japanese institutions are recruited within 4 years. The primary endpoint of this study is a 5-year relapse-free survival in all of the patients who undergo a segmentectomy for a lung nodule. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, annual relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, proportion of local relapse, postoperative pulmonary function, proportion of segmentectomy completion, proportion of R0 resection completion by segmentectomy, adverse events, and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000011819 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ). Patient's accrual has been already finished in November, 2015 and the primary analysis will be performed in 2021. This study is one of the pivotal trial of lung segmentectomy for early lung cancer. The result will provide a clear evidence for our daily clinics and will be possible contribution to preserving pulmonary function for lung cancer patients.

  20. The association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F; Newman, Ian M; Yin, Ping

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, Pstudent being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, Pstudents (OR = 2.59, Pstudents from urban areas (OR = 1.79, Pstudents attending key universities (OR = 0.48, Puniversities. Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives.

  1. The Association between Cultural Orientation and Drinking Behaviors among University Students in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, Pstudent being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, Pstudents (OR = 2.59, Pundergraduates, students from urban areas (OR = 1.79, Pstudents attending key universities (OR = 0.48, Puniversities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives. PMID:23359611

  2. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  3. Customizable Time-Oriented Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Pantazos, Kostas; Lauesen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time-oriented v......Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time...

  4. Practising orientation identification improves orientation coding in V1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoups, A; Vogels, R; Qian, N; Orban, G

    2001-08-02

    The adult brain shows remarkable plasticity, as demonstrated by the improvement in fine sensorial discriminations after intensive practice. The behavioural aspects of such perceptual learning are well documented, especially in the visual system. Specificity for stimulus attributes clearly implicates an early cortical site, where receptive fields retain fine selectivity for these attributes; however, the neuronal correlates of a simple visual discrimination task remained unidentified. Here we report electrophysiological correlates in the primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys for learning orientation identification. We link the behavioural improvement in this type of learning to an improved neuronal performance of trained compared to naive neurons. Improved long-term neuronal performance resulted from changes in the characteristics of orientation tuning of individual neurons. More particularly, the slope of the orientation tuning curve that was measured at the trained orientation increased only for the subgroup of trained neurons most likely to code the orientation identified by the monkey. No modifications of the tuning curve were observed for orientations for which the monkey had not been trained. Thus training induces a specific and efficient increase in neuronal sensitivity in V1.

  5. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  6. The reinforcing effect of a firm's customer orientation and supply-base orientation on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, Gerrit Willem; Henseler, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Although the merits of maintaining strategic orientations such as customer orientation and supply-base orientation have been discussed in the literature, there is relatively little understanding of how these strategic orientations interrelate. Drawing on dynamic capability theory, this study

  7. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  8. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  9. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  10. Implementation-Oriented Secure Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conte de Leon, Daniel; Alves-Foss, Jim; Oman, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    .... This framework is composed of an implementation-oriented formalization of a system's architecture, which we call the formal implementation model, along with a method for the construction of a system...

  11. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  12. Physiotherapy after stroke: to what extent is task-oriented practice a part of conventional treatment after hospital discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim, Torunn; Indredavik, Bent; Engen, Astrid; Roos, Kerstin; Aas, Tone; Mørkved, Siv

    2013-07-01

    Research has shown that motor training after stroke should be task-oriented. It is still unknown whether the task-oriented approach is implemented into clinical practice. The purpose of the present study was to survey to which extent task-specific training was a part of conventional physiotherapy practice given to stroke patients after discharge from hospital. This cross-sectional survey was a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapists treating patients included in the trial were asked to register their choice of treatment according to 11 predefined activity categories during the second week after discharge from hospital. Nineteen physiotherapists treating 46 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate stroke were included. The activities chosen in most patients were sit-to-stand (60.9%), balance in standing position (65.2%), walking on even ground (78.3%), and stair climbing (56.5%). Only two patients (4.3%) practiced transfers or balance related to activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing, dressing, and toileting. This study shows that conventional physiotherapy practice for a selected group of Norwegian stroke patients was mainly based on a task-oriented approach, although with very little emphasis on training in relation to ADL. Future research is needed to ensure that evidence-based treatment is given to all stroke patients.

  13. Security for service oriented architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although integrating security into the design of applications has proven to deliver resilient products, there are few books available that provide guidance on how to incorporate security into the design of an application. Filling this need, Security for Service Oriented Architectures examines both application and security architectures and illustrates the relationship between the two. Supplying authoritative guidance on how to design distributed and resilient applications, the book provides an overview of the various standards that service oriented and distributed applications leverage, includ

  14. Distribution and Orientation of Steel Fibres in UHPFRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Sørensen, Eigil V.; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    The technical report “Distribution and Orientation of Steel Fibres in UHPFRC” is a part of a larger research project entitled “Design of Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines”. This report is divided into five numbered sections, and a list of references, situated after...

  15. The Effects of Relationship Banking and Entrepreneurial Orientation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine if relationship banking, and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) affect the financial performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design with the population being 620 manufacturing SMEs involved in relationship banking with commercial ...

  16. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  17. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  18. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

  19. Application of synchrotron through-the-substrate microdiffraction to crystals in polished thin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron through-the-substrate X-ray microdiffraction technique (tts-μXRD is extended to the structural study of microvolumes of crystals embedded in polished thin sections of compact materials [Rius, Labrador, Crespi, Frontera, Vallcorba & Melgarejo (2011. J.Synchrotron Rad. 18, 891–898]. The resulting tts-μXRD procedure includes some basic steps: (i collection of a limited number of consecutive two-dimensional patterns (frames for each randomly oriented crystal microvolume; (ii refinement of the metric from the one-dimensional diffraction pattern which results from circularly averaging the sum of collected frames; (iii determination of the reciprocal lattice orientation of each randomly oriented crystal microvolume which allows assigning the hkl indices to the spots and, consequently, merging the intensities of the different frames into a single-crystal data set (frame merging; and (iv merging of the individual crystal data sets (multicrystal merging to produce an extended data set suitable for structure refinement/solution. Its viability for crystal structure solution by Patterson function direct methods (δ recycling and for accurate single-crystal least-squares refinements is demonstrated with some representative examples from petrology in which different glass substrate thicknesses have been employed. The section of the crystal microvolume must be at least of the same order of magnitude as the focus of the beam (15 × 15 µm in the provided examples. Thanks to its versatility and experimental simplicity, this methodology should be useful for disciplines as disparate as petrology, materials science and cultural heritage.

  20. PLANAR SECTIONS THROUGH THREE-DIMENSIONAL LINE-SEGMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Djamal Matthes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies three-dimensional segment processes in the framework of stochastic geometry. The main objective is to find relations between the characteristics of segment processes such as orientation- and length-distribution, and characteristics of their sections with planes. Formulae are derived for the distribution of segment lengths on both sides of the section plane and corresponding orientations, where it is permitted that there are correlations between the angles and lengths of the line-segments.

  1. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Picosecond orientational dynamics of water in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tros, Martijn; Zheng, Linli; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Bonn, Daniel; Smits, Gertien J; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-10-12

    Cells are extremely crowded, and a central question in biology is how this affects the intracellular water. Here, we use ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy and dielectric-relaxation spectroscopy to observe the random orientational motion of water molecules inside living cells of three prototypical organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), and spores of Bacillus subtilis. In all three organisms, most of the intracellular water exhibits the same random orientational motion as neat water (characteristic time constants ~9 and ~2 ps for the first-order and second-order orientational correlation functions), whereas a smaller fraction exhibits slower orientational dynamics. The fraction of slow intracellular water varies between organisms, ranging from ~20% in E. coli to ~45% in B. subtilis spores. Comparison with the water dynamics observed in solutions mimicking the chemical composition of (parts of) the cytosol shows that the slow water is bound mostly to proteins, and to a lesser extent to other biomolecules and ions.The cytoplasm's crowdedness leads one to expect that cell water is different from bulk water. By measuring the rotational motion of water molecules in living cells, Tros et al. find that apart from a small fraction of water solvating biomolecules, cell water has the same dynamics as bulk water.

  3. Rotational Orientation Effects in NO(X) + Ar Inelastic Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, M; Chadwick, H; Gordon, S D S; Hornung, B; Nichols, B; Aoiz, F J; Stolte, S

    2015-12-17

    Rotational angular momentum orientation effects in the rotationally inelastic collisions of NO(X) with Ar have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically at a collision energy of 530 cm(-1). The collision-induced orientation has been determined experimentally using a hexapole electric field to select the ϵ = -1 Λ-doublet level of the NO(X) j = 1/2 initial state. Fully quantum state resolved polarization-dependent differential cross sections were recorded experimentally using a crossed molecular beam apparatus coupled with a (1 + 1') resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization detection scheme and subsequent velocity-map imaging. To determine the NO sense of rotation, the probe radiation was circularly polarized. Experimental orientation polarization-dependent differential cross sections are compared with those obtained from quantum mechanical scattering calculations and are found to be in good agreement. The origin of the collision-induced orientation has been investigated by means of close-coupled quantum mechanical, quantum mechanical hard shell, quasi-classical trajectory (QCT), and classical hard shell calculations at the same collision energy. Although there is evidence for the operation of limiting classical mechanisms, the rotational orientation cannot be accounted for by QCT calculations and is found to be strongly influenced by quantum mechanical effects.

  4. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  5. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  6. Three-section expiratory CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effect of the number of computed tomography (CT) sections on trapped air (TA) assessment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by using an established scoring system and a new quantitative scoring system and to compare CT and pulmonary function test (PFT) estimates of TA....... Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...

  7. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  8. Can we change sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, A Lee

    2012-02-01

    The self-reports of individuals who claim that they have changed their sexual orientation are either dismissed as false or relied upon to promote sexual orientation change efforts. However, these reactions do not capture the complexity of the sexual reorientation phenomenon. This article provides an overview regarding the promise and effort of sexual reorientation and how this knowledge may inform our current understanding of human sexuality. Specifically, a brief history is given of the interventions used to change attractions to same-sex adults and the assumptions underlying these efforts. Information will be given regarding which conclusions can be derived from sexual reorientation studies. The limitations of these studies will be explained to strengthen future research. Hypotheses will be presented regarding the motivations and needs of those distressed by a same-sex erotic orientation and the impact that the hope of sexual reorientation may have for family members, religious leaders, and policy makers. A multivariate model of sexuality and sexual orientation, including scales of attraction and aversion, will be proposed based upon current understanding of sexuality and the distinctions found in sexual reorientation research. In the end, a therapeutic framework will be highlighted that may be used (and researched) to help those distressed by their sexual orientation.

  9. Subfilter scalar-flux vector orientation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, G

    2014-06-01

    The geometric orientation of the subfilter-scale scalar-flux vector is examined in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Vector orientation is determined using the eigenframe of the resolved strain-rate tensor. The Schmidt number is kept sufficiently large so as to leave the velocity field, and hence the strain-rate tensor, unaltered by filtering in the viscous-convective subrange. Strong preferential alignment is observed for the case of Gaussian and box filters, whereas the sharp-spectral filter leads to close to a random orientation. The orientation angle obtained with the Gaussian and box filters is largely independent of the filter width and the Schmidt number. It is shown that the alignment direction observed numerically using these two filters is predicted very well by the tensor-diffusivity model. Moreover, preferred alignment of the scalar gradient vector in the eigenframe is shown to mitigate any probable issues of negative diffusivity in the tensor-diffusivity model. Consequentially, the model might not suffer from solution instability when used for large eddy simulations of scalar transport in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Further a priori tests indicate poor alignment of the Smagorinsky and stretched vortex model predictions with the exact subfilter flux. Finally, strong filter dependence of subfilter scalar-flux orientation suggests that explicit filtering may be preferable to implicit filtering in large eddy simulations.

  10. The influence of career orientations on subjective work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In an increasingly turbulent business context in which people are less dependent on organisational career arrangements and have greater agency in career decisions, organisations have come to pay increasing attention to retaining valuable talented managerial potential.Research purpose: The study empirically assessed the causal influence of individuals’ career orientations on their perceived life satisfaction, job or career satisfaction, sense of happiness and their perceptions of work as a valuable activity as aspects of their subjective work experiences.Motivation for study: From an organisational perspective, research on individuals’ inner definitions of career success and satisfaction is needed to guide current selection, placement, development, reward and retention practices.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 2997 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. The measuring instruments consisted of an adapted five-factor career orientations model of the Career Orientations Inventory and a 4-item global subjective work experiences scale. Structural equation modelling (SEM was conducted to achieve the aim of the study.Main findings/results: Statistically significant causal relationships were observed between the career orientations and subjective work experiences variables.Practical implications: Individuals’ career orientations influence their general sense of life and job or career satisfaction, happiness and perceptions of work as a valuable activity. Organisations concerned with the retention of staff need to find a way of aligning individuals’ career needs and motives with the goals and aspirations of the organisation.Contribution/value-add: The research confirms the need for assessing the inner career orientations of employees as these provide valuable information regarding the motives and values driving individuals

  11. Self-reported knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of men and women aged 60–74 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvist I

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ina Qvist,1 Marie D Thomsen,2 Jes S Lindholt,2,3 Hans Ibsen,4 Jeroen ML Hendriks,5 Lars Frost1 1Department of Medicine, Diagnostic Centre, University Research Clinic for Innovative Patient Pathways, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Silkeborg, Denmark; 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Centre of Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department T, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark; 5Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: In general, it is assumed that patient education, by increasing knowledge, may change behavior and lifestyle and promote health. In this context, it is a surprise that knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension among elderly people is poor. We hypothesized that knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension would be better among individuals with self-reported hypertension compared with subjects without self-reported hypertension. Methods: We mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 1,000 subjects living in the municipality of Silkeborg, Denmark. The study sample was drawn from the Central Person Registry. Results: The response rate was 72%. Of these, 43% of responders had self-reported hypertension. The people with self-reported hypertension were older, less educated, had higher self-reported blood cholesterol levels, had higher body weight, and more often had a family history of hypertension. More than 80% reported that overweight and obesity increases blood pressure. More than 60% reported that untreated hypertension may cause heart disease or stroke. More than half of the responders did not know their blood pressure, and only 21% knew that hypertension can occur without symptoms. Knowledge about hypertension was

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  13. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  14. Value orientations of preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, M A; Ashy, M H

    1995-09-01

    Curriculum theorists have acknowledged the critical role that beliefs and values play in the decisions that teachers make, but very little is known about how teachers' value profiles develop. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the educational value orientations of a group of physical education preservice teachers (N = 16) enrolled in an elementary methods course and to investigate the link between value profiles and teacher behaviors. Value profiles were assessed using the Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Hooper, 1988). The results indicated that teachers in training entered field-based experiences with defined value profiles, but that these profiles were not stable constructs. Priorities within competing value orientations fluctuated over the course of a semester. Possible explanations for the changes that occurred and implications for teacher education programs are discussed.

  15. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  16. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited. ...

  18. The orienting response in information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolov, E. N

    2002-01-01

    ... Organization of Color Space 127 9. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space I 141 10. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space II 163vi CONTEiNTS 11. Orienting, Information, and Anticipation 189 12. Auditory Orienting Event-Related Response Potentials in the Study of the 241 13. Addendum: Processing Underlying Principles of Information 323 Glossar...

  19. Cancer survivorship and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Ozonoff, Al

    2011-08-15

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations are not part of cancer surveillance, resulting in scarce information about the cancer survivorship of these populations. To address this information gap, the authors examined the prevalence of cancer survivorship by sexual orientation and cancer survivors' self-reported health by sexual orientation. The authors explored these issues by analyzing pooled data from the California Health Interview survey from 2001, 2003, and 2005. By using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions, they examined the cancer prevalence in men and women by sexual orientation and subsequently compared the self-reported health of male and female cancer survivors by sexual orientation. Among women, the authors found no significant differences in cancer prevalence by sexual orientation, but lesbian and bisexual female cancer survivors had 2.0 and 2.3× the odds of reporting fair or poor health compared with heterosexual female cancer survivors. Among men, we found significant differences in cancer prevalence, with gay men having 1.9× the odds of reporting a cancer diagnosis compared with heterosexual men. There were no differences by sexual orientation in male cancer survivors' self-reported health. Our novel findings suggest sex differences in the impact of cancer on lesbian, gay, and bisexual cancer survivors. Lesbian and bisexual cancer survivors need to be targeted by programs and services to assist these cancer survivors in improving their health perceptions, whereas healthcare providers and public health agencies need to be made aware of the higher prevalence of cancer in gay men to prevent future cancers through increased screening and primary prevention. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  20. [Temporal orientation and cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turrado, T; Pascual-Millan, L F; Aguilar-Palacio, I; Burriel-Rosello, A; Santolaria-Martinez, L; Perez-Lazaro, C

    2011-03-16

    Temporal orientation is a component of most screening tests for diagnosing cognitive impairment. Correct temporal orientation involves activating both semantic information (concepts of the calendar date) and episodic information (remembering the current date). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a technique for evaluating temporal orientation, which was open-ended, and scoring the semantic and episodic information thus generated (0-10 points). A total of 24 subjects without impairment, 77 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 62 patients with dementia were evaluated by means of a 30-point mini-mental/mini-examination, semantic verbal fluency test, global deterioration scale, mini-mental-type temporal orientation and open-ended temporal orientation tests. The areas under the curve (aROC), sensitivity and specificity for dementia and cognitive impairment at any degree (MCI and dementia) were analysed. Open-ended temporal orientation presented a greater area under the curve (aROC: 0.90) for discrimination between patients with dementia and without dementia (MCI and without impairment) and an aROC of 0.83 for discrimination between patients with MCI or dementia and without impairment. For dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 6, sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity was 0.68, and for MCI with dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 7, sensitivity was 0.72 and specificity was 0.92. The usefulness, conciseness and strategic position of this technique in examining mental status make it suitable as an instrument for screening for cognitive impairment. It has a high level of sensitivity with low specificity for dementia and low sensitivity with high specificity for any degree of impairment.

  1. From service-oriented architecture to service-oriented enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Cordeiro, J.; Ivanov, I.; Shishkov, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) was originally motivated by enterprise demands for better business-technology alignment and higher flexibility and reuse. SOA evolved from an initial set of ideas and principles to Web services (WS) standards now widely accepted by industry. The next phase of SOA

  2. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  3. PHP Object-Oriented Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David

    2008-01-01

    With the surge of popularity of PHP 5, and with PHP 6 just around the corner, Object-Oriented Programming is now an important consideration for PHP developers. This version-neutral book is a gentle introduction to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) that won t overburden you with complex theory. It teaches you the essential basics of OOP that you ll need to know before moving onto a more advanced level, and includes a series of pre-packaged scripts that you can incorporate into your existing sites with the minimum of effort. It shows how OOP can be used to create reusable and portable code by wa

  4. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  5. Misperceptions about the conflict in Chechnya: The influence of Orientalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Shafee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the misperceptions about the Russian-Chechen conflicts, trends of which can be observed in the Western media and academia. The first section investigates issues related to Islamic fundamentalism in Chechnya, while the second section looks into discussion about the roots of the conflict. The third section is devoted to the issue of brutality - the most debated topic in the Western media. I argue that an overarching misperception about the Chechen conflict was caused not only by Russian propaganda, but also by the inherent attitude prevailing in the West. This attitude should be understood in the framework of Orientalism as was explained by Edward Said.

  6. The Effects on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives Within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre–post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics

  7. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  8. Pedagogical Issues in Object Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…

  9. Role-Oriented Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Philip; Beringer, Joerg; Winther, Jacob

    This paper examines the concept of role-­oriented enterprise systems by investigating motivations for and approaches to constructing and reflecting predefined organizational roles in user interfaces of packaged enterprise systems. The research is conducted as case studies of Microsoft and SAP...

  10. Object Oriented Programming in Director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Director is one of the most popular authoring software. As software for developing multimedia applications, Director is an object oriented programming environment. A very important issue to develop multimedia applications is the designing of their own classes. This paper presents the particular aspects concerning the available facilities offered by Lingo to design classes and to generate objects.

  11. Sexual orientation, prejudice, and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.S. Plug (Erik); H.D. Webbink (Dinand); N.G. Martin (Nicholas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken fromAustralian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our

  12. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  13. Importance of process oriented organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedic, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.

  14. Market Orientation and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hua Chin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation plays a vital role for organizations to compete to create sustainable competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between market orientation (MO and organizational performance (OP with service quality (SQ as a moderator in the context of the hotel industry in Malaysia. MO and OP were conceptualized as three- and two-dimensional constructs, respectively, whereas SQ, which consists of two-dimensional constructs, namely, technical quality and functional quality, was used as a moderator. Data were gathered through a survey using a structured questionnaire with a sample of 187 executive-level employees employed in hotels rated three stars and above in Malaysia. SmartPLS 2.0 (M3 with path modeling and bootstrapping was used to examine the standard error of the estimate and t-values. The findings suggest that only competitor orientation dimension of MO was significantly related to OP, whereas customer orientation and inter-functional coordination were not related. Interestingly, SQ was found to have moderated the relationship between MO and performance of the hotels in Malaysia. SQ exists to fill in the gap between customers’ expectations and their perception of the service providers’ performance that further creates differentiation and competitive advantage, which enhance MO practices and ultimately lead to improvements in the firm’s performance. Implications of the findings, potential limitations of the study, and directions for future research are highlighted.

  15. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these

  16. Orientation as a Leadership Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Use of upper-class students in college freshmen orientation program leadership roles is proposed. Leadership qualities that can be promoted include planning, delegation, communication, decision making, situational analysis, relationship building, initiative, risk taking, stress management, and program evaluation. Two program models are proposed,…

  17. Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

  18. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  19. The Orientation and Mobility Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of recommendations of a position paper on training Orientation Mobility (OM) assistants is considered with suggestions concerning the roles of the OM specialist and OM assistant, specific skill areas for training, the role of the agency or school, and a preparation program for the mobility assistant leading to certification. (DB)

  20. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  1. Orient Journal of Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charges: Authors are required, at the submission of each article, to pay a sum of N15,000 (Fifteen Thousand Naira only) as processing fee at the Journal Office and obtain a written receipt, or pay into the Orient Journal of Medicine Bank Account (Account No. should be obtained directly from the Editor)and mail a scanned ...

  2. Neural computations in spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a research project that focused on how visual and vestibular signals are used by the human brain to maintain spatial orientation and visual stability. Given the limitations of the vestibular sensors in terms of bandwidth and precision, outlined in chapter 1,

  3. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  4. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  5. Social Dominance Orientation, Language Orientation, and Deaf Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-07-01

    The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically focusing on intergroup perceptions and relations, is one aspect that has been left unexplored and might prove particularly enlightening. The present study investigated SDO among 119 deaf and 49 hearing young adults through a standardized SDO questionnaire. SDO was examined with regard to cultural identities (deaf, hearing, bicultural, and marginal), cochlear implant use, and language orientation (sign language or spoken language). The deaf participants were found to be more egalitarian than hearing individuals overall. Deaf individuals who held the strongest deaf identities, those who were sign language oriented, and not cochlear implant users, were the most egalitarian. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Huysamer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazing, associated with initiation, aims at taking newcomers from novice status to a status of functional and acknowledged members of a new group. However, the process is often dangerous, injurious, and usually secretive. Hazing may occur as an unauthorised component of institutionally sanctioned orientation programmes commonly held for new students at educational institutions at the beginning of the academic year. This study focuses on the occurrence of hazing elements in orientation programmes (OP for Grade 8 boys primarily run by Grade 12 learners in boys-only secondary schools in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by administering a researcher-designed questionnaire to a non-probabilistic sample of 296 Grade 12 learners enrolled at three boys-only secondary schools in Johannesburg. The computer assisted analysis strategy included frequency distributions, exploratory factor analysis, and analysis of variance. Findings indicated that respondents generally agreed with regard to the structure, aims, and behaviours common to orientation programmes. Respondents strongly disagreed about the occurrence of physical and sexual abuse and activities aimed at discomfort in the OP; however, respondents showed ambivalence about the occurrence of certain activities, which may deteriorate into hazing. Prior experience of an orientation programme when in Grade 8; length of enrolment in the school, and boarder status affected respondents' perceptions of certain aspects of orientation programmes.

  7. Orientation Mapping of Extruded Polymeric Composites by Polarized Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular orientation has a strong influence on polymeric composite materials’ mechanical properties. In this paper we describe the use of polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy as a powerful tool to map out the molecular orientation of a uniaxially oriented polypropylene- (PP- based composite material. Initial samples exhibited a high degree of surface fibrillation upon cutting. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the degree of orientation in the skin and guide the development of the posttreatment process to optimize the skin relaxation while maintaining the high degree of orientation in the rest of the board. The PP oriented polymer composite (OPC was oriented through an extrusion process and its surface was then treated to achieve relaxation. Micro-Raman analysis at the surface region demonstrated the surface orientation relaxation, and the results provide an effective way to correlate the extent of relaxation and process conditions. Larger scale orientation mapping was also carried out over the entire cross-section (12.7 cm × 2.54 cm. The results agree well with prior expectation of the molecular orientation based on the extrusion and subsequent quenching process. The methodologies described here can be readily applied to other polymeric systems.

  8. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yoshihiro; Kosaka, Toru; Kuwahara, Go; Mikami, Hiroshi; Saku, Taro; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-01-01

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines. PMID:28817059

  9. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohta Kodama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines.

  10. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yoshihiro; Kosaka, Toru; Kuwahara, Go; Mikami, Hiroshi; Saku, Taro; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-03-16

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines.

  11. Supervisory orientation, employee goal orientation, and knowledge management among front line hotel employees.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, S; Cang, Shuang; Yu, Hongnian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how managers can enhance the knowledge management (KM) among front line hotel employees at the individual level, by affecting the employee goal orientations through supervisory orientations. This study found significant influence of supervisory orientations on employee goal orientation. The positive effect of employee learning goal orientation on KM is also significant. However the effect of performance goal orientation on KM is insignificant. Results also support the ...

  12. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  13. What predicts recovery orientation in county departments of mental health? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Mahoney, Christine B; Adams, Neal; Felton, Mistique; Pareja, Candy

    2010-09-01

    In this pilot study we examined the determinants of recovery orientation among employees and influential stakeholders in a sample of 12 county departments of mental health in California. A two-level hierarchical linear model with random intercepts was estimated. Analyses show that recovery orientation has a U-shaped relationship with the age of staff/influential stakeholders and is negatively related to the difference between the desired level of adhocracy and the current level of adhocracy. Recovery orientation is positively related to the education level of staff/influential stakeholders, satisfying transformational leadership outcomes, and larger mental health budgets per capita. Policy implications are discussed.

  14. Orientational and Translational Ordering of Sub-Monolayer Films of Passivated Multiply-Twinned Gold Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WELLNER,A.; NELLIST,P.D.; PALMER,R.E.; AINDOW,M.; WILCOXON,JESS P.

    2000-07-18

    The influence of the substrate on the translational and orientational ordering in sub-monolayer films of passivated multiply-twinned gold clusters has been investigated using high resolution and dark field transmission electron microscopy. Although clear differences were observed in the degree of translational ordering on amorphous carbon and etched silicon substrates, there was no corresponding variation in the crystallographic orientation of the nanocrystal cores. The results demonstrate that the orientation of passivated clusters with multiply-twinned cores is effectively random with respect to both the superlattice and the substrate.

  15. Attention orienting by eye gaze and arrows reveals flexibility to environmental changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuo; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the difference in non-predictive cues between gaze and arrows in attention orienting. Attention orienting was investigated with gaze or arrows as separate cues in a simple condition (i.e., block design) in Experiment 1 and in an unpredictable condition (i.e., randomized design) in Experiment 2. Two kinds of sound (voice and tone) stimuli were used as targets. Results showed that gaze and arrow cues induced enhanced attention orienting to a voice versus tone target...

  16. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  17. Exploring object-oriented technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Object oriented technologies are the corner stone of modern software development. A piece of software is today conceived, constructed and tested as a set of objects interacting with each other, rather than as a large sequential program. OO is present throughout the whole software life cycle allowing for maintainable code re-use, clean design and manageable complexity. OO is also the seed upon which other technologies are being built and deployed, such as distributed computing, component models, open interoperability, etc.This series of three seminars will provide a pragmatic overview on the main ideas behind OO software development and will explain the inner workings of the most outstanding technologies being built on OO, such as UML, CORBA, Component Models, Agent Oriented Computing, Business Objects, etc.

  18. Organizational search and market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2008-01-01

    , price, place, promotion, and their respective sub-components) of marketing. Viewed from this perspective, the main challenge for marketing managers is to find, select and deliver the attributes in the marketing mix that match the expressed and still unexpressed preferences of current and prospective...... orientation grounded in organizational search holds great promise to provide answers to the problem of how to strategically position a product in the market place. [References Available upon Request]  ......  Market orientation has evolved into a key construct in the marketing and strategy literature. While much progress has been made in empirical research, the concept lacks a coherent theoretical foundation. Essentially, much prior research has pointed to the role of market-sensing capabilities...

  19. Strategy, market orientation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, R.P.; Zaefarian, Ghasem; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the fit between the strategic posture of a political party and its political market orientation, and analyses the impact of this fit on party performance. For this purpose, a configuration theory logic is applied to the context of the political market; in particular, we...... develop strategic profiles (i.e. strategic postures and political market orientation) of four Belgian political parties represented in the Flemish Parliament. By comparing the strategic profiles derived from a questionnaire administered to 3148 party members with those of ‘theoretically ideal’ profiles......, we uncover the ‘strategic misfit’ (or ‘misalignment’) for each party and then relate this misfit to party performance. Results indicate that there is a strong, negative relationship between the misalignment of actual and perceived strategic profiles on the one hand and performance on the other...

  20. Service Oriented E-Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar, Dr.

    Due to different directives, the growing request for citizen-orientation, improved service quality, effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and reduction of costs, as well as administrative burden public administrations apply increasingly management tools and IT for continual service development and sustainable citizens' satisfaction. Therefore public administrations implement always more standard based management systems, such as quality ISO9001, environmental ISO 14001 or others. Due to this situation we used in different case studies as basis for e-government a the administration adapted, holistic administration management model to analyze stakeholder requirements and to integrate, harmonize and optimize services, processes, data, directives, concepts and forms. In these case studies the developed and consequently implemented holistic administration management model promotes constantly over more years service effectiveness, citizen satisfaction, efficiency, cost reduction, shorter initial training periods for new collaborators, employee involvement for sustainable citizen-oriented service improvement and organizational development.

  1. Micro-orientation control of silicon polymer thin films on graphite surfaces modified by heteroatom doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Iwao, E-mail: shimoyama.iwao@jaea.go.jp [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Baba, Yuji [Fukushima Administrative Department, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hirao, Norie [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Micro-orientation control method for organic polysilane thin films is proposed. • This method utilizes surface modification of graphite using heteroatom doping. • Lying, standing, and random orientations can be freely controlled by this method. • Micro-pattering of a polysilane film with controlled orientations is achieved. - Abstract: Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study orientation structures of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) films deposited on heteroatom-doped graphite substrates prepared by ion beam doping. The Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra of PDMS show opposite trends of polarization dependence for non irradiated and N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated substrates, and show no polarization dependence for an Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrate. Based on a theoretical interpretation of the NEXAFS spectra via first-principles calculations, we clarify that PDMS films have lying, standing, and random orientations on the non irradiated, N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated, and Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrates, respectively. Furthermore, photoemission electron microscopy indicates that the orientation of a PDMS film can be controlled with microstructures on the order of μm by separating irradiated and non irradiated areas on the graphite surface. These results suggest that surface modification of graphite using ion beam doping is useful for micro-orientation control of organic thin films.

  2. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  3. Curvatures Estimation in Orientation Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    Figure Legends 8. Figure Legends Figure 1. Models of the simple and complex cell components Spatial integration is followed by a sturating ...tracing [Ballard and Brown , 1982; Levine, 19851 and it works as follows: from a starting edge position, move in the direction indicated by the orientation... Brown , C., Computer Vision, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1982. Benson, A., and Evans, D.J., A normalized algorithm for the solution of positive

  4. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  5. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  6. Orientational anisotropy in infant vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

    1975-01-01

    Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

  7. Orientational contrast sensitivity and chromatic contrast thresholds in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy L; Ong, Gek L; Ripley, Lionel G

    2004-02-01

    To investigate abnormalities of orientational contrast sensitivity (CS) and chromatic contrast threshold (CCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Case control study. Nine subjects (mean age, 42 +/- 11 years; range, 20-62 years) with MS, an expanded disability status scale of 3 or less, and normal visual acuity (VA) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] VA less than.1) in the tested eye were age-matched with 20 controls. Achromatic CS and CCT were measured using static, computer-generated sinusoidal gratings displayed on a high-resolution monitor. The CS and CCT of each subject were determined using a randomized double-staircase reversal algorithm; CS was measured at five spatial frequencies with horizontal orientation and three with vertical orientation; CCT was measured along the red-green and tritan confusion axes. The sensitivity thresholds of subjects were examined in relation to the mean sensitivity of controls for each spatial frequency. Two subjects had loss of horizontal and vertical CS, and three had isolated vertical loss. When compared with the control mean, there were significant reductions in red-green (P =.016) and tritan (P =.016) discrimination thresholds. This study used a computerized psychophysical test designed to minimize many of the test errors associated with earlier studies. It provides confirmatory evidence that MS may be associated with a loss of orientational CS and color vision, in the absence of reduced VA.

  8. Bias and precision in visual analogue scales: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Dauphin, A; Guillemin, F; Virion, J M; Briançon, S

    1999-11-15

    Various types of visual analogue scales (VAS) are used in epidemiologic and clinical research. This paper reports on a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of variations in the orientation and type of scale on bias and precision in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. This trial was included in the pilot study of the SU.VI.MAX (supplementation by antioxidant vitamins and minerals) prevention trial in France in 1994. Six types of VAS (simple, middle-marked, graphic rating, graduated, graduated-numbered, and numerical rating) and two orientations (horizontal and vertical) were used to measure three symptoms of ear, nose, and throat infection at 2-month intervals in 870 subjects. Differences between scales were analyzed by comparing variances (Levene's test) and means (variance-covariance analysis for repeated measures). Scale characteristics were shown to influence the proportion of zero and low values (i.e., there was a floor effect), but not mean scores. The precision of measurements varied cross-sectionally according to the type of scale, but no differences were observed in the precision of measurement of change over time. In conclusion, the characteristics of VAS seem to be important in cross-sectional studies, particularly when symptoms of low or high intensity are being measured. Researchers should try to reach a consensus on what type of VAS to use if studies are to be compared.

  9. DIORAMA Model of Satellite Body Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The DIORAMA GPS satellite platform orientation model is described. Satellites need to keep sensors pointed towards the earth and solar panels oriented to face the sun (when not in the earth’s shadow) while they orbit the earth.

  10. [Customer orientation in ambulant medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer orientation in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer orientation. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer orientation has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Intensive mention of customer orientation in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of

  11. Orientation: the key to successful, engaged staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Kristi; Dowd, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Orientation programs are an important component of employee retention and engagement, yet the importance of orientation is often overlooked by many organizations. A lack of an adequate orientation program can result in new employees finding it difficult to adapt to the organization's culture,and may lead to high turnover rates. This article relates the story of Banner Baywood Medical Center's quest to cultivate an effective orientation program and increase retention of quality, engaged employees.

  12. How does firm performance influence market orientation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    This paper contributes by investigating how firm performance influences its market orientation. We draw on the aspiration-level model from the behavioral theory of the firm to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior market orientation research. Specifically, we address how...... performance influences firms' market-oriented search behavior (responsive or proactive) and the allocation of attention (customer and competitor orientation) as well as the formation of aspiration levels. Research and managerial implications are discussed....

  13. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Shohta Kodama; Taro Saku; Hiroshi Mikami; Go Kuwahara; Toru Kosaka; Yoshihiro Isobe

    2012-01-01

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the...

  14. The association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. METHODS: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, P<0.05 and marginal orientation (OR = 1.64, P<0.05 increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR = 2.59, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR = 1.79, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR = 0.48, P<0.05 had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender

  15. Service Market Orientation And Business Performance | Tesha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing managers and scholars believe that marketing orientation improves a lot a company's performance. This is vividly shown when one examines literatures on marketing orientation and its impact on companies performance. It is acceptable that marketing orientation, learning organization and business innovations ...

  16. Wildlife value orientations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Wildlife value orientations among inhabitants of the Netherlands were explored by conducting semi-structured interviews, and using predefined value orientations that were previously revealed in the United States. Special attention was paid to the existence of mutualism orientations, viewing wildlife

  17. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  18. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    and orientations are registered and extracted without non-linearly deforming the images. We use the proposed breast coordinate transform in a cross-sectional breast cancer risk assessment study of 490 women, in which we attempt to learn breast cancer risk factors from mammograms that were taken prior to when...... between the mammograms of each woman and among the mammograms of all of the women in the study. The results of the cross-sectional study show that the classification into cancer and control groups can be improved by using the new coordinate system, compared to other systems evaluated. Comparisons were...

  19. Exploring the effect of customer orientation on Dana insurance performance considering the intermediary role of customer relations and service quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtaran Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to explore the effect of customer orientation on Dana Insurance Company's performance with a focus on the intermediary role of managing customer relations and services quality. To this end, 180 Dana insurance representatives in Tehran, Iran were randomly sampled. As an applied study in terms of its goal, this research is carried out in a cross-sectional descriptive-survey design. The information was collected through literature review and a questionnaire with 55 items which was validated through expert panel. The reliability of the questionnaire was approved at 0.986 probability level as calculated using Cronbach's Alpha measure. Data analysis was performed at two descriptive and interpretative statistical levels using SPSS software program. The results from regression analysis indicated that customer orientation of Dana insurance company has a significant positive effect on marketing performance, financial performance, and organizational performance. In addition, customer orientation has a significant positive effect on Dana Insurance company's customer relationship management and service quality.

  20. Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, L; Janhonen, S

    2000-05-01

    Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing This paper presents the results of a study focusing on the factors associated with orientations to nursing. Students' orientations to nursing have not as yet been a focus of nursing research. In some other professions, however, professional orientation has been associated with learning motivation and study performance, and has been seen as a predictor of work satisfaction. In this study, students' orientations to nursing were defined in terms of caring, nursing expertise and life orientation. The hypothesis of whether students' pre-educational experiences of nursing, gender, choice of nursing specialty, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing were associated with different orientations was tested. The extent to which students were orientated to caring, nursing expertise and their own life was also examined. The orientation to nursing measurement tool, which has been developed on the basis of a qualitative study, was used to collect the data. Nurse teachers collected the data from nursing students (n=184) who were studying in three different nursing programmes in Finland. Non-parametric assessments (Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) of the differences between the students' orientations were carried out. A majority of the students were highly life-orientated, and two-thirds had average nursing expertise or caring orientation scores. The results supported the study hypothesis of an association between students' orientations and their gender, choice of nursing speciality, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing. However, the hypothesis of an association between students' pre-educational nursing experiences and orientation to nursing was not supported. The contradictions between students' orientation to nursing and the philosophy of nursing underlying the study programme may be a source of motivational problems and dissatisfaction with nursing education

  1. A Brief Orientation Week Ecological Momentary Intervention to Reduce University Student Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Benjamin C; Conner, Tamlin S; Flett, Jayde A M; Scarf, Damian

    2015-07-01

    Orientation Week is a series of events at the beginning of the university year that introduces incoming students to university life. It is also the period of the academic year when students consume more alcohol than at any other time. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol consumption during Orientation Week was related to alcohol consumption during the academic year. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a brief Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) implemented during Orientation Week could reduce alcohol consumption during Orientation Week and throughout the academic year. Participants were 130 freshman-year university students (72 women, 58 men) randomly assigned to either an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) condition or an EMA-EMI condition. In both conditions, participants reported pre-university, Orientation Week, and academic year weekend alcohol consumption. Those in the EMA-EMI condition also received EMI text messages promoting moderation every night during Orientation Week. Although the EMI did not reduce men's drinking, women in the EMA-EMI condition, compared with women in the EMA condition, consumed significantly fewer drinks during Orientation Week, M = 17.1, SD = 13.3, vs. M = 26.4, SD = 22.5, respectively, t(70) = -1.927, p EMIs during Orientation Week.

  2. The impact of interference on short-term memory for visual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; Bloem, Ilona M; De Weerd, Peter; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-12-01

    Visual short-term memory serves as an efficient buffer for maintaining no longer directly accessible information. How robust are visual memories against interference? Memory for simple visual features has proven vulnerable to distractors containing conflicting information along the relevant stimulus dimension, leading to the idea that interacting feature-specific channels at an early stage of visual processing support memory for simple visual features. Here we showed that memory for a single randomly orientated grating was susceptible to interference from a to-be-ignored distractor grating presented midway through a 3-s delay period. Memory for the initially presented orientation became noisier when it differed from the distractor orientation, and response distributions were shifted toward the distractor orientation (by ∼3°). Interestingly, when the distractor was rendered task-relevant by making it a second memory target, memory for both retained orientations showed reduced reliability as a function of increased orientation differences between them. However, the degree to which responses to the first grating shifted toward the orientation of the task-relevant second grating was much reduced. Finally, using a dichoptic display, we demonstrated that these systematic biases caused by a consciously perceived distractor disappeared once the distractor was presented outside of participants' awareness. Together, our results show that visual short-term memory for orientation can be systematically biased by interfering information that is consciously perceived. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The relationship between general causality orientation and treatment outcome among marijuana-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert S; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    General causality orientations are motivational styles that are indicative of a person's belief about personal change and their motivation to change. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether causality orientations were associated with marijuana treatment outcomes in a sample of marijuana-dependent individuals. A total of 74 participants (66% male) were recruited from the Seattle, Washington area and randomly assigned to receive a combination of motivational enhancement and cognitive behavioral therapy or the combination treatment plus additional "check-up" sessions. Follow-up assessments evaluated frequency of use, use-related problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms through 9months. Causality orientations were relatively stable over time. Posttreatment Autonomy orientations were associated with lower frequency of use and Controlled orientations were associated with a reduction in use, problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms. Autonomy and Controlled orientations were associated with readiness to change. Results suggest that both autonomous and controlled orientations have implications for response to treatment; perhaps for different reasons. Causality orientations may be a promising avenue of research to predict treatment response and outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Learn how to write object-oriented programs in R and how to construct classes and class hierarchies in the three object-oriented systems available in R. This book gives an introduction to object-oriented programming in the R programming language and shows you how to use and apply R in an object-oriented...... manner. You will then be able to use this powerful programming style in your own statistical programming projects to write flexible and extendable software. After reading Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R, you'll come away with a practical project that you can reuse in your own analytics coding...

  5. Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Learn how to write object-oriented programs in R and how to construct classes and class hierarchies in the three object-oriented systems available in R. This book gives an introduction to object-oriented programming in the R programming language and shows you how to use and apply R in an object......-oriented manner. You will then be able to use this powerful programming style in your own statistical programming projects to write flexible and extendable software. After reading Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R, you'll come away with a practical project that you can reuse in your own analytics coding...

  6. Object oriented JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    You will first be introduced to object-oriented programming, then to the basics of objects in JavaScript. This book takes a do-it-yourself approach when it comes to writing code, because the best way to really learn a programming language is by writing code. You are encouraged to type code into Firebug's console, see how it works and then tweak it and play around with it. There are practice questions at the end of each chapter to help you review what you have learned.For new to intermediate JavaScript developer who wants to prepare themselves for web development problems solved by smart JavaSc

  7. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......-timizing compiler. Types are finite sets of classes and subtyping is set inclusion. Using a trace graph, our algorithm constructs a set of conditional type constraints and computes the least solution by least fixed-point derivation....

  8. Pressure Safety Orientation Live #769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Pressure Safety Orientation (course #769) introduces workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the Laboratory Pressure Safety Program and to pressure-related hazards. This course also affords a hands-on exercise involving the assembly of a simple pressure system. This course is required for all LANL personnel who work on or near pressure systems and are exposed to pressure-related hazards. These personnel include pressure-system engineers, designers, fabricators, installers, operators, inspectors, maintainers, and others who work with pressurized fluids and may be exposed to pressure-related hazards.

  9. The Impact of Group Design Projects in Engineering on Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Balgopal, Meena

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of incorporating group design projects into a second-year engineering class on achievement goal orientations and two academic outcomes: concept inventory and final exam scores. In this study, two sections were taught using lecture format, but one section also completed three group design projects as part of their…

  10. Resiliency and religious orientation: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmahmoodi, Jawad; Rahimi, Changiz; Mohamadi, Norolah

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between resilience and religious orientation (internal and external) with posttraumatic growth (PTG). This study also examined the impact of marriage and sex variables on growth. Participants were selected based on prescreening of a larger group of students enrolled in the University of Shiraz. Participants were recruited in two stages. Three hundred fifty students were randomly selected in the first stage, and those students who experienced a minimum of one traumatic event within the last five years were selected in the second stage. They completed the Traumatic Life Event Questionnaire (TLEQ), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Iranian version (PTGI-I), and the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). According to stepwise regression analysis, two subscales of resiliency, novelty seeking and positive future orientation, and a subscale of religious orientation, intrinsic orientation, were related to PTG. In addition, compared to singles, the married subjects experienced greater degree of growth. Personal extrinsic orientation and emotional regulation factor of resilience had a positive and meaningful relationship with PTG, although they were omitted from the regression analysis model. Sex and Socio-Extrinsic religious orientation were not related to PTG. Some subscales of resiliency and religious orientation could predict posttraumatic growth in Iranian subjects, but there were no gender differences. The intrinsic orientation had the greatest significance in predicting posttraumatic growth. The personal extrinsic orientation had a significant positive correlation with post-traumatic growth, no significant correlation was observed between social extrinsic orientation and post-traumatic growth. The openness to experience was an important feature for proper growth of people facing a trauma. Optimistic subjects showed more flexibility in their coping strategies, and therefore had a tendency to adapt themselves to problematic

  11. Resiliency and Religious Orientation: Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth in Iranian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norolah Mohamadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This study investigated the relationship between resilience and religious orientation (internal and external with posttraumatic growth (PTG. This study also examined the impact of marriage and sex variables on growth. "nMethod: Participants were selected based on prescreening of a larger group of students enrolled in the University of Shiraz. Participants were recruited in two stages. Three hundred fifty students were randomly selected in the first stage, and those students who experienced a minimum of one traumatic event within the last five years were selected in the second stage. They completed the Traumatic Life Event Questionnaire (TLEQ, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory - Iranian version (PTGI-I, and the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS. "nResults: According to stepwise regression analysis, two subscales of resiliency, novelty seeking and positive future orientation, and a subscale of religious orientation, intrinsic orientation, were related to PTG. In addition, compared to singles, the married subjects experienced greater degree of growth. Personal extrinsic orientation and emotional regulation factor of resilience had a positive and meaningful relationship with PTG, although they were omitted from the regression analysis model. Sex and Socio-Extrinsic religious orientation were not related to PTG. "nConclusion: Some subscales of resiliency and religious orientation could predict posttraumatic growth in Iranian subjects, but there were no gender differences. The intrinsic orientation had the greatest significance in predicting posttraumatic growth. The personal extrinsic orientation had a significant positive correlation with post-traumatic growth, no significant correlation was observed between social extrinsic orientation and post-traumatic growth. The openness to experience was an important feature for proper growth of people facing a trauma. Optimistic subjects showed more flexibility in their coping strategies, and

  12. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  13. Can horizontally oriented breast tomosynthesis image volumes or the use of a systematic search strategy improve interpretation? An eye tracking and free response human observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lång, Kristina; Zackrisson, Sophia; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Ingvar; Förnvik, Daniel; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2011-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate if there is a benefit in diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of viewing breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes presented horizontally oriented, but also to evaluate the use of a systematic search strategy where the breast is divided, and analyzed consecutively, into two sections. These image presentations were compared to regular vertical image presentation. All methods were investigated using viewing procedures consisting of free scroll volume browsing, and a combination of initial cine loops at three different frame rates (9, 14, 25 fps) terminated upon request followed by free scroll volume browsing if needed. Fifty-five normal BT image volumes in MLO view were collected. In these, simulated lesions (20 masses and 20 clusters of microcalcifications) were randomly inserted, creating four unique image sets for each procedure. Four readers interpreted the cases in a random order. Their task was to locate the lesions, mark and assign a five level confidence scale. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using Jackknife Free Receiver Operating Characteristics (JAFROC). Time efficiency and visual search behavior were also investigated using eye tracking. Results indicate there was no statistically significant difference in JAFROC FOM between the different image presentations, although visual search was more time efficient when viewing horizontally oriented image volumes in medium cine loops.

  14. Asymmetric evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.

    2003-10-01

    We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.

  15. Organizing for Customer and Competitor Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of structural liaison devices, specialization, the presence of a marketing function, and competitive intensity as antecedents to firms' customer and competitor orientation. Results based on a sample of 99 medium-sized (50-250 employees) manufac......The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of structural liaison devices, specialization, the presence of a marketing function, and competitive intensity as antecedents to firms' customer and competitor orientation. Results based on a sample of 99 medium-sized (50-250 employees......) manufacturing firms indicate, that while specialization and liaison devices facilitate customer orientation only liaison devices facilitate competitor orientation. Competitive intensity has no effects on customer orientation but influence competitor orientation. The results also indicate that the presence...... of a marketing function has no influence on the level of firms' customer and competitor orientation....

  16. Why competitors matter for market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2009-01-01

    - Empirical evidence reveals that, while competitor orientation is positively related to a firm's market share, a customer orientation is detrimental to a firm's return on assets for firms in less competitive environments.   Research implications and limitations - The study advocates moving beyond ‘global...... - Customer versus competitor orientation appears to be contingent on a firm's competitive environment, which indicates that market orientation and its components are not necessarily equally relevant for firms with different strategies and in different environments.   Originality - The paper introduces......  Purpose - This paper investigates whether it is meaningful to decompose market orientation into customer orientation and competitor orientation and what possible implications this decomposition may have for researchers and business practitioners.   Design - Through a review of existing market...

  17. 3D DIRECTIONAL MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF FIBER ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Altendorf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present algorithms for measuring local characteristics of random fiber systems. The calculation of the local directions and radii is based on directional distance transforms and evaluation of the inertia moments and axes of the resulting extremities of the centralized, directed chords. The method provides continuous results while minimizing the runtime by using few sampled directions. Furthermore several steps of improvement for the computation of orientation and radius information are presented. The algorithms are evaluated using synthetic data and applied to images of realmicrostructures obtained by computer tomography.

  18. Sexual orientation and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, G E; Pillard, R C

    1991-06-01

    We asked whether homosexual and heterosexual men and women differ on standard measures of cognitive ability. Subjects were adults recruited for a family study of sexual orientation. They completed the Fy Scale of the California Psychological Inventory, a self-administered measure of psychological "femininity," and were given subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Primary Mental Abilities test which had been previously shown to discriminate between the sexes. We predicted that homosexual subjects would score significantly in the gender-atypical direction on the Fy scale. We also predicted that they would achieve scores on the tests of cognitive abilities significantly in the direction of the other gender. Comparisons were made between homosexual and heterosexual individuals within gender. Also, comparisons were made between heterosexual men and women to see if our results replicate differences typically found between the genders. As predicted, both homosexual men and women were strongly gender-atypical on the Fy scale relative to their heterosexual counterparts. However, neither differed from heterosexuals on any of the measures of cognitive abilities. Heterosexual men did better than women on the Primary Mental Abilities spatial relations test. We conclude that sexual orientation is not related to specific cognitive abilities.

  19. CLUB COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION    Automne 2010 : Quel programme!   Après une pause de deux mois, le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses d’orientation pour cet automne. Ces courses ont lieu généralement le samedi entre 13h00 et 17h00. 5 circuits sont disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4 km), technique court (3,5 km) ou technique moyen (4,5 km). Il y aura donc toujours un parcours à votre niveau. Un classement général est effectué pour vous motiver à persévérer ! Ces courses (ou promena...

  20. Oriented antibody immobilization on self-assembled monolayers applied as impedance biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugimura, Kaiki; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Wu, Haiyun; Endo, Hideaki; Tsuya, Daiju; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2017-11-01

    Oriented immobilization of antibodies on a sensor chip is crucial for enhancing both the sensitivity and antigen-binding capacity of immunosensors. Here, we report a comparative study of the effect of oriented and random antibody immobilization on the binding efficiency by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oriented immobilization of anti-myoglobin immunoglobulin G (anti-Myo IgG) was achieved by bonding to an Fc receptor of protein G (PrG) on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which results in the myoglobin (Myo) binding sites being exposed outside the sensing surface. Random immobilization of anti-Myo IgG was achieved by direct covalent attachment to the SAM surface. Both immobilizations were applied to interdigitated electrodes to enhance the electrochemical signal, and the Myo biosensor performance was then evaluated by a series of EIS measurements. We found that (i) the rate of the normalized charge transfer resistance for the oriented sample was 3 times higher than that for the random sample and (ii) the detection limit was 0.001 ng/mL, which is the lowest recorded detection limit among Myo immunosensors based on EIS. These findings indicate that oriented antibody immobilization is crucial for preparing highly sensitive EIS-based biosensors.

  1. Orientation-induced enhancement in electromagnetic properties of ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI core/shell/shell nanostructured disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI (ZSP) core/shell/shell nanostructured disks are prepared and fabricated into paraffin-bonded ZSP composite rings with random, vertical, and horizontal orientations of the easy magnetization planes of the ZSP disks in the paraffin binder in order to study the effect of directional orientation of the easy magnetization planes on their electromagnetic properties. The easy magnetization planes induced by shape anisotropy and oriented by a magnetic field in the vertically oriented ring result in a general enhancement in permeability of 7-60% in the broad UHF-Ku (0.1-18 GHz) bands, while those in the horizontally oriented ring lead to a significant enhancement of 58-1100% in the low-frequency L and S (1-4 GHz) bands, in comparison with the randomly oriented ring. The observed permeability agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory. The horizontal and vertical arrangements of dipolar polarizations in the vertically and horizontally oriented rings give rise to 3-11% enhancement and weakening in permittivity, respectively, compared to the randomly oriented ring. The enhancement in permeability also improves and broadens the electromagnetic wave absorption in both vertically and horizontally oriented rings, especially in the L and S bands for the horizontally oriented ring.

  2. Orientation-induced enhancement in electromagnetic properties of ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI core/shell/shell nanostructured disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaheng Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI (ZSP core/shell/shell nanostructured disks are prepared and fabricated into paraffin-bonded ZSP composite rings with random, vertical, and horizontal orientations of the easy magnetization planes of the ZSP disks in the paraffin binder in order to study the effect of directional orientation of the easy magnetization planes on their electromagnetic properties. The easy magnetization planes induced by shape anisotropy and oriented by a magnetic field in the vertically oriented ring result in a general enhancement in permeability of 7–60% in the broad UHF–Ku (0.1–18 GHz bands, while those in the horizontally oriented ring lead to a significant enhancement of 58–1100% in the low-frequency L and S (1–4 GHz bands, in comparison with the randomly oriented ring. The observed permeability agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman’s effective medium theory. The horizontal and vertical arrangements of dipolar polarizations in the vertically and horizontally oriented rings give rise to 3–11% enhancement and weakening in permittivity, respectively, compared to the randomly oriented ring. The enhancement in permeability also improves and broadens the electromagnetic wave absorption in both vertically and horizontally oriented rings, especially in the L and S bands for the horizontally oriented ring.

  3. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  4. Stereological estimation of particle shape and orientation from volume tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, A H; Ziegel, J F; Nyengaard, J R; Jensen, E B Vedel

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, we describe new robust methods of estimating cell shape and orientation in 3D from sections. The descriptors of 3D cell shape and orientation are based on volume tensors which are used to construct an ellipsoid, the Miles ellipsoid, approximating the average cell shape and orientation in 3D. The estimators of volume tensors are based on observations in several optical planes through sampled cells. This type of geometric sampling design is known as the optical rotator. The statistical behaviour of the estimator of the Miles ellipsoid is studied under a flexible model for 3D cell shape and orientation. In a simulation study, the lengths of the axes of the Miles ellipsoid can be estimated with coefficients of variation of about 2% if 100 cells are sampled. Finally, we illustrate the use of the developed methods in an example, involving neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of rat. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. A virtual psychiatric ward for orientating patients admitted for the first time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai-Chi; Choi, Kup-Sze; Chung, Wai-Yee

    2010-12-01

    Misconceptions about psychiatric wards frequently cause newly admitted mental patients to stay away from these wards despite their need for treatment. Although ward orientation is typically conducted by nurses in an attempt to help patients to adapt to the new environment, it is considered time-consuming, and the method of orientation and the explanations given may vary among different nurses. This situation calls for a more effective and standardized approach to orientating mental patients on their first admission. To this end, a computer-based interactive virtual environment was developed based on a real psychiatric ward by using virtual reality (VR) technologies. It enables the patient to navigate around to gain understanding about the ward through a virtual guided tour. The effectiveness of this VR orientation approach was investigated by a randomized controlled trial with consecutive sampling. Fifty-four Chinese participants were randomly assigned to undergo ward orientation by either using the VR-based approach or reading text-based electronic information sheets about the ward with a computer. Subjective and objective measures were obtained respectively using the Chinese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the heart-rate variability measurement before and after the intervention. In addition, a test on the level of understanding about the ward was administered at the end of the session. The results showed that the VR orientation approach is helpful in reducing patients' anxiety while also improving their level of understanding about the ward.

  6. Nanocapsule-based probe for evaluating the orientation of antibodies immobilized on a solid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés Daniel; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2013-06-21

    The orientation of sensing molecules on solid phase biosensors has to be optimized to facilitate efficient binding of analytes. Since conventional observation methods (e.g., electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) require exaggerated machines and possess insufficient resolution for single molecule analyses, functional assays based on the reactivity to analytes have thus far been used for this optimization. However, it is not clear whether these assays can judge whether sensing molecules are fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner or not. Here, we describe that bio-nanocapsules of about 30 nm diameter, displaying approximately 120 molecules of a tandem form of the immunoglobulin (Ig) G Fc-binding Z domain (ZZ-BNCs), can discriminate between the Fc regions of IgGs fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner and those fixed randomly, thus facilitating the evaluation of the orientation of IgGs in immunosensors. Furthermore, in sandwich immunoassays, ZZ-BNCs can bind specifically to detection-IgGs fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner by antigen-capture IgG complexes, rather than to capture-IgGs fixed randomly onto a solid phase, allowing the simultaneous use of the same IgG as capture- and detection-IgGs. Thus, we demonstrate that ZZ-BNCs are a unique probe for evaluating the orientation of IgGs on a solid phase.

  7. Field Induced Memory Effects in Random Nematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Ranjkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B,T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B=0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.

  8. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  9. The Management of the Citizen Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of the knowledge based society is presented. The new user requirements in the context of the new society are analyzed. Basic concepts regarding the citizen oriented applications are presented. Issues specific to the citizen oriented applications are presented. The development cycle of the citizen oriented applications is analyzed. The particular elements for developing citizen oriented applications are described. The quality concept for the citizen oriented applications is defined. Quality characteristics and the costs of quality are defined and analyzed. A system of indicators for the quantification of the quality of the citizen oriented applications is developed. Ways of increasing the quality of the applications are analyzed. Issues as improving the users’ training level, implementing new development techniques, advanced testing techniques and the requirement of audit are approached. The concept of optimization is defined. Optimum criteria are defined and analyzed. Ways of optimizing applications are described. Security requirements are enumerated and described. The particularities of the security requirements for the citizen oriented applications are analyzed. Measures for ensuring the security of the citizen oriented applications are described. A citizen oriented application for the analysis of the structured entities is developed. The application collects data regarding the behavior of the users. The collected data are used for verifying the hypotheses regarding the quality characteristics if the citizen oriented informatics applications.

  10. Effects of Task-Oriented Circuit Class Training on Walking Competency After Stroke A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lotte; van de Port, Ingrid; Vermue, Mathijs; Mead, Gillian; Kwakkel, Gert

    Background and Purpose-There is increasing interest in the potential benefits of circuit class training after stroke, but its effectiveness is uncertain. Our aim was to systematically review randomized, controlled trials of task-oriented circuit class training on gait and gait-related activities in

  11. Demographic influences on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Daniel R. Williams; Sandra Jonker

    2001-01-01

    Using the cognitive hierarchy as the theoretical foundation, this article examines the predictive influence of individuals' demographic characteristics on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n = 960). As predicted by theory, a...

  12. Surface electronic structure and molecular orientation of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) thin film: ARUPS and NEXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okudaira, K K; Hasegawa, S; Ishii, H; Azuma, Y; Imamura, M; Shimada, H; Seki, K; Ueno, N

    2001-01-01

    The molecular orientation at the surfaces of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PvCz) thin films was studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The observed take-off angle (theta) dependence of photoelectron intensities from top pi band peaks clearly at larger theta than the calculated one for the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model. The results indicate that there are more pendant groups with large tilt angles than the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model, which is in good agreement with the result obtained from NEXAFS spectroscopy. The surface electronic states of PvCz may be rather dominated by sigma(C-H) states at the pendant carbazole group than pi states

  13. The interactive effects of mortality salience and political orientation on moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D; Sonntag, Michael E; Kilpatrick, Harrison

    2015-06-01

    In two studies, the authors examined how threat induced by reminders of mortality would moderate the effect of political orientation on moral judgments. In Study 1, university students (n = 113) categorized their political orientation, were randomly assigned to complete a fear of death or public speaking scale, and then completed a moral foundations questionnaire. In Study 2, university students (n = 123) rated their political orientations, were randomly assigned to write about their own death or dental pain, and then completed a moral foundations questionnaire. In both studies, mortality salience intensified the moral differences between liberals and conservatives. These findings were primarily the result of the reactions of liberals, who responded to mortality salience with increased ratings of the fairness/cheating virtue in Study 1 and the care/harm virtue in Study 2. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Who takes more sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions? The role of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander; Bhattacharjee, Amitab

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role o...... of sustainable entrepreneurship, by providing answers for recent calls for better understanding which entrepreneurial ventures engage more in sustainability-oriented actions.......We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role...... of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations when taking sustainability-oriented actions. We confirm that individual differences in the set of values, beliefs and orientations can foster or hinder the sustainability-oriented actions across organizations. Our paper contributes to the growing literature...

  15. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Mexican Microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montiel Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years research on Entrepreneurship Orientation (EO has provided valuable information regarding strategy, entrepreneurship and aspects of performance at the firm-level. In the entrepreneurial universe, microenterprises play a very special role in the business context of the economy. However, they have not been relatively present in the EO research. This paper studies the EO-performance relationship in a group of microenterprises in Mexico and includes the Dominant Logic (DL as a variable that moderates this relationship. The results indicate that risk taking, proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness variables from the EO influence the microenterprise performance. In addition, the external DL conceptualization moderates the EO-performance relationship. This paper shows the conclusions of the investigation as well as the limitations and identifies future research methods.

  16. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of macrocyclic constraints in peptides (peptide stapling) is an important tool within peptide medicinal chemistry for stabilising and pre-organising peptides in a desired conformation. In recent years, the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has emerged...... as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...... incorporating two azide-modified amino acids with 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene efficiently provides (i, i+7)- and (i, i+9)-stapled peptides with a single free alkyne positioned on the staple, that can be further conjugated or dimerised. A unique feature of the present method is that it provides easy access...

  17. Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Machon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess nonzero gradients typically exhibits linelike structures or defects: λ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets, for example. Here, we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalization of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterize these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localize and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials—in particular, that they supply a natural representative of the Poincaré dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.

  18. Torture, sex and military Orientalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article revisits the debate about recent American torture practices, particularly the use of discredited anthropological texts to validate long-held Orientalist assumptions about the sexual vulnerability of Muslim males. Such practices are placed in an historical context of older imperial constructions of sexually deviant Muslims as well as of more general forms of gendered and sexual subordination required for war. American torturers intended to produce very particular objects of torture—ones willing and able to confess their 'true' orientation in terms of a binary hetero/homo sexual code established in 19th-century Europe. The torturers had the power to confirm through confession and re-enactment their crude assumptions, irrespective of the actual sexualities of those being tortured, with consequences for the transnational and reactionary politics of sexual identity.

  19. Testing Object-Oriented Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Skov, Stefan H.

    -types that are currently being developed into production versions. To assure a high quality in the product it was decided to carry out an activ-ity regarding issues in testing OO software. The purpose of this report is to discuss the issues of testing object-oriented software. It is often claimed that testing of OO......The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto...... software is radically different form testing traditional software developed using imperative/procedural programming. Other authors claim that there is no difference. In this report we will attempt to give an answer to these questions (or at least initiate a discussion)....

  20. Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKIC, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.

  1. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  2. Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Copper matrix Produced by Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Shirazi M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber orientation is a big challenge in short fiber reinforced composites. Powder injection molding (PIM process has some intrinsic fiber alignment associated with it. During PIM process fibers in skin region of moldings are aligned as these regions experience higher shear flow caused by the mold walls. Fibers in the core region remain randomly aligned as these regions are far from mold walls and experience lesser shear flow. In this study short carbon fiber (CF reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by PIM process. Two copper composite feedstock formulations were prepared having 5 vol% and 10 vol% CFs and a wax based binder system. Fiber orientation was controlled during injection molding by using a modified mold that has a diverging sprue. The sprue creates converging flow when feedstock enters into the mold cavity. Fiber orientation was analysed after molding using FESEM. The orientation of fibers can be controlled by controlling flow of feedstock into the mold.

  3. On the effect of the fiber orientation on the flexural stiffness of injection molded short fiber reinforced polycarbonate plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, N.M.; Isdell, G.; Pouzada, A.S.; Powell, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The through-thickness fiber orientation distribution of injection molded polycarbonate plates was experimentally determined by light reflection microscopy and manual digitization of polished cross sections. Fiber length distribution was determined by pyrolysis tests followed by image analysis. A

  4. Sport orientation model for wheelchair basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordilis, E K; Stavrou, N A

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Competitiveness: 13 items, Win Orientation: 6 items, and Goal Orientation: 6 items) in a sample of 195 wheelchair basketball athletes from the USA. Following evidence for sample-specific validity, the measurement model that underlies the questionnaire was examined. A short-form with 15 items for three factors of Competitiveness (7 items), Win Orientation (5 items) and Goal Orientation (3 items) fit the data (X2/df ratio=2.21, NNFI=.892, CFI=.991, RCFI=.935, SRMR=.058, RMSEA=.071). To evaluate the findings further, we cross-validated the short-form by sex. Structural equation modeling indicated there were similar measurement properties and factor structures for the men and women, indicating similar conceptualization of sport orientations. Meaningful comparisons across sex may be undertaken, since both men and women who are wheelchair basketball athletes perceive the three short-form SOQ factors similarly.

  5. Psychological sexual identity and hemispheric orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, E C

    1983-04-01

    The study examines gender and psychological sexual identity as alternative bases for the development of hemispheric orientation. Hypotheses anticipated that females place greater reliance upon right hemisphere functions, such as imagery and emotion, whereas males place more emphasis upon left hemisphere functions, such as logical reasoning. This was extended to an examination of the roles of masculinity and femininity within genders upon hemispheric orientation. With a sample of 219 male and 221 female adults, it was found that the male-left hemisphere orientation/female-right hemisphere orientation dichotomy was supported in part. However, this relationship appears to be moderated by a second dimension: females appear more internally oriented, males more externally oriented.

  6. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  7. Orientation, distance, regulation and function of neighbouring genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sequencing of the human genome has allowed us to observe globally and in detail the arrangement of genes along the chromosomes. There are multiple lines of evidence that this arrangement is not random, both in terms of intergenic distances and orientation of neighbouring genes. We have undertaken a systematic evaluation of the spatial distribution and orientation of known genes across the human genome. We used genome-level information, including phylogenetic conservation, single nucleotide polymorphism density and correlation of gene expression to assess the importance of this distribution. In addition to confirming and extending known properties of the genome, such as the significance of gene deserts and the importance of 'head to head' orientation of gene pairs in proximity, we provide significant new observations that include a smaller average size for intervals separating the 3' ends of neighbouring genes, a correlation of gene expression across tissues for genes as far as 100 kilobases apart and signatures of increasing positive selection with decreasing interval size surprisingly relaxing for intervals smaller than ~500 base pairs. Further, we provide extensive graphical representations of the genome-wide data to allow for observations and comparisons beyond what we address.

  8. Who takes more sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions? The role of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander; Bhattacharjee, Amitab

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role...... of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations when taking sustainability-oriented actions. We confirm that individual differences in the set of values, beliefs and orientations can foster or hinder the sustainability-oriented actions across organizations. Our paper contributes to the growing literature...

  9. Magneto-orientation of lecithin crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, I.; Kawamura, Y.; Ikegami, A; Iwayanagi, S

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the magneto-orientation mechanism of several biological membrane systems, xylene-suspended thin-layered single crystals of lecithin, which is a major component of membranes, were subjected to magnetic fields of various strengths, and the orientation behavior of the crystals was analyzed. Lecithin crystals oriented in such a way that the directions of both the hydrocarbon chains and the phosphorylcholine group of the lecithin molecule were perpendicular to the mag...

  10. Navigations: The Road to a Better Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Leah Heather

    2016-01-01

    A team of nursing professional development specialists from a large Magnet® healthcare network transformed new employee orientation using a themed, interdisciplinary, learner-centered approach. Guided by project management principles, the nursing professional development team created an engaging program that serves as an interactive guide for new hires' orientation journey. This unique approach differs from traditional orientation programs through its incorporation of gaming, video clips, and group discussions.

  11. A biologic perspective on sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1995-03-01

    Sexual orientation may be defined as the sustained erotic attraction to members of one's own gender, the opposite gender, or both--homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, respectively. Interest in sexual orientation is as old as the science of psychology, yet many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This article reviews research in the development and psychopathology of sexual orientation as well as the results of family and twin studies. Research in genetic linkage, sex hormones, and brain differences also is discussed.

  12. Action oriented futures studies in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Nováky, Erzsébet

    2006-01-01

    The significant social changes and unstable social–economic processes we are undergoing require more participation and more future oriented grassroots activity both in designing the possible future alternatives and in the actions for the realization of them. Action oriented futures studies and participatory futures studies are in close connection, because orientation towards actions and participation of non-professionals can be strengthened by their mutual interdependence in futures work. Thi...

  13. Early involvement of the temporal area in attentional selection of grating orientation: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Esposito, Paola; Zani, Alberto

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural mechanisms of stimulus orientation selection in humans by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) of the brain with a 32-channel montage. Stimuli were isoluminant black-and-white gratings (3 cpd) having an orientation of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130, randomly presented in the foveal portion (2 of visual angle) of the central visual field. The task consisted in selectively attending and responding to one of the five grating orientations, while ignoring the others. ERP results showed that orientation selection affected neural processing starting already at an early post-stimulus latency. The P1 component (80-140 ms) measured at temporal area, which might well be reflecting the activity of the ventral stream (i.e. 'WHAT' system) of the visual pathways, showed an enhanced amplitude for target orientations. These effects increased with progressive neural processing over time as reflected by selection negativity (SN) and P300 components. In addition, both reaction times (RTs) and ERPs showed a strong 'oblique' effect, very probably reflecting the perceptual predominance of orthogonal versus oblique stimulus orientation in the human visual system: RTs were much faster, and SN and P300 components much larger, to gratings presented vertically than in other orientations.

  14. Effects on collagen orientation in the cornea after trephine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Hayes, Sally; Boote, Craig; Burghammer, Manfred; Boulton, Michael E; Meek, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Structural changes are well known to occur in the cornea after injury. The aim of this study was to investigate collagen orientation changes in the cornea during a short-term wound healing process. Seven bovine corneas were injured using a penetrating 5 mm biopsy punch and were subsequently organ cultured for up to two weeks. Six uninjured corneas acted as controls. The trephine wounded samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen either immediately after injury (0 h) or after 1 or 2 weeks in culture. Control/uninjured samples were snap frozen on arrival (0 h) or after 1 or 2 weeks in culture. Wide angle X-ray diffraction data were collected from each cornea at the UK Synchrotron Radiation Source or at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Data analysis revealed information about collagen orientation and distribution in the corneal stroma during wound healing. For histology, two trephine wounded corneas at 0 h and 1 week and one control/uninjured cornea at 0 h were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for wax embedding. Wax sections were subsequently counterstained with haematoxylin and eosin to observe tissue morphology and the time course of complete re-epithelialization. Immediately after injury, collagen organization was altered in a small area inside the wound but remained similar to the control/uninjured sample in the remainder of the tissue. After one week, the trephine wounded corneas showed complete re-epithelialization and evidence of swelling while collagen adopted a radial arrangement inside and outside the wound. Remarkable changes in collagen fibril orientation were observed in trephine wounded corneas. Orientation changes immediately after wounding are likely to be due to the mechanical deformation of the tissue during the wounding process. However, tissue swelling and changes in collagen orientation at later stages probably reflect the processes of tissue repair. These differences will determine corneal stability and strength

  15. Open Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a number of open issues within object-oriented programming. The central mechanisms of object-oriented programming appeared with Simula, developed more than 30 years ago; these include class, subclass, virtual function, active object and the first application framework, Class Simulation....... The core parts of object-oriented programming should be well understood, but there are still a large number of issues where there is no consensus. The term object-orientation has been applied to many subjects, such as analysis, design implementation, data modeling in databases, and distribution...

  16. Human sexual orientation has a heritable component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1998-04-01

    We present an overview of behavioral genetics research on homosexual and heterosexual orientation. Family, twin, and adoptee studies indicate that homosexuality and thus heterosexuality run in families. Sibling, twin, and adoptee concordance rates are compatible with the hypothesis that genes account for at least half of the variance in sexual orientation. We note observations of homosexual behavior in animal species, but the analogy to human sexual orientation is unclear. We discuss the reproductive disadvantage of a homosexual orientation and present possible mechanisms that could maintain a balanced polymorphism in human populations.

  17. RELATIVE ORIENTATION IN LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relative orientation is always considered as a key technique, not only in traditional photogrammetry, but also in low altitude photogrammetry. Low altitude images are mainly obtained by general digital cameras on UAV, they have characteristics of small format, large tilt angle and high-overlap in sequence. These distinctions from traditional images urgently call for a new reliable way to recover the relative pose between two adjacent images. For example, better initial values of relative orientation elements are required in the iteration process due to the large roll angle and yaw angle. Also, a more stable and efficient adjustment method should be proposed for the high-overlap images. In this paper, the Direct (D relative orientation method is firstly used to get coarse values of the relative orientation parameters, then the Conventional (C relative orientation process is implemented, using the coarse values as initial values in the first iterative calculation. And RANSAC (R algorithm is finally applied in locating and extracting gross errors in relative orientation. The three steps above form our execution—DCR—to solve relative orientation problem in low altitude photogrammetry. Practical images have been used later to test the DCR method on accuracy and precision of the relative orientation parameters. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and can achieve more reliable relative orientation results than the conventional approach.

  18. Programming in an object-oriented environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Raimund K

    1992-01-01

    Programming in an Object-Oriented Environment provides an in-depth look at the concepts behind the technology of object-oriented programming.This book explains why object-oriented programming has the potential to vastly improve the productivity of programmers and how to apply this technology in a practical environment. Many programming examples are included, focusing on how different programming languages support the core of object-oriented concepts. C++ is used as the main sample language throughout this text.This monograph consists of two major parts. Part I provides an introduction to objec

  19. Spondylolisthesis, Sacro-Pelvic Morphology, and Orientation in Young Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toueg, Charles-William; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Grimard, Guy; Poitras, Benoit; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Cross-sectional evaluation of sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation as well as spondylolisthesis prevalence in a cohort of young gymnasts. To evaluate the prevalence of spondylolisthesis in a cohort of gymnasts, as well as the associated demographic characteristics and sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation. Numerous studies have shown that sagittal sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation is abnormal in spondylolisthesis. Sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation in gymnasts and their relationship with spondylolisthesis have never been analyzed. Radiologic evaluation of 92 gymnasts was performed to identify spondylolisthesis, and to measure pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and sacral table angle. In the presence of spondylolisthesis, the slip percentage was measured. Different demographic and training characteristics were evaluated. Radiographic parameters were compared with reference values published for asymptomatic children and adolescents, and for subjects with spondylolisthesis. A 6.5% prevalence of spondylolisthesis was found in our cohort. The weekly training schedule was the only statistically significant different demographic characteristic between the 2 groups, at 20.6±5.4 versus 14.4±5.6 h/wk for subjects with and without spondylolisthesis, respectively. Pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and sacral table angle were 69±20, 15±13, 54±11, and 88±7 degrees in gymnasts with spondylolisthesis, and 53±11, 10±6, 43±9, and 94±6 degrees in gymnasts without spondylolisthesis, respectively. When compared with asymptomatic individuals, pelvic incidence and pelvic tilt were slightly superior in gymnasts without spondylolisthesis. Pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and sacral table angle were significantly different between gymnasts with and without spondylolisthesis. The prevalence of spondylolisthesis in young gymnasts was similar to that observed in the general population. Sagittal sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation was abnormal

  20. Entanglement of molecular-orientation, rotational and orbital degrees of freedom in multiphoton orientational wave packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainos, C; Dutier, G; Grucker, J; Perales, F; Baudon, J; Ducloy, M [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Universite Paris 13 Av JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2008-02-14

    Multiphoton orientational wave packets induced by short resonant polarized laser pulses in a rotationally-frozen interacting molecule contain relevant information. The entanglement of the orbital, rotational and orientational degrees of freedom shows a strong dependence on the polarization state of the absorbed photons and the space orientation of the interacting molecule and enables one to assign the orbital state of the excited molecular electron, to measure the space orientation of the interacting molecule from the orientational recurrences, to relate the measured temporal widths to the angular momentum photon state and the coherence of the laser pulse, to obtain information on the ground rotational state, or to measure the effective temperature of an isotropic molecular assembly. The space orientation of a small number of independent molecules can be distinguished from their distinct orientational dependence in the formation of the individual orientational wave packets.

  1. Entanglement of molecular-orientation, rotational and orbital degrees of freedom in multiphoton orientational wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainos, C.; Dutier, G.; Grucker, J.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Ducloy, M.

    2008-02-01

    Multiphoton orientational wave packets induced by short resonant polarized laser pulses in a rotationally-frozen interacting molecule contain relevant information. The entanglement of the orbital, rotational and orientational degrees of freedom shows a strong dependence on the polarization state of the absorbed photons and the space orientation of the interacting molecule and enables one to assign the orbital state of the excited molecular electron, to measure the space orientation of the interacting molecule from the orientational recurrences, to relate the measured temporal widths to the angular momentum photon state and the coherence of the laser pulse, to obtain information on the ground rotational state, or to measure the effective temperature of an isotropic molecular assembly. The space orientation of a small number of independent molecules can be distinguished from their distinct orientational dependence in the formation of the individual orientational wave packets.

  2. Red orientalism: Mikhail Pavlovich and Marxist Oriental studies in early Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Marxist Oriental Studies in early Soviet Russia emerged in opposition to the 'bourgeois' Russian tradition of classical Oriental scholarship; rather than studying texts and history, Bolshevik Orientalists saw their task in providing the Soviet government with the necessary political and

  3. Electrospinning of oriented and nonoriented ultrafine fibers of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, David

    2005-07-01

    Chitosan has long been known as a biocompatible and biodegradable material suitable for tissue engineering applications. Unfortunately, conventional chitosan solutions cannot be used for electrospinning due to their high conductivity, viscosity and surface tension. We have developed a method to produce clear chitosan solutions with conductivities, surface tension and viscosities that facilitate their processing into micron and submicron fibers via electrospinning. Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and organic solvents are key ingredients in preparing the chitosan solutions. Oriented and non oriented chitosan fibers were produced with the ultimate goal of designing a suitable tissue engineering scaffold. Circularly oriented, continuous, and aligned nanofibers were produced via this technique in the form of a thin membrane or fibrous "mat". Chitosan fiber diameters ranged from 5 micrometers down to 100 nanometers. The structure and mechanical properties of oriented and randomly aligned chitosan fiber deposits could potentially be exploited for cartilage tissue engineering. Ultrafine fibers of starch acetate (SA) also were prepared by the electrospinning process. In this study, solvent mixtures based on DMF, DMSO, pyrindine, acetic acid, acetone, THF, DMC, chloroform were used. A two-solvent formulation was used to study the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity to the fiber diameter. Also, water and ethanol were used to decrease the boiling point of the solvent, and to make bundled fibers. Several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, conductmetry, viscometry, and tensiometry were used in this study. The results showed that the combined effects of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity are of great importance in controlling the diameter of the fibers. We were able to produce SA fibers that was less than 40 nm in diameter. The dependence of fiber diameter on flow-rate, electric field and solvents also was investigated. A rotating disk and a

  4. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  5. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P Ivanenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012 have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010 and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely in terms of genetic abnormality and evolutionary atavism". We consider quadrupedalism as a ‘natural experiment’ that may contribute to our knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying our balance system and our tendency toward normal (upright posture. Bipedalism necessitates a number of characteristics that distinguish us from our ancestors and present-day mammals, including: size and shape of the bones of the foot, structure of the axial and proximal musculature, and the orientation of the human body and head. In this review we address the results of experimental studies on the mechanisms that stabilize the body in healthy people, as well as how these mechanisms may be disturbed in various forms of clinical pathology. These disturbances are related primarily to automatic rather than voluntary control of posture and suggest that human quadrupedalism is a behavior that can result from adaptive processes triggered by disorders in postural tone and environmental cues. These results will serve as a starting point for comparing and contrasting bi- and quadrupedalism.

  6. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N.; Fahringer, Timothy W.; Clifford, Christopher J.; Bathel, Brett F.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields.

  7. The cognitive orientation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Chemerinski, A

    1988-01-01

    The paper focuses on studying the cognitive determinants of obesity within the framework of the cognitive orientation (CO) theory. This theory assumes that cognitive contents and processes guide behavior, and specifies procedures for predicting and changing behaviors. The subjects were 64 obese and 64 nonobese women matched in age, height and other demographic variables. They were administered the MMPI and a CO questionnaire of obesity which assessed beliefs of four types (about goals, rules and norms, self and general beliefs) concerning 20 themes found to represent the meanings of food, eating and obesity. The results showed that the groups did not differ and had no elevated scores on any of the MMPI scales. The obese had higher scores than the controls on each of the belief types, an overall belief index, 19 themes and a conflict propensity measure. A discriminant analysis showed 88.3 percent correct identifications on the basis of the beliefs. Discussion focused on the role of conflicts and the different themes in obesity and on outlining the elements of a CO model of obesity with therapeutic implications.

  8. Comparison of fiber orientation and tensile-stiffness orientation measurements in paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Vahey; John M. Considine; Andy Kahra; Mark Scotch

    2008-01-01

    We have had the opportunity to subject cross-machine paper strips from two mills to both ultrasound and optical "fiber-orientation" tests to examine the relationships between the results. Both determine an orientation angle, in degrees. Both measure sheet anisotropy as an MD/CD orientation ratio. The optical test has no counterpart to the ultrasonic...

  9. Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    Speranza. Metaheuristics for the team orienteering problem. Journal of Heuristics, 13(1):49–76, Dec. 2007. [2] S. Boussier, D. Feillet, and M. Gendreau...Kiechle. Metaheuristics for the bi-objective orienteering problem. Swarm Intelligence, 3(3):179–201, 2009. [25] J. Silberholz and B. Golden. The

  10. A Comprehensive Cultural Orientation Program for Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Carol M.

    This paper presents the various components of the cultural orientation program as it has developed at the Bilingual Educational Institute (BEI), the organization that is currently awarded the grant for RSS in the Houston area by the state of Texas. This cultural orientation program's topics include the following: employment; healthcare; community…

  11. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  12. Marketing-oriented organizations: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, R; Arrington, B

    1988-03-01

    Organizations can be oriented toward marketing from a production, product, sales, or marketing perspective. Strategies, structures, and cultures, which reflect a company's basic orientation, must be integrated to ensure that marketing efforts communicate a clear corporate position. In a study of 31 hospitals, the Center for Health Services Education Research, St. Louis University, found that no hospital's organization fit neatly into a single category. For example, a hospital may have some service lines that were marketing oriented while other lines were production oriented. The majority of hospitals, however, were product oriented, focusing on productivity and financial performance rather than on market factors. The most effective sales orientation was observed in the for-profits. Their selling efforts, however, tended to be internally focused, with product development activities divorced from the planning and marketing functions. Only the for-profit hospitals showed the beginning of a marketing orientation. Developing a marketing orientation, especially in line divisions, requires a careful, well-orchestrated effort and the presence of several key factors: Access to capital and an emphasis on long-range planning and strategic spending The availability of hospital-specific market research. Key distribution channels. Talented middle managers. Up-to-date systems and structures equipped to serve new values and strategies. Leaders capable of communicating to the organization a vision of its role in the community.

  13. Market Orientation and Its Measurement in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, Mihai; Xu, Bing; Hampton, Gerald M.; Peterson, Robin T.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the measurement of market orientation has proved to be difficult, due to the low external validity of the concept. Existing scales exhibit acceptable properties in measuring market orientation in business organizations, but are less accurate in the context of higher education institutions. This paper compares the performance of three…

  14. 7 CFR 29.3046 - Oriented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Oriented. A term applied to Type 31 untied tobacco which denotes the arrangement of leaves in a straight and orderly manner. Oriented includes: (a) Any lot of baled tobacco in which the leaves are packed parallel to the length of the bale with the butts to the outside and the tips of the leaves overlapping...

  15. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  16. Market Orientation in University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ines; Aviles-Valenzuela, Maria Elena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to analyse the relationship between market orientation (MO) and results in the field of higher education, considering the importance of university teaching staff MO in relation to satisfaction and establishing that this orientation is directly and positively affected by the MO of the upper hierarchical levels. The focus is…

  17. Preschool Orientation and Mobility: An Expanded Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Everett W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article describes a broadened definition of orientation and mobility as it relates to serving a diverse population of visually handicapped preschoolers, examines the relationship of orientation and mobility to other curriculum areas, and considers the importance of coordinated involvement between parents and professionals. (CL)

  18. Brand orientation and financial performance nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to find nexus between brand orientation and financial performance in companies doing business in Serbia. We surveyed general managers, marketing managers, and brand managers in order to examine their views on the brand orientation dimensions of their companies. We matched the survey results with financial performance of those companies (EBITDA margin in order to find linkages between these variables. We got expected results in the sense that strong brand orientation and weaker brand barriers lead to better financial performance. Overall brand orientation is significantly positively correlated with EBITDA margin, and brand barriers are significantly negatively correlated with that measure. We analysed the brand orientation and brand barriers between groups of companies classified according to their size, internationalization, origin of company ownership, origin of brand, specific business area of key brands and type of goods sold. Interestingly, there are undoubted differences in brand orientation and brand barriers only between foreign and domestic companies. These differences could be seen as one of the main reasons of differences between their EBITDA margins. Also, we saw some differences in brand orientation in case of companies with international brands in relation to companies with domestic brands, but those differences are fewer and smaller. We did not find any other statistically significant difference. The significance of the paper is in emphasizing that development of brand orientation of domestic companies could lead to improvement of their profitability and competitiveness.

  19. Molecule-oriented programming in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Molecule-oriented programming is introduced as a programming style carrying some perspective for Java. A sequence of examples is provided. Supporting the development of the molecule-oriented programming style several matters are introduced and developed: profile classes allowing the representation

  20. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.