WorldWideScience

Sample records for randomly moving targets

  1. Moving Target Techniques: Cyber Resilience throught Randomization, Diversity, and Dynamism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    cyber resilience that attempts to rebalance the cyber landscape is known as cyber moving target (MT) (or just moving target) techniques. Moving target...articulated threat model , it may be unclear to network defenders what threat needs to be mitigated and thus how best to deploy the defensive...systems and hardware architectures . For example, the application can run on top of a platform consisting of the Fedora operating system and x86

  2. Novel Method of Unambiguous Moving Target Detection in Pulse-Doppler Radar with Random Pulse Repetition Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blind zones and ambiguities in range and velocity measurement are two important issues in traditional pulse-Doppler radar. By generating random deviations with respect to a mean Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI, this paper proposes a novel algorithm of Moving Target Detection (MTD based on the Compressed Sensing (CS theory, in which the random deviations of the PRIare converted to the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP of the observing matrix. The ambiguities of range and velocity are eliminated by designing the signal parameters. The simulation results demonstrate that this scheme has high performance of detection, and there is no ambiguity and blind zones as well. It can also shorten the coherent processing interval compared to traditional staggered PRI mode because only one pulse train is needed instead of several trains.

  3. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  4. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Havermann

    Full Text Available Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  5. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermann, Katharina; Volcic, Robert; Lappe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  6. Remote moving target indication assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test key components of a sensor to be used on remotely piloted vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for the detection of moving vehicles in cluttered backgrounds. The proposed sensor uses modern large-array focal planes to provide multiple infrared observations of moving targets and capable on-board computers to integrate multiple observations to detect moving targets in background clutter. This combination reduces the size, weight, and cost of the sensor to levels that can be flown on many small unmanned platforms. This effort selected the actual components, integrated them into a test bed, tested the performance of the sensor against realistic generated scenes, and designed a proof-of-concept prototype.

  7. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  8. Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Justin; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui; Shackleford, James A.; Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Paganetti, Harald; Sharp, Gregory C.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery. Methods: The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion. Results: A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in the

  9. Minefield overwatch using moving target indicator radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Anthony; Ewing, Robert; Kenneally, William J.; Santapietro, John J.

    1999-07-01

    Traditional antipersonnel land mines are an effective military tool, but they are unable to distinguish friend from foe, or civilian from military personnel. The concept described here uses an advanced moving target indicator (MTI) radar to scan the minefield in order to detect movement towards or within the minefield, coupled with visual identification by a human operator and a communication link for command and control. Selected mines in the minefield can then be activated by means of the command link. In order to demonstrate this concept, a 3D, interactive simulation has been developed. This simulation builds on previous work by integrating a detailed analytical model of an MTI radar. This model has been tailored to the specific application of detection of slowly moving dismounted entities immersed in ground clutter. The model incorporates the effects of internal scatterer motion and antenna scanning modulation in order to provide a realistic representation of the detection problem in this environment. The angle information on the MTI target detection is then passed to a virtual 3D sight which cues a human operator to the target location. In addition, radar propagation effects and an experimental design in which the radar itself is used as a command link are explored.

  10. Hunting for a moving target on a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Hui, Pan

    2017-08-01

    Random searching for a mobile target is frequently encountered in many real situations, posing great challenges for theoretical analysis which traditionally deals only with static targets. We investigate mobile-object search on networks in which the target's location is changing with time. We adopt mean first-encounter time to quantify the search time a searcher takes to capture a time-moving target and derive its analytical expression, when it exists. Interestingly, we observe an entirely distinct behavior for a mobile-object search compared to traditional results with a static target. Counter-intuitively, we find that compared with searching for a static target, a mobile object is easier to be captured under the same circumstances. Furthermore, we demonstrate that staying at the hub node is the optimal strategy for hunting for a mobile object on a heterogeneous network. Our findings reveal distinct effects for a mobile object on both search and transport.

  11. Ground Moving Target Tracking and Exploitation Performance Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jon; Brandstadt, Jeff; Kozak, Mark; Hughes, Tim; Blount, Mike

    2004-01-01

    ..., and intelligence information. While airborne moving target indication and fire control radars have been around for a long period of time, it has been only the last decade when Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI...

  12. Evaluating Moving Target Defense with PLADD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hobbs, Jacob Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tauritz, Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulder, Samuel A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of moving target defense (MTD) techniques using a new game we have designed, called PLADD, inspired by the game FlipIt [28]. PLADD extends FlipIt by incorporating what we believe are key MTD concepts. We have analyzed PLADD and proven the existence of a defender strategy that pushes a rational attacker out of the game, demonstrated how limited the strategies available to an attacker are in PLADD, and derived analytic expressions for the expected utility of the game’s players in multiple game variants. We have created an algorithm for finding a defender’s optimal PLADD strategy. We show that in the special case of achieving deterrence in PLADD, MTD is not always cost effective and that its optimal deployment may shift abruptly from not using MTD at all to using it as aggressively as possible. We believe our effort provides basic, fundamental insights into the use of MTD, but conclude that a truly practical analysis requires model selection and calibration based on real scenarios and empirical data. We propose several avenues for further inquiry, including (1) agents with adaptive capabilities more reflective of real world adversaries, (2) the presence of multiple, heterogeneous adversaries, (3) computational game theory-based approaches such as coevolution to allow scaling to the real world beyond the limitations of analytical analysis and classical game theory, (4) mapping the game to real-world scenarios, (5) taking player risk into account when designing a strategy (in addition to expected payoff), (6) improving our understanding of the dynamic nature of MTD-inspired games by using a martingale representation, defensive forecasting, and techniques from signal processing, and (7) using adversarial games to develop inherently resilient cyber systems.

  13. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  14. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  15. Detection of Moving Targets Using Soliton Resonance Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor K.; Zak, Michail

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a fundamentally new method for detecting hidden moving targets within noisy and cluttered data-streams using a novel "soliton resonance" effect in nonlinear dynamical systems. The technique uses an inhomogeneous Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation containing moving-target information. Solution of the KdV equation will describe a soliton propagating with the same kinematic characteristics as the target. The approach uses the time-dependent data stream obtained with a sensor in form of the "forcing function," which is incorporated in an inhomogeneous KdV equation. When a hidden moving target (which in many ways resembles a soliton) encounters the natural "probe" soliton solution of the KdV equation, a strong resonance phenomenon results that makes the location and motion of the target apparent. Soliton resonance method will amplify the moving target signal, suppressing the noise. The method will be a very effective tool for locating and identifying diverse, highly dynamic targets with ill-defined characteristics in a noisy environment. The soliton resonance method for the detection of moving targets was developed in one and two dimensions. Computer simulations proved that the method could be used for detection of singe point-like targets moving with constant velocities and accelerations in 1D and along straight lines or curved trajectories in 2D. The method also allows estimation of the kinematic characteristics of moving targets, and reconstruction of target trajectories in 2D. The method could be very effective for target detection in the presence of clutter and for the case of target obscurations.

  16. Tracking technology of moving target with optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hua; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fanghan; Wang, Wensheng

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we used hybrid optoelectronic joint transform correlator (HOJTC) for recognition of moving target. HOJTC is one of the most successful optical pattern recognizer which is composed of laser, spatial filter, Fourier transform lenses, EALCD (electrically addressed liquid crystal displays) and CCD (Charge Coupled Device). It has many applications in the fields of industry and military affairs. The speed of armored vehicle is generally less than 80 km/h. CCD used as receiver can capture 25 frames per second. The difference caused by shape, scale and rotation always exists between template and target. Therefore, the optical correlator can only detect captured moving target about 3 to 5 serial frames. For some targets in cluttered scene, it even can not recognize the target, which means the tracked target is missing. It shows the influence of clutter and distortion brings great difficulty to correlation recognition. In order to realize scale invariable and rotation invariable, the method of adaptive threshold is applied. After processing the images of moving targets, we can reduce the influence of cluttered background. The effect brought by the changes of shape, scale and rotation is also reduced. Consequently, the ability of automatic recognition, location and tracking of moving target by HOJTC can be enhanced greatly. The experiments are performed to recognize moving tanks with high speed about 70 km/h. The experiments show that more than 80 serial frames can be recognized after target images are processed. The joint transform correlator can recognize even more than 150 frames when the target is in relative clean scene. It has great meaning for target detection and tracking. The conclusion can be drawn that the proposed method of adaptive threshold for moving target is feasible, and it could effectively enhance the ability of automatic recognition and tracking of a moving target.

  17. Moving Target Indication for Multi-channel Airborne Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2010-01-01

    Moving target indication (MTI) using radar is of great interest in civil and military applications. Its uses include airborne or space-borne surveillance of ground moving vehicles (cars, trains) or ships at sea, for instance. Airborne (space-borne) radar offers several advantages when compared to

  18. Quality of clinical trials: A moving target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials.

  19. Localization of a moving target using a fly eye sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Streeter, Robert W; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Frost, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    An optical sensor based on the visual system of the common housefly (Musca domestica) has been developed by the researchers at the Wyoming Image and Signal Processing Research (WISPR) Laboratory. This optical sensor shows promising peformance for detection of an edge in real-time, with minimal processing overhead. An application of this sensor might be the deflection measurement of a moving target, such as the wing of an aircraft under test. In this paper, we have investiaged the possibility of localizing an edge, and hence the target, using the fly eye sensor, which is an important part of the deflection measurement process. A simulation program has been developed for this purpose, which simulates the sensor output, for a moving object on the target plane at a specified distance from the sensor. After successfully simulating the sensor output, it has been found that the location of an edge changes with the change in sensor to target distance, and their relative orientation. It also changes for the limited movement of the target, withing the field of view (FOV) of the sensor. On the contrary, the target-background contrast scenario, and shifting of the target normal to the target movement direction, do not affect the edge localization process. This paper shows and edge can be precisely detected for a target a aspecified distance from the sensor with proper sensor-target orientation, when the target moves all the way across the FOV of the sensor.

  20. Real-time object tracking for moving target auto-focus in digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Haike; Niinami, Norikatsu; Liu, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Focusing at a moving object accurately is difficult and important to take photo of the target successfully in a digital camera. Because the object often moves randomly and changes its shape frequently, position and distance of the target should be estimated at real-time so as to focus at the objet precisely. We propose a new method of real-time object tracking to do auto-focus for moving target in digital camera. Video stream in the camera is used for the moving target tracking. Particle filter is used to deal with problem of the target object's random movement and shape change. Color and edge features are used as measurement of the object's states. Parallel processing algorithm is developed to realize real-time particle filter object tracking easily in hardware environment of the digital camera. Movement prediction algorithm is also proposed to remove focus error caused by difference between tracking result and target object's real position when the photo is taken. Simulation and experiment results in digital camera demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. We embedded real-time object tracking algorithm in the digital camera. Position and distance of the moving target is obtained accurately by object tracking from the video stream. SIMD processor is applied to enforce parallel real-time processing. Processing time less than 60ms for each frame is obtained in the digital camera with its CPU of only 162MHz.

  1. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  2. Insect detection of small targets moving in visual clutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nordström

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of targets that move within visual clutter is a common task for animals searching for prey or conspecifics, a task made even more difficult when a moving pursuer needs to analyze targets against the motion of background texture (clutter. Despite the limited optical acuity of the compound eye of insects, this challenging task seems to have been solved by their tiny visual system. Here we describe neurons found in the male hoverfly, Eristalis tenax, that respond selectively to small moving targets. Although many of these target neurons are inhibited by the motion of a background pattern, others respond to target motion within the receptive field under a surprisingly large range of background motion stimuli. Some neurons respond whether or not there is a speed differential between target and background. Analysis of responses to very small targets (smaller than the size of the visual field of single photoreceptors or those targets with reduced contrast shows that these neurons have extraordinarily high contrast sensitivity. Our data suggest that rejection of background motion may result from extreme selectivity for small targets contrasting against local patches of the background, combined with this high sensitivity, such that background patterns rarely contain features that satisfactorily drive the neuron.

  3. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  4. Image enhancement and moving target detection in IR image sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of noise reduction by motion compensated temporal filtering in a noisy IR image sequence and of moving target detection in an air-to-ground IR image sequence. In the case of motion compensated temporal filtering our approach consists of estimating the optical flow between

  5. Efficient Fourier based Algorithm Development for Airborne Moving Target Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how the signal model that is commonly used as a starting point in multi-channel Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne Moving Target Indication (MTI) formally corresponds to a model that can be derived from a bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) model extended for

  6. Energy Efficient Moving Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingyou; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Hong

    2016-01-02

    Moving target tracking in wireless sensor networks is of paramount importance. This paper considers the problem of state estimation for L-sensor linear dynamic systems. Firstly, the paper establishes the fuzzy model for measurement condition estimation. Then, Generalized Kalman Filter design is performed to incorporate the novel neighborhood function and the target motion information, improving with an increasing number of active sensors. The proposed measurement selection approach has some advantages in time cost. As such, if the desired accuracy has been achieved, the parameter initialization for optimization can be readily resolved, which maximizes the expected lifespan while preserving tracking accuracy. Through theoretical justifications and empirical studies, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves substantially superior performances over conventional methods in terms of moving target tracking under the resource-constrained wireless sensor networks.

  7. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  8. Eye tracking a self-moved target with complex hand-target dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landelle, Caroline; Montagnini, Anna; Madelain, Laurent; Danion, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the ability to track with the eye a moving target is substantially improved when the target is self-moved by the subject's hand compared with when being externally moved. Here, we explored a situation in which the mapping between hand movement and target motion was perturbed by simulating an elastic relationship between the hand and target. Our objective was to determine whether the predictive mechanisms driving eye-hand coordination could be updated to accommodate this complex hand-target dynamics. To fully appreciate the behavioral effects of this perturbation, we compared eye tracking performance when self-moving a target with a rigid mapping (simple) and a spring mapping as well as when the subject tracked target trajectories that he/she had previously generated when using the rigid or spring mapping. Concerning the rigid mapping, our results confirmed that smooth pursuit was more accurate when the target was self-moved than externally moved. In contrast, with the spring mapping, eye tracking had initially similar low spatial accuracy (though shorter temporal lag) in the self versus externally moved conditions. However, within ∼5 min of practice, smooth pursuit improved in the self-moved spring condition, up to a level similar to the self-moved rigid condition. Subsequently, when the mapping unexpectedly switched from spring to rigid, the eye initially followed the expected target trajectory and not the real one, thereby suggesting that subjects used an internal representation of the new hand-target dynamics. Overall, these results emphasize the stunning adaptability of smooth pursuit when self-maneuvering objects with complex dynamics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A note on moving average models for Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis L.

    The class of moving average models offers a flexible modeling framework for Gaussian random fields with many well known models such as the Matérn covariance family and the Gaussian covariance falling under this framework. Moving average models may also be viewed as a kernel smoothing of a Lévy...... basis, a general modeling framework which includes several types of non-Gaussian models. We propose a new one-parameter spatial correlation model which arises from a power kernel and show that the associated Hausdorff dimension of the sample paths can take any value between 2 and 3. As a result...

  10. Research on moving target defense based on SDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingyong; Wu, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    An address mutation strategy was proposed. This strategy provided an unpredictable change in address, replacing the real address of the packet forwarding process and path mutation, thus hiding the real address of the host and path. a mobile object defense technology based on Spatio-temporal Mutation on this basis is proposed, Using the software Defined Network centralized control architecture advantage combines sFlow traffic monitoring technology and Moving Target Defense. A mutated time period which can be changed in real time according to the network traffic is changed, and the destination address is changed while the controller abruptly changes the address while the data packet is transferred between the switches to construct a moving target, confusing the host within the network, thereby protecting the host and network.

  11. Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection Yunhan Dong National Security...coherent processing, the concept of a Radon spectrum that is a kind of normalised Radon transform is proposed and used for radar non-coherent detection...One advantage of using the Radon transform for non-coherent processing is that integration in all directions is considered, and hence range migration

  12. Software for Automatic Tracking of Moving Targets in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S.

    1986-12-01

    A variety of techniques for quantification and analysis of three dimensional movement has been described in the literature, but a number of practical problems limit their application. Such problems include: the requirement that moving objects be encumbered by wires attached to sensors or to active targets; undue constraint upon the number, location and orientation of imaging devices; inability to automatically track multiple targets; confounding the three dimensional trajectories of targets whose paths cross in two dimensional images; and lack of editing functions and adequate graphic feedback enabling the user to rapidly detect--and then easily correct--errors in tracking. The present paper describes software enchancements to the video-based ExpertVision system produced by Motion Analysis Corporation which provide for the analysis of movement in three dimensional space. The system can acquire time-matched digitized video data at frame-rates of 60, 200 or 2000 Hz using a variety of camera/VCR combinations. Software (and supporting hardware) has been developed to automatically calibrate multiple cameras and does not limit the investigator to utilize particular camera configurations. Additional software has been written to automatically track targets as they move through three dimensional space, to interactively edit three dimensional trajectories both during tracking and after the trajectories are computed, to display the data and to support three dimensional motion analysis.

  13. CHAOS: An SDN-Based Moving Target Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target defense (MTD has provided a dynamic and proactive network defense to reduce or move the attack surface that is available for exploitation. However, traditional network is difficult to realize dynamic and active security defense effectively and comprehensively. Software-defined networking (SDN points out a brand-new path for building dynamic and proactive defense system. In this paper, we propose CHAOS, an SDN-based MTD system. Utilizing the programmability and flexibility of SDN, CHAOS obfuscates the attack surface including host mutation obfuscation, ports obfuscation, and obfuscation based on decoy servers, thereby enhancing the unpredictability of the networking environment. We propose the Chaos Tower Obfuscation (CTO method, which uses the Chaos Tower Structure (CTS to depict the hierarchy of all the hosts in an intranet and define expected connection and unexpected connection. Moreover, we develop fast CTO algorithms to achieve a different degree of obfuscation for the hosts in each layer. We design and implement CHAOS as an application of SDN controller. Our approach makes it very easy to realize moving target defense in networks. Our experimental results show that a network protected by CHAOS is capable of decreasing the percentage of information disclosure effectively to guarantee the normal flow of traffic.

  14. A moving target detecting and tracking system based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daonan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the target fast tracking problem in embedded system, a moving target detecting and tracking algorithm based on a combination of three-frame difference and template matching is proposed. The system utilizes DSP to design a set of image processing equipment and DSP uses TI company's DM6437.Three-frame difference can detect a initial position of the target, then Mean Normalized Product Correlation(NNPROD) template matching algorithm was utilized in a partial area to achieve a precise position and reduce the amount of calculation. The algorithm utilized four templates and image compression to fit pose and scale changes when moving. To meet the real-time requirement, an improved algorithm of NNPROD was proposed under certain lighting conditions, what ' s more the C language code was optimized and TI company's highly optimized VLIB vision library was reasonably utilized. After several tests, the results showed that NNPROD can fit the changing of environmental light well, but more time was needed. The improved method can still work well with the changes of pose and scale when the light changes less intensely , and the processing speed of the improved method increased from the previous 11F / s to 23F / s.

  15. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Emmons, B.A. [Albion Coll., MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1997-03-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control.

  16. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  17. Doppler Spectrum from Moving Scatterers in a Random Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2009-01-01

    A random non-line-of-sight environment with stationary transmitter and receiver is considered. In such an environment movement of a scatterer will lead to perturbations of the otherwise static channel with a resulting Doppler spectrum. This is quite a general situation in outdoor environments...... with moving traffic or indoor situations with moving people. Here we study the latter situation in detail with experimental results from a large office environment. A general theory of Doppler spectra is developed. The impact of a scatterer depends on the angular distribution of scattered energy, and uniform...... as well as sharply peaked distributions are considered in the theory. The Doppler spectra are in all cases sharply peaked at zero frequency due to forward scattering, but the actually measured distribution depends on the degree and type of activity in the environment, as well as the spectrum estimation...

  18. Ground target stimulation using a moving microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, David; Balko, Bohdan; Kohlberg, Ira; Biddle, John; Franklin, John

    2011-06-01

    This effort is directed toward characterizing the response of a target-placed on or near the ground plane-to the radiation of a microwave source mounted on a moving vehicle. Because of the multipath problems inherent in measuring the electric field strength on or near the earth's surface, a theoretical model was constructed so that the effectiveness of the dynamic approach to actuating specific targets could be characterized. This process is repeated for a variety of microwave source speeds, vehicle-to-target-aspect ratios, and target positions on or above the ground plane. Given a horizontally polarized beam driven by a horn antenna, the electric field strengths were calculated at different vehicle-totarget- aspect ratios and at different heights on and above the ground plane for sand and clay soils. These values were then modeled in MATLAB to provide target stimulation for varied pulse chains. A model with independent pulse effects and a model based on the cumulative effect of pulses were evaluated.

  19. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979566 Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Vilcek J. I...mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving... target. PubmedID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  20. Moving target detection through omni-orientational vision fixed on AGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Ying; Cao, Zuo-Liang; He, Pei-Lian

    2006-10-01

    Extremely wide view of the omni-vision performs highly advanced for the vehicle navigation and target detection. However moving targets detection through omni-vision fixed on AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle) involves more complex environments, where both the targets and the vehicle are in the moving condition. The moving targets will be detected in a moving background. After analyzing the character on omniorientational vision and image, we propose to use the estimation in optical flow fields, Gabor filter over optical flow fields for detecting moving objects. Because polar angle θ and polar radius R of polar coordinates are being changed as the targets moving, we improved optical flow approach which can be calculated based on the polar coordinates at the omniorientational center. We constructed Gabor filter which has 24 orientations every 15°, and filter optical flow fields at 24 orientations. By the contrast of the Gabor filter images at the same orientation and the same AGV position between the situation which there aren't any moving targets in the environment and the situation which there are some moving targets in the same environment, the moving targets' optical flow fields could be recognized. Experiment results show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  1. Tracking moving radar targets with parallel, velocity-tuned filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Harmony, David W.; Bielek, Timothy P.; Hollowell, Jeff A.; Murray, Margaret S.; Martinez, Ana

    2013-04-30

    Radar data associated with radar illumination of a movable target is processed to monitor motion of the target. A plurality of filter operations are performed in parallel on the radar data so that each filter operation produces target image information. The filter operations are defined to have respectively corresponding velocity ranges that differ from one another. The target image information produced by one of the filter operations represents the target more accurately than the target image information produced by the remainder of the filter operations when a current velocity of the target is within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation. In response to the current velocity of the target being within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation, motion of the target is tracked based on the target image information produced by the one filter operation.

  2. Independent control of acceleration and direction of the hand when hitting moving targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Eli; De Lussanet, Marc H.E.; Smeets, J. B J

    2002-01-01

    Human subjects were asked to hit moving targets as quickly as they could. Nevertheless the speed with which the subjects moved toward identical stimuli differed between trials. We examined whether the subjects compensated for a lower initial acceleration by aiming further ahead of the target. We

  3. Forward Models for Following a Moving Target with the Puma 560 Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a forward model could be applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish the task of following a moving target. The forward model has been implemented in the puma 560 robot manipulator in simulation after a babbling motor phase using ANFIS neural networks. The forward model delivers a rough estimation of the position in the operational space of a moving target. Using this information a Cartesian controller tracks the moving target. An implementation of the proposed architecture and the Piepmeir algorithm for the problem of following a moving target is also shown in the paper. The control architecture proposed in this paper was also tested with MLP and RBF neural networks. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed architecture for tracking a moving target.

  4. Moving Target Techniques: Leveraging Uncertainty for Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    implemented in most modern operating systems including Linux, Windows, Mac OSX, Android , and iOS. By randomizing the addresses, ASLR makes exploit...machines in an enterprise network [9]. This IP rotation technique can thwart rapidly propagating worms that use a fixed hit list of IP addresses to infect a...Anagnostakis, “Defending Against Hitlist Worms Using Network Address Space Randomization,” Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and

  5. Learning random networks for compression of still and moving images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Sungur, Mert; Cramer, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Image compression for both still and moving images is an extremely important area of investigation, with numerous applications to videoconferencing, interactive education, home entertainment, and potential applications to earth observations, medical imaging, digital libraries, and many other areas. We describe work on a neural network methodology to compress/decompress still and moving images. We use the 'point-process' type neural network model which is closer to biophysical reality than standard models, and yet is mathematically much more tractable. We currently achieve compression ratios of the order of 120:1 for moving grey-level images, based on a combination of motion detection and compression. The observed signal-to-noise ratio varies from values above 25 to more than 35. The method is computationally fast so that compression and decompression can be carried out in real-time. It uses the adaptive capabilities of a set of neural networks so as to select varying compression ratios in real-time as a function of quality achieved. It also uses a motion detector which will avoid retransmitting portions of the image which have varied little from the previous frame. Further improvements can be achieved by using on-line learning during compression, and by appropriate compensation of nonlinearities in the compression/decompression scheme. We expect to go well beyond the 250:1 compression level for color images with good quality levels.

  6. A Mathematical Model for the Interception of a Moving Target ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a mathematical model for the interception of a target governed by a lod control system is derived. The condition for interception is stated. The interception criterion is the intersection of certain well defined set functions. This condition is equivalent to the controllability of the linear control system and at the same ...

  7. Postural control of elderly: moving to predictable and unpredictable targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, Vera; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Keeken, Helco; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Impaired postural control with muscle weakness is an important predictor of falls within the elderly population.Particular daily activities that require weight shifting in order to be able to reach a specific target (a cup on a table) require continuous adjustments to keep the body's center of mass

  8. Clutter suppression for moving targets detection with wideband radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Chevalier, F.; Krasnov, O.A.; Deudon, F.; Bidon, S.

    2011-01-01

    Wideband (high range resolution) radars have been proposed [7] as high performance systems for detection of small targets in adverse environments, due to their small resolution cells and non-ambiguity in range and velocity (velocity ambiguity removed by the measurement of the range migration of the

  9. Cervical Cerclage During Periviability: Can We Stabilize a Moving Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Sperling, Jeffrey D; Chauhan, Suneet P; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recently published consensus guidelines on periviable birth recommending that obstetric interventions (antenatal corticosteroids, tocolysis, magnesium sulfate, antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes or group B streptococcus prophylaxis, and cesarean delivery for fetal indications) may be considered at 23 0/7 weeks of gestation and neonatal resuscitation at 22 0/7 weeks of gestation. Cervical cerclage significantly decreases preterm delivery and improves perinatal outcomes in women with a singleton pregnancy, prior spontaneous preterm birth, and transvaginal cervical length less than 25 mm before 24 0/7 weeks of gestation or in women who experience painless cervix dilation in the second trimester. Randomized trials assessing ultrasonogram-indicated and physical examination-indicated cerclage report a procedure-related complication rate of 0.3% and 0.9%, respectively. If previability is a requisite for receiving a cerclage, an increasing subset of women may not be afforded an intervention that has known benefit, because obstetric and neonatal interventions are likely to occur at earlier gestational ages. Given the low procedure-related complication rate demonstrated in randomized trials, appropriately selected women should continue to be offered the procedure up to 24 0/7 weeks of gestation. Based on current evidence, cerclage placed after 24 0/7 weeks of gestation cannot be recommended, and future inquiry in the form of a well-designed randomized trial after this gestational age should be considered. The goal of this commentary is to review the history of cerclage and discuss the indications, risks, benefits, and implications on future research of this procedure as it relates to gestational age during periviability.

  10. A UAV-Friendly Strategy for Moving Targets Processing Using SAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marques, Paulo A; Dias, Jose M

    2005-01-01

    .... The basic reasoning is that, although the returned echoes may be aliased in the azimuth direction, their phase and amplitude are informative with respect to the moving target trajectory parameters...

  11. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Jia Wei; Shaikh-Husin, Nasir; Sheikh, Usman Ullah; Marsono, M. N

    2016-01-01

      Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track object of interest from a bird's eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation...

  12. Detection and Imaging of Moving Targets with LiMIT SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    sandeep.mishra@baesystems.com Abstract Detecting moving targets in SAR imagery has recently gained a lot of interest as a way to replace optical...movers by applying a set of possible motion corrections to the image, and use a novel matched filter to detect the movers in this space. We can then image...called SAR-GMTI) has recently gained a lot of interest as a way to image and classify moving targets, and to mitigate GMTI performance gaps. Synthetic

  13. Analysis of Matched Filter Mismatch for Focusing Moving Targets in Multi-channel Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    performance of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. Moving Target Indication (MTI) techniques are often focused at detecting slow moving...DRDC-RDDC-2014-R51 DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA (Security markings for the title, abstract and indexing annotation must be entered when the document is...from a published thesaurus . e.g. Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms (TEST) and that thesaurus identified. If it is not possible to select

  14. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  17. The Move from Accuracy Studies to Randomized Trials in PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepe, Bettina; Hoilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    Since the influential study by van Tinteren et al. published in The Lancet in 2002, there have been an increasing number of diagnostic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the benefit of PET. If they provide valid and useful information on the benefit, these studies can play an impor...... evaluation. Choice of patient-important outcomes and sufficient sample sizes are crucial issues in planning RCTs to demonstrate the clinical benefit of using PET.......Since the influential study by van Tinteren et al. published in The Lancet in 2002, there have been an increasing number of diagnostic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the benefit of PET. If they provide valid and useful information on the benefit, these studies can play...... of diagnostic randomized trials, in which PET was applied in only one arm. We covered published studies as well as registered unpublished and planned studies. We considered 3 quality indicators related to the usefulness of a trial to generate evidence for a clinical benefit: use of patient-important outcome...

  18. Moving Target Indication via Three-Antenna SAR with Simplified Fractional Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2011-12-01

    Ground moving target indiction (GMTI) is of great important for surveillance and reconnaissance, but it is not an easy job. One technique is the along-track interferometry (ATI) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which was initially proposed for estimating the radial velocity of ground moving targets. However, the measured differential phase may be contaminated by overlapping stationary clutter, leading to errors in velocity and position estimates. As effective clutter suppression can be achieved by multiple aperture or phase center antennas, this article presents a simplified fractional Fourier transform (SFrFT) for three-antenna-based SAR GMTI applications. This approach cancels clutter with three-antenna-based methods and forms two-channel signals through which moving targets are detected and imaged. Next, the Doppler parameters of the moving targets are estimated with the SFrFT-based estimation algorithm. In this way, both target location and target velocity are acquired. Next, the moving targets are focused with one uniform imaging algorithm. The feasibility is validated by theory analysis and simulation results.

  19. Approach for moving small target detection in infrared image sequence based on reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Qin, Shiyin

    2016-09-01

    Addressing the problems of moving small target detection in infrared image sequence caused by background clutter and target size variation with time, an approach for moving small target detection is proposed under a pipeline framework with an optimization strategy based on reinforcement learning. The pipeline framework is composed by pipeline establishment, target-background images separation, and target confirmation, in which the pipeline is established by designating several successive images with temporal sliding window, target-background images separation is dealt with low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition via robust principal component analysis, and target confirmation is achieved by employing a voting mechanism over more than one separated target images of the same input image. For unremitting optimization of target-background images separation, the weighting parameter of low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition is dynamically regulated by the way of reinforcement learning in consecutive detection, in which the complexity evaluation from sequential infrared images and results assessment of moving small target detection are integrated. The experiment results over four infrared small target image sequences with different cloudy sky backgrounds demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach in both background clutter suppression and small target detection.

  20. 77 FR 13656 - Call for Papers: National Symposium on Moving Target Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... adversary, increasing the work factor necessary to successfully attack and exploit a cyber target... to show that moving target techniques are a substantial improvement in the defense of cyber systems... response actions Situational awareness MT transparency Work factor metrics Risk analysis End-to-end...

  1. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  2. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  3. Research on Aerospace Cooperative Continuation Observation Strategy for Maritime Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime moving targets continuation observation has important implications to maintain the safety of the navigation barrier. Existing methods either rely on satellite observations, or only rely on UAV observations. Even though the two cooperative observations, it confined to a simple task allocation. They did not solve the problem of maritime moving targets continuation observation. On the basis of difference between satellites observation and UAV observation, we constructed the aerospace collaborative continuation observation model for maritime moving target, and put forward aerospace collaborative continuation observation strategy (ACCOS to reduce the complexity of solving the model. According to the spatial and temporal characteristics of the task, ACCOS extracted five sub problems to solve the model: Satellite planning, UAV flight plan, UAV observation sequence, target potential area and distribution probability density prediction, UAV path planning. In order to realize the optimization goal of the model, the five sub problems are modelled and solved in turn. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the average observation period of the target, and effectively solve the problem of the continuous observation of maritime moving target.

  4. Direction Tracking of Multiple Moving Targets Using Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on weighted signal covariance (WSC matrix and maximum likelihood (ML estimation, a directionof-arrival (DOA estimation method of multiple moving targets is designed and named as WSC-ML in the presence of impulse noise. In order to overcome the shortcoming of the multidimensional search cost of maximum likelihood estimation, a novel continuous quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO is proposed for this continuous optimization problem. And a tracking method of multiple moving targets in impulsive noise environment is proposed and named as QPSO-WSC-ML. Later, we make use of rank-one updating to update the weighted signal covariance matrix of WSC-ML. Simulation results illustrate the proposed QPSO-WSC-ML method is efficient and robust for the direction tracking of multiple moving targets in the presence of impulse noise.

  5. Moving target detection in flash mode against stroboscopic mode by active range-gated laser imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanyu; Wang, Xinwei; Sun, Liang; Fan, Songtao; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    Moving target detection is important for the application of target tracking and remote surveillance in active range-gated laser imaging. This technique has two operation modes based on the difference of the number of pulses per frame: stroboscopic mode with the accumulation of multiple laser pulses per frame and flash mode with a single shot of laser pulse per frame. In this paper, we have established a range-gated laser imaging system. In the system, two types of lasers with different frequency were chosen for the two modes. Electric fan and horizontal sliding track were selected as the moving targets to compare the moving blurring between two modes. Consequently, the system working in flash mode shows more excellent performance in motion blurring against stroboscopic mode. Furthermore, based on experiments and theoretical analysis, we presented the higher signal-to-noise ratio of image acquired by stroboscopic mode than flash mode in indoor and underwater environment.

  6. Analysis of Greedy Decision Making for Geographic Routing for Networks of Randomly Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Israr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous and self-organizing wireless ad-hoc communication networks for moving objects consist of nodes, which use no centralized network infrastructure. Examples of moving object networks are networks of flying objects, networks of vehicles, networks of moving people or robots. Moving object networks have to face many critical challenges in terms of routing because of dynamic topological changes and asymmetric networks links. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the deployment of moving nodes. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of the Greedy Decision method (position aware distance based algorithm for geographic routing for network nodes moving according to the random waypoint mobility model. The widely used GPSR (Greedy Packet Stateless Routing protocol utilizes geographic distance and position based data of nodes to transmit packets towards destination nodes. In this paper different scenarios have been tested to develop a concrete set of recommendations for optimum deployment of distance based Greedy Decision of Geographic Routing in randomly moving objects network

  7. DMLC motion tracking of moving targets for intensity modulated arc therapy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Jens; Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intensity modulated arc therapy offers great advantages with the capability of delivering a fast and highly conformal treatment. However, moving targets represent a major challenge. By monitoring a moving target it is possible to make the beam follow the motion, shaped by a Dynamic MLC...... at state (0) "static, no tracking". Comparing measurements were made at state (1) "motion, no tracking" and state (2) "motion, tracking". RESULTS: Gamma analysis showed a significant improvement from measurements of state (1) to measurements of state (2) compared to the state (0) measurements: Lung plan...

  8. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Distributed Cooperative Search Control Method of Multiple UAVs for Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the impact of uncertainties caused by unknown motion parameters on searching plan of moving targets and improve the efficiency of UAV’s searching, a novel distributed Multi-UAVs cooperative search control method for moving target is proposed in this paper. Based on detection results of onboard sensors, target probability map is updated using Bayesian theory. A Gaussian distribution of target transition probability density function is introduced to calculate prediction probability of moving target existence, and then target probability map can be further updated in real-time. A performance index function combining with target cost, environment cost, and cooperative cost is constructed, and the cooperative searching problem can be transformed into a central optimization problem. To improve computational efficiency, the distributed model predictive control method is presented, and thus the control command of each UAV can be obtained. The simulation results have verified that the proposed method can avoid the blindness of UAV searching better and improve overall efficiency of the team effectively.

  10. Automatic detection and tracking of multiple interacting targets from a moving platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongwei; Yang, Chenhui; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    In real-world scenarios, a target tracking system could be severely compromised by interactions, i.e., influences from the proximity and/or behavior of other targets or background objects. Closely spaced targets are difficult to distinguish, and targets may be partially or totally invisible for uncontrolled durations when occluded by other objects. These situations are very likely to degrade the performance or cause the tracker to fail because the system may use invalid target observations to update the tracks. To address these issues, we propose an integrated multitarget tracking system. A background-subtraction-based method is used to automatically detect moving objects in video frames captured by a moving camera. The data association method evaluates the overlap rates between newly detected objects (observations) and already-tracked targets and makes decisions pertaining to whether a target is interacting with other targets and whether it has a valid observation. According to the association results, distinct strategies are employed to update and manage the tracks of interacting versus well-isolated targets. This system has been tested with real-world airborne videos from the DARPA Video Verification of Identity program database and demonstrated excellent track continuity in the presence of occlusions and multiple target interactions, very low false alarm rate, and real-time operation on an ordinary general-purpose computer.

  11. Hitting moving targets : A dissociation between the use of the target's speed and direction of motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Marie; Middelburg, Tom; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that people do not use their judgment of a target's speed to determine where to hit it. Instead, they use their judgment of the target's changing position and an expected speed (based on the speed of previous targets). In the present study we investigate whether people

  12. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%.

  13. Two Algorithms for the Detection and Tracking of Moving Vehicle Targets in Aerial Infrared Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by analyzing the characteristics of infrared moving targets, a Symmetric Frame Differencing Target Detection algorithm based on local clustering segmentation is proposed. In consideration of the high real-time performance and accuracy of traditional symmetric differencing, this novel algorithm uses local grayscale clustering to accomplish target detection after carrying out symmetric frame differencing to locate the regions of change. In addition, the mean shift tracking algorithm is also improved to solve the problem of missed targets caused by error convergence. As a result, a kernel-based mean shift target tracking algorithm based on detection updates is also proposed. This tracking algorithm makes use of the interaction between detection and tracking to correct the tracking errors in real time and to realize robust target tracking in complex scenes. In addition, the validity, robustness and stability of the proposed algorithms are all verified by experiments on mid-infrared aerial sequences with vehicles as targets.

  14. Extended model of raw data signals for space-time adaptive processing and moving target indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidický, L.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal model. Its purpose is to study nonstationary raw SAR signals in moving target indication (MTI) systems. This is opposed to the traditional approach in which only stationary (harmonic) signals are considered. The principal

  15. Joint random field model for all-weather moving vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a joint random field (JRF) model for moving vehicle detection in video sequences. The JRF model extends the conditional random field (CRF) by introducing auxiliary latent variables to characterize the structure and evolution of visual scene. Hence, detection labels (e.g., vehicle/roadway) and hidden variables (e.g., pixel intensity under shadow) are jointly estimated to enhance vehicle segmentation in video sequences. Data-dependent contextual constraints among both detection labels and latent variables are integrated during the detection process. The proposed method handles both moving cast shadows/lights and various weather conditions. Computationally efficient algorithm has been developed for real-time vehicle detection in video streams. Experimental results show that the approach effectively deals with various illumination conditions and robustly detects moving vehicles even in grayscale video.

  16. Application of independent component analysis in target trajectory prediction based on moving platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Mao, Yao; Gan, Xun; Tian, Jing

    2015-10-01

    In Electro-Optical tracking systems, compound control is used to keep high-precision tracking of fast targets by predicting the trajectory of the target. Traditional ground based Electro-Optical tracking system uses encoder data and target missing quantity read from image sensors to achieve the target trajectory by using prediction filtering techniques. Compared with the traditional ground based systems, relative angle between the tracking system and the ground cannot be read directly from encoder data in an Electro -Optical tracking system based on moving platform. Thus the combination of inertial sensors' data and target missing quantity is required to composite the trajectory of targets. However, the output of the inertial sensors contains not only the information of the target's motion, but also the residual error of vibration suppression. The existence of vibration suppression residual error affects the trajectory prediction accuracy, thereby reducing compensation precision and the stability of the compound control system. Independent component analysis (ICA) method that can effectively separate the source signals from the measurement signals is introduced to target trajectory prediction field in this paper. An experimental system based on the method is built by settling a small dual-axis disturbance platform, which is taken as the stable platform, on a large dual-axis disturbance platform, which is used to simulate the motion of the moving platform. The result shows that the vibration residual is separated and subtracted from the combined motion data. The target motion is therefore obtained and the feasibility of the method is proved .

  17. Multiresolution Signal Processing Techniques for Ground Moving Target Detection Using Airborne Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Jameson S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR exploits very high spatial resolution via temporal integration and ownship motion to reduce the background clutter power in a given resolution cell to allow detection of nonmoving targets. Ground moving target indicator (GMTI radar, on the other hand, employs much lower-resolution processing but exploits relative differences in the space-time response between moving targets and clutter for detection. Therefore, SAR and GMTI represent two different temporal processing resolution scales which have typically been optimized and demonstrated independently to work well for detecting either stationary (in the case of SAR or exo-clutter (in the case of GMTI targets. Based on this multiresolution interpretation of airborne radar data processing, there appears to be an opportunity to develop detection techniques that attempt to optimize the signal processing resolution scale (e.g., length of temporal integration to match the dynamics of a target of interest. This paper investigates signal processing techniques that exploit long CPIs to improve the detection performance of very slow-moving targets.

  18. How to Move in a Jostling Crowd The Art of Harnessing Random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. How to Move in a Jostling Crowd The Art of Harnessing Random Motions. G S Ranganath. Research News Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 84-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Low-resolution Airborne Radar Air/ground Moving Target Classification and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-you

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radar Target Recognition (RTR is one of the most important needs of modern and future airborne surveillance radars, and it is still one of the key technologies of radar. The majority of present algorithms are based on wide-band radar signal, which not only needs high performance radar system and high target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, but also is sensitive to angle between radar and target. Low-Resolution Airborne Surveillance Radar (LRASR in downward-looking mode, slow flying aircraft and ground moving truck have similar Doppler velocity and Radar Cross Section (RCS, leading to the problem that LRASR air/ground moving targets can not be distinguished, which also disturbs detection, tracking, and classification of low altitude slow flying aircraft to solve these issues, an algorithm based on narrowband fractal feature and phase modulation feature is presented for LRASR air/ground moving targets classification. Real measured data is applied to verify the algorithm, the classification results validate the proposed method, helicopters and truck can be well classified, the average discrimination rate is more than 89% when SNR ≥ 15 dB.

  20. The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Palenskis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

  1. Motion Compensation of Moving Targets for High Range Resolution Stepped-Frequency Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High range resolution (HRR profiling using stepped-frequency pulse trains suffers from range shift and the attenuation/dispersion of range profiles while the target of interest is moving. To overcome these two drawbacks, a new algorithm based on the maximum likelihood (ML estimation is proposed in this paper. Without altering the conventional stepped-frequency waveform, this algorithm can estimate the target velocity and thereby compensate the phase errors caused by the target’s motion. It is shown that the velocity can be accurately estimated and the range profile can be correctly reconstructed.

  2. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum

    2017-10-17

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  3. Moving Target Indication via RADARSAT-2 Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent launches of the German TerraSAR-X and the Canadian RADARSAT-2, both equipped with phased array antennas and multiple receiver channels, synthetic aperture radar, ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI data are now routinely being acquired from space. Defence R&D Canada has been conducting SAR-GMTI trials to assess the performance and limitations of the RADARSAT-2 GMTI system. Several SAR-GMTI modes developed for RADARSAT-2 are described and preliminary test results of these modes are presented. Detailed equations of motion of a moving target for multiaperture spaceborne SAR geometry are derived and a moving target parameter estimation algorithm developed for RADARSAT-2 (called the Fractrum Estimator is presented. Limitations of the simple dual-aperture SAR-GMTI mode are analysed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio and target speed. Recently acquired RADARSAT-2 GMTI data are used to demonstrate the capability of different system modes and to validate the signal model and the algorithm.

  4. Quantification of interplay effects of scanned particle beams and moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Groezinger, Sven O; Rietzel, Eike [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Abt. Biophysik, Planckstr. 1, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: c.bert@gsi.de

    2008-05-07

    Scanned particle beams and target motion interfere. This interplay leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. Experiments and a treatment planning study were performed to investigate interplay. Experiments were performed with moving radiographic films for different motion parameters. Resulting dose distributions were analyzed for homogeneity and dose coverage. The treatment planning study was based on the time-resolved computed tomography (4DCT) data of five lung tumor patients. Treatment plans with margins to account for respiratory motion were optimized, and resulting dose distributions for 108 different motion parameters for each patient were calculated. Data analysis for a single fraction was based on dose-volume histograms and the volume covered with 95% of the planned dose. Interplay deteriorated dose conformity and homogeneity (1-standard deviation/mean) in the experiments as well as in the treatment-planning study. The homogeneity on radiographic films was below {approx}80% for motion amplitudes of {approx}15 mm. For the treatment-planning study based on patient data, the target volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was on average (standard deviation) 71.0% (14.2%). Interplay of scanned particle beams and moving targets has severe impact on the resulting dose distributions. Fractionated treatment delivery potentially mitigates at least parts of these interplay effects. However, especially for small fraction numbers, e.g. hypo-fractionation, treatment of moving targets with scanned particle beams requires motion mitigation techniques such as rescanning, gating, or tracking.

  5. Application of Fractional Fourier Transform to Moving Target Indication via Along-Track Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Shen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown yet powerful technique, the so-called fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, is applied to SAR along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI in order to estimate moving target parameters. By mapping a target's signal onto a fractional Fourier axis, the FrFT permits a constant-velocity target to be focused in the fractional Fourier domain thereby affording orders of magnitude improvement in SCR. Moving target velocity and position parameters are derived and expressed in terms of an optimum fractional angle and a measured fractional Fourier position , allowing a target to be accurately repositioned and its velocity components computed without actually forming an SAR image. The new estimation algorithm is compared with the matched filter bank approach, showing some of the advantages of the FrFT method. The proposed technique is applied to the data acquired by the two-aperture CV580 airborne radar system configured in its along-track mode. Results show that the method is effective in estimating target velocity and position parameters.

  6. A 3D numerical model of the electrostatic coating process for moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljic, N.; Castle, G. S. P.; Adamiak, K.; Kuo, H. H.; Fan, H. T.

    2011-06-01

    A 3D realistic numerical model of the electrostatic coating process has been developed including all relevant mechanical and electrical phenomena. The commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT was used to simulate the mechanical portion of the process. The electrical phenomena including space charge fields due to ions and poly-disperse particle charge distributions were added to FLUENT through the User Defined Function (UDF) capabilities. Selected example results are shown to demonstrate the effect of particle charge to mass ratio distributions, electrohydrodynamic flow effects and corona currents on particle trajectories and deposition efficiency. These numerical results correlate well with the theoretical expectations for static targets. In addition, an efficient method for handling 3D cases with moving flat parts is presented using the superposition principle. A procedure for extending the model for the general case of 3D moving targets is suggested.

  7. Moving Target Imaging and Ghost Mitigation in Through-the-Wall Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human is one kind of the most interesting targets in through-the-wall imaging. In high-resolution imaging applications, human is no longer a point target. Therefore, the previous signal models constructed by point target assumption cannot accurately describe real characteristics of EM propagation. We construct the signal models based on extended target theory in this paper. Compared with previous works, the main contributions are as follows. Firstly, human is considered as an extended target. The expressions of target scattering and wall reflections are derived. Secondly, target scattering is no longer isotropic in new model. A new kind of ghost problem which is caused by target obscuring in EM propagation is discovered and exploited. Thirdly, to improve image quality in moving target imaging, an efficient approach which adopts CFAR, clustering method, and spatial geometry relationship is proposed to remove the ghosts. The derived models are shown to agree with synthetic and experimental results. And the efficiency of proposed method is also validated, which illuminates that the ghosts are efficiently mitigated and the image quality is significantly improved.

  8. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to find and track object of interest from a bird’s eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation. The complex detection algorithm can be implemented in a real-time embedded system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. This paper presents the development of real-time moving target detection System-on-Chip (SoC using FPGA for deployment on a UAV. The detection algorithm utilizes area-based image registration technique which includes motion estimation and object segmentation processes. The moving target detection system has been prototyped on a low-cost Terasic DE2-115 board mounted with TRDB-D5M camera. The system consists of Nios II processor and stream-oriented dedicated hardware accelerators running at 100 MHz clock rate, achieving 30-frame per second processing speed for 640 × 480 pixels’ resolution greyscale videos.

  9. Symplectic random vibration analysis of a vehicle moving on an infinitely long periodic track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Wei; Lin, Jia-Hao; Zhao, Yan; Howson, W. P.; Williams, F. W.

    2010-10-01

    Based on the pseudo-excitation method (PEM), symplectic mathematical scheme and Schur decomposition, the random responses of coupled vehicle-track systems are analyzed. The vehicle is modeled as a spring-mass-damper system and the track is regarded as an infinitely long substructural chain consisting of three layers, i.e. the rails, sleepers and ballast. The vehicle and track are coupled via linear springs and the "moving-vehicle model" is adopted. The latter assumes that the vehicle moves along a static track for which the rail irregularity is further assumed to be a zero-mean valued stationary Gaussian random process. The problem is then solved efficiently as follows. Initially, PEM is used to transform the rail random excitations into deterministic harmonic excitations. The symplectic mathematical scheme is then applied to establish a low degree of freedom equation of motion with periodic coefficients. In turn these are transformed into a linear equation set whose upper triangular coefficient matrix is established using the Schur decomposition scheme. Finally, the frequency-dependent terms are separated from the load vector to avoid repeated computations for different frequencies associated with the pseudo-excitations. The proposed method is subsequently justified by comparison with a Monte-Carlo simulation; the fixed-vehicle model and the moving-vehicle model are compared and the influences of vehicle velocity and class of track on system responses are also discussed.

  10. Search efficiency of biased migration towards stationary or moving targets in heterogeneously structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzade, Youness; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Efficient search acts as a strong selective force in biological systems ranging from cellular populations to predator-prey systems. The search processes commonly involve finding a stationary or mobile target within a heterogeneously structured environment where obstacles limit migration. An open generic question is whether random or directionally biased motions or a combination of both provide an optimal search efficiency and how that depends on the motility and density of targets and obstacles. To address this question, we develop a simple model that involves a random walker searching for its targets in a heterogeneous medium of bond percolation square lattice and used mean first passage time (〈T 〉 ) as an indication of average search time. Our analysis reveals a dual effect of directional bias on the minimum value of 〈T 〉 . For a homogeneous medium, directionality always decreases 〈T 〉 and a pure directional migration (a ballistic motion) serves as the optimized strategy, while for a heterogeneous environment, we find that the optimized strategy involves a combination of directed and random migrations. The relative contribution of these modes is determined by the density of obstacles and motility of targets. Existence of randomness and motility of targets add to the efficiency of search. Our study reveals generic and simple rules that govern search efficiency. Our findings might find application in a number of areas including immunology, cell biology, ecology, and robotics.

  11. Estimation of direction of arrival of a moving target using subspace based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of arrival of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional time delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean absolute error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.

  12. Infrared dim moving target tracking via sparsity-based discriminative classifier and convolutional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhou, Huixin; Wang, Bingjian; Song, Shangzhen; Zhao, Dong

    2017-11-01

    Infrared dim and small target tracking is a great challenging task. The main challenge for target tracking is to account for appearance change of an object, which submerges in the cluttered background. An efficient appearance model that exploits both the global template and local representation over infrared image sequences is constructed for dim moving target tracking. A Sparsity-based Discriminative Classifier (SDC) and a Convolutional Network-based Generative Model (CNGM) are combined with a prior model. In the SDC model, a sparse representation-based algorithm is adopted to calculate the confidence value that assigns more weights to target templates than negative background templates. In the CNGM model, simple cell feature maps are obtained by calculating the convolution between target templates and fixed filters, which are extracted from the target region at the first frame. These maps measure similarities between each filter and local intensity patterns across the target template, therefore encoding its local structural information. Then, all the maps form a representation, preserving the inner geometric layout of a candidate template. Furthermore, the fixed target template set is processed via an efficient prior model. The same operation is applied to candidate templates in the CNGM model. The online update scheme not only accounts for appearance variations but also alleviates the migration problem. At last, collaborative confidence values of particles are utilized to generate particles' importance weights. Experiments on various infrared sequences have validated the tracking capability of the presented algorithm. Experimental results show that this algorithm runs in real-time and provides a higher accuracy than state of the art algorithms.

  13. Multiple Moving Targets Detection and Parameters Estimation in Strong Reverberation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of multiple moving targets detection and parameters estimation (direction of arrival and range in strong reverberation environments. As reverberation has a strong correlation with target echo, the performance of target detection and parameters estimation is significantly degraded in practical underwater environments. In this paper, we utilize two uniform circular arrays to receive plane wave of the linear frequency modulation signal reflected from far-field targets. On the basis of received signal, we build a variance matrix of multiple beams by using modal decomposition, conventional beamforming, and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT. We then propose a novel detection method and an estimation method of parameters based on the constructed image. A significant feature of the proposed methods is that our design does not involve any a priori knowledge about targets number and parameters of marine environments. Finally, we demonstrate via numerical simulation examples that the detection probability and the accuracy of estimated parameters of the proposed method are higher than the existing methods in both low signal-to-reverberation ratio and signal-to-noise ratio environment.

  14. Adapting high-resolution speckle imaging to moving targets and platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J; Brase, J M

    2004-02-05

    High-resolution surveillance imaging with apertures greater than a few inches over horizontal or slant paths at optical or infrared wavelengths will typically be limited by atmospheric aberrations. With static targets and static platforms, we have previously demonstrated near-diffraction limited imaging of various targets including personnel and vehicles over horizontal and slant paths ranging from less than a kilometer to many tens of kilometers using adaptations to bispectral speckle imaging techniques. Nominally, these image processing methods require the target to be static with respect to its background during the data acquisition since multiple frames are required. To obtain a sufficient number of frames and also to allow the atmosphere to decorrelate between frames, data acquisition times on the order of one second are needed. Modifications to the original imaging algorithm will be needed to deal with situations where there is relative target to background motion. In this paper, we present an extension of these imaging techniques to accommodate mobile platforms and moving targets.

  15. Guided filter and convolutional network based tracking for infrared dim moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Rong, Shenghui; Zhao, Dong; Du, Juan

    2017-09-01

    The dim moving target usually submerges in strong noise, and its motion observability is debased by numerous false alarms for low signal-to-noise ratio. A tracking algorithm that integrates the Guided Image Filter (GIF) and the Convolutional neural network (CNN) into the particle filter framework is presented to cope with the uncertainty of dim targets. First, the initial target template is treated as a guidance to filter incoming templates depending on similarities between the guidance and candidate templates. The GIF algorithm utilizes the structure in the guidance and performs as an edge-preserving smoothing operator. Therefore, the guidance helps to preserve the detail of valuable templates and makes inaccurate ones blurry, alleviating the tracking deviation effectively. Besides, the two-layer CNN method is adopted to obtain a powerful appearance representation. Subsequently, a Bayesian classifier is trained with these discriminative yet strong features. Moreover, an adaptive learning factor is introduced to prevent the update of classifier's parameters when a target undergoes sever background. At last, classifier responses of particles are utilized to generate particle importance weights and a re-sample procedure preserves samples according to the weight. In the predication stage, a 2-order transition model considers the target velocity to estimate current position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented algorithm outperforms several relative algorithms in the accuracy.

  16. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Zhiping; Zhu, Kunteng; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Lingkun; Lou, Ping

    2015-01-01

      This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM...

  17. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  18. Variational data assimilation using targetted random walks

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, S. L.

    2011-02-15

    The variational approach to data assimilation is a widely used methodology for both online prediction and for reanalysis. In either of these scenarios, it can be important to assess uncertainties in the assimilated state. Ideally, it is desirable to have complete information concerning the Bayesian posterior distribution for unknown state given data. We show that complete computational probing of this posterior distribution is now within the reach in the offline situation. We introduce a Markov chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) method which enables us to directly sample from the Bayesian posterior distribution on the unknown functions of interest given observations. Since we are aware that these methods are currently too computationally expensive to consider using in an online filtering scenario, we frame this in the context of offline reanalysis. Using a simple random walk-type MCMC method, we are able to characterize the posterior distribution using only evaluations of the forward model of the problem, and of the model and data mismatch. No adjoint model is required for the method we use; however, more sophisticated MCMC methods are available which exploit derivative information. For simplicity of exposition, we consider the problem of assimilating data, either Eulerian or Lagrangian, into a low Reynolds number flow in a two-dimensional periodic geometry. We will show that in many cases it is possible to recover the initial condition and model error (which we describe as unknown forcing to the model) from data, and that with increasing amounts of informative data, the uncertainty in our estimations reduces. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  20. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking. PMID:25808773

  1. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  2. Can a workplace 'sit less, move more' programme help Spanish office employees achieve physical activity targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Bort-Roig, Judit; Giné-Garriga, Maria; González-Suárez, Angel M; Martínez-Lemos, Iván; Fortuño, Jesús; Milà, Raimon; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Gilson, Nicholas D; McKenna, Jim

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the impact of a workplace 'sit less, move more' programme (Walk@WorkSpain, W@WS, 19-week) on self-reported activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) in Spanish office employees (n = 264; 42 ± 10 years; 171 female) randomly assigned to Intervention (IG; used W@WS; n = 129) or comparison groups (CGs; n = 135). A linear mixed model assessed changes in METs-min/wk of total, vigorous, moderate and light physical activity (IPAQ short form) between baseline and 2 months follow-up. Over the CG, IG significantly increased light intensity AREE (P = 0.027). W@WS secured sustained increases on AREE-but not on achieving PA recommendations-providing translational evidence that active living in office employees can be increased. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2017-06-16

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Performance limits for exo-clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-09-01

    The performance of a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to 'get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall GMTI radar system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the 'seek time'.

  5. UAV guidance control laws for autonomous coordinated tracking of a moving ground target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard

    This research develops the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) control guidance laws for two UAVs to track a moving ground target in a constant wind while maintaining position coordination with each other. The guidance control is intended to aid an independently controlled camera carried onboard the UAV that gathers data for visual position estimation. Two guidance law command sets are pursued. The performance of the coordination guidance laws are shown to be poor when communication is lost. Observers are formulated that significantly increase guidance law robustness due to communication loss and rate variability. The guidance laws are demonstrated to be viable using real-time, hardware-quality simulation and flight testing. To accommodate more advanced constraints, a tracking guidance law using evolutionary computation is developed from an existing strategic path planning algorithm. To demonstrate its capabilities, the UAV is required to avoid radar detection while tracking.

  6. Toward effectiveness and agility of network security situational awareness using moving target defense (MTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Lu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    Most enterprise networks are built to operate in a static configuration (e.g., static software stacks, network configurations, and application deployments). Nonetheless, static systems make it easy for a cyber adversary to plan and launch successful attacks. To address static vulnerability, moving target defense (MTD) has been proposed to increase the difficulty for the adversary to launch successful attacks. In this paper, we first present a literature review of existing MTD techniques. We then propose a generic defense framework, which can provision an incentive-compatible MTD mechanism through dynamically migrating server locations. We also present a user-server mapping mechanism, which not only improves system resiliency, but also ensures network performance. We demonstrate a MTD with a multi-user network communication and our data shows that the proposed framework can effectively improve the resiliency and agility of the system while achieving good network timeliness and throughput performance.

  7. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we consider a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. We propose a reduced complexity algorithm to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD) for moving target. We show that the calculation of parameter estimation can be expressed in terms of one-dimensional fast-Fourier-transforms which drastically reduces the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the two-dimension multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover, simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the Cramer-Rao lower bound. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. New moves-preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls a group-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Friend, Sarah E; Flattum, Colleen F; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary T; Bauer, Katherine W; Feldman, Shira B; Petrich, Christine A

    2010-11-01

    Weight-related problems are prevalent in adolescent girls. To evaluate New Moves, a school-based program aimed at preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls. School-based group-randomized controlled design. 356 girls (mean age=15.8±1.2 years) from six intervention and six control high schools. More than 75% of the girls were racial/ethnic minorities and 46% were overweight or obese. Data were collected in 2007-2009 and analyzed in 2009-2010. An all-girls physical education class, supplemented with nutrition and self-empowerment components, individual sessions using motivational interviewing, lunch meetings, and parent outreach. Percentage body fat, BMI, physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. New Moves did not lead to significant changes in the girls' percentage body fat or BMI but improvements were seen for sedentary activity, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. For example, in comparison to control girls, at 9-month follow-up, intervention girls decreased their sedentary behaviors by approximately one 30-minute block a day (p=0.050); girls increased their portion control behaviors (p=0.014); the percentage of girls using unhealthy weight control behaviors decreased by 13.7% (p=0.021); and improvements were seen in body image (p=0.045) and self-worth (p=0.031). Additionally, intervention girls reported more support by friends, teachers, and families for healthy eating and physical activity. New Moves provides a model for addressing the broad spectrum of weight-related problems among adolescent girls. Further work is needed to enhance the effectiveness of interventions to improve weight status of youth. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a robust optimization method for IMRT of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancić, Christian; Trofimov, Alexei; Chan, Timothy C Y; Sharp, Gregory C; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2009-05-07

    Internal organ motion during radiation therapy, if not considered appropriately in the planning process, has been shown to reduce target coverage and increase the dose to healthy tissues. Standard planning approaches, which use safety margins to handle intrafractional movement of the tumor, are typically designed based on the maximum amplitude of motion, and are often overly conservative. Comparable coverage and reduced dose to healthy organs appear achievable with robust motion-adaptive treatment planning, which considers the expected probability distribution of the average target position and the uncertainty of its realization during treatment delivery. A dosimetric test of a robust optimization method for IMRT was performed, using patient breathing data. External marker motion data acquired from respiratory-gated radiotherapy patients were used to build and test the framework for robust optimization. The motion trajectories recorded during radiation treatment itself are not strictly necessary to generate the initial version of a robust treatment plan, but can be used to adapt the plan during the course of treatment. Single-field IMRT plans were optimized to deliver a uniform dose to a rectangular area. During delivery on a linear accelerator, a computer-driven motion phantom reproduced the patients' breathing patterns and a two-dimensional ionization detector array measured the dose delivered. The dose distributions from robust-optimized plans were compared to those from standard plans, which used a margin expansion. Dosimetric tests confirmed the improved sparing of the non-target area with robust planning, which was achieved without compromising the target coverage. The maximum dose in robust plans did not exceed 110% of the prescription, while the minimum target doses were comparable in standard and robust plans. In test courses, optimized for a simplified target geometry, and delivered to a phantom that moved in one dimension with an average amplitude of 17

  10. An indirect adaptive neural control of a visual-based quadrotor robot for pursuing a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Masoud; Amirkhani, Abdollah; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mosavi, Mohammad R

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to use a visual-based control mechanism to control a quadrotor type aerial robot which is in pursuit of a moving target. The nonlinear nature of a quadrotor, on the one hand, and the difficulty of obtaining an exact model for it, on the other hand, constitute two serious challenges in designing a controller for this UAV. A potential solution for such problems is the use of intelligent control methods such as those that rely on artificial neural networks and other similar approaches. In addition to the two mentioned problems, another problem that emerges due to the moving nature of a target is the uncertainty that exists in the target image. By employing an artificial neural network with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) an indirect adaptive neural controller has been designed for a quadrotor robot in search of a moving target. The results of the simulation for different paths show that the quadrotor has efficiently tracked the moving target. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhiping; Zhu, Kunteng; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Lingkun; Lou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM). Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track i...

  12. 3D range-gated super-resolution imaging based on stereo matching for moving platforms and targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2017-11-01

    3D range-gated superresolution imaging is a novel 3D reconstruction technique for target detection and recognition with good real-time performance. However, for moving targets or platforms such as airborne, shipborne, remote operated vehicle and autonomous vehicle, 3D reconstruction has a large error or failure. In order to overcome this drawback, we propose a method of stereo matching for 3D range-gated superresolution reconstruction algorithm. In experiment, the target is a doll of Mario with a height of 38cm at the location of 34m, and we obtain two successive frame images of the Mario. To confirm our method is effective, we transform the original images with translation, rotation, scale and perspective, respectively. The experimental result shows that our method has a good result of 3D reconstruction for moving targets or platforms.

  13. Robustness of Dengue Complex Network under Targeted versus Random Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Abid Mahmood Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection is one of those epidemic diseases that require much consideration in order to save the humankind from its unsafe impacts. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 3.6 billion individuals are at risk because of the dengue virus sickness. Researchers are striving to comprehend the dengue threat. This study is a little commitment to those endeavors. To observe the robustness of the dengue network, we uprooted the links between nodes randomly and targeted by utilizing different centrality measures. The outcomes demonstrated that 5% targeted attack is equivalent to the result of 65% random assault, which showed the topology of this complex network validated a scale-free network instead of random network. Four centrality measures (Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, and Eigenvector have been ascertained to look for focal hubs. It has been observed through the results in this study that robustness of a node and links depends on topology of the network. The dengue epidemic network presented robust behaviour under random attack, and this network turned out to be more vulnerable when the hubs of higher degree have higher probability to fail. Moreover, representation of this network has been projected, and hub removal impact has been shown on the real map of Gombak (Malaysia.

  14. Moving on: Factors associated with caregivers' bereavement adjustment using a random population-based face-to-face survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emma; Prigerson, Holly G; Quinn, Steve J; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2017-06-01

    Providing care at end of life has consequences for caregivers' bereavement experience. 'Difficulty moving on with life' is an informative and unbiased symptom of prolonged grief disorder. Predictors of bereaved caregivers' ability to 'move on' have not been examined across the population. To identify the characteristics of bereaved hands-on caregivers who were, and were not, able to 'move on' 13-60 months after the 'expected' death of someone close. The South Australian Health Omnibus is an annual, random, cross-sectional community survey. From 2000 to 2007, respondents were asked about providing care for someone terminally ill and their subsequent ability to 'move on'. Multivariable logistic regression models explored the characteristics moving on and not moving on. Respondents were aged ⩾15 years and lived in households within South Australia. They had provided care to someone who had died of terminal illness in the preceding 5 years. A total of 922 people provided hands-on care. In all, 80% of caregivers (745) had been able to 'move on'. Closeness of relationship to the deceased, increasing caregiver age, caregiver report of needs met, increasing time since loss, sex and English-speaking background were significantly associated with 'moving on'. A closer relationship to the deceased, socioeconomic disadvantage and being male were significantly associated with not 'moving on'. These results support the relevance of 'moving on' as an indicator of caregivers' bereavement adjustment. Following the outcomes of bereaved caregivers longitudinally is essential if effective interventions are to be developed to minimise the risk of prolonged grief disorder.

  15. An Adaptive Moving Target Imaging Method for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Optimization NLCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-01-23

    Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation

  17. RFMirTarget: predicting human microRNA target genes with a random forest classifier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R Mendoza

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression whose fundamental role has already been identified in many cell pathways. The correct identification of miRNAs targets is still a major challenge in bioinformatics and has motivated the development of several computational methods to overcome inherent limitations of experimental analysis. Indeed, the best results reported so far in terms of specificity and sensitivity are associated to machine learning-based methods for microRNA-target prediction. Following this trend, in the current paper we discuss and explore a microRNA-target prediction method based on a random forest classifier, namely RFMirTarget. Despite its well-known robustness regarding general classifying tasks, to the best of our knowledge, random forest have not been deeply explored for the specific context of predicting microRNAs targets. Our framework first analyzes alignments between candidate microRNA-target pairs and extracts a set of structural, thermodynamics, alignment, seed and position-based features, upon which classification is performed. Experiments have shown that RFMirTarget outperforms several well-known classifiers with statistical significance, and that its performance is not impaired by the class imbalance problem or features correlation. Moreover, comparing it against other algorithms for microRNA target prediction using independent test data sets from TarBase and starBase, we observe a very promising performance, with higher sensitivity in relation to other methods. Finally, tests performed with RFMirTarget show the benefits of feature selection even for a classifier with embedded feature importance analysis, and the consistency between relevant features identified and important biological properties for effective microRNA-target gene alignment.

  18. The importance of surrounding tissues and window settings for contouring of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, Kai Joachim [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Medical School, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Oechsner, Markus; Berndt, Johannes; Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Molls, Michael; Duma, Marciana Nona [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the importance of surrounding tissues for the delineation of moving targets in tissue-specific phantoms and to find optimal settings for lung, soft tissue, and liver tumors. Tumor movement was simulated by a water-filled table tennis ball (target volume, TV). Three phantoms were created: corkboards to simulate lung tissue (lung phantom, LunPh), animal fat as fatty soft tissue (fatty tissue phantom, FatPh), and water enhanced with contrast medium as the liver tissue (liver phantom, LivPh). Slow planning three-dimensional compute tomography images (3D-CTs) were acquired with and without phantom movements. One-dimensional tumor movement (1D), three-dimensional tumor movement (3D), as well as a real patient's tumor trajectories were simulated. The TV was contoured using two lung window settings, two soft-tissue window settings, and one liver window setting. The volumes were compared to mathematical calculated values. TVs were underestimated in all phantoms due to movement. The use of soft-tissue windows in the LivPh led to a significantunderestimation of the TV (70.8 % of calculated TV). When common window settings [LunPh + 200 HU/-1,000 HU (upper window/lower window threshold); FatPh: + 240 HU/-120 HU; LivPh: + 175 HU/+ 50 HU] were used, the contoured TVs were: LivPh, 84.0 %; LunPh, 93.2 %, and FatPh, 92.8 %. The lower window threshold had a significant impact on the size of the delineated TV, whereas changes of the upper threshold led only to small differences. The decisive factor for window settings is the lower window threshold (for adequate TV delineation in the lung and fatty-soft tissue it should be lower than density values of surrounding tissue). The use of a liver window should be considered. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss des umgebenden Gewebes auf die Konturierung bewegter Objekte zu untersuchen. Um die optimalen CT-Fensterungen fuer Lungen-, Weichteil- und Lebertumoren zu bestimmen

  19. Acquisition and analysis of X-band moving target signature data using a 160-GHz compact range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Robert H.; Neilson, H. J.; Healy, Dennis M., Jr.; Grayson, Timothy P.; Williams, Robert L.; Nixon, William E.

    2001-10-01

    Acquisition of full-polarimetric millimeter-wave, or microwave, moving target signature sets sufficient for developing ATR algorithms have proven to be costly and difficult to achieve operationally. Thorough investigations involving moving targets are often hindered by the lack of rigorously consistent signature data for a sufficient number of targets across requisite viewing angles, articulations and environmental conditions. Under the support of DARPA's TRUMPETS and AMSTE programs in conjunction with the US Army National Ground Intelligence Center, X-band far-field turntable signature data has been acquired on 1/16th scaled models of the Bradley and BTR-70 vehicles specifically constructed for moving target investigations using ERADS' 160 GHz fully polarimetric compact range. The tracks/wheels of the scale models were translated incrementally as the radar's transmit frequency was stepped across a 10.5 Ghz bandwidth. By acquiring a full frequency sweep at each track/wheel position with appropriate translation resolution, HRR RCS profiles of Doppler-shifted body/track components were generated. HRR profiles of the equivalent stationary vehicle were also generated for analysis using the vehicle's HRR profiles for any given track position.

  20. Eye Tracking of Occluded Self-Moved Targets: Role of Haptic Feedback and Hand-Target Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Mathew, James; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on smooth pursuit eye movements have shown that humans can continue to track the position of their hand, or a target controlled by the hand, after it is occluded, thereby demonstrating that arm motor commands contribute to the prediction of target motion driving pursuit eye movements. Here, we investigated this predictive mechanism by manipulating both the complexity of the hand-target mapping and the provision of haptic feedback. Two hand-target mappings were used, either a rigid (simple) one in which hand and target motion matched perfectly or a nonrigid (complex) one in which the target behaved as a mass attached to the hand by means of a spring. Target animation was obtained by asking participants to oscillate a lightweight robotic device that provided (or not) haptic feedback consistent with the target dynamics. Results showed that as long as 7 s after target occlusion, smooth pursuit continued to be the main contributor to total eye displacement (∼60%). However, the accuracy of eye-tracking varied substantially across experimental conditions. In general, eye-tracking was less accurate under the nonrigid mapping, as reflected by higher positional and velocity errors. Interestingly, haptic feedback helped to reduce the detrimental effects of target occlusion when participants used the nonrigid mapping, but not when they used the rigid one. Overall, we conclude that the ability to maintain smooth pursuit in the absence of visual information can extend to complex hand-target mappings, but the provision of haptic feedback is critical for the maintenance of accurate eye-tracking performance.

  1. Tracking and recognition of multiple human targets moving in a wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiong, Ji; Li, Fangmin; Zhao, Ning; Jiang, Na

    2014-01-01

    ... sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial...

  2. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM. Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track irregularities and seismic accelerations are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudoexcitations by PEM. The time-dependent power spectral densities (PSDs of the random vibration of the system are obtained by step-by-step integration method, and the corresponding dynamic reliability is estimated based on the first-passage failure criterion. A case study is then presented in which a high-speed train moves over a slab track resting on a simply supported girder bridge. The PSD characteristics of the random vibration of the bridge and train are analyzed, the influence of the wheel-rail-bridge interaction models on the random vibration of the bridge and train is discussed, and furthermore the influence of train speed, earthquake intensity, and pier height on the dynamic reliability of train operation stability is studied.

  3. Study on the Detection of Moving Target in the Mining Method Based on Hybrid Algorithm for Sports Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving object detection and tracking is the computer vision and image processing is a hot research direction, based on the analysis of the moving target detection and tracking algorithm in common use, focus on the sports video target tracking non rigid body. In sports video, non rigid athletes often have physical deformation in the process of movement, and may be associated with the occurrence of moving target under cover. Media data is surging to fast search and query causes more difficulties in data. However, the majority of users want to be able to quickly from the multimedia data to extract the interested content and implicit knowledge (concepts, rules, rules, models and correlation, retrieval and query quickly to take advantage of them, but also can provide the decision support problem solving hierarchy. Based on the motion in sport video object as the object of study, conducts the system research from the theoretical level and technical framework and so on, from the layer by layer mining between low level motion features to high-level semantic motion video, not only provides support for users to find information quickly, but also can provide decision support for the user to solve the problem.

  4. Brain Activation during Spatial Updating and Attentive Tracking of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Georg; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Keeping aware of the locations of objects while one is moving requires the updating of spatial representations. As long as the objects are visible, attentional tracking is sufficient, but knowing where objects out of view went in relation to one's own body involves an updating of spatial working memory. Here, multiple object tracking was employed…

  5. Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection in Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Research Laboratory Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection...2 Fig. 2 GMTI-SAR images (hh-polarized) from hybrid ATI/DPCA method for scene in Fig. 1: a) with trees, moving human with variable...imaging and GMTI simultaneously, a hybrid ATI/DPCA method is exploited for moving human target detection in this work. The technique assumes the

  6. Through-the-wall localization of a moving target by two independent ultra wideband (UWB) radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Dušan; Svecová, Mária; Rovňáková, Jana

    2013-09-09

    In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB) radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  7. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  8. Spectrum characteristics of Denver and Philadelphia ground clutter and the problem of distinguishing wind shear targets from moving clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis of 1991 wind shear flight data has provided information about the power spectral density, spectral width, and velocity of ground clutter detected by the wind shear radar at several major airports. Ground clutter must be recognized and separated from weather targets before wind shear can be computed. Information will be presented characterizing and comparing ground clutter and weather target spectra. The information includes (1) spectral widths of stationary ground clutter seen at various scan and tilt angles, (2) power spectral density and velocity of moving ground clutter relative to the stationary ground clutter, and (3) spectral widths and velocities of weather targets. A summary of numerical results in the form of histograms and example numerical results in the form of spectral plots are presented.

  9. Moving-Target Position Estimation Using GPU-Based Particle Filter for IoT Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongseop Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A particle filter (PF has been introduced for effective position estimation of moving targets for non-Gaussian and nonlinear systems. The time difference of arrival (TDOA method using acoustic sensor array has normally been used to for estimation by concealing the location of a moving target, especially underwater. In this paper, we propose a GPU -based acceleration of target position estimation using a PF and propose an efficient system and software architecture. The proposed graphic processing unit (GPU-based algorithm has more advantages in applying PF signal processing to a target system, which consists of large-scale Internet of Things (IoT-driven sensors because of the parallelization which is scalable. For the TDOA measurement from the acoustic sensor array, we use the generalized cross correlation phase transform (GCC-PHAT method to obtain the correlation coefficient of the signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and we try to accelerate the calculations of GCC-PHAT based TDOA measurements using FFT with GPU compute unified device architecture (CUDA. The proposed approach utilizes a parallelization method in the target position estimation algorithm using GPU-based PF processing. In addition, it could efficiently estimate sudden movement change of the target using GPU-based parallel computing which also can be used for multiple target tracking. It also provides scalability in extending the detection algorithm according to the increase of the number of sensors. Therefore, the proposed architecture can be applied in IoT sensing applications with a large number of sensors. The target estimation algorithm was verified using MATLAB and implemented using GPU CUDA. We implemented the proposed signal processing acceleration system using target GPU to analyze in terms of execution time. The execution time of the algorithm is reduced by 55% from to the CPU standalone operation in target embedded board, NVIDIA Jetson TX1. Also, to apply large

  10. Centralized Fusion of Unscented Kalman Filter Based on Huber Robust Method for Nonlinear Moving Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust method for tracking nonlinear target with the fusion unscented Kalman filter (FUKF. We noticed that when some outliers exist in the measurements of the sensors, they cannot track the target accurately by using the standard Kalman filters. The robust statistics theory is used in this paper to solve this problem. The measurement noise variance which is at the time of the outlier is restructured through minimizing the designed cost function. Then, the standard fusion unscented Kalman filter is used to track the target in order to avoid the bias brought by the linear approximation. Compared to the traditional tracking method and Huber robust method (HFUKF, this method has a more accurate performance and can track the target efficiently while the outliers exist. Last, simulation examples in three different conditions are given and the simulation results show the advantages of the proposed method over the fusion unscented Kalman filter (FUKF and the Huber robust method (HFUKF.

  11. Moving Target Depth Estimation for Passive Sonar, Using Sequential Resampling Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraut, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    ... wave numbers of the channel modes used for the matched-field target response. Using this approach, the complex amplitudes of the modes are treated as nuisance parameters, which comprise a hidden, first-order Markov state process...

  12. Spatio-temporal constraints on upright children's coordination when hitting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosey, Florence; Keller, Jean; Golomer, Eveline

    2007-12-01

    To determine if the spatial and/or temporal context affected the coordination patterns of children under five in upright interceptive tasks, 3-year-olds hit a ball dropped from a ramp from five heights (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 m) to control drop time. We studied the initiation time of hitting a ball with a cinematic analysis of the different joint movements (foot, knee, hip, shoulder, and hand). Two patterns of joint coordination were observed according to the rolling height of the ball: a de-synchronized pattern for heights of 2 m or above where the foot was the first to move and the hand the last, and a "synchronized" pattern, for the lowest height (1.5 m) where all joints started moving at the same time due to a strong temporal pressure. These two coordination patterns highlight a functional adaptation of body joints according to the spatio-temporal constraints among children from the age of three.

  13. Track-Before-Detect Algorithm for Faint Moving Objects based on Random Sampling and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vehicles Richard Rast and Waid Schlaegel AFRL, Directed Energy Vincent Schmidt AFRL, Human Effectiveness Directorate Stephen Gregory The Boeing...the data set collected with the RH 17-inch telescope, the night of 2014/10/02 UT, we evaluate the performance of RANSAC-MT by testing it using...calibration techniques. Moving object signatures of various intensities and angular velocities are tested . Figure 6 shows the results from one of the

  14. Using artificial bat sonar neural networks for complex pattern recognition: recognizing faces and the speed of a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I E; Florer, F L; Rios, D; Zagaeski, M

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of studies examined the viability of using bat-like sonar input for artificial neural networks in complex pattern recognition tasks. In the first set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to perform two face recognition tasks. In the first task, the network was trained to recognize different faces regardless of facial expressions. Following training, the network was tested on its ability to generalize and correctly recognize faces using echoes of novel facial expressions that were not included in the training set. The neural network was able to recognize novel echoes of faces almost perfectly (above 96% accuracy) when it was required to recognize up to five faces. In the second face recognition task, a sonar neural network was trained to recognize the sex of 16 faces (eight males and eight females). After training, the network was able to correctly recognize novel echoes of those faces as 'male' or as 'female' faces with accuracy levels of 88%. However, the network was not able to recognize novel faces as 'male' or 'female' faces. In the second set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to learn to recognize the speed of a target that was moving towards the viewer. During training, the target was presented in a variety of orientations, and the network's performance was evaluated when the target was presented in novel orientations that were not included in the training set. The different orientations dramatically affected the amplitude and the frequency composition of the echoes. The neural network was able to learn and recognize the speed of a moving target, and to generalize to new orientations of the target. However, the network was not able to generalize to new speeds that were not included in the training set. The potential and limitations of using bat-like sonar as input for artifical neural networks are discussed.

  15. Pop-out in visual search of moving targets in the archer fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ben-Tov (Mor); O. Donchin (Opher); O. Ben-Shahar (Ohad); R. Segev (Ronen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPop-out in visual search reflects the capacity of observers to rapidly detect visual targets independent of the number of distracting objects in the background. Although it may be beneficial to most animals, pop-out behaviour has been observed only in mammals, where neural correlates are

  16. Comparison of virtual reality versus physical reality on movement characteristics of persons with Parkinson's disease: effects of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yi; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Fang, Jing-Jing; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Leong, Iat-Fai; Ma, Hui-Ing

    2011-08-01

    To compare the performance of reaching for stationary and moving targets in virtual reality (VR) and physical reality in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). A repeated-measures design in which all participants reached in physical reality and VR under 5 conditions: 1 stationary ball condition and 4 conditions with the ball moving at different speeds. University research laboratory. Persons with idiopathic PD (n=29) and age-matched controls (n=25). Not applicable. Success rates and kinematics of arm movement (movement time, amplitude of peak velocity, and percentage of movement time for acceleration phase). In both VR and physical reality, the PD group had longer movement time (Preality, most cueing conditions in VR elicited performance generally similar to those in physical reality. Although slower than the controls when reaching for stationary balls, persons with PD increased movement speed in response to fast moving balls in both VR and physical reality. This suggests that with an appropriate choice of cueing speed, VR is a promising tool for providing visual motion stimuli to improve movement speed in persons with PD. More research on the long-term effect of this type of VR training program is needed. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An intervention to reduce sitting and increase light-intensity physical activity at work: Design and rationale of the 'Stand & Move at Work' group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Mullane, Sarah L; Toledo, Meynard J; Rydell, Sarah A; Gaesser, Glenn A; Crespo, Noe C; Hannan, Peter; Feltes, Linda; Vuong, Brenna; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    American workers spend 70-80% of their time at work being sedentary. Traditional approaches to increase moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be perceived to be harmful to productivity. Approaches that target reductions in sedentary behavior and/or increases in standing or light-intensity physical activity [LPA] may not interfere with productivity and may be more feasible to achieve through small changes accumulated throughout the workday METHODS/DESIGN: This group randomized trial (i.e., cluster randomized trial) will test the relative efficacy of two sedentary behavior focused interventions in 24 worksites across two states (N=720 workers). The MOVE+ intervention is a multilevel individual, social, environmental, and organizational intervention targeting increases in light-intensity physical activity in the workplace. The STAND+ intervention is the MOVE+ intervention with the addition of the installation and use of sit-stand workstations to reduce sedentary behavior and enhance light-intensity physical activity opportunities. Our primary outcome will be objectively-measured changes in sedentary behavior and light-intensity physical activity over 12months, with additional process measures at 3months and longer-term sustainability outcomes at 24months. Our secondary outcomes will be a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (comprised of fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure), workplace productivity, and job satisfaction DISCUSSION: This study will determine the efficacy of a multi-level workplace intervention (including the use of a sit-stand workstation) to reduce sedentary behavior and increase LPA and concomitant impact on cardiometabolic health, workplace productivity, and satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02566317 (date of registration: 10/1/2015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV and Drug Resistance: Hitting a Moving Target | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research revealed how HIV-1 makes its destructive entry into the target cell by fusing together the cholesterol-rich lipid bilayer of the viral envelope—made with key glycoproteins gp120 and gp41—and the host cell’s plasma membrane. Cell-viral interactions begin with the binding of gp120 to the CD4 receptor molecule on the target cell, followed by gp120 binding to coreceptors. These coreceptors likely reside in structures called lipid rafts—areas in the cell plasma membrane that are rich in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and certain proteins that facilitate the entry of viruses into host cells. Finally, sequences in gp41 trigger the fusion of the viral and cellular lipid bilayers. The lipid rafts are then involved in the production of new viral particles.

  19. Horses for Courses: Moving India towards Universal Health Coverage through Targeted Policy Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Dayashankar; Virani, Altaf; Rajasulochana, S

    2017-12-01

    The debate on how India's health system should move towards universal health coverage was (meant to be) put to rest by the recent National Health Policy 2017. However, the new policy is silent about tackling bottlenecks mentioned in the said policy proposal. It aims to provide universal access to free primary care by strengthening the public system, and to secondary and tertiary care through strategic purchasing from the private sector, to overcome deficiencies in public provisioning in the short run. Yet, in doing so, it ignores critical factors needed to replicate successful models of public healthcare delivery from certain states that it hopes to emulate. The policy also overestimates the capacity of the public sector and downplays the challenges observed in purchasing secondary care. Drawing from literature in policy design, we emphasize that primary, secondary and tertiary care have distinct characteristics, and their provision requires separate approaches or policy tools depending on the context. Public provisioning, contract purchasing and insurance mechanisms are different policy tools that have to be matched with the context and characteristics of the policy arena. Given the current challenges of India's health system, we argue that tertiary care services are most suitable for insurance-based purchasing, while the public sector should concentrate on building the required capacities to dominate the provisioning of secondary care and fill gaps in primary care delivery, for India to achieve its universal coverage ambitions.

  20. A Novel Method for Proximity Detection of Moving Targets Using a Large-Scale Planar Capacitive Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for proximity detection of moving targets (with high dielectric constants using a large-scale (the size of each sensor is 31 cm × 19 cm planar capacitive sensor system (PCSS is proposed. The capacitive variation with distance is derived, and a pair of electrodes in a planar capacitive sensor unit (PCSU with a spiral shape is found to have better performance on sensitivity distribution homogeneity and dynamic range than three other shapes (comb shape, rectangular shape, and circular shape. A driving excitation circuit with a Clapp oscillator is proposed, and a capacitance measuring circuit with sensitivity of 0.21 V p − p / pF is designed. The results of static experiments and dynamic experiments demonstrate that the voltage curves of static experiments are similar to those of dynamic experiments; therefore, the static data can be used to simulate the dynamic curves. The dynamic range of proximity detection for three projectiles is up to 60 cm, and the results of the following static experiments show that the PCSU with four neighboring units has the highest sensitivity (the sensitivities of other units are at least 4% lower; when the attack angle decreases, the intensity of sensor signal increases. This proposed method leads to the design of a feasible moving target detector with simple structure and low cost, which can be applied in the interception system.

  1. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Practice Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…

  2. Preventing weight-related problems among adolescent girls: A cluster randomized trial comparing the Brazilian 'New Moves' program versus observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, Karin Louise Lenz; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2017-08-07

    To conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing the Brazilian version of the New Moves program (NMP) versus observation among Brazilian adolescent girls. Ten schools were randomly allocated to the Brazilian NMP or the observation arm. Study participants included 12-14-year-old girls. Recruitment occurred between February 2014 and March 2015. The NMP included sports, nutritional support, motivational interviews, collective lunch, and parental information materials. Our main outcome was the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Secondary outcomes included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Unhealthy Weight-Control Behaviors Index, as well as body mass index. Study results were evaluated through generalized estimating equations. A total of 270 adolescents participated in the study. At baseline, mean age was 13.4 years, and average BMI was 21.4. The intervention did not result in any statistically significant differences between the NMP and the observation arm, including BSQ (predicted means of 64.33 - IC 95% 59.2-69.47 vs. 62.02 - IC 95% 56.63-67.4), respectively) and our secondary outcomes. Adherence was low during the intervention (32.9%) and maintenance (19.1%) phases of the program. The New Moves program did not lead to significant changes in our measured outcomes. Future studies should investigate whether changes might occur when comprehensive behavioral programs are sustained over longer periods while also being customized to local population characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scattering and Doppler Spectral Analysis for a Fast-Moving Target above Time-Varying Lossy Dielectric Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical electromagnetic method based on the physical optics with physical optics method (PO-PO is employed to calculate backscattered returns from a missile-like target above sea surface. Surfaces are time-varying Monte Carlo simulations initialized as realizations of a Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum. The monostatic normalized radar cross section of composite model by the hybrid PO-PO method is calculated and compared with those by the conventional method of moments, as well as the runtime and memory requirements. The results are found to be in good agreement. The runtime shows that the hybrid PO-PO method enables large-scale time-varying Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical simulations of the Doppler spectrum from the fast-moving target above time-varying lossy dielectric sea surface are obtained, and the Doppler spectra of backscattered signals from this model are discussed for different incident angles, speed of flying target, wind speeds, incident frequencies, and target altitudes in detail. Finally, the coupling effects on Doppler spectra are analyzed. All the results are obtained at the incidence of horizontal polarization wave in this study.

  4. FrFT-CSWSF: Estimating cross-range velocities of ground moving targets using multistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenlei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cross-range velocity is a challenging task for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which is important for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Because the velocity of a target is very small compared with that of the satellite, it is difficult to correctly estimate it using a conventional monostatic platform algorithm. To overcome this problem, a novel method employing multistatic SAR is presented in this letter. The proposed hybrid method, which is based on an extended space-time model (ESTIM of the azimuth signal, has two steps: first, a set of finite impulse response (FIR filter banks based on a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT is used to separate multiple targets within a range gate; second, a cross-correlation spectrum weighted subspace fitting (CSWSF algorithm is applied to each of the separated signals in order to estimate their respective parameters. As verified through computer simulation with the constellations of Cartwheel, Pendulum and Helix, this proposed time-frequency-subspace method effectively improves the estimation precision of the cross-range velocities of multiple targets.

  5. Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) Modeling Method for Gyro Random Noise Using a Robust Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei

    2015-09-30

    To solve the problem in which the conventional ARMA modeling methods for gyro random noise require a large number of samples and converge slowly, an ARMA modeling method using a robust Kalman filtering is developed. The ARMA model parameters are employed as state arguments. Unknown time-varying estimators of observation noise are used to achieve the estimated mean and variance of the observation noise. Using the robust Kalman filtering, the ARMA model parameters are estimated accurately. The developed ARMA modeling method has the advantages of a rapid convergence and high accuracy. Thus, the required sample size is reduced. It can be applied to modeling applications for gyro random noise in which a fast and accurate ARMA modeling method is required.

  6. Knowledge-Aided STAP Processing for Ground Moving Target Indication Radar Using Multilook Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-aided space-time adaptive processing (KASTAP using multiple coherent processing interval (CPI radar data is described. The approach is based on forming earth-based clutter reflectivity maps to provide improved knowledge of clutter statistics in nonhomogeneous terrain environments. The maps are utilized to calculate predicted clutter covariance matrices as a function of range. Using a data set provided under the DARPA knowledge-aided sensor signal processing and expert reasoning (KASSPER Program, predicted distributed clutter statistics are compared to measured statistics to verify the accuracy of the approach. Robust STAP weight vectors are calculated using a technique that combines covariance tapering, adaptive estimation of gain and phase corrections, knowledge-aided prewhitening, and eigenvalue rescaling. Techniques to suppress large discrete returns, expected in urban areas, are also described. Several performance metrics are presented, including signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR loss, target detections and false alarms, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, and tracking performance. The results show more than an order of magnitude reduction in false alarm density when compared to standard STAP processing.

  7. Random Noise Monopulse Radar System for Covert Tracking of Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ram M.

    2002-07-01

    The University of Nebraska is currently developing a unique monopulse radar concept based on the use of random noise signal for covert tracking applications. This project is funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). The advantage of this system over conventional frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) or short pulse systems is its covertness resulting from the random waveform's immunity from interception and jamming. The system integrates a novel heterodyne correlation receiver with conventional monopulse architecture. Based on the previous work such as random noise interferometry, a series of theoretical analysis and simulations were conducted to examine the potential performance of this monopulse system. Furthermore, a prototype system is under development to exploit practical design aspects of phase comparison angle measurement. It is revealed that random noise monopulse radar can provide the same function as traditional monopulse radar, i.e., implement range and angular estimation and tracking in real time. The bandwidth of random noise signal can be optimized to achieve the best range resolution as well as the angular accuracy.

  8. Random Scenario Generation for a Multiple Target Tracking Environment Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study on the generation of a random scenario for the performance of track splitting algorithm on a digital signal processor.  Much of the previous work [1] was done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, wh...

  9. SU-F-T-563: Delivered Dose Reconstruction of Moving Targets for Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H; Cho, S [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, C; Cho, B [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Actual delivered dose of moving tumors treated with gated volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) may significantly differ from the planned dose assuming static target. In this study, we developed a method which reconstructs actual delivered dose distribution of moving target by taking into account both tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery of gated VMAT, and applied to abdominal tumors. Methods: Fifteen dual-arc VMAT plans (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) for 5 lung, 5 pancreatic, and 5 liver cancer patients treated with gated VMAT stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were studied. For reconstruction of the delivered dose distribution, we divided each original arc beam into control-point-wise sub-beams, and applied beam isocenter shifting to each sub-beam to reflect the tumor motion. The tumor positions as a function of beam delivery were estimated by synchronizing the beam delivery with the respiratory signal which acquired during treatment. For this purpose, an in-house program (MATLAB, Mathworks) was developed to convert the original DICOM plan data into motion-involved treatment plan. The motion-involved DICOM plan was imported into Eclipse for dose calculation. The reconstructed delivered dose was compared to the plan dose using the dose coverage of gross tumor volume (GTV) and dose distribution of organs at risk (OAR). Results: The mean GTV dose coverage difference between the reconstructed delivered dose and the plan dose was 0.2 % in lung and pancreas cases, and no difference in liver cases. Mean D1000cc of ipsilateral lungs was reduced (0.8 ± 1.4cGy). Conclusion: We successfully developed a method of delivered dose reconstruction taking into account both respiratory tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery, and applied it to abdominal tumors treated with gated VAMT. No significant deterioration of delivered dose distribution indicates that interplay effect would be minimal even in the case of gated SBRT. This work was supported by the National Research

  10. The Moving Group Targets of the SEEDS High-contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, T.D.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~105 at 1'' and ~106

  11. Adaptive Beamforming for Moving Targets Using Genetic AlgorithmsFormación de Haz Adaptativo para Objetos Móviles usando Algoritmos Genéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Burgos Beltrán

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The simulation results confirm that the GA is able to obtain a convergent and accurate tool for beamforming and tracking of moving targets, given a reference signal. Hence, GA turns to be promising in replacing LMS on Smart Antenna Systems for increasing channel capacity.

  12. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, G; Ainsworth, J; Cunningham, J; Dobbs, C; Jones, K H; Kalra, D; Lea, N C; Sethi, N

    2015-11-01

    To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linkage, a principled, proportionate, risk-based approach to governance is advocated. In light of the considerable value of data linkage to health and well-being, the United Kingdom aspires to design and deliver good governance in health-related research. A string of projects have been asking: what does good governance look like in data linkage for health research? It is argued here that considerable progress can and must be made in order to develop the UK's contribution to future health and wealth economies, particularly in light of mis-start initiatives such as care.data in NHS England. Discussion centres around lessons learned from previous successful health research initiatives, identifying those governance mechanisms which are essential to achieving good governance. This article suggests that a crucial element in any step-increase of research capability will be the adoption of adaptive governance models. These must recognise a range of approaches to delivering safe and effective data linkage, while remaining responsive to public and research user expectations and needs as these shift and change with time and experience. The targets are multiple and constantly moving. There is not--nor should we seek--a single magic bullet in delivering good governance in health research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Targeting Functional Decline in Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Christopher M; Boustani, Malaz A; Schmid, Arlene A; LaMantia, Michael A; Austrom, Mary G; Miller, Douglas K; Gao, Sujuan; Ferguson, Denisha Y; Lane, Kathleen A; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2017-02-07

    Alzheimer disease results in progressive functional decline, leading to loss of independence. To determine whether collaborative care plus 2 years of home-based occupational therapy delays functional decline. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314950). Urban public health system. 180 community-dwelling participants with Alzheimer disease and their informal caregivers. All participants received collaborative care for dementia. Patients in the intervention group also received in-home occupational therapy delivered in 24 sessions over 2 years. The primary outcome measure was the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS ADL); performance-based measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure (SPSM). At baseline, clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between groups; the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score for both groups was 19 (SD, 7). The intervention group received a median of 18 home visits from the study occupational therapists. In both groups, ADCS ADL scores declined over 24 months. At the primary end point of 24 months, ADCS ADL scores did not differ between groups (mean difference, 2.34 [95% CI, -5.27 to 9.96]). We also could not definitively demonstrate between-group differences in mean SPPB or SPSM values. The results of this trial are indeterminate and do not rule out potential clinically important effects of the intervention. The authors could not definitively demonstrate whether the addition of 2 years of in-home occupational therapy to a collaborative care management model slowed the rate of functional decline among persons with Alzheimer disease. This trial underscores the burden undertaken by caregivers as they provide care for family members with Alzheimer disease and the difficulty in slowing functional decline. National Institute on Aging.

  14. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI. More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©. The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs. The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  15. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  16. A case study in adaptable and reusable infrastructure at the Keck Observatory Archive: VO interfaces, moving targets, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Cohen, Richard W.; Colson, Andrew; Gelino, Christopher R.; Good, John C.; Kong, Mihseh; Laity, Anastasia C.; Mader, Jeffrey A.; Swain, Melanie A.; Tran, Hien D.; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2016-08-01

    searches are spatial, much of the effort in developing the program interface involved processing the instrument and telescope parameters to understand how accurately we can derive the WCS information for each instrument. This knowledge is now being fed back into the KOA databases as part of a program to include complete metadata information for all imaging observations. The R-tree program was itself extended to support temporal (in addition to spatial) indexing, in response to requests from the planetary science community for a search engine to discover observations of Solar System objects. With this 3D-indexing scheme, the service performs very fast time and spatial matches between the target ephemerides, obtained from the JPL SPICE service. Our experiments indicate these matches can be more than 100 times faster than when separating temporal and spatial searches. Images of the tracks of the moving targets, overlaid with the image footprints, are computed with a new command-line visualization tool, mViewer, released with the Montage distribution. The service is currently in test and will be released in late summer 2016.

  17. Beam steering application for W-band data links with moving targets in 5G wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous broadband Internet access is one of the major goals of the next generation of wireless communications. However, there are still some locations where this is difficult to achieve. This is the case on moving vehicles and, particularly, on trains. Among the possible solutions to this prob......Ubiquitous broadband Internet access is one of the major goals of the next generation of wireless communications. However, there are still some locations where this is difficult to achieve. This is the case on moving vehicles and, particularly, on trains. Among the possible solutions......-steering solution based on a Stewart platform is adopted for the transmitter antenna to allow it to follow a moving receiver along a known path, thereby enhancing the coverage area. The performance of a system transmitting a 2.5 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal generated by photonic up-conversion over a wireless...

  18. Fusion of Imperfect Information in the Unified Framework of Random Sets Theory: Application to Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2007 Abstract This is a study of the applicability of random sets...tracking and target identification, and non-military applications like medicine and robotics , have been developed using the mathematics of data fusion. The...been used in non-military applications such as robotics or medicine. The purpose of this section is to describe the target identification problem in

  19. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  20. Random Access Memories: A New Paradigm for Target Detection in High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)." In this paradigm, "Memories" can be interpreted as any model distribution learned from training data and "random access" means accessing memories and randomly adjusting the model at detection phase to obtain better adaptivity to any unseen distribution of test data. By leveraging some latest detection techniques e.g., deep Convolutional Neural Networks and multi-scale anchors, experimental results on a public remote sensing target detection data set show our method outperforms several other state of the art methods. We also introduce a new data set "LEarning, VIsion and Remote sensing laboratory (LEVIR)", which is one order of magnitude larger than other data sets of this field. LEVIR consists of a large set of Google Earth images, with over 22 k images and 10 k independently labeled targets. RAM gives noticeable upgrade of accuracy (an mean average precision improvement of 1% ~ 4%) of our baseline detectors with acceptable computational overhead.

  1. Distributed Detection of Randomly Located Targets in Mobility-Assisted Sensor Networks with Node Mobility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera SudharmanK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance gain achieved by adding mobile nodes to a stationary sensor network for target detection depends on factors such as the number of mobile nodes deployed, mobility patterns, speed and energy constraints of mobile nodes, and the nature of the target locations (deterministic or random. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed detection of a randomly located target by a hybrid sensor network. Specifically, we develop two decision-fusion architectures for detection where in the first one, impact of node mobility is taken into account for decisions updating at the fusion center, while in the second model the impact of node mobility is taken at the node level decision updating. The cost of deploying mobile nodes is analyzed in terms of the minimum fraction of mobile nodes required to achieve the desired performance level within a desired delay constraint. Moreover, we consider managing node mobility under given constraints.

  2. The Moving Group Targets of the Seeds High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Carson, J.; Matsuo, T.; Biller, B.; Bonnefoy, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of (is) approximately10(exp 5) at 1" and (is) approximately 10(exp 6) beyond 2" around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic MGs. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that five, beta Pictoris ((is) approximately 20 Myr), AB Doradus ((is) approximately 100 Myr), Columba ((is) approximately 30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium ((is) approximately 30 Myr), and TW Hydrae ((is) approximately 10 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these MGs. For all of our targets, we combine proposed MG membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca ii HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  3. EyeGrip: Detecting Targets in a Series of Uni-directional Moving Objects Using Optokinetic Nystagmus Eye Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    2016-01-01

    EyeGrip proposes a novel and yet simple technique of analysing eye movements for automatically detecting the user's objects of interest in a sequence of visual stimuli moving horizontally or vertically in front of the user's view. We assess the viability of this technique in a scenario where...... in the screen, on the accuracy of EyeGrip. Based on the experiment results, we propose guidelines for designing EyeGrip-based interfaces. EyeGrip can be considered as an implicit gaze interaction technique with potential use in broad range of applications such as large screens, mobile devices and eyewear...... computers. In this paper, we demonstrate the rich capabilities of EyeGrip with two example applications: 1) a mind reading game, and 2) a picture selection system. Our study shows that by selecting an appropriate speed and maximum number of visible images in the screen the proposed method can be used...

  4. Vibration of the soil caused by a vehicle moving over the randomly uneven surface of a slab track

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, H.;Lenz, St.

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle which passes an uneven surface of a slab track causes vibrations of the whole system: the vehicle, the slab track and the subsoil. For a given random unevenness ?w of the slab track surface, covariances of the soil surface motion are calculated.

  5. The Effect of the Move More Pack on the Physical Activity of Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Randomized Waiting List Control Trial with Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Justin; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Ogden, Jane; Foster, Jo

    2017-11-09

    Physical activity can improve many common side effects of cancer treatment as well as improve physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition, physical activity can improve survival rate and reduce cancer recurrence. Despite these benefits, only 23% of cancer survivors in England are active to recommended levels. Cancer survivors are interested in lifestyle behavior change. Home-based interventions offer a promising means for changing physical activity behavior. Prediagnosis levels of physical activity and self-efficacy have been reported to be predictors of physical activity behavior change. The Move More Pack, which has undergone revision, is a printed resource with supporting Internet-based tools that aims to increase the physical activity of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. The revised Move More Pack is underpinned by the theory of planned behavior and the social cognitive theory. The aim of this proposed study was to investigate the effect of the revised Move More Pack, supported by Internet-based tools, on physical activity, self-efficacy, and health-related QOL (HRQOL) of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. This study is a two-arm waiting list randomized control trial with embedded process evaluation. A sample of 99 participants per arm will be recruited by invitation through an email database of cancer survivors held by UK charity Macmillan Cancer Support and an advert placed on the Macmillan Cancer Support Facebook page. Each participant is randomized to receive brief physical activity information and the UK guidelines for physical activity, or brief physical activity information and the revised Move More Pack with supporting Internet-based tools. The intervention and control arm will be followed up at 12 weeks to identify changes in self-reported physical activity, self-efficacy, and HRQOL based on Web-based questionnaires. The control arm will receive the revised Move More Pack at 12 weeks with follow-up at 24 weeks. The intervention

  6. Target decoupling in a coupled optical system resistant to random perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    To suppress unwanted crosstalks between nearby optical elements, the decoupling technique for integrated systems has been desired for the target control of light flows. Although cloaking methods have enabled complete decoupling of optical elements by manipulating electromagnetic waves microscopically, it is neither feasible nor necessary to control each unit element in coupled systems when considering severe restrictions on material parameters for cloaking. Here we develop the macroscopic approach to design crosstalk-free regions in coupled optical systems. By inversely designing the eigenstate which encompasses target elements, the stable decoupling of the elements from the coupled system is achieved, being completely independent from the random alteration of the decoupled region, and at the same time, allowing coherent and scattering-free wave transport with desired spatial profiles. We also demonstrate the decoupling in disordered systems, overcoming the transport blockade from Anderson localization. Our r...

  7. Patient-reported quality of life, unmet needs and care coordination outcomes: Moving toward targeted breast cancer survivorship care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan Elizabeth; Butow, Phyllis; Spillane, Andrew John; Boyle, Frances

    2016-06-01

    Survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been proposed for universal use with the aim of addressing the many unmet needs of cancer survivors. Trials have failed to find a significant impact of SCPs on quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated quality of life, unmet needs, satisfaction with health care and perception of cancer care coordination at the end of treatment in a cohort of women at the end of treatment for early breast cancer. The aim was to identify specific needs to assist in the design of a tailored SCP. Women completed patient-reported measures of health-related quality of life (FACT-B [ES]), unmet needs (CaSUN), satisfaction with medical care and cancer care coordination. Total scores and subscale scores for the whole cohort and results of analysis comparing three age groups were reported. Sixty-eight women (mean age 56) participated. Mean score for FACT-B = 108 and FACT-B (ES) = 167.4. Younger women (quality of life (P = 0.001 for FACT-B, TOI and FACT-B [ES]). Using CaSUN, 76.1% of participants reported at least one unmet need; mean number of unmet needs = 6.2. Younger women reported more unmet needs than older women. The most frequently reported unmet need was fear of cancer recurrence. Overall, participants were very satisfied with medical care and cancer care coordination. Younger women reported poorer quality of life and more unmet needs. SCPs should specifically target younger women and must include strategies to address fear of cancer recurrence if they are to lead to a measureable difference in outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  9. A brief randomized controlled intervention targeting parents improves grades during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destin, Mesmin; Svoboda, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Despite a growing number of brief, psychosocial interventions that improve academic achievement, little research investigates how to leverage parents during such efforts. We designed and tested a randomized controlled intervention targeting parents to influence important discussions about the future and responses to academic difficulty experienced by their adolescent during eighth grade in the United States. We recruited experienced parents to convey the main messages of the intervention in a parent panel format. As expected, current parents who were randomly assigned to observe the parent panel subsequently planned to talk with their adolescents sooner about future opportunities and to respond more positively to experiences of academic difficulty than parents who were randomly assigned to a control group. The intervention also led to a significant increase in student grades, which was mediated by parents' responses to academic difficulty. We suggest an increase in experimental research that utilizes parents to influence student achievement. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiotherapy to improve physical activity in community-dwelling older adults with mobility problems (Coach2Move): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Nienke M; Staal, J Bart; Teerenstra, Steven; Adang, Eddy M M; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-12-17

    Older adults can benefit from physical activity in numerous ways. Physical activity is considered to be one of the few ways to influence the level of frailty. Standardized exercise programs do not necessarily lead to more physical activity in daily life, however, and a more personalized approach seems appropriate. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether a focused, problem-oriented coaching intervention ('Coach2Move') delivered by a physiotherapist specializing in geriatrics is more effective for improving physical activity, mobility and health status in community-dwelling older adults than usual physiotherapy care. In addition, cost-effectiveness will be determined. The design of this study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial in thirteen physiotherapy practices. Randomization will take place at the individual patient level. The study population consists of older adults, ≥70 years of age, with decreased physical functioning and mobility and/or a physically inactive lifestyle. The intervention group will receive geriatric physiotherapy according to the Coach2Move strategy. The control group will receive the usual physiotherapy care. Measurements will be performed by research assistants not aware of group assignment. The results will be evaluated on the amount of physical activity (LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire), mobility (modified 'get up and go' test, walking speed and six-minute walking test), quality of life (SF-36), degree of frailty (Evaluative Frailty Index for Physical Activity), fatigue (NRS-fatigue), perceived effect (Global Perceived Effect and Patient Specific Complaints questionnaire) and health care costs. Most studies on the effect of exercise or physical activity consist of standardized programs. In this study, a personalized approach is evaluated within a group of frail older adults, many of whom suffer from multiple and complex diseases and problems. A complicating factor in evaluating a new approach is that it

  11. BCG vaccination induces HIV target cell activation in HIV-exposed infants in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Melanie A; Hesseling, Anneke C; Mohar, Isaac; Myer, Landon; Azenkot, Tali; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Hanekom, Willem; Cotton, Mark F; Crispe, I Nicholas; Sodora, Donald L; Jaspan, Heather B

    2017-04-06

    BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4+ T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm). RESULTS. Of 149 infants randomized, 92% (n = 137) were retained at 6 weeks: 71 in the routine BCG arm and 66 in the delayed arm. Routine BCG vaccination led to a 3-fold increase in systemic activation of HIV target CD4+CCR5+ T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+) at 6 weeks (0.25% at birth versus 0.08% in delayed vaccination groups; P = 0.029), which persisted until 8 weeks of age when the delayed arm was vaccinated. Vaccination of the infants in the delayed arm at 8 weeks resulted in a similar increase in activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells. The increase in activated T cells was associated with increased levels of MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), IL12RB1, and IFN-α1 transcripts within peripheral blood mononuclear cells but minimal changes in innate cells. CONCLUSION. BCG vaccination induces immune changes in HIV-exposed infants, including an increase in the proportion of activated CCR5+CD4+ HIV target cells. These findings provide insight into optimal BCG vaccine timing to minimize the risks of HIV transmissions to exposed infants while preserving potential benefits conferred by BCG vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02062580. FUNDING. This trial was sponsored by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (MV-00-9-900-01871-0-00) and the Thrasher Foundation (NR-0095); for details, see Acknowledgments.

  12. Randomized trial of central nervous system-targeted antiretrovirals for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Vaida, Florin; Haubrich, Richard; Heaton, Robert K; Sacktor, Ned; Clifford, David B; Best, Brookie M; May, Susanne; Umlauf, Anya; Cherner, Mariana; Sanders, Chelsea; Ballard, Craig; Simpson, David M; Jay, Cheryl; McCutchan, J Allen

    2014-04-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medications differentially penetrate across the blood-brain barrier into central nervous system (CNS) tissues, potentially influencing their effectiveness in treating brain infection. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) called for 120 participants at 5 study sites to be randomized 1:1 to CNS-targeted (CNS-T) or non-CNS-T ART. Entry clinical factors such as ARV experience were balanced across arms using an adaptive randomization approach. The primary outcome, change in neurocognitive performance, was measured as the difference in global deficit score (GDS) from baseline to week 16. The study was terminated early on the recommendation of its data safety monitoring board on the basis of slow accrual and a low likelihood of detecting a difference in the primary outcome. No safety concerns were identified. Of 326 participants screened, 59 met entry criteria and were randomized. The primary intent-to-treat analysis included 49 participants who completed week 16. These comprised 39 men and 10 women with a mean age of 44 years (SD, 10 years), and median nadir and current CD4(+) T-cell counts of 175 cells/µL and 242 cells/µL, respectively. The proportional improvement in GDS from baseline was nonsignificantly larger (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -31% to 62%) in the CNS-T arm than in the non-CNS-T arm, representing a treatment effect size of 0.09 (95% CI, -.48 to .65). Prespecified secondary analysis showed a trend interaction (P = .087), indicating that participants who had baseline plasma virologic suppression may have benefited from CNS-T. This study found no evidence of neurocognitive benefit for a CNS-T strategy in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. A benefit for a subgroup or small overall benefits could not be excluded. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00624195.

  13. A moving target--incorporating knowledge of the spatial ecology of fish into the assessment and management of freshwater fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Martins, Eduardo G; Struthers, Daniel P; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Power, Michael; Doka, Susan E; Dettmers, John M; Crook, David A; Lucas, Martyn C; Holbrook, Christopher M; Krueger, Charles C

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater fish move vertically and horizontally through the aquatic landscape for a variety of reasons, such as to find and exploit patchy resources or to locate essential habitats (e.g., for spawning). Inherent challenges exist with the assessment of fish populations because they are moving targets. We submit that quantifying and describing the spatial ecology of fish and their habitat is an important component of freshwater fishery assessment and management. With a growing number of tools available for studying the spatial ecology of fishes (e.g., telemetry, population genetics, hydroacoustics, otolith microchemistry, stable isotope analysis), new knowledge can now be generated and incorporated into biological assessment and fishery management. For example, knowing when, where, and how to deploy assessment gears is essential to inform, refine, or calibrate assessment protocols. Such information is also useful for quantifying or avoiding bycatch of imperiled species. Knowledge of habitat connectivity and usage can identify critically important migration corridors and habitats and can be used to improve our understanding of variables that influence spatial structuring of fish populations. Similarly, demographic processes are partly driven by the behavior of fish and mediated by environmental drivers. Information on these processes is critical to the development and application of realistic population dynamics models. Collectively, biological assessment, when informed by knowledge of spatial ecology, can provide managers with the ability to understand how and when fish and their habitats may be exposed to different threats. Naturally, this knowledge helps to better evaluate or develop strategies to protect the long-term viability of fishery production. Failure to understand the spatial ecology of fishes and to incorporate spatiotemporal data can bias population assessments and forecasts and potentially lead to ineffective or counterproductive management actions.

  14. ERP – a moving target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning systems are central elements in longterm wide-ranging design and use networks. Present ERP research focuses on single-enterprise implementation and fails to address important features of the ERP networks such as multi-spatiality, the design of the generic and the dyna...

  15. Information security : the moving target

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available or advertisement on the screen without causing any serious damage to the information or systems being used. However, rare cases of attacks with the potential to harm information economic and political uncertainty and secondly to the pres- sure from consumers... was screened by a security officer before the user could start the identification and authentication process. Since there were few terminals it was easy to keep track of all logged-in users and their activities. However, since there were no security...

  16. $k$-core percolation on complex networks: Comparing random, localized and targeted attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xin; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    The type of malicious attack inflicting on networks greatly influences their stability under ordinary percolation in which a node fails when it becomes disconnected from the giant component. Here we study its generalization, $k$-core percolation, in which a node fails when it loses connection to a threshold $k$ number of neighbors. We study and compare analytically and by numerical simulations of $k$-core percolation the stability of networks under random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA) and targeted attacks (TA), respectively. By mapping a network under LA or TA into an equivalent network under RA, we find that in both single and interdependent networks, TA exerts the greatest damage to the core structure of a network. We also find that for Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi (ER) networks, LA and RA exert equal damage to the core structure whereas for scale-free (SF) networks, LA exerts much more damage than RA does to the core structure.

  17. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of internal and external targeted temperature management methods in post- cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Xinqi; Li, Huihua; Ng, Mingwei; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Pothiawala, Sohil; Tan, Kenneth Boon Kiat; Sewa, Duu Wen; Shahidah, Nur; Pek, Pin Pin; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2017-07-05

    Targeted temperature management post-cardiac arrest is currently implemented using various methods, broadly categorized as internal and external. This study aimed to evaluate survival-to-hospital discharge and neurological outcomes (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Score) of post-cardiac arrest patients undergoing internal cooling verses external cooling. A randomized controlled trial of post-resuscitation cardiac arrest patients was conducted from October 2008-September 2014. Patients were randomized to either internal or external cooling methods. Historical controls were selected matched by age and gender. Analysis using SPSS version 21.0 presented descriptive statistics and frequencies while univariate logistic regression was done using R 3.1.3. 23 patients were randomized to internal cooling and 22 patients to external cooling and 42 matched controls were selected. No significant difference was seen between internal and external cooling in terms of survival, neurological outcomes and complications. However in the internal cooling arm, there was lower risk of developing overcooling (p=0.01) and rebound hyperthermia (p=0.02). Compared to normothermia, internal cooling had higher survival (OR=3.36, 95% CI=(1.130, 10.412), and lower risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias (OR=0.18, 95% CI=(0.04, 0.63)). Subgroup analysis showed those with cardiac cause of arrest (OR=4.29, 95% CI=(1.26, 15.80)) and sustained ROSC (OR=5.50, 95% CI=(1.64, 20.39)) had better survival with internal cooling compared to normothermia. Cooling curves showed tighter temperature control for internal compared to external cooling. Internal cooling showed tighter temperature control compared to external cooling. Internal cooling can potentially provide better survival-to-hospital discharge outcomes and reduce cardiac arrhythmia complications in carefully selected patients as compared to normothermia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

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    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  20. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years: effects of a new intervention program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Hamer, Elisa G; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Maathuis, Carel G B; Bos, Arend F; Dirks, Tineke; van Doormaal, Lily; Verheijden, Johannes; Vlaskamp, Carla; Lindeman, Eline; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-11-02

    It is widely accepted that infants at risk for cerebral palsy need paediatric physiotherapy. However, there is little evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapeutic intervention. Recently, a new intervention program, COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs - a family centered program), was developed. COPCA has educational and motor goals. A previous study indicated that the COPCA-approach is associated with better developmental outcomes for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates the efficacy and the working mechanisms of the COPCA program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy in comparison to the efficacy of traditional infant physiotherapy in a randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the effects of both intervention programs on motor, cognitive and daily functioning of the child and the family and to get insight in the working elements of early intervention methods. Infants are included at the corrected age of 1 to 9 months and randomized into a group receiving COPCA and a group receiving traditional infant physiotherapy. Both interventions are given once a week during one year. Measurements are performed at baseline, during and after the intervention period and at the corrected age of 21 months. Primary outcome of the study is the Infant Motor Profile, a qualitative evaluation instrument of motor behaviour in infancy. Secondary measurements focus on activities and participation, body functions and structures, family functioning, quality of life and working mechanisms. To cope with the heterogeneity in physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic sessions are video-recorded three times (baseline, after 6 months and at the end of the intervention period). Physiotherapeutic actions will be quantified and related to outcome. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates and explores the effects of COPCA and TIP. Whatever the outcome of the project, it will improve our understanding of early

  1. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years: effects of a new intervention program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheijden Johannes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that infants at risk for cerebral palsy need paediatric physiotherapy. However, there is little evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapeutic intervention. Recently, a new intervention program, COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs - a family centered program, was developed. COPCA has educational and motor goals. A previous study indicated that the COPCA-approach is associated with better developmental outcomes for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates the efficacy and the working mechanisms of the COPCA program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy in comparison to the efficacy of traditional infant physiotherapy in a randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the effects of both intervention programs on motor, cognitive and daily functioning of the child and the family and to get insight in the working elements of early intervention methods. Methods/design Infants are included at the corrected age of 1 to 9 months and randomized into a group receiving COPCA and a group receiving traditional infant physiotherapy. Both interventions are given once a week during one year. Measurements are performed at baseline, during and after the intervention period and at the corrected age of 21 months. Primary outcome of the study is the Infant Motor Profile, a qualitative evaluation instrument of motor behaviour in infancy. Secondary measurements focus on activities and participation, body functions and structures, family functioning, quality of life and working mechanisms. To cope with the heterogeneity in physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic sessions are video-recorded three times (baseline, after 6 months and at the end of the intervention period. Physiotherapeutic actions will be quantified and related to outcome. Discussion LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates and explores the effects of COPCA and TIP. Whatever the outcome of

  2. Prehospital cooling to improve successful targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, D C; Cheskes, S; Verbeek, P R; Pinto, R; Austin, D; Brooks, S C; Dainty, K N; Goncharenko, K; Mamdani, M; Thorpe, K E; Morrison, L J

    2017-10-05

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) improves survival with good neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but is delivered inconsistently and often with delay. To determine if prehospital cooling by paramedics leads to higher rates of 'successful TTM', defined as achieving a target temperature of 32-34°C within 6h of hospital arrival. Pragmatic RCT comparing prehospital cooling (surface ice packs, cold saline infusion, wristband reminders) initiated 5min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) versus usual resuscitation and transport. The primary outcome was rate of 'successful TTM'; secondary outcomes were rates of applying TTM in hospital, survival with good neurological outcome, pulmonary edema in emergency department, and re-arrest during transport. 585 patients were randomized to receive prehospital cooling (n=279) or control (n=306). Prehospital cooling did not increase rates of 'successful TTM' (30% vs 25%; RR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.52; p=0.22), but increased rates of applying TTM in hospital (68% vs 56%; RR, 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37; p=0.003). Survival with good neurological outcome (29% vs 26%; RR, 1.13, 95%CI 0.87-1.47; p=0.37) was similar. Prehospital cooling was not associated with re-arrest during transport (7.5% vs 8.2%; RR, 0.94; 95%CI 0.54-1.63; p=0.83) but was associated with decreased incidence of pulmonary edema in emergency department (12% vs 18%; RR, 0.66; 95%CI 0.44-0.99; p=0.04). Prehospital cooling initiated 5min after ROSC did not increase rates of achieving a target temperature of 32-34°C within 6h of hospital arrival but was safe and increased application of TTM in hospital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Identifying co-targets to fight drug resistance based on a random walk model

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    Chen Liang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance has now posed more severe and emergent threats to human health and infectious disease treatment. However, wet-lab approaches alone to counter drug resistance have so far still achieved limited success due to less knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance. Our approach apply a heuristic search algorithm in order to extract active network under drug treatment and use a random walk model to identify potential co-targets for effective antibacterial drugs. Results We use interactome network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gene expression data which are treated with two kinds of antibiotic, Isoniazid and Ethionamide as our test data. Our analysis shows that the active drug-treated networks are associated with the trigger of fatty acid metabolism and synthesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH-related processes and those results are consistent with the recent experimental findings. Efflux pumps processes appear to be the major mechanisms of resistance but SOS response is significantly up-regulation under Isoniazid treatment. We also successfully identify the potential co-targets with literature confirmed evidences which are related to the glycine-rich membrane, adenosine triphosphate energy and cell wall processes. Conclusions With gene expression and interactome data supported, our study points out possible pathways leading to the emergence of drug resistance under drug treatment. We develop a computational workflow for giving new insights to bacterial drug resistance which can be gained by a systematic and global analysis of the bacterial regulation network. Our study also discovers the potential co-targets with good properties in biological and graph theory aspects to overcome the problem of drug resistance.

  4. 'Remind-to-move' treatment versus constraint-induced movement therapy for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Vicky Anqin; Fong, Kenneth N K; Chen, Yun-Feng; Tseng, Stella S W; Wong, Louisa M S

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate 'remind-to-move' (RTM) treatment by comparing it with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and conventional rehabilitation of the upper extremity in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Seventy-three children (44 males, 29 females; mean age 11y 8mo, standard deviation [SD] 3y 1mo) - with 20, 38, and 15 in Manual Ability Classification System levels I, II, and III respectively - were recruited from three special schools and randomly selected for an RTM (n=25) or CIMT (n=24) programme (for 75h over 3wks) or for conventional rehabilitation (n=24). The Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Subtest 3), the Caregiver Functional Use Survey, and arm movement duration captured by accelerometers were used at the baseline, post-test, and 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Both the RTM and CIMT treatments achieved significant gains in manual capacities and spontaneous hand use immediately after the intervention compared with conventional rehabilitation, but there were no significant differences between the two interventions. The RTM treatment demonstrated similar therapeutic effects with CIMT in manual dexterity and functional hand use, but both interventions were superior to conventional rehabilitation. RTM is recommended as an alternative treatment for the hemiplegic upper extremity in children with CP. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  5. LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 years: a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a physical activity stimulation program in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular participation in physical activities is important for all children to stay fit and healthy. Children with cerebral palsy have reduced levels of physical activity, compared to typically developing children. The aim of the LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 study is to improve physical activity by means of a physical activity stimulation program, consisting of a lifestyle intervention and a fitness training program. Methods/Design This study will be a 6-month single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow up. Fifty children with spastic cerebral palsy, aged 7 to 12 years, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, will be recruited in pediatric physiotherapy practices and special schools for children with disabilities. The children will be randomly assigned to either the intervention group or control group. The children in the control group will continue with their regular pediatric physiotherapy, and the children in the intervention group will participate in a 6-month physical activity stimulation program. The physical activity stimulation program consists of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, in combination with a 4-month fitness training program. The lifestyle intervention includes counseling the child and the parents to adopt an active lifestyle through Motivational Interviewing, and home-based physiotherapy to practise mobility-related activities in the daily situation. Data will be collected just before the start of the intervention (T0, after the 4-month fitness training program (T4, after the 6-month lifestyle intervention (T6, and after six months of follow-up (T12. Primary outcomes are physical activity, measured with the StepWatch Activity Monitor and with self-reports. Secondary outcomes are fitness, capacity of mobility, social participation and health-related quality of life. A random coefficient analysis will be performed to determine differences in treatment effect between the control

  6. LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 years: a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a physical activity stimulation program in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Lindeman, Eline; Verschuren, Olaf; Verheijden, Johannes; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2010-11-02

    Regular participation in physical activities is important for all children to stay fit and healthy. Children with cerebral palsy have reduced levels of physical activity, compared to typically developing children. The aim of the LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 study is to improve physical activity by means of a physical activity stimulation program, consisting of a lifestyle intervention and a fitness training program. This study will be a 6-month single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow up. Fifty children with spastic cerebral palsy, aged 7 to 12 years, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, will be recruited in pediatric physiotherapy practices and special schools for children with disabilities. The children will be randomly assigned to either the intervention group or control group. The children in the control group will continue with their regular pediatric physiotherapy, and the children in the intervention group will participate in a 6-month physical activity stimulation program. The physical activity stimulation program consists of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, in combination with a 4-month fitness training program. The lifestyle intervention includes counseling the child and the parents to adopt an active lifestyle through Motivational Interviewing, and home-based physiotherapy to practise mobility-related activities in the daily situation. Data will be collected just before the start of the intervention (T0), after the 4-month fitness training program (T4), after the 6-month lifestyle intervention (T6), and after six months of follow-up (T12). Primary outcomes are physical activity, measured with the StepWatch Activity Monitor and with self-reports. Secondary outcomes are fitness, capacity of mobility, social participation and health-related quality of life. A random coefficient analysis will be performed to determine differences in treatment effect between the control group and the intervention group, with primary

  7. DO IT Trial: vitamin D Outcomes and Interventions in Toddlers - a TARGet Kids! randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Loeb, Mark B; Mamdani, Muhammad; Thorpe, Kevin; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Mazzulli, Tony; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-02-08

    Vitamin D levels are alarmingly low (respiratory tract infections (URTI), asthma-related hospitalizations and use of anti-inflammatory medication have all been linked with low vitamin D. No study has determined whether wintertime vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of URTI and asthma exacerbations, two of the most common and costly illnesses of early childhood. The objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the effect of 'high dose' (2000 IU/day) vs. 'standard dose' (400 IU/day) vitamin D supplementation in achieving reductions in laboratory confirmed URTI and asthma exacerbations during the winter in preschool-aged Canadian children; and 2) to assess the effect of 'high dose' vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D serum levels and specific viruses that cause URTI. This study is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Over 4 successive winters we will recruit 750 healthy children 1-5 years of age. Participating physicians are part of a primary healthcare research network called TARGet Kids!. Children will be randomized to the 'standard dose' or 'high dose' oral supplemental vitamin D for a minimum of 4 months (200 children per group). Parents will obtain a nasal swab from their child with each URTI, report the number of asthma exacerbations and complete symptom checklists. Unscheduled physician visits for URTIs and asthma exacerbations will be recorded. By May, a blood sample will be drawn to determine vitamin D serum levels. The primary analysis will be a comparison of URTI rate between study groups using a Poisson regression model. Secondary analyses will compare vitamin D serum levels, asthma exacerbations and the frequency of specific viral agents between groups. Identifying whether vitamin D supplementation of preschoolers can reduce wintertime viral URTIs and asthma exacerbations and what dose is optimal may reduce population wide morbidity and associated health care and societal costs. This information will assist in determining practice and

  8. Targeted drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension: a network meta-analysis of 32 randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao XF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Fei Gao,1 Jun-Jie Zhang,1,2 Xiao-Min Jiang,1 Zhen Ge,1,2 Zhi-Mei Wang,1 Bing Li,1 Wen-Xing Mao,1 Shao-Liang Chen1,2 1Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Cardiology, Nanjing Heart Center, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a devastating disease and ultimately leads to right heart failure and premature death. A total of four classical targeted drugs, prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is, and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator (sGCS, have been proved to improve exercise capacity and hemodynamics compared to placebo; however, direct head-to-head comparisons of these drugs are lacking. This network meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these targeted drugs for PAH.Methods: Medline, the Cochrane Library, and other Internet sources were searched for randomized clinical trials exploring the efficacy of targeted drugs for patients with PAH. The primary effective end point of this network meta-analysis was a 6-minute walk distance (6MWD.Results: Thirty-two eligible trials including 6,758 patients were identified. There was a statistically significant improvement in 6MWD, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and clinical worsening events associated with each of the four targeted drugs compared with placebo. Combination therapy improved 6MWD by 20.94 m (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.94, 34.94; P=0.003 vs prostanoids, and 16.94 m (95% CI: 4.41, 29.47; P=0.008 vs ERAs. PDE-5Is improved 6MWD by 17.28 m (95% CI: 1.91, 32.65; P=0.028 vs prostanoids, with a similar result with combination therapy. In addition, combination therapy reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure by 3.97 mmHg (95% CI: -6.06, -1.88; P<0.001 vs prostanoids, 8.24 mmHg (95% CI: -10.71, -5.76; P<0.001 vs ERAs, 3.38 mmHg (95% CI: -6.30, -0.47; P=0.023 vs

  9. [Prostate cancer diagnostic by saturation randomized biopsy versus rigid targeted biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defontaines, J; Salomon, L; Champy, C; Cholley, I; Chiaradia, M; de la Taille, A

    2017-12-01

    Optimal diagram teaming up randomized biopsy (BR) to targeted biopsy (BC) is still missing for the diagnostic of prostate cancer (CP). This study compares diagram of 6, 12 or 18 BR with or without BC rigid. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 120 patients had prostate biopsy BR and BC. Each patient had 18 BR and BC. Results compared sextant (6 BR), standard (12 BR) and saturation (18 BR) protocol with or without the adding of BC for the detection of CP. Rectal examination was normal, mean PSA at 8.99ng/mL and mean volume at 54cm 3 . It was first round for 48% of patients. Forty-four cancers were found by the group 18 BR+BC (control). The detection rate was respectively, for 6, 12 and 18 BR of 61%, 82% and 91%. The add of BC increased this detection of +27% for 6 BR+BC, +13% for 12 BR+BC and +9% for 18 BR+BC. BC found 70% of all CP. Nine percent of CP were missed by BR only. Significant CP (Gleason≥7) diagnostic was the same for 12 BR+BC and 18 BR+BC. The add of BC to BR increase the detection of CP by 10%. Twelve BR+BC is the optimal diagram for the diagnostic of CP finding 95% of CP and 97% of significant CP. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Glenn D.; Guy, Matthew J.; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A.

    2002-09-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  11. Screen-Time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Marsh, Samantha; Foley, Louise; Epstein, Leonard H; Olds, Timothy; Dewes, Ofa; Heke, Ihirangi; Carter, Karen; Jiang, Yannan; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2014-09-10

    Screen-based activities, such as watching television (TV), playing video games, and using computers, are common sedentary behaviors among young people and have been linked with increased energy intake and overweight. Previous home-based sedentary behaviour interventions have been limited by focusing primarily on the child, small sample sizes, and short follow-up periods. The SWITCH (Screen-Time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home) study aimed to determine the effect of a home-based, family-delivered intervention to reduce screen-based sedentary behaviour on body composition, sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and diet over 24 weeks in overweight and obese children. A two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Children and their primary caregiver living in Auckland, New Zealand were recruited via schools, community centres, and word of mouth. The intervention, delivered over 20 weeks, consisted of a face-to-face meeting with the parent/caregiver and the child to deliver intervention content, which focused on training and educating them to use a wide range of strategies designed to reduce their child's screen time. Families were given Time Machine TV monitoring devices to assist with allocating screen time, activity packages to promote alternative activities, online support via a website, and monthly newsletters. Control participants were given the intervention material on completion of follow-up. The primary outcome was change in children's BMI z-score from baseline to 24 weeks. Children (n = 251) aged 9-12 years and their primary caregiver were randomized to receive the SWITCH intervention (n = 127) or no intervention (controls; n = 124). There was no significant difference in change of zBMI between the intervention and control groups, although a favorable trend was observed (-0.016; 95% CI: -0.084, 0.051; p = 0.64). There were also no significant differences on secondary outcomes, except for a trend towards

  12. Smart Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Carla

    1996-01-01

    Students learn more when they are up, moving, and actively participating. The article discusses what teachers can do to incorporate movement into the classroom every day and describes several exercises from "Brain Gym." A sidebar illustrates the connections between muscular activity, the neural network, and the brain. (SM)

  13. Text to Move: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text-Messaging Program to Improve Physical Activity Behaviors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Stephen; Jethwani, Kamal; Lopez, Lenny; Searl, Meghan; O'Keefe, Sandra; Kvedar, Joseph

    2016-11-18

    Text messages are increasingly being used because of the low cost and the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones to engage patients in self-care behaviors. Self-care is particularly important in achieving treatment outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study examined the effect of personalized text messages on physical activity, as measured by a pedometer, and clinical outcomes in a diverse population of patients with T2DM. Text to Move (TTM) incorporates physical activity monitoring and coaching to provide automated and personalized text messages to help patients with T2DM achieve their physical activity goals. A total of 126 English- or Spanish-speaking patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7 were enrolled in-person to participate in the study for 6 months and were randomized into either the intervention arm that received the full complement of the intervention or a control arm that received only pedometers. The primary outcome was change in physical activity. We also assessed the effect of the intervention on HbA1c, weight, and participant engagement. All participants (intervention: n=64; control: n=62) were included in the analyses. The intervention group had significantly higher monthly step counts in the third (risk ratio [RR] 4.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 19.92, P=.03) and fourth (RR 6.88, 95% CI 1.21 to 39.00, P=.03) months of the study compared to the control group. However, over the 6-month follow-up period, monthly step counts did not differ statistically by group (intervention group: 9092 steps; control group: 3722 steps; RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.68 to 8.74, P=.17). HbA1c decreased by 0.07% (95% CI -0.47 to 0.34, P=.75) in the TTM group compared to the control group. Within groups, HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline in the TTM group by -0.43% (95% CI -0.75 to -0.12, P=.01), but nonsignificantly in the control group by -0.21% (95% CI -0.49 to 0.06, P=.13). Similar changes were observed for other secondary outcomes. Personalized text messaging

  14. High-Target vs Low-Target Blood Pressure Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Prevent Cerebral Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2018-01-01

    % of patients. It is unclear if a higher versus a lower blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral infarction in these patients. Methods -In a patient- and assessor-blinded randomized trial, we allocated patients to a higher (70-80 mmHg) or lower (40-50 mmHg) target for mean arterial pressure...... by the titration of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass. Pump flow was fixed at 2.4 L/min/m2. The primary outcome was the total volume of new ischemic cerebral lesions (sum in mm3), expressed as the difference between DWI conducted preoperatively and again postoperatively between day 3 and 6. Secondary...

  15. High-Target vs Low-Target Blood Pressure Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Prevent Cerebral Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars S; Langkilde, Annika; Paulson, Olaf B; Lange, Theis; Thomsen, Carsten; Olsen, Peter Skov; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Nilsson, Jens C

    2018-01-16

    Background -Cerebral injury is an important complication following cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The rate of overt stroke after cardiac surgery is 1-2%, whereas silent strokes, detected by diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), are found in up to 50% of patients. It is unclear if a higher versus a lower blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral infarction in these patients. Methods -In a patient- and assessor-blinded randomized trial, we allocated patients to a higher (70-80 mmHg) or lower (40-50 mmHg) target for mean arterial pressure by the titration of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass. Pump flow was fixed at 2.4 L/min/m2. The primary outcome was the total volume of new ischemic cerebral lesions (sum in mm3), expressed as the difference between DWI conducted preoperatively and again postoperatively between day 3 and 6. Secondary outcomes included DWI-evaluated total number of new ischemic lesions. Results -Among the 197 enrolled patients, mean (SD) age was 65.0 (10.7) years in the low-target group (n=99) and 69.4 (8.9) years in the high-target group (n=98). Procedural risk scores were comparable between groups. Overall, DWI revealed new cerebral lesions in 52.8% of patients in the low-target group versus 55.7% in the high-target group (p = 0.76). The primary outcome of volume of new cerebral lesions was comparable between groups, 25 mm3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0-118; range 0-25261) in the low-target group vs 29 mm3 (IQR 0-143; range 0-22116) in the high-target group (median difference estimate, 0 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -25 - 0.028); P=0.99), as was the secondary outcome of number of new lesions (1 (IQR 0-2; range 0-24) vs 1 (IQR 0-2; range 0-29) respectively; median difference estimate, 0 (95% CI 0 - 0); P=0.71). No significant difference was observed in frequency of severe adverse events. Conclusions -Among patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery, targeting a higher

  16. LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 years : a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a physical activity stimulation program in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Lindeman, Eline; Verschuren, Olaf; Verheijden, Johannes; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Regular participation in physical activities is important for all children to stay fit and healthy. Children with cerebral palsy have reduced levels of physical activity, compared to typically developing children. The aim of the LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 study is to improve physical activity by

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  18. A randomized controlled trial targeting alcohol use and sexual assault risk among college women at high risk for victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-11-01

    Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, B.Y.; Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Positivity & Rules Program (PR program), a behavioral teacher program targeting ADHD symptoms in the classroom involving both student-focused and classroom-focused programs. Method: Primary school children with ADHD symptoms (N = 114) were

  20. Fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: a randomized controlled trial targeting object control proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Faude, O; Hagmann, S; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2015-11-01

    Adequately developed fundamental movement skills, particularly object control dimensions, are considered essential to learn more complex movement patterns and to increase the likelihood to successfully participate in organized and non-organized sports during later years. Thus, the present randomized controlled trial aimed at improving object control dimensions at an early state in a kindergarten setting. Catching, throwing, kicking, rolling and stationary dribbling were assessed via gross motor development 2 (TGMD-2) testing in 41 normally developed preschoolers. On a cluster-randomized basis [strata: age, sex and body mass index (BMI)], three kindergartens were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 22, INT, age: 4.6 ± 1.0 years; BMI: 16.2 ± 1.1 kg/m(2) ) and three to a control group (n = 19, CON: age: 4.5 ± 1.2 years; BMI: 16.8 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ). Twelve structured training sessions were given within 6 weeks (12 sessions). The total training volume was 330 min. Moderate time × group interaction were observed for the total sum score (Δ+22%, P = 0.05) and dribbling (Δ+41%, P = 0.002). Adjusting for baseline differences analyses of covariance did not affect these results. Interestingly, likely to most likely practically worthwhile effects were detected for the total sum score, catching and dribbling. Object control dimensions such as dribbling and catching that apparently rely on rhythmical movement patterns and anticipatory eye-hand coordination seem to benefit from short-term object control training. These skills are considered important for successful team-sport participation and appropriate sportive motor development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Toward Measles Virus-Infected Target Cells in Randomly Bred Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Natalie E.; O'Keefe, Beatrice; Hagens, Shirley J.; Diggs, Janice

    1982-01-01

    Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) toward measles virus-infected cells was studied by a 51Cr release assay with spleen cells from hamsters inoculated with measles virus (strain Lec) or control antigen and with spleen cells from normal hamsters. Spleen cells from measles virus-inoculated hamsters showed greater CMC toward infected than toward noninfected target cells (designated specific CMC). Specific CMC was maximal 7 days after virus inoculation and was declining by 9 to 10 days. Effector cel...

  2. Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso for Identifying Anti-Cancer Drug Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Park

    Full Text Available Uncovering driver genes is crucial for understanding heterogeneity in cancer. L1-type regularization approaches have been widely used for uncovering cancer driver genes based on genome-scale data. Although the existing methods have been widely applied in the field of bioinformatics, they possess several drawbacks: subset size limitations, erroneous estimation results, multicollinearity, and heavy time consumption. We introduce a novel statistical strategy, called a Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso, for high dimensional genomic data analysis and investigation of driver genes. For time-effective analysis, we consider a recursive bootstrap procedure in line with the random lasso. Furthermore, we introduce a parametric statistical test for driver gene selection based on bootstrap regression modeling results. The proposed RRLasso is not only rapid but performs well for high dimensional genomic data analysis. Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the "Sanger Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer dataset from the Cancer Genome Project" show that the proposed RRLasso is an effective tool for high dimensional genomic data analysis. The proposed methods provide reliable and biologically relevant results for cancer driver gene selection.

  3. Guided imagery targeting exercise, food cravings, and stress: a multi-modal randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter; Long, Dustin; Nolan, Richard; Shawley, Samantha; Johnson, Kelsey; Misra, Ranjita

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this randomized wait-list controlled trial was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a guided imagery based multi-behavior intervention intended to address psychological stress, food cravings, and physical activity. Personalized guided imagery scripts were created and participants were instructed to practice guided imagery every day for 35 consecutive days. Of 48 women who enrolled, we report comparisons between 16 randomized to treatment with 19 who were wait-listed (overall Mage = 45.50; Mbodymassindex = 31.43). Study completers reported 89% compliance with practicing guided imagery during the intervention. A significant time-by-group interaction was observed with reductions in food cravings and increases in physical activity compared with wait-list controls. Telephone-based multi-behavior interventions that utilize guided imagery to address food cravings and exercise behavior appear to be acceptable for overweight and obese women. Future phone-based guided imagery research testing this skill to address multiple health behaviors is justified.

  4. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  5. Disclosing the Parameters Leading to High Productivity of Retroviral Producer Cells Lines: Evaluating Random Versus Targeted Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Vanessa S; Tomás, Hélio A; Alici, Evren; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2017-04-01

    Gammaretrovirus and lentivirus are the preferred viral vectors to genetically modify T and natural killer cells to be used in immune cell therapies. The transduction efficiency of hematopoietic and T cells is more efficient using gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) pseudotyping. In this context gammaretroviral vector producer cells offer competitive higher titers than transient lentiviral vectors productions. The main aim of this work was to identify the key parameters governing GaLV-pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector productivity in stable producer cells, using a retroviral vector expression cassette enabling positive (facilitating cell enrichment) and negative cell selection (allowing cell elimination). The retroviral vector contains a thymidine kinase suicide gene fused with a ouabain-resistant Na + ,K + -ATPase gene, a potential safer and faster marker. The establishment of retroviral vector producer cells is traditionally performed by randomly integrating the retroviral vector expression cassette codifying the transgene. More recently, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange methodologies have been introduced to achieve targeted integration. Herein we compared random and targeted integration of the retroviral vector transgene construct. Two retroviral producer cell lines, 293 OuaS and 293 FlexOuaS, were generated by random and targeted integration, respectively, producing high titers (on the order of 10 7 infectious particles·ml -1 ). Results showed that the retroviral vector transgene cassette is the key retroviral vector component determining the viral titers notwithstanding, single-copy integration is sufficient to provide high titers. The expression levels of the three retroviral constructs (gag-pol, GaLV env, and retroviral vector transgene) were analyzed. Although gag-pol and GaLV env gene expression levels should surpass a minimal threshold, we found that relatively modest expression levels of these two expression cassettes are required. Their levels of

  6. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  7. The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousema Teun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous in most settings, resulting in the formation of recognizable malaria hotspots. Targeting these hotspots might represent a highly efficacious way of controlling or eliminating malaria if the hotspots fuel malaria transmission to the wider community. Methods/design Hotspots of malaria will be determined based on spatial patterns in age-adjusted prevalence and density of antibodies against malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. The community effect of interventions targeted at these hotspots will be determined. The intervention will comprise larviciding, focal screening and treatment of the human population, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. The impact of the intervention will be determined inside and up to 500 m outside the targeted hotspots by PCR-based parasite prevalence in cross-sectional surveys, malaria morbidity by passive case detection in selected facilities and entomological monitoring of larval and adult Anopheles populations. Discussion This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection. Trial registration NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was randomized on 26 March 2012.

  8. The prediction of organelle-targeting peptides in eukaryotic proteins with Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indio, Valentina; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Savojardo, Castrense; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2013-04-15

    Targeting peptides are the most important signal controlling the import of nuclear encoded proteins into mitochondria and plastids. In the lack of experimental information, their prediction is an essential step when proteomes are annotated for inferring both the localization and the sequence of mature proteins. We developed TPpred a new predictor of organelle-targeting peptides based on Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields. TPpred is trained on a non-redundant dataset of proteins where the presence of a target peptide was experimentally validated, comprising 297 sequences. When tested on the 297 positive and some other 8010 negative examples, TPpred outperformed available methods in both accuracy and Matthews correlation index (96% and 0.58, respectively). Given its very low-false-positive rate (3.0%), TPpred is, therefore, well suited for large-scale analyses at the proteome level. We predicted that from ∼4 to 9% of the sequences of human, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast proteomes contain targeting peptides and are, therefore, likely to be localized in mitochondria and plastids. TPpred predictions correlate to a good extent with the experimental annotation of the subcellular localization, when available. TPpred was also trained and tested to predict the cleavage site of the organelle-targeting peptide: on this task, the average error of TPpred on mitochondrial and plastidic proteins is 7 and 15 residues, respectively. This value is lower than the error reported by other methods currently available. The TPpred datasets are available at http://biocomp.unibo.it/valentina/TPpred/. TPpred is available on request from the authors. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Boosting Deuteron Polarization in HD Targets: Experience of moving spins between H and D with RF methods during the E06-101 experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiangdong; Bass, Christopher; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Deur, Alexandre; Dezern, Gary; Kageya, Tsuneo; Laine, Vivien; Lowry, Michael; Sandorfi, Andrew; Teachey, Robert; Wang, Haipeng; Whisnant, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Solid HDice targets are polarized by bringing the HD crystal to thermal equilibrium at low temperature and high magnetic field, typically 10-20 mK and 15 Tesla, at Jefferson Lab. In this regime, due to its smaller magnetic moment, the resulting polarization for D is always at least three times smaller than for H. The controlled amount of polarizing catalysts, o-H2 and p-D2, used in the process of reaching a frozen-spin state, further limit the maximum achievable D polarization. Nonetheless, H and D polarizations can be transferred from one to the other by connecting the H and D sub-states of the HD system with RF. In a large target, the RF power needed for such transitions is effectively limited by non-uniformities in the RF field. High efficiency transfers can require substantial RF power levels, and a tuned-RF circuit is needed to prevent large temperature excursions of the holding cryostat. In this paper, we compare the advantages and limitations of two different RF transfer methods to increase D polarization, Forbidden Adiabatic and Saturated Forbidden RF Transitions. The experience with the HD targets used during the recently completed E06-101 experiment in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab is discussed.

  10. A smartphone "app"-delivered randomized factorial trial targeting physical activity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Roberts, Sarah; Hillman, Charles H; Mullen, Sean P; Ritterband, Lee; McAuley, Edward

    2017-10-01

    Rapid technological development has challenged researchers developing mobile moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) interventions. This 12-week randomized factorial intervention aimed to determine the individual and combined impact of a self-monitoring smartphone-app (tracking, feedback, education) and two theory-based modules (goal-setting, points-based feedback) on MVPA, key psychosocial outcomes, and application usage. Adults (N = 116; M age  = 41.38 ± 7.57) received (1) a basic self-monitoring app, (2) the basic app plus goal setting, (3) the basic app plus points-based feedback, or (4) the basic app plus both modules. All individuals increased MVPA by more than 11 daily minutes. Those with points-based feedback demonstrated still higher levels of MVPA and more favorable psychosocial and app usage outcomes across the intervention. Those with access to in-app goal setting had higher levels of app usage relative to those without the component. It is imperative that effective digital intervention "ingredients" are identified, and these findings provide early evidence to this effect. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02592590.

  11. Recalling Positive Events at Work Makes Employees Feel Happier, Move More, but Interact Less: A 6-Week Randomized Controlled Intervention at a Japanese Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Layous, K; Lyubomirsky, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Simple self-administered activities, such as practicing gratitude or kindness, have been shown to increase happiness, yet only self-report measures have been used so far. Our study, conducted with a Japanese workplace sample, incorporated a novel technology to gather precise behavioral data reflecting participant movement and social interactions. Employees were randomly assigned to either recount three positive events at work (a positive acti...

  12. Health benefits of Tai Chi for older patients with type 2 diabetes: The ?Move It for Diabetes Study? ? A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Tracey; Orr, Rhonda; Lam, Paul; Elizabeth J Comino; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2007-01-01

    Older adults with type 2 diabetes have mobility impairment and reduced fitness. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the ?Tai Chi for Diabetes? form, developed to address health-related problems in diabetes, including mobility and physical function. Thirty-eight older adults with stable type 2 diabetes were randomized to Tai Chi or sham exercise, twice a week for 16 weeks. Outcomes included gait, balance, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular fitness, self-reported activity and quality of li...

  13. Accuracy of geographically targeted internet advertisements on Google AdWords for recruitment in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Williams, Christopher J; Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2012-06-20

    Google AdWords are increasingly used to recruit people into research studies and clinical services. They offer the potential to recruit from targeted control areas in cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but little is known about the feasibility of accurately targeting ads by location and comparing with control areas. To examine the accuracy and contamination of control areas by a location-targeted online intervention using Google AdWords in a pilot cluster RCT. Based on previous use of online cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and population size, we purposively selected 16 of the 121 British postcode areas and randomized them to three intervention and one (do-nothing) control arms. Two intervention arms included use of location-targeted AdWords, and we compared these with the do-nothing control arm. We did not raise the visibility of our research website to normal Web searches. Users who clicked on the ad were directed to our project website, which collected the computer Internet protocol (IP) address, date, and time. Visitors were asked for their postcode area and to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire (depression). They were then offered links to several online depression resources. Google Analytics largely uses IP methods to estimate location, but AdWords uses additional information. We compared locations assessed by (1) Analytics, and (2) as self-identified by users. Ads were shown 300,523 times with 4207 click-throughs. There were few site visits except through AdWord click-throughs. Both methods of location assessment agreed there was little contamination of control areas. According to Analytics, 69.75% (2617/3752) of participants were in intervention areas, only 0% (8/3752) in control areas, but 30.04% (1127/3752) in other areas. However, according to user-stated postcodes, only 20.7% (463/2237) were in intervention areas, 1% (22/2236) in control areas, but 78.31% (1751/2236) in other areas. Both location assessments suggested most

  14. The research of moving objects behavior detection and tracking algorithm in aerial video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Li, Xin; Yang, Xiao-ping; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-12-01

    The article focuses on the research of moving target detection and tracking algorithm in Aerial monitoring. Study includes moving target detection, moving target behavioral analysis and Target Auto tracking. In moving target detection, the paper considering the characteristics of background subtraction and frame difference method, using background reconstruction method to accurately locate moving targets; in the analysis of the behavior of the moving object, using matlab technique shown in the binary image detection area, analyzing whether the moving objects invasion and invasion direction; In Auto Tracking moving target, A video tracking algorithm that used the prediction of object centroids based on Kalman filtering was proposed.

  15. Targeted HIV Screening in Eight Emergency Departments: The DICI-VIH Cluster-Randomized Two-Period Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Judith; Hejblum, Gilles; Costagliola, Dominique; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Lert, France; de Truchis, Pierre; Verbeke, Geert; Rousseau, Alexandra; Piquet, Hélène; Simon, François; Pateron, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2017-10-30

    This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening alongside physician-directed diagnostic testing (intervention strategy) with diagnostic testing alone (control strategy) in 8 emergency departments. In this cluster-randomized, 2-period, crossover trial, 18- to 64-year-old patients presenting for reasons other than potential exposure to HIV were included. The strategy applied first was randomly assigned. During both periods, diagnostic testing was prescribed by physicians following usual care. During the intervention periods, patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. According to their answers, the triage nurse suggested performing a rapid test to patients belonging to a high-risk group. The primary outcome was the proportion of new diagnoses among included patients, which further refers to effectiveness. A secondary outcome was the intervention's incremental cost (health care system perspective) per additional diagnosis. During the intervention periods, 74,161 patients were included, 16,468 completed the questionnaire, 4,341 belonged to high-risk groups, and 2,818 were tested by nurses, yielding 13 new diagnoses. Combined with 9 diagnoses confirmed through 97 diagnostic tests, 22 new diagnoses were established. During the control periods, 74,166 patients were included, 92 were tested, and 6 received a new diagnosis. The proportion of new diagnoses among included patients was higher during the intervention than in the control periods (3.0 per 10,000 versus 0.8 per 10,000; difference 2.2 per 10,000, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6; relative risk 3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 9.8). The incremental cost was €1,324 per additional new diagnosis. The combined strategy of targeted screening and diagnostic testing was effective. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  17. Implementation of Treat-to-Target in Rheumatoid Arthritis Through a Learning Collaborative: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel H; Losina, Elena; Lu, Bing; Zak, Agnes; Corrigan, Cassandra; Lee, Sara B; Agosti, Jenifer; Bitton, Asaf; Harrold, Leslie R; Pincus, Theodore; Radner, Helga; Yu, Zhi; Smolen, Josef S; Fraenkel, Liana; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-07-01

    Treat-to-target (TTT) is an accepted paradigm for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but some evidence suggests poor adherence. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a group-based multisite improvement learning collaborative on adherence to TTT. We conducted a cluster-randomized quality-improvement trial with waitlist control across 11 rheumatology sites in the US. The intervention entailed a 9-month group-based learning collaborative that incorporated rapid-cycle improvement methods. A composite TTT implementation score was calculated as the percentage of 4 required items documented in the visit notes for each patient at 2 time points, as evaluated by trained staff. The mean change in the implementation score for TTT across all patients for the intervention sites was compared with that for the control sites after accounting for intracluster correlation using linear mixed models. Five sites with a total of 23 participating rheumatology providers were randomized to intervention and 6 sites with 23 participating rheumatology providers were randomized to the waitlist control. The intervention included 320 patients, and the control included 321 patients. At baseline, the mean TTT implementation score was 11% in both arms; after the 9-month intervention, the mean TTT implementation score was 57% in the intervention group and 25% in the control group (change in score of 46% for intervention and 14% for control; P = 0.004). We did not observe excessive use of resources or excessive occurrence of adverse events in the intervention arm. A learning collaborative resulted in substantial improvements in adherence to TTT for the management of RA. This study supports the use of an educational collaborative to improve quality. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Targeted Reminder Phone Calls to Patients at High Risk of No-Show for Primary Care Appointment: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin J; Cronin, Patrick; Hong, Clemens S; Hwang, Andrew S; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Bearnot, Benjamin I; Richardson, Calvin A; Fosburgh, Blair W; Kimball, Alexandra B

    2016-12-01

    No-shows, or missed appointments, are a problem for many medical practices. They result in fragmented care and reduce access for all patients. To determine whether telephone reminder calls targeted to patients at high risk of no-show can reduce no-show rates. Single-center randomized controlled trial. A total of 2247 primary care patients in a hospital-based primary care clinic at high risk of no-show (>15 % risk) for their appointment in 7 days. Seven days prior to their appointment, intervention arm patients were placed in a calling queue to receive a reminder phone call from a patient service coordinator. Coordinators were trained to engage patients in concrete planning. All patients received an automated phone call (usual care). Primary outcome was no-show rate. Secondary outcomes included arrival rate, cancellation rate, reschedule rate, time to cancellation, and change in revenue. The no-show rate in the intervention arm (22.8 %) was significantly lower (absolute risk difference -6.4 %, p phone call 7 days prior to an appointment led to a significant reduction in no-shows and increased reimbursement among patients at high risk of no-show. The use of targeted interventions may be of interest to practices taking on increased accountability for population health.

  19. Investigation on wide-band scattering of a 2-D target above 1-D randomly rough surface by FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Guo, Li-Xin; Jiao, Yong-Chang; Li, Ke

    2011-01-17

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a pulse wave excitation is used to investigate the wide-band composite scattering from a two-dimensional(2-D) infinitely long target with arbitrary cross section located above a one-dimensional(1-D) randomly rough surface. The FDTD calculation is performed with a pulse wave incidence, and the 2-D representative time-domain scattered field in the far zone is obtained directly by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. Then the 2-D wide-band scattering result is acquired by transforming the representative time-domain field to the frequency domain with a Fourier transform. Taking the composite scattering of an infinitely long cylinder above rough surface as an example, the wide-band response in the far zone by FDTD with the pulsed excitation is computed and it shows a good agreement with the numerical result by FDTD with the sinusoidal illumination. Finally, the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from a 2-D target above 1-D rough surface versus the incident frequency, and the representative scattered fields in the far zone versus the time are analyzed in detail.

  20. Effect of lower targets for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on atherosclerosis in diabetes: the SANDS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V; Roman, Mary J; Devereux, Richard B; Fleg, Jerome L; Galloway, James M; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Howard, Wm James; Lee, Elisa T; Mete, Mihriye; Poolaw, Bryce; Ratner, Robert E; Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Stylianou, Mario; Umans, Jason G; Wang, Wenyu; Weir, Matthew R; Weissman, Neil J; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Zhu, Jianhui

    2008-04-09

    Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more aggressive targets for risk factor control have not been tested. To compare progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in adults with type 2 diabetes treated to reach aggressive targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 70 mg/dL or lower and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 115 mm Hg or lower vs standard targets of LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or lower and SBP of 130 mm Hg or lower. A randomized, open-label, blinded-to-end point, 3-year trial from April 2003-July 2007 at 4 clinical centers in Oklahoma, Arizona, and South Dakota. Participants were 499 American Indian men and women aged 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes and no prior CVD events. Participants were randomized to aggressive (n=252) vs standard (n=247) treatment groups with stepped treatment algorithms defined for both. Primary end point was progression of atherosclerosis measured by common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). Secondary end points were other carotid and cardiac ultrasonographic measures and clinical events. Mean target LDL-C and SBP levels for both groups were reached and maintained. Mean (95% confidence interval) levels for LDL-C in the last 12 months were 72 (69-75) and 104 (101-106) mg/dL and SBP levels were 117 (115-118) and 129 (128-130) mm Hg in the aggressive vs standard groups, respectively. Compared with baseline, IMT regressed in the aggressive group and progressed in the standard group (-0.012 mm vs 0.038 mm; P < .001); carotid arterial cross-sectional area also regressed (-0.02 mm(2) vs 1.05 mm(2); P < .001); and there was greater decrease in left ventricular mass index (-2.4 g/m(2.7) vs -1.2 g/m(2.7); P = .03) in the aggressive group. Rates of adverse events (38.5% and 26.7%; P = .005) and serious adverse events (n = 4 vs 1; P = .18) related to blood pressure medications were higher in the aggressive group. Clinical CVD events (1.6/100 and 1.5/100 person-years; P

  1. Screen-time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH: A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Midi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33% do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention or control (no change. At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI and standardized body mass index (zBMI. Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for Māori (indigenous, Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight

  2. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention in nutritional status among the older adults: a randomized controlled trial: the Octabaix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Teresa; Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sanz, Héctor; Hurtos, Laura; Pujol, Ramón

    2015-04-11

    Malnutrition is frequent among older people and is associated with morbi-mortality. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial and multidisciplinary intervention in the nutritional status among the elderly. Randomized, single-blind, parallel-group, clinical trial conducted from January 2009 to December 2010 in seven primary health care centers in Baix Llobregat (Barcelona). Of 696 referred people, born in 1924, 328 subjects were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention model used an algorithm and was multifaceted for both the patients and their primary care providers. The main outcome was improvement in nutritional status assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Data analyses were done by intention-to-treat. Two-year assessment was completed for 127 patients (77.4%) in the intervention group and 98 patients (59.7%) in the control group. In the adjusted linear mixed models for MNA, intervention showed no significant effect during all follow-up period with -0.21 (CI: - 0.96; 0.26). In subjects with nutritional risk (MNA ≤ 23.5/30) existed a tendency towards improvement in MNA score 1.13 (95% CI -0.48; 2.74) after 2 years. A universal multifactorial assessment and target intervention over a two year period in subjects at nutritional risk showed a tendency to improve nutrition but not in the rest of community-dwelling studied subjects. Cognitive impairment was an independent factor strongly associated with a decline in nutritional status. The clinical trial is registered as part of a US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial: NCT01141166.

  3. Health benefits of Tai Chi for older patients with type 2 diabetes: The “Move It for Diabetes Study” – A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Tsang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracey Tsang1, Rhonda Orr1, Paul Lam2, Elizabeth J Comino3, Maria Fiatarone Singh11School of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 2School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3The University of NSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Older adults with type 2 diabetes have mobility impairment and reduced fitness. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the “Tai Chi for Diabetes” form, developed to address health-related problems in diabetes, including mobility and physical function. Thirty-eight older adults with stable type 2 diabetes were randomized to Tai Chi or sham exercise, twice a week for 16 weeks. Outcomes included gait, balance, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular fitness, self-reported activity and quality of life. Static and dynamic balance index (−5.8 ± 14.2; p = 0.03 and maximal gait speed (6.2 ± 11.6%; p = 0.005 improved over time, with no significant group effects. There were no changes in other measures. Non-specific effects of exercise testing and/or study participation such as outcome expectation, socialization, the Hawthorne effect, or unmeasured changes in health status or compliance with medical treatment may underlie the modest improvements in gait and balance observed in this sham-exercise-controlled trial. This Tai Chi form, although developed specifically for diabetes, may not have been of sufficient intensity, frequency, or duration to effect positive changes in many aspects of physiology or health status relevant to older people with diabetes.Keywords: Tai Chi, Type 2 diabetes, physical function

  4. Manual versus target-controlled infusion of balanced propofol during diagnostic colonoscopy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing interest in balanced propofol sedation (BPS for colonoscopy in outpatient settings. Propofol is a potent anesthetic agent for this purpose and has a narrow therapeutic range, which increases a risk of cardiovascular and respiratory complications in case of improper administration. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare patients’ safety and comfort of endoscopists in two methods of BPS targeting deep sedation - propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI and manual intravenous titration technique (MT - during colonoscopy. Methods. This prospective randomized controlled trial included 90 patients (class I or II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists deeply sedated with propofol, coadministered with small doses of midazolam and fentanyl. Propofol was given by MT technique (45 patients or by TCI (45 patients. The following adverse effects were recorded: hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypoxemia, bradypnea, apnea, hiccupping, and coughing, as well as endoscopist’s comfort during colonoscopy by means of a questionnaire. Results. The MT group compared to the TCI group had a lower mean arterial pressure in the 10th minute after the beginning (p = 0.017, and at the end of colonoscopy (p = 0.006, higher oxygen saturation in the fifth minute (p = 0.033, and in the 15th minute (p = 0.008 after the beginning of colonoscopy, and lower heart rate at the beginning of the procedure (p = 0.001. There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events. Endoscopist’s comfort during colonoscopy was high 95.6% in the TCI group vs. 88.9% in the MT group (p = 0.069. Conclusion. MT is clinically as stable as TCI of propofol for deep sedation during colonoscopy, and endoscopists experienced the same comfort during colonoscopy in both groups. Thus, both combinations are suitable for deep sedation during diagnostic colonoscopy.

  5. How useful are the stages of change for targeting interventions? Randomized test of a brief intervention to reduce smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J; Arden, Madelynne A

    2008-11-01

    To see whether the stages of change are useful for targeting a brief intervention to reduce smoking based on implementation intentions. A second objective was to rule out demand characteristics as an alternative explanation for the findings of intervention studies based on the transtheoretical model and implementation intentions. Participants (N = 350) were randomized to a passive control condition (questionnaire only), active control condition (questionnaire plus instruction to plan to quit), or experimental condition (questionnaire, plan to quit, form an implementation intention). Their behavior and psychosocial orientation to quit were measured at baseline and at 2-month follow-up. Theory of planned behavior variables, nicotine dependence, and quitting. Significantly more people quit smoking in the experimental condition than in the control conditions, and the planning instructions changed intention to quit and perceived control over quitting, but not behavior. Stage of change moderated these effects such that implementation intentions worked best for individuals who were in the preparation stage at baseline. Harnessing both motivational and volitional processes seems to enhance the effectiveness of smoking cessation programs, although further work is required to clarify inconsistencies in the literature using the stages of change.

  6. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2017-04-04

    Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  7. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  8. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  9. Effectiveness of shared goal setting and decision making to achieve treatment targets in type 2 diabetes patients : A cluster-randomized trial (OPTIMAL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ouden, Henk; Vos, Rimke C.; Rutten, Guy E.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074622781

    2017-01-01

    Objective: About 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes achieve all their treatment targets. Shared decision making (SDM) using a support aid based on the 5-years results of the ADDITION study on multifactorial treatment, could increase this proportion. Research design and methods: Cluster-randomized

  10. Target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-a randomized, parallel-group, assessor-blinded clinical trial-rationale and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Wetterslev, Jørn; al-Subaie, Nawaf; Andersson, Bertil; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Bishop, Gillian; Brunetti, Iole; Cranshaw, Julius; Cronberg, Tobias; Edqvist, Kristin; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Glover, Guy; Hassager, Christian; Horn, Janneke; Hovdenes, Jan; Johnsson, Jesper; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Langørgen, Jørund; Macken, Lewis; Martinell, Louise; Martner, Patrik; Pellis, Thomas; Pelosi, Paolo; Petersen, Per; Persson, Stefan; Rundgren, Malin; Saxena, Manoj; Svensson, Robert; Stammet, Pascal; Thorén, Anders; Undén, Johan; Walden, Andrew; Wallskog, Jesper; Wanscher, Michael; Wise, Matthew P.; Wyon, Nicholas; Aneman, Anders; Friberg, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental animal studies and previous randomized trials suggest an improvement in mortality and neurologic function with induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest. International guidelines advocate the use of a target temperature management of 32 degrees C to 34 degrees C for 12 to 24

  11. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2004. [2] P. Z. Peebles , Radar Principles . New York, NY: Wiley Inter-Science, 1998. [3] Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing...STAP for SAR,‖ in Applications for Space-Time Adaptive Processing. Stevenage, United Kingdom: The Institution of Electrical Engineers , 2004, pp. 73... Electrical and Control Engineering , 2010, pp. 1855-1858 [24] I. Stojanovic, W. C. Karl and M. Cetin, ―Compressed sensing of mono-static and multi

  12. Seedling phenology and cold hardiness: Moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Phenology is the annual cycle of plant development as influenced by seasonal variations. Dormancy and cold hardiness are two aspects of the annual cycle. In temperate plants, the development of cold hardiness results in the ability to withstand subfreezing winter temperatures. Cold hardiness is also a reflection of overall stress resistance. In addition to describing...

  13. Unsupervised Moving Target Detection in Dynamic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    training the algorithm to learn the background parameters. The need to train such algorithms for each scene separately limits their ability to be...deployed for automatic surveillance tasks, where manual re- training of the module to operate in each new scene is not feasible. A further shortcoming in...and (b). The camera panning is such that the objects of interest, viz. the two cyclists , undergo very small motion in the image coordinates. Figure 1

  14. Realism and Effectiveness of Robotic Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Requirement: The U.S. Army Infantry School Commandant requested assistance from the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...Procedure: Performance and survey data were collected during multiple training exercises from Soldiers who engaged the RHTTs. Different groups...along with the realism of the training. Soldiers suggested multiple ways to improve the RHTTs including specific feedback on hit location and

  15. Survey of Cyber Moving Target Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    Possibilities might include Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or the IP Security ( IPSec ) protocol. Another mechanism needed is a reasonably strong encryption...Asynchronous Services (RITAS) is a technique that builds a set of fault-tolerant consensus-based protocols on top of TCP and the IPSec protocol. TCP provides a...reliable channel and IPSec provides integrity to the data being transmitted. This technique is to be used between a set of  processes. A

  16. DO IT Trial: vitamin D Outcomes and Interventions in Toddlers – a TARGet Kids! randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D levels are alarmingly low (respiratory tract infections (URTI), asthma-related hospitalizations and use of anti-inflammatory medication have all been linked with low vitamin D. No study has determined whether wintertime vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of URTI and asthma exacerbations, two of the most common and costly illnesses of early childhood. The objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the effect of ‘high dose’ (2000 IU/day) vs. ‘standard dose’ (400 IU/day) vitamin D supplementation in achieving reductions in laboratory confirmed URTI and asthma exacerbations during the winter in preschool-aged Canadian children; and 2) to assess the effect of ‘high dose’ vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D serum levels and specific viruses that cause URTI. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Over 4 successive winters we will recruit 750 healthy children 1–5 years of age. Participating physicians are part of a primary healthcare research network called TARGet Kids!. Children will be randomized to the ‘standard dose’ or ‘high dose’ oral supplemental vitamin D for a minimum of 4 months (200 children per group). Parents will obtain a nasal swab from their child with each URTI, report the number of asthma exacerbations and complete symptom checklists. Unscheduled physician visits for URTIs and asthma exacerbations will be recorded. By May, a blood sample will be drawn to determine vitamin D serum levels. The primary analysis will be a comparison of URTI rate between study groups using a Poisson regression model. Secondary analyses will compare vitamin D serum levels, asthma exacerbations and the frequency of specific viral agents between groups. Discussion Identifying whether vitamin D supplementation of preschoolers can reduce wintertime viral URTIs and asthma exacerbations and what dose is optimal may reduce population wide morbidity and associated health care and societal costs

  17. Stepped care targeting psychological distress in head and neck and lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebber Anne-Marie H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress is common in cancer survivors. Although there is some evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial care in distressed cancer patients, referral rate is low. Lack of adequate screening instruments in oncology settings and insufficient availability of traditional models of psychosocial care are the main barriers. A stepped care approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of psychosocial care. The aim of the study described herein is to evaluate efficacy of a stepped care strategy targeting psychological distress in cancer survivors. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomized clinical trial with 2 treatment arms: a stepped care intervention programme versus care as usual. Patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC or lung cancer (LC are screened for distress using OncoQuest, a computerized touchscreen system. After stratification for tumour (HNC vs. LC and stage (stage I/II vs. III/IV, 176 distressed patients are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Patients in the intervention group will follow a stepped care model with 4 evidence based steps: 1. Watchful waiting, 2. Guided self-help via Internet or a booklet, 3. Problem Solving Treatment administered by a specialized nurse, and 4. Specialized psychological intervention or antidepressant medication. In the control group, patients receive care as usual which most often is a single interview or referral to specialized intervention. Primary outcome is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondary outcome measures are a clinical level of depression or anxiety (CIDI, quality of life (EQ-5D, EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-HN35, QLQ-LC13, patient satisfaction with care (EORTC QLQ-PATSAT, and costs (health care utilization and work loss (TIC-P and PRODISQ modules. Outcomes are evaluated before and after intervention and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after intervention. Discussion Stepped care is a system of delivering and

  18. Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane; Harris, Leanna S.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered coaching is a highly-effective, evidence-based coaching model that shifts the focus from "fixing" teachers to collaborating with them to design instruction that targets student outcomes. But what does this look like in practice? "Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves" shows you the day-to-day coaching moves that…

  19. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie; Jones, Jennifer Michelle

    2017-08-24

    Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary clinical outcome will be directly

  20. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  1. MOVES sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: : To determine ranking of important parameters and the overall sensitivity to values of variables in MOVES : To allow a greater understanding of the MOVES modeling process for users : Continued support by FHWA to transportation modeling comm...

  2. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy). The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1) counselling on daily physical activity; 2) physical fitness training; and 3) sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1) physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2) aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3) neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24) aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial registration Dutch Trial

  3. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinders- Messelink Heleen A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy. The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1 counselling on daily physical activity; 2 physical fitness training; and 3 sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1 physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2 aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3 neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24 aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial

  4. The potential regimen of target-controlled infusion of propofol in flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available Target-controlled infusion (TCI provides precise pharmacokinetic control of propofol concentration in the effect-site (Ce, eg. brain. This pilot study aims to evaluate the feasibility and optimal TCI regimen for flexible bronchoscopy (FB sedation.After alfentanil bolus, initial induction Ce of propofol was targeted at 2 μg/ml. Patients were randomized into three titration groups (i.e., by 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 μg/ml, respectively to maintain stable sedation levels and vital signs. Adverse events, frequency of adjustments, drug doses, and induction and recovery times were recorded.The study was closed early due to significantly severe hypoxemia events (oxyhemoglobin saturation <70% in the group titrated at 0.5 μg/ml. Forty-nine, 49 and 46 patients were enrolled into the 3 respective groups before study closure. The proportion of patients with hypoxemia events differed significantly between groups (67.3 vs. 46.9 vs. 41.3%, p = 0.027. Hypotension events, induction and recovery time and propofol doses were not different. The Ce of induction differed significantly between groups (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.1±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.005 and the Ce of procedures was higher at 0.5 μg/ml titration (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.2±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.006. The adjustment frequency tended to be higher for titration at 0.1 μg/ml but was not statistically significant (2 (0∼6 vs. 3 (0∼6 vs. 3 (0∼11. Subgroup analysis revealed 14% of all patients required no further adjustment during the whole sedation. Comparing patients requiring at least one adjustment with those who did not, they were observed to have a shorter induction time (87.6±34.9 vs. 226.9±147.9 sec, p<0.001, a smaller induction dose and Ce (32.5±4.1 vs. 56.8±22.7 mg, p<0.001; 1.76±0.17 vs. 2.28 ±0.41, p<0.001, respectively, and less hypoxemia and hypotension (15.8 vs.56.9%, p = 0.001; 0 vs. 24.1%, p = 0.008, respectively.Titration at 0.5 μg/ml is risky for FB sedation. A

  5. Target Temperature Management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest--a randomized, parallel-group, assessor-blinded clinical trial--rationale and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Wetterslev, Jørn; al-Subaie, Nawaf

    2012-01-01

    Experimental animal studies and previous randomized trials suggest an improvement in mortality and neurologic function with induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest. International guidelines advocate the use of a target temperature management of 32°C to 34°C for 12 to 24 hours after resuscitation...... from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A systematic review indicates that the evidence for recommending this intervention is inconclusive, and the GRADE level of evidence is low. Previous trials were small, with high risk of bias, evaluated select populations, and did not treat hyperthermia...... in the control groups. The optimal target temperature management strategy is not known....

  6. The impact of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening in 8 emergency departments: study protocol for the DICI-VIH cluster-randomized two-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Judith; Rousseau, Alexandra; Hejblum, Gilles; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; de Truchis, Pierre; Lert, France; Costagliola, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2016-02-01

    In 2010, to reduce late HIV diagnosis, the French national health agency endorsed non-targeted HIV screening in health care settings. Despite these recommendations, non-targeted screening has not been implemented and only physician-directed diagnostic testing is currently performed. A survey conducted in 2010 in 29 French Emergency Departments (EDs) showed that non-targeted nurse-driven screening was feasible though only a few new HIV diagnoses were identified, predominantly among high-risk groups. A strategy targeting high-risk groups combined with current practice could be shown to be feasible, more efficient and cost-effective than current practice alone. DICI-VIH (acronym for nurse-driven targeted HIV screening) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized, two-period crossover trial. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of 2 strategies for diagnosing HIV among adult patients visiting EDs: nurse-driven targeted HIV screening combined with current practice (physician-directed diagnostic testing) versus current practice alone. Main secondary objectives are to compare access to specialist consultation and how early HIV diagnosis occurs in the course of the disease between the 2 groups, and to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted screening. The 2 strategies take place during 2 randomly assigned periods in 8 EDs of metropolitan Paris, where 42 % of France's new HIV patients are diagnosed every year. All patients aged 18 to 64, not presenting secondary to HIV exposure are included. During the intervention period, patients are invited to fill a 7-item questionnaire (country of birth, sexual partners and injection drug use) in order to select individuals who are offered a rapid test. If the rapid test is reactive, a follow-up visit with an infectious disease specialist is scheduled within 72 h. Assuming an 80 % statistical power and a 5 % type 1 error, with 1.04 and 3.38 new diagnoses per 10,000 patients in

  7. Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Target After SPRINT: Insights from a Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Toklu, Bora; Gianos, Eugenia; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Weintraub, Howard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Messerli, Franz H

    2017-06-01

    The optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) target has been a matter of debate. The recent SPRINT trial showed significant benefits of a BP target of meta-analysis. Seventeen trials that enrolled 55,163 patients with 204,103 patient-years of follow-up were included. There was a significant decrease in stroke (rate ratio [RR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-1.00) and myocardial infarction (RR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-1.00) with systolic BP <120 mm Hg (vs <160 mm Hg). Sensitivity analysis using achieved systolic BP showed a 72%, 97%, and 227% increase in stroke with systolic BP of <140 mm Hg, <150 mm Hg, and <160 mm, respectively, when compared with systolic BP <120 mm Hg. There was no difference in death, cardiovascular death, or heart failure when comparing any of the BP targets. However, the point estimate favored lower BP targets (<120 mm Hg, <130 mm Hg) when compared with higher BP targets (<140 mm Hg or <150 mm Hg). BP targets of <120 mm Hg and <130 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the most efficacious target. There was a significant increase in serious adverse effects with systolic BP <120 mm Hg vs <150 mm Hg (RR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20) or vs <140 mm Hg (RR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.46-3.08). BP targets of <140 mm Hg and <150 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the safest target for the outcome of serious adverse effects. Cluster plots for combined efficacy and safety showed that a systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg had optimal balance between efficacy and safety. In patients with hypertension, a on-treatment systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg achieved optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kissling, E

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011\\/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI \\/ acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011\\/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  9. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  10. Moving? A Relocation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackliffe, Gary; Pearson, Nancy

    This guide answers questions for high school graduates moving away from home for the first time. The question and answer format begins with reasons for moving and offers ways of finding information about a new town before leaving, meeting people, and fighting homesickness and indecision. Practical advice is presented on money management and…

  11. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  12. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    The author performed an investigation of how a house was designed. He participated mainly in meetings, in which the house was engineered. The meetings proceeded in an agreeable atmosphere. While the architect was mostly concerned with integrating the functionality of the house, the engineer engaged...... had the drawing for an upcoming discussion, he was also helpful, e.g. when somebody had to compute something he produced a calculator and assisted in the computation. Once at a meeting the participants had to deal with a request from the city: could the house be moved one meter towards the curb...... of moving the house with respect to its servicing pipes. It was immediately underlined that this task was a surplus task and would therefore trigger an extra payment. When I interviewed the participants and asked them how they understood the function of the engineer, they revealed some irritation, since...

  13. SPARSE: Seed Point Auto-Generation for Random Walks Segmentation Enhancement in medical inhomogeneous targets delineation of morphological MR and CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Linghong

    2015-03-08

    In medical image processing, robust segmentation of inhomogeneous targets is a challenging problem. Because of the complexity and diversity in medical images, the commonly used semiautomatic segmentation algorithms usually fail in the segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm imbedded with a seed point autogeneration for random walks segmentation enhancement, namely SPARSE, for better segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. With a few user-labeled points, SPARSE is able to generate extended seed points by estimating the probability of each voxel with respect to the labels. The random walks algorithm is then applied upon the extended seed points to achieve improved segmentation result. SPARSE is implemented under the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming environment on graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware platform. Quantitative evaluations are performed using clinical homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. It is found that the SPARSE can greatly decrease the sensitiveness to initial seed points in terms of location and quantity, as well as the freedom of selecting parameters in edge weighting function. The evaluation results of SPARSE also demonstrate substantial improvements in accuracy and robustness to inhomogeneous target segmentation over the original random walks algorithm.

  14. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  15. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  16. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabi Yaseen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60% of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100% of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998

  17. Prevention of anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Maurice; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Watkins, Ed; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a preventive intervention for anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive levels of repetitive negative thinking (RNT; worry and rumination) in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N = 251, 83.7% female) showing elevated levels of RNT were randomly allocated to a 6-week cognitive-behavioral training delivered in a group, via the internet, or to a waitlist control condition. Self-report measures were collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention, 3 m and 12 m follow-up. Both versions of the preventive intervention significantly reduced RNT (d = 0.53 to 0.89), and symptom levels of anxiety and depression (d = 0.36 to 0.72). Effects were maintained until 12 m follow-up. The interventions resulted in a significantly lower 12 m prevalence rate of depression (group intervention: 15.3%, internet intervention: 14.7%) and generalized anxiety disorder (group intervention: 18.0%, internet intervention: 16.0%), compared to the waitlist (32.4% and 42.2%, respectively). Mediation analyses demonstrated that reductions in RNT mediated the effect of the interventions on the prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Results provide evidence for the efficacy of this preventive intervention targeting RNT and support a selective prevention approach that specifically targets a known risk factor to prevent multiple disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A nonrandomized cohort and a randomized study of local control of large hepatocarcinoma by targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Wu, Hao; Jin, Kai; Li, Bin; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Guangqiang; Yang, Gong; Hu, Xun

    2016-08-02

    Previous works suggested that neutralizing intratumoral lactic acidosis combined with glucose deprivation may deliver an effective approach to control tumor. We did a pilot clinical investigation, including a nonrandomized (57 patients with large HCC) and a randomized controlled (20 patients with large HCC) studies. The patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with or without bicarbonate local infusion into tumor. In the nonrandomized controlled study, geometric mean of viable tumor residues (VTR) in TACE with bicarbonate was 6.4-fold lower than that in TACE without bicarbonate (7.1% [95% CI: 4.6%-10.9%] vs 45.6% [28.9%-72.0%]; p<0.0001). This difference was recapitulated by a subsequent randomized controlled study. TACE combined with bicarbonate yielded a 100% objective response rate (ORR), whereas the ORR treated with TACE alone was 44.4% (nonrandomized) and 63.6% (randomized). The survival data suggested that bicarbonate may bring survival benefit. Bicarbonate markedly enhances the anticancer activity of TACE.Clinical trail registration: ChiCTR-IOR-14005319.

  19. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  20. Effect of a high-dose target-controlled naloxone infusion on pain and hyperalgesia in patients following groin hernia repair: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Utke Werner, Mads; Berg Dahl, Joergen

    2015-01-01

    -dose target-controlled naloxone infusion can reinstate pain and hyperalgesia following recovery from open groin hernia repair and thus consistently demonstrate opioid-mediated latent sensitization in humans. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients submitted to unilateral, primary, open groin hernia repair will be included...... in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. The experimental days take place 6-8 weeks after surgery, time-points at which patients are expected to be almost pain- free. Prior to administration of naloxone or placebo, the primary outcome (a summated measure of pain: at rest, during......-surgical setting, using pain as a clinical relevant variable. Impairment of the protective endogenous opioid system may play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. In order to sufficiently block the endogenous opioid system, a high-dose target-controlled naloxone-infusion is used...

  1. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  2. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  3. Influence of Depth of Hypnosis on Pupillary Reactivity to a Standardized Tetanic Stimulus in Patients Under Propofol-Remifentanil Target-Controlled Infusion: A Crossover Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, Nada; Peretout, Jean-Baptiste; Khalil, Eliane; Guye, Marie-Laurence; Louvet, Nicolas; Constant, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS). Twelve patients (14-20 years) anesthetized for orthopedic surgery were included. Under propofol-remifentanil target-controlled infusion, remifentanil effect site target concentration was fixed at 1 ng/mL. Two measures of pupillary reflex dilation were performed on each patient in a randomized order: one at BIS 55 and one at BIS 25. These levels of BIS were obtained by adjusting propofol target concentration and maintained for 10 minutes before each measure. For each measure, we applied a standardized tetanic stimulation on the patient's forearm (60 mA, 100 Hz, 5 seconds). All measures were performed before the beginning of surgery. Pupillary dilation was significantly greater at BIS 55 than at BIS 25: 32.1% ± 5.3% vs 10.4% ± 2.5% (mean difference estimate [95% confidence interval]: 21.8% [12.9-30.6], P constant infusion of remifentanil at a target concentration of 1 ng/mL, pupillary dilation after a standardized tetanic stimulation was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the BIS.

  4. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Sanz, Héctor; de Vries, Oscar J; Badia, Teresa; Pujol, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old people, including individuals with cognitive impairment or comorbidities. A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted from January 2009 to December 2010 in seven primary health care centers in Baix Llobregat (Barcelona). Of 696 referred people who were born in 1924, 328 were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention model used an algorithm and was multifaceted for both patients and their primary care providers. Primary outcomes were risk of falling and time until falls. Data analyses were by intention-to-treat. Sixty-five (39.6%) subjects in the intervention group and 48 (29.3%) in the control group fell during follow-up. The difference in the risk of falls was not significant (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-1.75). Cox regression models with time from randomization to the first fall were not significant. Cox models for recurrent falls showed that intervention had a negative effect (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.09) and that functional impairment (HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.97-2.12), previous falls (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.74-1.60), and cognitive impairment (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.72-1.60) had no effect on the assessment. This multifactorial intervention among octogenarians, including individuals with cognitive impairment or comorbidities, did not result in a reduction in falls. A history of previous falls, disability, and cognitive impairment had no effect on the program among the community-dwelling subjects in this study.

  5. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Assumpta Ferrer,1 Francesc Formiga,2,3 Héctor Sanz,4 Oscar J de Vries,5 Teresa Badia,6 Ramón Pujol2,3 On behalf of the OCTABAIX Study Group 1Primary Healthcare Centre "El Plà" CAP-I, Sant Feliu de Llobregat, 2Geriatric Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 3Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 4Support Research Unit, Primary Health Department Costa Ponent, IDIAP Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Primary Healthcare Centre Martorell, Barcelona, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old people, including individuals with cognitive impairment or comorbidities. Methods: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted from January 2009 to December 2010 in seven primary health care centers in Baix Llobregat (Barcelona. Of 696 referred people who were born in 1924, 328 were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention model used an algorithm and was multifaceted for both patients and their primary care providers. Primary outcomes were risk of falling and time until falls. Data analyses were by intention-to-treat. Results: Sixty-five (39.6% subjects in the intervention group and 48 (29.3% in the control group fell during follow-up. The difference in the risk of falls was not significant (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–1.75. Cox regression models with time from randomization to the first fall were not significant. Cox models for recurrent falls showed that intervention had a negative effect (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.09 and that functional impairment (HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.97–2.12, previous falls (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.74–1.60, and cognitive impairment (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.72–1.60 had no effect on the

  6. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Baird, Scarlett O; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for affective eating. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a heated, hatha yoga intervention for reducing cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating. Females (N = 52; ages 25-46 years; 75% White) at risk for obesity and related illnesses were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of Bikram Yoga practice or to waitlist control. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress induction were measured at Weeks 0 (pretreatment) and 9 (posttreatment). Self-reported binge eating frequency and coping motives for eating were assessed at Weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9. Among participants with elevated cortisol reactivity at pretreatment ("high reactors"), those randomized to the yoga condition evidenced greater pre- to posttreatment reductions in cortisol reactivity (p = .042, d = .85), but there were not significant condition differences for the "low reactors" (p = .178, d = .53). Yoga participants reported greater decreases in binge eating frequency (p = .040, d = .62) and eating to cope with negative affect (p = .038, d = .54). This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of heated hatha yoga for treating physiological stress reactivity and affective eating among women at risk for obesity-related illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  8. Implementing targeted expectant management in fertility care using prognostic modelling: a cluster randomized trial with a multifaceted strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, F A M; Nelen, W L D M; van den Boogaard, N M; van Rumste, M M; Koks, C A; IntHout, J; Verhoeve, H R; Pelinck, M J; Boks, D E S; Gianotten, J; Broekmans, F J M; Goddijn, M; Braat, D D M; Mol, B W J; Hermens, R P G M

    2017-08-01

    What is the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy compared to usual care on improving the adherence to guideline recommendations on expectant management for couples with unexplained infertility? The multifaceted implementation strategy did not significantly increase adherence to guideline recommendations on expectant management compared to care as usual. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovarian hyperstimulation has no beneficial effect compared to no treatment for 6 months after the fertility work-up for couples with unexplained infertility and a good prognosis of natural conception. Therefore, various professionals and policy makers have advocated the use of prognostic profiles and expectant management in guideline recommendations. A cluster randomized controlled trial in 25 clinics in the Netherlands was conducted between March 2013 and May 2014. Clinics were randomized between the implementation strategy (intervention, n = 13) and care as usual (control, n = 12). The effect of the implementation strategy was evaluated by comparing baseline and effect measurement data. Data collection was retrospective and obtained from medical record research and a patient questionnaire. A total of 544 couples were included at baseline and 485 at the effect measurement (247 intervention group/238 control group). Guideline adherence increased from 49 to 69% (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.45-4.89) in the intervention group, and from 49 to 61% (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.38-3.00) in the control group. Multilevel analysis with case-mix adjustment showed that the difference of 8% was not statistically significant (OR 1.31; 95% CI 0.67-2.59). The ongoing pregnancy rate within six months after fertility work-up did not significantly differ between intervention and control group (25% versus 27%: OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.40-1.27). There is a possible selection bias, couples included in the study had a higher socio-economic status than non-responders. How this affects guideline

  9. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  10. Targeting Patient Subgroups With Chronic Low Back Pain for Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Responder Analyses From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardone, John C; Gatchel, Robert J; Aryal, Subhash

    2016-03-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is often used to treat patients with low back pain (LBP). To identify subgroups of patients with chronic LBP who achieve medium to large treatment effects with OMT based on responder analyses involving pain and functioning outcomes from the OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain (OSTEOPATHIC) Trial. This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial involving 455 patients in Dallas-Fort Worth was conducted from 2006 to 2011. A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) for LBP intensity and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) for back-specific functioning were used to assess primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Substantial improvement was defined as 50% or greater reduction at week 12 compared with baseline. Cumulative distribution functions for the RR and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were used to assess response. Medium treatment effects for LBP intensity were observed overall (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.13-1.76; P=.002; NNT, 6.9; 95% CI, 4.3-18.6). However, large treatment effects were observed in patients with baseline VAS scores of 35 mm or greater. Although OMT was not associated with overall substantial improvement in back-specific functioning, patients with baseline RMDQ scores of 7 or greater experienced medium effects, and patients with baseline scores 16 or greater experienced large effects that were significant. The OMT effects for LBP intensity and back-specific functioning were independent of baseline patient demographic characteristics, comorbid medical conditions, and medication use for LBP during the trial. Subgrouping according to baseline levels of chronic LBP intensity and back-specific functioning appears to be a simple strategy for identifying sizeable numbers of patients who achieve substantial improvement with OMT and may thereby be less likely to use more costly and invasive interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00315120).

  11. And Yet It Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Mark P.

    1993-06-01

    Preface. The fire within; 1. The unimaginably strange behaviour of free electrons; 2. Quantum beats and giant atoms; 3. And yet it moves: exotic atoms and the invariance of charge; 4. Reflections on light; 5. Two worlds, large and small: Earth and atom; 6. The Wirbelrohr's roar (...or rather whistle); 7. Science and wonder; Selected papers by the author; Index.

  12. And Still They Moved

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. And Still they Moved - An Important Statement about some Rock Masses. Ramesh Chander. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Let's Keep Moving!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    First Lady Michelle Obama lauds educators for following the lead of her Let's Move! program and taking action to curtail childhood obesity. The battle to make children healthier is being waged on a number of fronts by food companies, restaurants and schools. Progress has been made, she says, but more is needed.

  14. Moving beyond Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Moving beyond Disability was the theme of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics. This paper is a reflection of one of the keynote lectures discussing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Multicultural aspects in

  15. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...

  16. Moving into an interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Opening an interaction is a crucial step in establishing and maintaining social relationships. In this paper we describe how participants in an institutional setting, a help desk counter for exchange students at an international university, literally move into interaction. This is accomplished...

  17. Process evaluation of the parental component in the Boost study - a school-randomized trial targeting fruit and vegetable intake among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    Purpose: School-based dietary interventions often include a parental component, but the degree of implementation is seldom reported. This study evaluated the implementation of six parental newsletters in the Boost study, a multicomponent school-randomized controlled trial targeting fruit...... and vegetable intake among year 7th graders (~13-year-olds) in school year 2010/11. Methods: Post-intervention questionnaire data from parents and teachers at 20 intervention schools were analysed descriptively. Process measures: Dose delivered: number of newsletters uploaded by teachers to the school’s website...... at 18 out of 20 intervention schools. Dose delivered: 11 teachers (61.1%) uploaded all newsletters. Dose received: 65.5% of the parents had seen the newsletters; 49.2% had read at least one. Appreciation: 39.2% found the newsletters useful. Reach by OSC and gender: Among parents, 56.1% of high OSC, 46...

  18. Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vorup-Jensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system, resulting in the demyelination of neurons, causing mild to severe symptoms. Several anti-inflammatory treatments now play a significant role in ameliorating the disease. Glatiramer acetate (GA is a formulation of random polypeptide copolymers for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by limiting the frequency of attacks. While evidence suggests the influence of GA on inflammatory responses, the targeted molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review the multiple pharmacological modes-of-actions of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis. We discuss in particular a newly discovered interaction between the leukocyte-expressed integrin αMβ2 (also called Mac-1, complement receptor 3, or CD11b/CD18 and perspectives on the GA co-polymers as an influence on the function of the innate immune system.

  19. Deep brain stimulation targeting the fornix for mild Alzheimer dementia: design of the ADvance randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holroyd KB

    2015-07-01

    stimulation (DBS of memory circuits may improve symptoms and possibly slow disease progression. The ADvance trial was designed to examine DBS of the fornix as a treatment for mild AD. Methods: ADvance is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, delayed-start, multicenter clinical trial conducted at six sites in the US and one site in Canada. Eighty-five subjects initially consented to be screened for the trial. Of these, 42 subjects who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were implanted with DBS leads anterior to the columns of the fornix bilaterally. They were randomized 1:1 to DBS “off” or DBS “on” groups for the initial 12 months of follow-up. After 1 year, all subjects will have their devices turned “on” for the remainder of the study. Postimplantation, subjects will return for 13 follow-up visits over 48 months for cognitive and psychiatric assessments, brain imaging (up to 12 months, and safety monitoring. The primary outcome measures include Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive component (ADAS-cog-13, Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SB, and cerebral glucose metabolism measured with positron emission tomography. This report details the study methods, baseline subject characteristics of screened and implanted participants, and screen-to-baseline test–retest reliability of the cognitive outcomes. Results: Implanted subjects had a mean age of 68.2 years, were mostly male (55%, and had baseline mean ADAS-cog-13 and CDR-SB scores of 28.9 (SD, 5.2 and 3.9 (SD, 1.6, respectively. There were no significant differences between screened and implanted or nonimplanted subjects on most demographic or clinical assessments. Implanted subjects had significantly lower (better ADAS-cog-11 (17.5 vs 21.1 scores, but did not differ on CDR-SB. Scores on the major outcome measures for the trial were consistent at screening and baseline. Conclusion: ADvance was successful in enrolling a substantial group of patients for this novel application of

  20. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  1. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  2. Comparative study between fast and slow induction of propofol given by target-controlled infusion: expected propofol concentration at the effect site. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Francisco Simoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that the rate of propofol infusion may influence the predicted propofol concentration at the effect site (Es. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Es predicted by the Marsh pharmacokinetic model (ke0 0.26 min-1 in loss of consciousness during fast or slow induction. METHOD: The study included 28 patients randomly divided into two equal groups. In slow induction group (S, target-controlled infusion (TCI of propofol with plasma, Marsh pharmacokinetic model (ke0 0.26 min-1 with target concentration (Tc at 2.0-µg mL-1 were administered. When the predicted propofol concentration at the effect site (Es reached half of Es value, Es was increased to previous Es + 1 µg mL-1, successively, until loss of consciousness. In rapid induction group (R, patients were induced with TCI of propofol with plasma (6.0 µg mL-1 at effect site, and waited until loss of consciousness. RESULTS: In rapid induction group, Tc for loss of consciousness was significantly lower compared to slow induction group (1.67 ± 0.76 and 2.50 ± 0.56 µg mL-1, respectively, p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: The predicted propofol concentration at the effect site for loss of consciousness is different for rapid induction and slow induction, even with the same pharmacokinetic model of propofol and the same balance constant between plasma and effect site.

  3. A randomized, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin lispro protamine suspension and insulin detemir in insulin-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelfeld, L; Dharmalingam, M; Robling, K; Jones, C; Swanson, D; Jacober, S

    2010-02-01

    Insulin lispro protamine suspension (ILPS) and insulin detemir were compared in insulin-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by oral glucose-lowering agents (OGLAs) to demonstrate non-inferior overall glycaemic control. This was a 24-week, multinational, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target trial. Adults taking two or more OGLAs were randomized to ILPS (n = 223) or detemir (n = 219) once daily at bedtime. Doses were titrated to target fasting blood glucose (FBG) 5.0-7.2 mmol/l. A pre-breakfast dose was added up to week 8 per prespecified criteria. The primary objective was comparison of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) change from baseline (non-inferiority margin 0.4%). At end-point, HbA(1c) decreased from 8.8 +/- 0.7% in both groups to 7.3 +/- 0.9% (ILPS) and 7.5 +/- 1.1% (detemir). Least-squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) for HbA(1c) [-0.21% (-0.39, -0.03)] and glycaemic variability [0.10 mmol/l (-0.02, 0.23)] demonstrated non-inferiority. End-point mean FBG was 7.0 vs. 6.9 mmol/l (P = 0.85), and percentages of patients achieving H weight gain was 1.88 vs. 0.36 kg (P weight gain.

  4. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  5. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  6. Time to Move On?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, A.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hotho, Jasper J.

    Building on prior research, we examine theoretically the institutional factors that push top managers to relocate HQ units overseas. To this end, we first discuss how coercive, isomorphic, and normative pressures may differentially affect HQ relocation decisions. Subsequently, we consider how......, we expect economic crises to decrease the overall institutional quality in a given country context, pushing firms to move out. Our theoretical framework contributes to an improved understanding of how institutional factors influence firm behaviour under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore...

  7. Time to Move On?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, Alfredo; Nell, Phillip; Hotho, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Building on prior research, we examine theoretically the institutional factors that push top managers to relocate HQ units overseas. To this end, we first discuss how coercive, isomorphic, and normative pressures may differentially affect HQ relocation decisions. Subsequently, we consider how......, we expect economic crises to decrease the overall institutional quality in a given country context, pushing firms to move out. Our theoretical framework contributes to an improved understanding of how institutional factors influence firm behaviour under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore...

  8. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  9. A moving experience !

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  10. Moving Shadow Detection in Video Using Cepstrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Cogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving shadows constitute problems in various applications such as image segmentation and object tracking. The main cause of these problems is the misclassification of the shadow pixels as target pixels. Therefore, the use of an accurate and reliable shadow detection method is essential to realize intelligent video processing applications. In this paper, a cepstrum-based method for moving shadow detection is presented. The proposed method is tested on outdoor and indoor video sequences using well-known benchmark test sets. To show the improvements over previous approaches, quantitative metrics are introduced and comparisons based on these metrics are made.

  11. A randomized clinical pharmacokinetic trial of Tenofovir in blood, plasma and urine in adults with perfect, moderate and low PrEP adherence: the TARGET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Tim R; Siriprakaisil, Oraphan; Klinbuayaem, Virat; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Kubiak, Rachel W; Sukrakanchana, Pra-Ornsuda; Than-In-At, Kanchana; Baeten, Jared; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Cressey, Ratchada; Drain, Paul K

    2017-07-14

    results of this randomized trial will define the target concentration thresholds of TFV in blood, urine and oral fluid that can distinguish between different levels of TDF adherence. Such adherence 'benchmarks' can be applied to real-time drug testing and novel point-of-care tests to identify individuals with poor PrEP or ART adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03012607 .

  12. TIME - Targeted interdisciplinary model for evaluation and treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized hybrid trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwarck, Bjørn; Selbaek, Geir; Kirkevold, Øyvind; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Myhre, Janne; Nybakken, Solvor; Bergh, Sverre

    2016-07-12

    Nearly all persons with dementia will experience neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) during the course of their disease. Clinicians and researchers emphasize the need for an evidence-informed standardized approach to managing NPS that integrates pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for real-world implementation. The Targeted Interdisciplinary Model for Evaluation and Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (TIME) represents such an approach and is a multicomponent intervention based on the theoretical framework of cognitive behavioural therapy. The trial is a 3-month cluster randomized trial conducted in 30 nursing homes including 168 participants with dementia and a high level of agitation. Each nursing home defined as a cluster will be randomized to receive either the TIME intervention (the intervention group) or a brief education-only intervention regarding dementia and NPS (the control group). TIME is a manual-based, multicomponent programme that includes a rigorous assessment, one or more case conferences and the treatment and evaluation of NPS. Patient-level measurements are taken at baseline (prior to randomization) and 8 and 12 weeks later. The primary outcome measure is the change in agitation, as defined by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, at 8 weeks from baseline. Secondary outcome measures include change in agitation at 12 weeks from baseline, and change from baseline at 8 and 12 weeks in other NPS, quality of life, and the use of psychotropic and analgesic medications. Mixed methods will be used to follow, measure and explore the implementation process and the effect of the intervention at the individual staff level and the organization level. Combining measurements of clinical effectiveness and implementation outcomes define this trial as an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial. Measuring the implementation and effect of complex interventions aimed at reducing NPS in nursing homes is challenging. In this study

  13. Let’s play! Let’s move and let’s eat healthy! Promote the knowledge the food pyramid in the children: protocol of a randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s necessary to increase the knowledge of children aged 5-9 years and their parents on the subject of eating and promoting physical activity. The present paper describes the research protocol of a randomized field trial that aims: a to increase the knowledge of food pyramid and b to modify the nutrition behavior in order to improve the Mediterranean diet, especially: to increase fruit and vegetables consumption. The subjects enrolled in the trial will be children of the primary schools that will be randomized to receive or not an intervention through the use of games (cards and table games, which include also physical activities.

  14. $\\mathit {SH}(3)$-move and other local moves on knots

    OpenAIRE

    Kanenobu, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    An $\\SH(3)$-move is an unknotting operation on oriented knots introduced by Hoste, Nakanishi and Taniyama. We consider some relationships to other local moves such as a band surgery, $\\Gamma_{0}$-move, and $\\Delta$-move, and give some criteria for estimating the $\\SH(3)$-unknotting number using the Jones, HOMFLYPT, Q polynomials. We also show a table of $\\SH(3)$-unknotting numbers for knots with up to 9 crossings.

  15. SH(3)-MOVE AND OTHER LOCAL MOVES ON KNOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kanenobu, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    An SH(3)-move is an unknotting operation on oriented knots introduced by Hoste, Nakanishi and Taniyama. We consider some relationships to other local moves such as a band surgery, Γ_0-move, and Δ-move, and give some criteria for estimating the SH(3)-unknotting number using the Jones, HOMFLYPT, Q polynomials. We also show a table of SH(3)-unknotting numbers for knots with up to 9 crossings.

  16. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  17. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...... be used to study the sense of movement activity, i.e., the part of SoA related to actual movement. The bulk of the chapter is an argument to the effect that standard paradigms are ill equipped to study the sense of movement activity....

  18. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas....... This circular movement can be explained by a combination of elements characterizing African Atlantic and black Atlantic history. Among them is a lack of attention to questions of periodisation and change. Likewise, it has proven difficult to conceptualize Africa and America at one and the same time...

  19. A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors for prostate cancer patients from the RADAR trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy leads to a number of adverse effects including deterioration of the musculoskeletal system and increased risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects, efficacy, retention and compliance of a physical exercise intervention in a large established cohort of prostate cancer patients from the Randomised Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy (RADAR study. Specifically, we aim to compare short- and long-term effects of a prostate cancer-specific supervised exercise program to a standard public health physical activity strategy utilizing printed resources on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Our primary outcomes are cardiorespiratory capacity, abdominal obesity, and lipid and glycemic control, while secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 370 men from the RADAR study cohort undergoing treatment or previously treated for prostate cancer involving androgen deprivation therapy in the cities of Perth and Newcastle (Australia, and Wellington (New Zealand. Participants will be randomized to (1 supervised resistance/aerobic exercise or (2 printed material comprising general physical activity recommendations. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 6 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Discussion This study uses a large existent cohort of patients and will generate valuable information as to the continuing effects of exercise specifically targeting cardiovascular function and disease risk, insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, physical function, quality of life and psychological distress. We expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce risk factors for the

  20. A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants of infant mental health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubach Florence

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by

  1. Targeted spine strengthening exercise and posture training program to reduce hyperkyphosis in older adults: results from the study of hyperkyphosis, exercise, and function (SHEAF) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, W B; Vittinghoff, E; Lin, F; Schafer, A; Long, R K; Wong, S; Gladin, A; Fan, B; Allaire, B; Kado, D M; Lane, N E

    2017-10-01

    A 6-month randomized controlled trial of spine-strengthening exercise and posture training reduced both radiographic and clinical measures of kyphosis. Participants receiving the intervention improved self-image and satisfaction with their appearance. Results suggest that spine-strengthening exercise and postural training may be an effective treatment option for older adults with hyperkyphosis. The purpose of the present study is to determine in a randomized controlled trial whether spine-strengthening exercises improve Cobb angle of kyphosis in community-dwelling older adults. We recruited adults ≥60 years with kyphosis ≥40° and enrolled 99 participants (71 women, 28 men), mean age 70.6 ± 0.6 years, range 60-88, with baseline Cobb angle 57.4 ± 12.5°. The intervention included group spine-strengthening exercise and postural training, delivered by a physical therapist, 1-h, three times weekly for 6 months. Controls received four group health education meetings. The primary outcome was change in the gold standard Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from standing lateral spine radiographs. Secondary outcomes included change in kyphometer-measured kyphosis, physical function (modified Physical Performance Test, gait speed, Timed Up and Go, Timed Loaded Standing, 6-Min Walk), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (PROMIS global health and physical function indexes, SRS-30 self-image domain). ANCOVA was used to assess treatment effects on change from baseline to 6 months in all outcomes. There was a -3.0° (95% CI -5.2, -0.8) between-group difference in change in Cobb angle, p = 0.009, favoring the intervention and approximating the magnitude of change from an incident vertebral fracture. Kyphometer-measured kyphosis (p = 0.03) and SRS-30 self-esteem (p  0.05. Spine-strengthening exercise and posture training over 6 months reduced kyphosis compared to control. Our randomized controlled trial results suggest that a targeted kyphosis

  2. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  3. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...... be changed, in O(logB2 N) I/Os. Next, we present a general approach that improves the query time if the queries arrive in chronological order, by allowing the index to evolve over time. We obtain a tradeoff between the query time and the number of times the index needs to be updated as the points move. We...

  4. A randomized clinical trial using research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders-axis II to target clinic cases for a tailored self-care TMD treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Samuel F; Huggins, Kimberly H; Wilson, Leanne; Mancl, Lloyd; Turner, Judith; Massoth, Donna; LeResche, Linda; Truelove, Edmond

    2002-01-01

    To carry out a randomized clinical trial (RCT) contrasting usual conservative treatment of TMD by clinical TMD specialists with a structured self-care intervention, targeted to clinic cases independent of TMD physical diagnosis, who were reporting minimal levels of psychosocial dysfunction; the intervention was delivered by dental hygienists in lieu of usual treatment. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used to target subjects who exhibited minimal TMD-related psychosocial interference. Criteria for study inclusion were: (1) self-report of facial and/or masticatory muscle pain discomfort for which usual care was prescribed by the clinic TMD specialist; (2) RDC/TMD Axis II graded scale of chronic pain (GCP) score of 0, I, or II-Low. (3) Age 18 to 70 years. On 1-year follow-up, while both groups showed improvement in all clinical and self-report categories measured, patients in the tailored self-care treatment program compared to usual TMD treatment showed significantly; (a) decreased TMD pain, (b) decreased pain-related interference in activity; (c) reduced number of masticatory muscles painful; (d) fewer additional visits for TMD treatment. Groups were comparable with regard to measures of vertical range of motion. The self-care program was associated with consistent, but non-statistically significant, trends towards lower levels of depression and somatization. Ability to cope with TMD, knowledge concerning TMD and patient satisfaction was significantly enhanced for the self-care group. No participating patients experienced physical or personal adverse effects during the 1-year post-treatment follow-up period. Use of RDC/TMD psychosocial assessment criteria can contribute to successful clinical decision-making for the management of TMD.

  5. Varying cognitive targets and response rates to enhance the question-behaviour effect: An 8-arm Randomized Controlled Trial on influenza vaccination uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Nekitsing, Chandani; Hutter, Russell; Wood, Chantelle; Jackson, Cath; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-05-01

    The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that survey questions about a behaviour can change that behaviour. However, little research has tested how the QBE can be maximized in behavioural medicine settings. The present research tested manipulations of cognitive targets (questions about anticipated regret or beneficence) and survey return rates (presence vs. absence of a sticky note requesting completion of the questionnaire) on the magnitude of the QBE for influenza vaccination in older adults. Participants (N = 13,803) were recruited from general practice and randomly allocated to one of eight conditions: control 1 (no questionnaire); control 2 (demographics questionnaire); intention and attitude questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus anticipated regret questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus beneficence questionnaire (with or without a sticky note). Objective records of subsequent influenza vaccination from general practice records formed the dependent variable. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that receiving an influenza vaccination questionnaire significantly increased vaccination rates compared to the no questionnaire, OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.36 and combined control conditions, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.25. Including the sticky note significantly increased questionnaire return rates, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50. However, there were no differences in vaccination rates between questionnaires containing different cognitive targets, a sticky note or not, and no interactions. There were no significant differences in the per-protocol analyses, i.e. among respondents who completed and returned the questionnaires. The QBE is a simple, low-cost intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates. Increasing questionnaire return rates or asking anticipated regret or beneficence questions in addition to intention and attitude questions did not enhance the

  6. Use of molecular diversity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Naola M; Hepp, Diego; Sun, Shulei; Ikuta, Nilo; Levisohn, Sharon; Kleven, Stanley H; García, Maricarmen

    2005-06-01

    A total of 67 Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates from the USA, Israel and Australia, and 10 reference strains, were characterized by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) analysis of portions of the putative cytadhesin pvpA gene, the cytadhesin gapA gene, the cytadhesin mgc2 gene, and an uncharacterized hypothetical surface lipoprotein-encoding gene designated genome coding DNA sequence (CDS) MGA_0319. The regions of the surface-protein-encoding genes targeted in this analysis were found to be stable within a strain, after sequencing different in vitro passages of M. gallisepticum reference strains. Gene sequences were first analysed on the basis of gene size polymorphism. The pvpA and mgc2 genes are characterized by the presence of different nucleotide insertions/deletions. However, differentiation of isolates based solely on pvpA/mgc2 PCR size polymorphism was not found to be a reliable method to differentiate among M. gallisepticum isolates. On the other hand, GTS analysis based on the nucleotide sequence identities of individual and multiple genes correlated with epidemiologically linked isolates and with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. GTS analysis of individual genes, gapA, MGA_0319, mgc2 and pvpA, identified 17, 16, 20 and 22 sequence types, respectively. GTS analysis using multiple gene sequences mgc2/pvpa and gapA/MGA_0319/mgc2/pvpA identified 38 and 40 sequence types, respectively. GTS of multiple surface-protein-encoding genes showed better discriminatory power than RAPD analysis, which identified 36 pattern types from the same panel of M. gallisepticum strains. These results are believed to provide the first evidence that typing of M. gallisepticum isolates by GTS analysis of surface-protein genes is a sensitive and reproducible typing method and will allow rapid global comparisons between laboratories.

  7. [Comparative study between fast and slow induction of propofol given by target-controlled infusion: expected propofol concentration at the effect site. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Ricardo Francisco; Miziara, Luiz Eduardo de Paula Gomes; Esteves, Luis Otávio; Silva, Diógenes de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Cristina Alves; Smith, Mariana Oki; Paula, Leonardo Ferreira de; Cangiani, Luis Henrique

    2015-01-01

    studies have shown that rate of propofol infusion may influence the predicted propofol concentration at the effect site (Es). The aim of this study was to evaluate the Es predicted by the Marsh pharmacokinetic model (ke0 0.26min(-1)) in loss of consciousness during fast or slow induction. the study included 28 patients randomly divided into two equal groups. In slow induction group (S), target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol with plasma, Marsh pharmacokinetic model (ke0 0.26min(-1)) with target concentration (Tc) at 2.0-μg.mL(-1) were administered. When the predicted propofol concentration at the effect site (Es) reached half of Es value, Es was increased to previous Es + 1μg.mL(-1), successively, until loss of consciousness. In rapid induction group (R), patients were induced with TCI of propofol with plasma (6.0μg.ml(-1)) at Es, and waited until loss of consciousness. in rapid induction group, Tc for loss of consciousness was significantly lower compared to slow induction group (1.67±0.76 and 2.50±0.56μg.mL(-1), respectively, p=0.004). the predicted propofol concentration at the effect site for loss of consciousness is different for rapid induction and slow induction, even with the same pharmacokinetic model of propofol and the same balance constant between plasma and effect site. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternatives to the Moving Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen

    2001-01-01

    There are many possible estimators that could be used with annual inventory data. The 5-year moving average has been selected as a default estimator to provide initial results for states having available annual inventory data. User objectives for these estimates are discussed. The characteristics of a moving average are outlined. It is shown that moving average...

  9. Efficacy and use of an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention, targeting saturated fat intake, physical activity and smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; Dijkstra, Arie; de Weerdt, Inge; de Vries, Hein

    2008-04-01

    Although experts claim that computer-tailored interventions provided over the Internet have great potential to promote health behavior change, few studies have tested the efficacy of computer-tailored lifestyle interventions online-delivered over the Internet. To evaluate the short-term (1 month) efficacy of an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored lifestyle intervention targeting saturated fat intake, physical activity (PA), and smoking cessation, and to evaluate exposure to the intervention. A pretest-posttest randomized controlled trial with an intervention group and a no intervention waiting list control group was conducted. Self-reported behavior and determinants were assessed at baseline and 1 month follow-up. Exposure to the intervention was monitored through server registrations. The data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. The intervention resulted in a significantly lower self-reported saturated fat intake (b = -0.76, p effects were found for self-reported smoking status. Of the participants, 81% actually visited the website. The Internet-delivered, computer-tailored lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing self-reported saturated fat intake and in increasing self-reported PA among participants who completed the study.

  10. Effect of Insulin Resistance on Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Levels: A Multi-cohort Non-targeted Metabolomics and Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nowak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index during an oral glucose tolerance test. These implicated bile acid, glycerophospholipid and caffeine metabolism for IR and fatty acid biosynthesis for impaired insulin secretion. In MR analysis in two separate cohorts (n = 2,613 followed by replication in three independent studies profiled on different metabolomics platforms (n = 7,824 / 8,961 / 8,330, we discovered and replicated causal effects of IR on lower levels of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. A trend for a causal effect of IR on higher levels of tyrosine reached significance only in meta-analysis. In one of the largest studies combining "gold standard" measures for insulin responsiveness with non-targeted metabolomics, we found distinct metabolic profiles related to IR or impaired insulin secretion. We speculate that the causal effects on monounsaturated fatty acid levels could explain parts of the raised cardiovascular disease risk in IR that is independent of diabetes development.

  11. Let's Move Together: A Randomized Trial of the Impact of Family Health History on Encouragement and Co-Engagement in Physical Activity of Mexican-Origin Parents and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; de la Haye, Kayla; Skapinsky, Kaley; Goergen, Andrea F.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to shared health behaviors and disease risk, families may be more effective targets for health promotion. This study assessed whether providing family health history (FHH)-based risk information for heart disease and diabetes affected encouragement to engage in physical activity (PA) and healthy weight (HW) maintenance and…

  12. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  13. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  14. Moving Beyond Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    In this article I discuss the Indian outsourcing phenomena and ask the question now what? Using data from the Euro-India project I demonstrate that a small but significant part of the Indian IT entities are moving beyond outsourcing, to co-creation where Innovation and the desire to create new...... markets is the key driver. This does not imply that outsourcing will disappear but it does mean that firms will engage in globalization using innovative mix of business models and technical platforms. We discuss the implication of this slow transformation to co-creation of innovation for the global...... outsourcing industry. The key thesis of this paper is to discuss co-creation as a form of innovation and how such a form of innovation is likely to bring Indian companies rich dividends....

  15. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  16. Detecting and tracking moving humans from a moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodt, Barry A.; Camden, Richard

    2008-04-01

    In September 2007 the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) conducted an assessment of multiple pedestrian detection algorithms based upon LADAR or video sensor data. Eight detection algorithms developed by the Robotics CTA member organizations, including ARL, were assessed in an experiment conducted by the National Institute of Science & Technology (NIST) and ARL to determine the probability of detection/misclassification and false alarm rate as a function of vehicle speed, degree of environmental clutter, and pedestrian speeds. The study is part of an ongoing investigation of safe operations for unmanned ground vehicles. This assessment marked the first time in this program that human movers acted as targets for detection from a moving vehicle. A focus of the study was to choreograph repeatable human movement scenarios relative to the movement of the vehicle. The resulting data is intended to support comparative analysis across treatment conditions and to allow developers to examine performance with respect to specific detection and tracking events. Events include humans advancing and retreating from the vehicle at different angles, humans crossing paths in close proximity and occlusion situations where sight to the mover from the sensor system is momentarily lost. A detailed operational procedure ensured repeatable human movement with independent ground truth supplied by a NIST ultra wideband wireless tracking system. Post processing and statistical analysis reconciled the tracking algorithm results with the NIST ground truth. We will discuss operational considerations and results.

  17. Studying Teacher Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In July 2011, Bill Gates told the "Wall Street Journal," "I'm enough of a scientist to want to say, "What is it about a great teacher?"" As a "practitioner" of sorts, the author has wondered the same thing for 15 years. The K-12 school sector generates little empirical research of any sort. And of this small amount, most is targeted to…

  18. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Move and eat better

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  20. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  1. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  2. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  3. Pursuit eye movements to second-order motion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, M J; Gegenfurtner, K R

    2001-09-01

    We studied smooth-pursuit eye movements elicited by first- and second-order motion stimuli. Stimuli were random dot fields whose contrast was modulated by a Gaussian window with a space constant of 0.5 degrees. For the first-order stimuli, the random dots simply moved across the screen at the same speed as the window; for the second-order stimuli the window moved across stationary or randomly flickering dots. Additional stimuli which combined first- and second-order motion cues were used to determine the degree and type of interaction found between the two types of motion stimuli. Measurements were made at slow (1 degrees/s) and moderate (6 degrees/s) target speeds. At a velocity of 1 degrees/s the initiation, transition, and steady-state phases of smooth pursuit in response to second-order motion targets are severely affected when compared with the smooth pursuit of first-order motion targets. At a velocity of 6 degrees/s there is a small but significant deficit in steady-state pursuit of second-order motion targets but not much effect on pursuit initiation.

  4. Dynamics of Moving bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranoy

    2017-01-01

    ``A problem with defining force as rate of change of linear momentum'': Let us consider a body of mass m, moving with velocity u initially, in the next time interval it is acted by a force in the direction of motion, and at instant t + its mass is M and velocity v. F .t =Mv-mu or,v = m/M.u +F/M.t or,v =B.u +A.t where A =F/M,B =m/M. So other eqn of motion are: dS =vdt or dS =(B.u +A.t)dt or S =B.u.t +A/2.t2 Andv2 =B2 u2 +2A .B .u .t +A2 t2 or,v2 =B2 u2 +2A.S However, defining acceleration as rate of change of velocity, we have established an identity v =u +a.t which is independent of choice of v, u. M>>m, B is very small, product B.u or its higher power always tend to be negligible, even in cases when u is finitely large.In cases v ->c,F,M -> ∞ , thus A becomes indeterminate.There is inconvenience as A, B are not predetermined and are functions of u, v and thus the definition goes in circle. Hence we conclude, our hypothesis that force =rate of change of linear momentum is not sufficient; we would now find trial solutions to define force in most convenient way.

  5. Moving Clusters within a Memetic Algorithm for Graph Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwook Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most memetic algorithms (MAs for graph partitioning reduce the cut size of partitions using iterative improvement. But this local process considers one vertex at a time and fails to move clusters between subsets when the movement of any single vertex increases cut size, even though moving the whole cluster would reduce it. A new heuristic identifies clusters from the population of locally optimized random partitions that must anyway be created to seed the MA, and as the MA runs it makes beneficial cluster moves. Results on standard benchmark graphs show significant reductions in cut size, in some cases improving on the best result in the literature.

  6. LEARN 2 MOVE 2-3: a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of child-focused intervention and context-focused intervention in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Kruijsen, Anne J A; Verschuren, Olaf; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem; Verheijden, Johannes; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Lindeman, Eline

    2010-11-08

    Little is known about the efficacy and the working mechanisms of physical and occupational therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In recent years a shift from a child-focused intervention approach to a more context-focused intervention approach can be recognized. Until now the evidence on the efficacy and the working mechanisms of these interventions for children with CP is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and working mechanisms of two intervention approaches compared to regular care intervention in improving mobility and self-care skills of children (2-3 years) with CP and their families: a child-focused intervention approach and a context-focused intervention approach. A multi-centre, randomized controlled trial research design will be used. Ninety-four children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I-IV; age 2 to 3 years), their parents, and service providers (physical and occupational therapists) will be included. During a period of six months children will receive child-focused, context-focused or regular care intervention. Therapists will be randomly assigned to deliver either a child-focused intervention approach, a context-focused intervention approach or regular care intervention. Children follow their therapist into the allocated intervention arm. After the six months study-intervention period, all participants return to regular care intervention. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, after six months and at a three months follow-up period. Primary outcome is the capability of functional skills in self-care and mobility, using the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Other outcomes will be quality of life and the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), including body function and structure, activities (gross motor capacity and performance of daily activities

  7. LEARN 2 MOVE 2-3: a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of child-focused intervention and context-focused intervention in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the efficacy and the working mechanisms of physical and occupational therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP. In recent years a shift from a child-focused intervention approach to a more context-focused intervention approach can be recognized. Until now the evidence on the efficacy and the working mechanisms of these interventions for children with CP is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and working mechanisms of two intervention approaches compared to regular care intervention in improving mobility and self-care skills of children (2-3 years with CP and their families: a child-focused intervention approach and a context-focused intervention approach. Methods/Design A multi-centre, randomized controlled trial research design will be used. Ninety-four children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS level I-IV; age 2 to 3 years, their parents, and service providers (physical and occupational therapists will be included. During a period of six months children will receive child-focused, context-focused or regular care intervention. Therapists will be randomly assigned to deliver either a child-focused intervention approach, a context-focused intervention approach or regular care intervention. Children follow their therapist into the allocated intervention arm. After the six months study-intervention period, all participants return to regular care intervention. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, after six months and at a three months follow-up period. Primary outcome is the capability of functional skills in self-care and mobility, using the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Other outcomes will be quality of life and the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - for Children and Youth (ICF-CY, including body function and structure, activities (gross motor

  8. "Act on Threes" Paradigm for Treatment Intensification of Type 2 Diabetes in Managed Care: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study with an Educational Intervention Targeting Improved Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszk, Nella; Reynolds, Shannon L; Wei, Wenhui; Davis, Cralen; Kamble, Pravin; Uribe, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia. To assess the impact of an educational intervention specifically designed to align patients and their physicians with 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines on glycated hemoglobin (A1c) testing frequency and insulin initiation. The "Act on Threes" educational intervention was a 12-month, randomized controlled prospective study that included Medicare Advantage patients aged 18-85 years with T2D, who received ≥ 3 oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) and/or had A1c not at goal and/or had no recent A1c evaluation over 12 months, as identified through the analysis of administrative claims data (May 1, 2011-April 30, 2013) from the Humana database. Identified patients were randomized 3:1 to receive the Act on Threes educational intervention in conjunction with standard care (intervention group) or standard care alone (control group). For the educational intervention, patients and physicians were simultaneously mailed general and targeted information aimed at aligning them to 3 vital aspects of A1c control: timely measurement of A1c every 3 months; timely treatment intensification to meet A1c goals with treatment intensification every 3 months if A1c is not at goal; and insulin initiation when appropriate, including patients receiving ≥ 3 OADs with A1c not at goal. Control patients were only enrolled if the treating physician was not involved in the care of any patients in the intervention group. The primary outcome measures were A1c testing frequency based on the ADA standard for compliance

  9. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  10. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges...

  11. Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Pernica

    Full Text Available Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ.Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment, the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13 and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61 at 60 days.We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient

  12. Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernica, Jeffrey M; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Mokomane, Margaret; Moorad, Banno; Lechiile, Kwana; Smieja, Marek; Mazhani, Loeto; Cheng, Ji; Kelly, Matthew S; Loeb, Mark; Stordal, Ketil; Goldfarb, David M

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ) at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ. Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment), the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13) and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61) at 60 days. We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient evidence to

  13. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  14. Moving Shadow Detection in Video Using Cepstrum Regular Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Cogun, Fuat; Cetin, Ahmet Enis

    2013-01-01

    Moving shadows constitute problems in various applications such as image segmentation and object tracking. The main cause of these problems is the misclassification of the shadow pixels as target pixels. Therefore, the use of an accurate and reliable shadow detection method is essential to realize intelligent video processing applications. In this paper, a cepstrum‐based method for moving shadow detection is presented. The proposed method is tested on outdoor and indoor video sequences using ...

  15. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption : The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    Background: Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. Objective: In a randomized controlled

  16. A Parent-Mediated Intervention That Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 43:540–555, 2013a). The current analyses focus on children’s attachment related outcomes. Results revealed that children who were randomly assigned to FPI showed bigger ...

  17. Small UAS Analysis of Laser Designation and Search and Target Acquisition Capabilities in an Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harclerode, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: -Small UAS has extreme difficulty lasing moving targets in high density urban environments -Lasing moving targets in medium density terrain is possible but not certain -Lasing of stationary targets...

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. Transient heating of moving objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of transient and quasistatic heating of moving objects by various heat sources is considered. The mathematical formulation of the problem is described, examples of thermal calculation given.

  20. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  1. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  2. Information Systems curriculum: the moving target phenomenon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article determines the scope and nature of Information Systems training at Technikons in South Africa. Due to rapid changes in technology, knowledge regarding technology becomes obsolete rapidly. Therefore Information Systems learners should have the means and skills to keep abreast of advances in the ...

  3. Diffusion of Language Change: Accommodation to a Moving Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie; Jensen, Torben Juel; Kristiansen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on motivations for the spread of new features within a speech community, and on the trajectories the changes follow during diffusion. One set of data represents language use, and here focus is on two changes which have been going on in Danish over the past 40 years, one grammati...

  4. Architecture-Based Self-Adaptation for Moving Target Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    D.M. Chess. The vision of autonomic computing. Computer, 36(1):41–50, 2003. [KR01] Steve Kremer and Jean-Francois Raskin. A game-based verification of...2012 Seventh International Conference on Avail- ability, Reliability and Security, 2012. [SCG+14] Bradley Schmerl, Javier Camara , Jeffrey Gennari, David

  5. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  6. HYPERLEXIA AND DYSLEXIA IN AUTISM: HITTING A MOVING TARGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. WILLIAMS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic histories of autism, dyslexia, and hyperlexia are complex. Because these conditions share both convergent and diver­gent properties, it is important to under­stand these relationships, especially in the case of research and how we interpret bodi­es of work which span decades of fluc­tuating criteria. It is also important to syn­the­size what we already know about the morpho­logy of these con­di­tions and pinpoint what we still don’t. Autism and dyslexia, for instance, share antipodal cerebral morpho­logies, such as minicolumnar den­sity, neuropil width, cell size, corpus callo­sal volume, gyral complexity, gyral window size, and cerebral volume, while hyperlexia has not been studied in this fashion, although it sha­res much in common with autism. Mean­while, the fluctuation in criteria of dyslexia over the years, means that older studies, such as some of the most highly cited in post­mortem research, have potentially used more heterogeneous groups of subjects than dys­lexia research typically uses today. Con­sider­ably, these older studies are often the basis of current animal model and genetics research. In conclusion, in consideration of the continued flux in criteria, particularly the proposed change from “Reading Disorder” to the broa­der “Specific Learning Disorder” within the DSM-5, we strongly recommend a separation of the various reading disorders under their own headings to promote specificity of diag­nosis and treatment, and to support better research.

  7. A Laboratory for Characterizing the Efficacy of Moving Target Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    3) transparent network connection translation in order to maintain those pre-existing alive connections during the shuffling process. We evaluate the...Mary maintains a state-of- the- art computing environment for experimental research and education. It maintains a modern network of Linux workstations

  8. Reinventing agricultural research : Changing context and moving targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Future food security for the rapidly increasing human population is at stake because farmers need to produce more food on less land and with less water and energy. Natural resources will be less and less available for agriculture due to economic development, which diverts these resources to

  9. Signal Processing for High Resolution FMCW SAR and Moving Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Frequency Modulated ContinuousWave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) leads to lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. In FMCW SAR applications the conventional stop-and-go approximation used in pulse radar algorithms cannot be considered

  10. Helicobacter Pylori – A Moving Target | Lambiotte | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from being classified as a gram negative, microaerophilic helix shaped bacterium responsible for peptic ulcer disease and gastritis; it is also classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the ... Testing is also now advised for patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura, unexplained vitamin B12 or iron deficiency anemia.

  11. A mathematical model for the interception of a moving target ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    excavating) three open channel sections, namely, the circular, parabolic and trapezoidal sections using the conditions for best hydraulic performance for the channels. Applying the model to a numerical example, new dimensions of the new channel ...

  12. Make a Move Intervention to Reduce Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerud, Kimberly; Samra, Haifa

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the social cognitive theory, this randomized controlled trial tested the "Make a Move," a provider-led intervention for Head Start parents aimed to produce changes in the outcomes of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of physical activity and healthy eating. Participants were parents of children ages 3-5 years enrolled in a Head…

  13. Hyperspectral-Augmented Target Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soliman, Neil A

    2008-01-01

    ... air with the capability to seek, monitor, and destroy mobile terrorist targets in hostile territory. One such capability recognizes and persistently tracks multiple moving vehicles in complex, highly ambiguous urban environments...

  14. Moving event and moving participant in aspectual conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Katsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study advances an analysis of the event conception of aspectual forms in four East Asian languages: Ainu, Japanese, Korean, and Ryukyuan. As earlier studies point out, event conceptions can be divided into two major types: the moving-event type and the moving-participant type, respectively. All aspectual forms in Ainu and Korean, and most forms in Japanese and Ryukyuan are based on that type of event conception. Moving-participant oriented Ainu and movingevent oriented Japanese occupy two extremes, between which Korean and Ryukyuan stand. Notwithstanding the geographical relationships among the four languages, Ryukyuan is closer to Ainu than to Korean, whereas Korean is closer to Ainu than to Japanese.

  15. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  16. Slow and Steady Wins the Race: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Targeting Shame in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Jason B.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Fletcher, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Shame has long been seen as relevant to substance use disorders, but interventions have not been tested in randomized trials. This study examined a group-based intervention for shame based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N = 133; 61% female; M = 34 years old; 86% Caucasian) in a 28-day…

  17. A Parent-Mediated Intervention that Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. MOVES Degree Update: Curriculum Revision Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Darken, Chris

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 1: Educational Initiatives and Status, Moderator: Chris Darken; MOVES Degree Update, Speaker Chris Darken Outline: Brief intro to MOVES Masters degree, Pressures driving the proposed curriculum revision, Salient features of the proposal

  20. Satisfaction in motion: Subsequent search misses are more likely in moving search displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothart, Cary; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2017-05-08

    People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical X-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence has suggested that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the identities and locations of found targets. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increase the chances of missing a subsequent one? To address this question, we had participants search for one or more targets hidden among distractors. Subsequent search misses were more likely when the targets and distractors moved throughout the display than when they remained stationary. However, when the found targets were highlighted in a unique color, subsequent search misses were no more likely in moving displays. Together, these results suggest that the effect of movement is likely due to the increased cognitive demands of tracking moving targets. Overall, our findings reveal that activities that involve searching for moving targets (e.g., driving) are more susceptible to subsequent search misses than are those that involve searching for stationary targets (e.g., baggage screening).

  1. Self-controlled moving robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song-Keun; Kim, Il-Ju

    2007-12-01

    We made a self controlled moving robot (SCMR) which tracks the object using the images obtained from two cameras which are installed on the front of the system. In order to reduce the effect of a color and a light we converted the true color images to the gray color images. We can estimate the object movements by utilizing four images which are obtained from two cameras of different times. The SCMR controls the motor to move by itself considering the result of the image processing. In the image processing we used the image zone partition method. The image zone partition method decides a direction that the object is moving. For fast calculation of the image processing and the motor control we installed the personal computer (PC) on the SCMR.

  2. Efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy in biliary tract cancer: A meta-analysis of 7 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xin; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Tan, Ling-Hua; Wang, Lu-Ting; Cao, Qian; Qu, Gui-Fang; Xiao, Shuang; Duan, Hua-Xin

    2017-04-01

    The systematic treatment based on gemcitabine plus cisplatin is recommended as the current standard chemotherapy for unresectable or metastatic biliary tract cancers. However, the exact benefits from the recognized regime are still dismal. We thus elicit this study in an attempt to analyze whether targeted therapy coupled with various chemotherapy could produce improvement of survival benefits. The clinical trials were searched electronically from databases till July 2016 published in English and Chinese. Nine hundred and sixty-four patients from 7 trials were identified in our analysis. The overall analysis achieved a significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) among the patients treated with targeted drugs plus chemotherapy than chemotherapy alone (OR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.37-2.57; P=0.000), but failed in the overall progression-free survival (PFS) [mean difference (MD)=0.63; 95% CI:-0.45-1.72; P=0.26] and overall survival (OS) (MD=-0.67; 95% CI:-2.54-1.20; P=0.49). In the sub analysis, better ORR was obtained with the addition of EGFR (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20-2.56; P=0.004) and VEGFR (OR=2.5; 95% CI: 1.28-4.87; P=0.007) targeted therapy. Furthermore, the sub analysis of EGFR target showed an significant improvement on PFS (MD=1.36; 95% CI: 0.29-2.43; P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in the incidences of neutropenia (OR=1.37; 95% CI: 0.89-2.12), thrombocytopenia (OR=1.40; 95% CI: 0.83-2.39), anemia (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 0.62-2.38), peripheral neuropathy (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 0.81-2.88), increased AST/ALT (OR=1.40; 95% CI: 0.82-2.39) as well as fatigue (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 0.96-2.84) in either of the treatment groups. In conclusion, better ORR associated with chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy (both targeting EGFR and VEGF) is found in the present meta-analysis without the cost of increased unacceptable toxicities, but regretfully not for the OS. The sub-analysis of targeting EGFR instead of VEGF obtains a superior PFS. Otherwise, there is no

  3. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is your level of intensity? When is the best time of day to work out? Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down See More >> Getting Active Getting Started - Tips for Long-term Exercise Success Get Moving: Easy Tips to Get Active! ...

  4. A Parent-Mediated Intervention That Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 43:540–555, 2013a). The current analyses focus on children’s attachment related outcomes. Results revealed that children who were randomly assigned to FPI showed bigger increases in attachment-related behaviors, compared to children assigned to the control condition. Significant treatment effects of FPI were found for both an observational measure of attachment-related behaviors elicited during a brief separation-reunion episode and a questionnaire measure evaluating parental perceptions of child attachment. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24488157

  5. A parent-mediated intervention that targets responsive parental behaviors increases attachment behaviors in children with ASD: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-07-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 43:540-555, 2013a). The current analyses focus on children's attachment related outcomes. Results revealed that children who were randomly assigned to FPI showed bigger increases in attachment-related behaviors, compared to children assigned to the control condition. Significant treatment effects of FPI were found for both an observational measure of attachment-related behaviors elicited during a brief separation-reunion episode and a questionnaire measure evaluating parental perceptions of child attachment. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. The health education for lupus study: a randomized controlled cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting psychosocial adjustment and quality of life in adolescent females with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Tilley, Barbara C; Anthony, Kelly K; Kral, Mary C; Maxson, Bonnie; Mee, Laura; Bonner, Melanie J; Vogler, Larry B; Schanberg, Laura E; Connelly, Mark A; Wagner, Janelle L; Silver, Richard M; Nietert, Paul J

    2012-10-01

    To examine in a randomize controlled feasibility clinical trial the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to manage pain, enhance disease adjustment and adaptation and improve quality of life among female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus. Female adolescents (n = 53) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups including a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an education-only arm and a no-contact control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, postintervention and at 3- and 6-month intervals after completion of the intervention. No significant differences were revealed among the 3 treatment arms for any of the dependent measures at any of the assessment points. For the mediator variables, a posthoc secondary analysis did reveal increases in coping skills from baseline to postintervention among the participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention group compared with both the no-contact control group and the education-only group. Although no differences were detected in the primary outcome, a possible effect on coping of female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus was detected in this feasibility study. Whether the impact of training in the area of coping was of sufficient magnitude to generalize to other areas of functioning, such as adjustment and adaptation, is unclear. Future phase III randomized trials will be needed to assess additional coping models and to evaluate the dose of training and its influence on pain management, adjustment and health-related quality of life.

  7. Open transinguinal preperitoneal mesh repair of inguinal hernia: a targeted systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad S.; Craciunas, L.; Singh, K.K.; Sains, P.; Baig, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials comparing transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) and Lichtenstein repair (LR) for inguinal hernia. Methods: Randomized, controlled trials comparing TIPP vs LR were analysed systematically using RevMan® and combined outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference. Results: Twelve randomized trials evaluating 1437 patients were retrieved from the electronic databases. There were 714 patients in the TIPP repair group and 723 patients in the LR group. There was significant heterogeneity among trials (P inguinal hernia recurrence (RR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.36, 1.83; z = 0.51; P = 0.61). Risk of developing postoperative complications and moderate-to-severe postoperative pain was similar following TIPP repair and LR. In addition, duration of operation was statistically similar in both groups. Conclusion: TIPP repair for inguinal hernia is associated with lower risk of developing chronic groin pain. It is comparable with LR in terms of risk of hernia recurrence, postoperative complications, duration of operation and intensity of postoperative pain. PMID:24759818

  8. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapahnke, Marcel; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2016-12-14

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level.

  9. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kapahnke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level.

  10. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Baird, S.O.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for

  11. Platelet desialylation is a novel mechanism and a therapeutic target in thrombocytopenia during sepsis: an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Feng; Li, Xiao-Li; Fan, Kai-Liang; Yu, Ying-Yi; Gong, Jing; Geng, Shu-Ying; Liang, Ya-Feng; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Ji-Hua; Tian, Xing-Han; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yu, Qing-Xia; Zhang, Yuan-Feng; Lin, Peng; Wang, Li-Na; Li, Xin; Hou, Ming; Liu, Lu-Yi; Peng, Jun

    2017-05-11

    Studies in murine models suggested that platelet desialylation was an important mechanism of thrombocytopenia during sepsis. First, we performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study that enrolled septic patients with or without thrombocytopenia to determine the association between platelet desialylation and thrombocytopenia in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Gender- and age-matched healthy adults were selected as normal controls in analysis of the platelet desialylation levels (study I). Next, we conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the patients who had severe sepsis with thrombocytopenia (platelet counts ≤50 × 10 9 /L) were randomly assigned to receive antimicrobial therapy alone (control group) or antimicrobial therapy plus oseltamivir (oseltamivir group) in a 1:1 ratio (study II). The primary outcomes were platelet desialylation level at study entry, overall platelet response rate within 14 days post-randomization, and all-cause mortality within 28 days post-randomization. Secondary outcomes included platelet recovery time, the occurrence of bleeding events, and the amount of platelets transfused within 14 days post-randomization. The platelet desialylation levels increased significantly in the 127 septic patients with thrombocytopenia compared to the 134 patients without thrombocytopenia. A platelet response was achieved in 45 of the 54 patients in the oseltamivir group (83.3%) compared with 34 of the 52 patients in the control group (65.4%; P = 0.045). The median platelet recovery time was 5 days (interquartile range 4-6) in the oseltamivir group compared with 7 days (interquartile range 5-10) in the control group (P = 0.003). The amount of platelets transfused decreased significantly in the oseltamivir group compared to the control group (P = 0.044). There was no difference in the overall 28-day mortality regardless of whether oseltamivir was used. The Sequential Organ

  12. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  13. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  14. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  15. The Health Education for Lupus Patients Study: A Randomized Controlled Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Adjustment and Quality of Life in Adolescent Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Anthony, Kelly K.; Kral, Mary C.; Maxson, Bonnie; Mee, Laura; Bonner, Melanie J.; Vogler, Larry B.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Connelly, Mark A.; Wagner, Janelle L.; Silver, Richard M.; Nietert, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine in a randomize controlled feasibility clinical trial the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to manage pain, enhance disease adjustment and adaptation, and improve quality of life among female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Female adolescents (N = 53) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years were randomized to one of three groups including a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an education-only arm, and a no-contact control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at three-and six-month intervals following completion of the intervention. Results No significant differences were revealed among the three treatment arms for any of the dependent measures at any of the assessment points. For the mediator variables, a post-hoc secondary analysis did reveal increases in coping skills from baseline to post-intervention among the participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention group compared to both the no-contact control group and the education-only group. Conclusion Although no differences were detected in the primary outcome, a possible effect on female SLE adolescent coping was detected in this feasibility study. Whether the impact of training in the area of coping was of sufficient magnitude to generalize to other areas of functioning, such as adjustment and adaptation, is unclear. Future Phase III randomized trials will be needed to assess additional coping models, and to evaluate the dose of training and its influence on pain management, adjustment, and health-related quality of life. PMID:22996139

  16. Translating Cuba: Diasporic writing between moving cultures and moving media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gremels

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the interrelation between transculturality and transmediality with an emphasis on processes of translation. It focuses on two examples of transcultural and transmedial writing taken from contemporary Cuban literature in Paris: Miguel Sales's recontextualization of Cuban popular music in Paris and William Navarrete's ekphrastic reinscription of his island into the realm of French romantic painting. The case studies are significant in this context because they show how cultural borders are simultaneously set and transgressed at medial crossings—between music and poetry, text, and image. Thus, cultural translations go hand in hand with medial transpositions that include forms of rewriting, recomposition, and revisualization. The connection between moving cultures and moving media also points to the question of “travelling memory” in diaspora.

  17. Targeting Ruminative Thinking in Adolescents at Risk for Depressive Relapse: Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy in a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial with Resting State fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H; Watkins, Edward R; Peters, Amy T; Feldhaus, Claudia G; Barba, Alyssa; Carbray, Julie; Langenecker, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control. Twenty two adolescents successfully completed fMRI scans pre- and post-intervention. Adolescents were recruited from the clinic and community and met criteria for at least one previous episode of MDD and were currently in full or partial remission. An Independent Evaluator interviewed parent and child before and after the eight-week intervention. The left PCC (-5, -50, 36) seed was used to probe resting state functional connectivity of the DMN. Adolescents who received RFCBT demonstrated reduced rumination (F = -2.76, df = 112, p depression across eight weeks (F = -2.58, df = 113, p depression and rumination. These data suggest that rumination can be reduced over eight weeks and that this reduction is associated with parallel decreases in residual depressive symptoms and decreased functional connectivity of the left PCC with cognitive control nodes. These changes may enhance the ability of vulnerable youth to stay well during the transition to adulthood. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01905267.

  18. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  19. Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Iyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.

  20. Youth Early-intervention Study (YES) - group interventions targeting social participation and physical well-being as an adjunct to treatment as usual: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehue, Lillian Jean; Scott, Elizabeth; Hermens, Daniel Francis; Scott, Jan; Hickie, Ian

    2015-08-05

    It is increasingly acknowledged that clinical interventions for young persons with mental disorders need to optimize social, vocational and physical functioning, and take into account developmental needs, rather than focusing only on the traditional target of psychiatric symptom change. However, few interventions for youth presenting to mental health services offer a coherent rationale for multi-faceted approaches that efficiently address all these targets. This trial uses two facilitated group therapy modules (social and physical activity) as a vehicle for promoting clinical, cognitive, social and vocational change. The modules are an adjunct to usual treatments offered to youth attending mental health services in Sydney, Australia. The design is a 2-arm, parallel group cross-over, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that examines the efficacy of this adjunctive youth early intervention program (called "YES") for improving social, vocational, mental and physical health functioning in a trans-diagnostic sample of 120 young persons aged 14-25 years who are currently receiving a range of "usual treatments" for clinically diagnosed anxiety, affective and/or psychotic disorders. Individuals who provide written informed consent are offered 2 group therapy modules (each comprising 4 hours per week for 8 weeks) with a 3-week "pause" between modules. Randomization determines whether individuals commence with module A or module B. The sample will be assessed pre-randomization, and at week 1 and week 8 (after completion of the first module), and at week 11 (commencement of second module) and week 19 (completion of second module). Final follow-up is 1-year post trial entry. If the findings of this exploratory trial demonstrate benefits in the target domains, then it will be important to extend the research by undertaking: (a) a comparison of the YES program to a control intervention in a randomized controlled trial, (b) an explanatory study of putative mediators of change, and (c

  1. Learning to Segment Moving Objects in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkiadaki, Katerina; Arbelaez, Pablo; Felsen, Panna; Malik, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    We segment moving objects in videos by ranking spatio-temporal segment proposals according to "moving objectness": how likely they are to contain a moving object. In each video frame, we compute segment proposals using multiple figure-ground segmentations on per frame motion boundaries. We rank them with a Moving Objectness Detector trained on image and motion fields to detect moving objects and discard over/under segmentations or background parts of the scene. We extend the top ranked segmen...

  2. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  3. Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Pauline; Dredge, Dianne; Daniele, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future. It consid......This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future....... It considers the changes needed in research approaches, in our universities, our curricula, our learners, and ourselves as academics. These changes we hope will stimulate the dialog on how TSE can mobilize the energy, vision and social spirit of those who seek to change the world for the better through tourism....

  4. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  5. Pro-HEART - a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a high protein diet targeting obese individuals with heart failure: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Hamilton, Michele; Lombardo, Dawn; Cooper, Dan M; Galassetti, Pietro R; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2013-11-01

    There is ample research to support the potential benefits of a high protein diet on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese, diabetic subjects. However, nutritional management of overweight/obese individuals with heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) is poorly understood and few clinical guidelines related to nutritional approaches exist for this subgroup. This article describes the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of study participants enrolled in Pro-HEART, a randomized clinical trial to determine the short term and long term effects of a high protein diet (30% protein [~110 g/day], 40% carbohydrates [150 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) versus a standard protein diet (15% protein [~55 g/day], 55% carbohydrates [~200 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) on body weight and adiposity, cardiac structure and function, functional status, lipid profile, glycemic control, and quality of life. Between August, 2009 and May, 2013, 61 individuals agreed to participate in the study; 52 (85%) - mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years; 15.4% Blacks; 57.7% Whites; 19.2% Hispanics; 7.7% Asians; 73.1% male; weight 112.0 ± 22.6 kg - were randomized to a 3-month intensive weight management program of either a high protein or standard protein diet; data were collected at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. This study has the potential to reveal significant details about the role of macronutrients in weight management of overweight/obese individuals with HF and DM or MS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IKAR moves to higher energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The measurements of hadron elastic scattering on protons at small angle (WA9 experiment) were extended at higher energies (NA8 experiment by the Clermont Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration). To this purpose the set-up was moved to the beam H8 in the EHN1 Hall of the SPS North Area. The photo shows the ionization chamber measuring the recoil energy (centre). Pierre Sahuc stands on the left.

  7. Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim drag Simulation Drag-and-Drop Exercise Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial provides the practice to reinforce the concept of magnetic force of moving charges. The key concepts covered include: The direction of the resultant magnetic force is always perpendicular to the plane defined by the velocity vector of the charge and the magnetic field vector., The direction of motion of the charge is also influenced by the sign/polarity of the charge., If the velocity...

  8. Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security -parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-11-22

    Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P), currently being conducted in Denmark. In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2-12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12-16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing. The potential implications of the experimental evaluation of

  9. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    2016-06-10

    Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a 6-month intervention delivered via a mobile phone app that communicated either textual or auditory tailored health information aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable intake. A control condition in which no health information was given was added. Perceived own health and health literacy were included as moderators to assess for which groups the interventions could possibly lead to health behavior change. After downloading the mobile phone app, respondents were exposed monthly to either text-based or audio-based tailored health information and feedback over a period of 6 months via the mobile phone app. In addition, respondents in the control condition only completed the baseline and posttest measures. Within a community sample (online recruitment), self-reported fruit and vegetable intake at 6-month follow-up was our primary outcome measure. In total, 146 respondents (ranging from 40 to 58 per condition) completed the study (attrition rate 55%). A significant main effect of condition was found on fruit intake (P=.049, partial η(2)=0.04). A higher fruit intake was found after exposure to the auditory information, especially in recipients with a poor perceived own health (P=.003, partial η(2)=0.08). In addition, health literacy moderated the effect of condition on vegetable intake 6 months later (P<.001, partial η(2)=.11). A higher vegetable intake was found for recipients with high health literacy after exposure to the textual or auditory intervention compared to the control condition (contrasts P=.07 and P=.004, respectively). In the case of relatively low health literacy, vegetable intake was the highest in the control condition (contrasts text control

  10. Stimulation targeting higher motor areas in stroke rehabilitation: A proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study of effectiveness and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, David A; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre; Bonnett, Corin; Janini, Daniel; Roelle, Sarah; Potter-Baker, Kelsey; Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yue, Guang; Plow, Ela B

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate, in a proof-of-concept study, whether potentiating ipsilesional higher motor areas (premotor cortex and supplementary motor area) augments and accelerates recovery associated with constraint induced movement. In a randomized, double-blinded pilot clinical study, 12 patients with chronic stroke were assigned to receive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (n = 6) or sham (n = 6) to the ipsilesional higher motor areas during constraint-induced movement therapy. We assessed functional and neurophysiologic outcomes before and after 5 weeks of therapy. Only patients receiving tDCS demonstrated gains in function and dexterity. Gains were accompanied by an increase in excitability of the contralesional rather than the ipsilesional hemisphere. Our proof-of-concept study provides early evidence that stimulating higher motor areas can help recruit the contralesional hemisphere in an adaptive role in cases of greater ipsilesional injury. Whether this early evidence of promise translates to remarkable gains in functional recovery compared to existing approaches of stimulation remains to be confirmed in large-scale clinical studies that can reasonably dissociate stimulation of higher motor areas from that of the traditional primary motor cortices.

  11. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  12. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

  13. Can temporal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation be enhanced by targeting affective components of tinnitus with frontal rTMS? a randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michael Kreuzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the temporal cortex has been investigated as a new treatment tool for chronic tinnitus during the last years and has shown moderate efficacy. However, there is growing evidence that tinnitus is not a pathology of a specific brain region, but rather the result of network dysfunction involving both auditory and non-auditory brain regions. In functional imaging studies the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been identified as an important hub in tinnitus related networks and has been shown to particularly reflect the affective components of tinnitus. Based on these findings we aimed to investigate whether the effects of left low frequency rTMS can be enhanced by antecedent right prefrontal low-frequency rTMS. Study Design: Fifty-six patients were randomized to receive either low-frequency left temporal rTMS or a combination of low-frequency right prefrontal followed by low-frequency left temporal rTMS. The change of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ score was the primary outcome, secondary outcome parameters included the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, numeric rating scales and the Beck Depression Inventory. The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01261949.Results: Directly after therapy there was a significant improvement of the TQ-score in both groups. Comparison of both groups revealed a trend towards more pronounced effects for the combined group (effect size: Cohen’s d=0.176, but this effect did not reach significance. A persistent trend towards better efficacy was also observed in all other outcome criteria. Conclusion: Additional stimulation of the right prefrontal cortex seems to be a promising strategy for enhancing TMS effects over the temporal cortex. These results further support the involvement of the right DLPFC in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. The small effect size might be due to the study design comparing the protocol to an active control

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy educational intervention compared with a nontargeted intervention to boost colorectal cancer screening with fecal immunochemical testing in community clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy N; Christy, Shannon M; Chavarria, Enmanuel A; Abdulla, Rania; Sutton, Steven K; Schmidt, Alyssa R; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Simmons, Vani N; Ufondu, Chukwudi B; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard G; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-04-15

    The objective of the current study was to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The current study investigated the differential impact of a multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy educational intervention compared with a standard, nontargeted educational intervention. Patients aged 50 to 75 years who were of average CRC risk and not up-to-date with CRC screening were recruited from either a federally qualified health center or a primary care community health clinic. Patients were randomized to the intervention condition (targeted photonovella booklet/DVD plus FIT kit) or comparison condition (standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention brochure plus FIT kit). The main outcome was screening with FIT within 180 days of delivery of the intervention. Of the 416 participants, 54% were female; the participants were racially and ethnically diverse (66% white, 10% Hispanic, and 28% African American), predominantly of low income, and insured (the majority had county health insurance). Overall, the FIT completion rate was 81%, with 78.1% of participants in the intervention versus 83.5% of those in the comparison condition completing FIT (P =  .17). In multivariate analysis, having health insurance was found to be the primary factor predicting a lack of FIT screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.26 [P =  .04]). The multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy materials were not found to be significantly different or more effective in increasing FIT uptake compared with the nontargeted materials. Provision of a FIT test plus education may provide a key impetus to improve the completion of CRC screening. The type of educational material (targeted vs nontargeted) may matter less. The findings of the current study provide a unique opportunity for clinics to adopt FIT and to choose the type of patient education materials based on clinic, provider, and patient preferences. Cancer 2017

  15. Dark matter. A light move

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Doebrich, Babette [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  16. A Proof of Concept, Phase II Randomized European Trial, on the Efficacy of ALF-5755, a Novel Extracellular Matrix-Targeted Antioxidant in Patients with Acute Liver Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Nalpas

    Full Text Available No efficient medical treatment is available for severe acute hepatitis (SAH except N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. The human C-type lectin Reg3α, referred to as ALF-5755, improved survival in an animal model of acute liver failure and was well tolerated in a phase 1 trial in humans. We performed a phase 2a trial of ALF5755 in non-acetaminophen induced SAH.double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The primary end-point was the improvement in the coagulation protein synthesis assessed by the change of Prothrombin (PR during the 72 hours following treatment initiation calculated as PRH0 minus PRH72 divided by 72 (PR slope H0H72. Intention to treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analysis of the entire group and the Hepatitis B virus (HBV/AIH (auto-immune hepatitis sub-group were done separately.57 patients were included. Twenty-eight received ALF-5755, 29 the placebo. Etiologies were: Hepatitis A (n = 10, HBV (n = 13, AIH (n = 9, drug-induced (n = 8, other (n = 17. On the whole group, nor the PR slope H0H72 (0.18±0.31 vs 0.25±0.32, nor the transplant-free survival rate at day 21 (75 vs 86% differed between groups. Conversely, in the HBV-AIH subgroup, in which ALF was more severe, PR slope H0-H72 was higher in the ALF-5755 arm, the difference being significant in PP analysis (0.048±0.066 vs -0.040±0.099, p = 0.04; the median length of hospitalization was lower in the ALF-5755 group (8 vs 14 days, p = 0.02.ALF-5755 was not efficient in a ITT analysis performed on the whole sample; however it led to a significant, although moderate, clinical benefit in a PP analysis of the sub-group of patients with HBV or AIH related SAH. As HBV is the major cause of SAH in Asia and Africa and AIH a growing cause, this study emphasizes the need to pursuit the evaluation of this novel medical treatment of SAH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318525.

  17. Effects of Three Motivationally Targeted Mobile Device Applications on Initial Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change in Midlife and Older Adults: A Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby C King

    Full Text Available While there has been an explosion of mobile device applications (apps promoting healthful behaviors, including physical activity and sedentary patterns, surprisingly few have been based explicitly on strategies drawn from behavioral theory and evidence.This study provided an initial 8-week evaluation of three different customized physical activity-sedentary behavior apps drawn from conceptually distinct motivational frames in comparison with a commercially available control app.Ninety-five underactive adults ages 45 years and older with no prior smartphone experience were randomized to use an analytically framed app, a socially framed app, an affectively framed app, or a diet-tracker control app. Daily physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using the smartphone's built-in accelerometer and daily self-report measures.Mixed-effects models indicated that, over the 8-week period, the social app users showed significantly greater overall increases in weekly accelerometry-derived moderate to vigorous physical activity relative to the other three arms (P values for between-arm differences = .04-.005; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.05, CI = 0.44,1.67; Social vs. Affect app: d = 0.89, CI = 0.27,1.51; Social vs. Analytic app: d = 0.89, CI = 0.27,1.51, while more variable responses were observed among users of the other two motivationally framed apps. Social app users also had significantly lower overall amounts of accelerometry-derived sedentary behavior relative to the other three arms (P values for between-arm differences = .02-.001; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.10,CI = 0.48,1.72; Social vs. Affect app: d = 0.94, CI = 0.32,1.56; Social vs. Analytic app: d = 1.24, CI = 0.59,1.89. Additionally, Social and Affect app users reported lower overall sitting time compared to the other two arms (P values for between-arm differences < .001; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.59,CI = 0.92, 2.25; Social vs. Analytic app: d = 1.89,CI = 1.17, 2.61; Affect

  18. Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Cognition Effects of the Proprietary Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin Targeting Phosphodiesterase-4 in Cognitively Healthy Subjects: Implications for Alzheimer’s Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Converging evidence suggests that PDE-4 (phosphodiesterase subtype 4 plays a crucial role in regulating cognition via the PDE-4-cAMP cascade signaling involving phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB. Objective. The primary endpoint was to examine the neurocognitive effects of extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin and to assess the safety and tolerability of Zembrin in cognitively healthy control subjects. Method. We chose the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design in our study. We randomized normal healthy subjects (total n=21 to receive either 25 mg capsule Zembrin or placebo capsule once daily for 3 weeks, in a randomized placebo-controlled 3-week cross-over design. We administered battery of neuropsychological tests: CNS Vital Signs and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D at baseline and regular intervals and monitored side effects with treatment emergent adverse events scale. Results. 21 subjects (mean age: 54.6 years ± 6.0 yrs; male/female ratio: 9/12 entered the study. Zembrin at 25 mg daily dosage significantly improved cognitive set flexibility (P<0.032 and executive function (P<0.022, compared with the placebo group. Positive changes in mood and sleep were found. Zembrin was well tolerated. Conclusion. The promising cognitive enhancing effects of Zembrin likely implicate the PDE-4-cAMP-CREB cascade, a novel drug target in the potential treatment of early Alzheimer’s dementia. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01805518.

  19. On the radar cross section (RCS) prediction of vehicles moving on the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabihi, Ahmad [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-10

    As readers should be aware, Radar Cross Section depends on the factors such as: Wave frequency and polarization, Target dimension, angle of ray incidence, Target’s material and covering, Type of radar system as monostatic or bistatic, space in which contains target and propagating waves, and etc. Having moved or stationed in vehicles can be effective in RCS values. Here, we investigate effective factors in RCS of moving targets on the ground or sea. Image theory in electromagnetic applies to be taken into account RCS of a target over the ground or sea.

  20. Assessing the Cartographic Visualization of Moving Objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in studying dynamic spatial phenomena. There are various dynamic phenomena in the world among which moving objects are worth exemplifying. Recently, moving objects are getting attention in database applications and in visualization. Moving objects are of two categories: individual ...

  1. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total of...

  2. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    as the corresponding sensitivity equations are discussed. Chapter 6 summarizes the main contribution of this thesis. It briefly discusses the pros and cons of using the extended linear quadratic control framework for solution of deterministic optimal control problems. Appendices. Appendix A demonstrates how quadratic...... successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control....... An efficient structure-employing methodology for solution of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem is provided and it is discussed how this solution is employed in solution of constrained model predictive control problems as well as in the solution of nonlinear optimal control and estimation...

  3. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  4. Use of EORTC target definition guidelines for dose-intensified salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer: results of the quality assurance program of the randomized trial SAKK 09/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassowsky, Manfred; Gut, Philipp; Hölscher, Tobias; Hildebrandt, Guido; Müller, Arndt-Christian; Najafi, Yousef; Kohler, Götz; Kranzbühler, Helmut; Guckenberger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Daniel R; Azinwi, Ngwa C; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Takacs, Istvan; Reuter, Christiane; Sumila, Marcin; Manser, Peter; Ost, Piet; Böhmer, Dirk; Pilop, Christiane; Aebersold, Daniel M; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2013-11-01

    Different international target volume delineation guidelines exist and different treatment techniques are available for salvage radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent prostate cancer, but less is known regarding their respective applicability in clinical practice. A randomized phase III trial testing 64 Gy vs 70 Gy salvage RT was accompanied by an intense quality assurance program including a site-specific and study-specific questionnaire and a dummy run (DR). Target volume delineation was performed according to the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines, and a DR-based treatment plan was established for 70 Gy. Major and minor protocol deviations were noted, interobserver agreement of delineated target contours was assessed, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of different treatment techniques were compared. Thirty European centers participated, 43% of which were using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), with the remaining centers using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The first submitted version of the DR contained major deviations in 21 of 30 (70%) centers, mostly caused by inappropriately defined or lack of prostate bed (PB). All but 5 centers completed the DR successfully with their second submitted version. The interobserver agreement of the PB was moderate and was improved by the DR review, as indicated by an increased κ value (0.59 vs 0.55), mean sensitivity (0.64 vs 0.58), volume of total agreement (3.9 vs 3.3 cm(3)), and decrease in the union volume (79.3 vs 84.2 cm(3)). Rectal and bladder wall DVH parameters of IMRT and VMAT vs 3D-CRT plans were not significantly different. The interobserver agreement of PB delineation was moderate but was improved by the DR. Major deviations could be identified for the majority of centers. The DR has improved the acquaintance of the participating centers with the trial protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty‐four‐month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster‐randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Christine; O'Leary‐Barrett, Maeve; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the effectiveness of a personality‐targeted intervention program (Adventure trial) delivered by trained teachers to high‐risk (HR) high‐school students on reducing marijuana use and frequency of use. Design A cluster‐randomized controlled trial. Setting Secondary schools in London, UK. Participants Twenty‐one secondary schools were randomized to intervention (n = 12) or control (n = 9) conditions, encompassing a total of 1038 HR students in the ninth grade [mean (standard deviation) age = 13.7 (0.33) years]. Interventions Brief personality‐targeted interventions to students with one of four HR profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity and sensation‐seeking. Measurements Primary outcome: marijuana use. Secondary outcome: frequency of use. Assessed using the Reckless Behaviour Questionnaire at intervals of 6 months for 2 years. Personality risk was measured with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Findings Logistic regression analysis revealed significant intervention effects on cannabis use rates at the 6‐month follow‐up in the intent‐to‐treat sample [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, P = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.45–1.0] and significant reductions in frequency of use at 12‐ and 18‐month follow‐up (β = –0.14, P ≤ 0.05, 95% CI = –0.6 to –0.01; β = –0.12, P ≤ 0.05, 95% CI = –0.54 to 0.0), but this was not supported in two‐part latent growth models. Subgroup analyses (both logistic and two‐part models) reveal that the sensation‐seeking intervention delayed the onset of cannabis use among sensation seekers (OR = 0.25, β = –0.833, standard error = 0.342, P = 0.015). Conclusions Personality‐targeted interventions can be delivered effectively by trained school staff to delay marijuana use onset among a subset of high‐risk teenagers: sensation‐seekers. PMID:26011508

  6. Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty-four-month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, Ioan T; Doucet, Christine; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a personality-targeted intervention program (Adventure trial) delivered by trained teachers to high-risk (HR) high-school students on reducing marijuana use and frequency of use. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, UK. Twenty-one secondary schools were randomized to intervention (n = 12) or control (n = 9) conditions, encompassing a total of 1038 HR students in the ninth grade [mean (standard deviation) age = 13.7 (0.33) years]. Brief personality-targeted interventions to students with one of four HR profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity and sensation-seeking. marijuana use. Secondary outcome: frequency of use. Assessed using the Reckless Behaviour Questionnaire at intervals of 6 months for 2 years. Personality risk was measured with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant intervention effects on cannabis use rates at the 6-month follow-up in the intent-to-treat sample [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, P = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.45-1.0] and significant reductions in frequency of use at 12- and 18-month follow-up (β = -0.14, P ≤ 0.05, 95% CI = -0.6 to -0.01; β = -0.12, P ≤ 0.05, 95% CI = -0.54 to 0.0), but this was not supported in two-part latent growth models. Subgroup analyses (both logistic and two-part models) reveal that the sensation-seeking intervention delayed the onset of cannabis use among sensation seekers (OR = 0.25, β = -0.833, standard error = 0.342, P = 0.015). Personality-targeted interventions can be delivered effectively by trained school staff to delay marijuana use onset among a subset of high-risk teenagers: sensation-seekers. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. [Care preferences and spatial mobility : Factors influencing care-related willingness to move of elderly people in partnerships in a rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Miriam; Abraham, Martin; Görtler, Edmund

    2017-04-01

    The availability of local support and care infrastructures at the place of residence is an important issue for the elderly living in rural areas. Spatial mobility can be seen as a strategy to cope with a lack of local care facilities. This study analyzes the preferences of older people living in long-term relationships concerning support and care arrangements. Furthermore, it is analyzed how far and under which circumstances older couples are willing to relocate their place of residence in response to regional care infrastructures. Using a quasi-experimental survey design, inhabitants of a small rural community aged over 50 years were interviewed and confronted with descriptions of fictitious situations with randomized options for moving residence. A Tobit model estimation method is applied to examine the determinants of older couples' care-related willingness to move their residence.The results show that most people prefer either the support of their own partner or outpatient care. Residential care is especially preferred by people aged 75 years and above, whereas new forms of support, such as senior cooperatives, are evaluated as attractive especially by younger age groups. Thus, information and advisory campaigns should address the target group in question even at an early stage in older peoples' life course. Care-related willingness to move home of couples aged 50 years and more is significantly determined by local provision of support and care infrastructures. The expansion of any care infrastructure at older peoples' place of residence can significantly reduce their willingness to move. In particular an increased availability of outpatient care is associated with a comparatively large reduction in couples' likelihood to move. In this way local commitment to rural areas can be sustained and rural depopulation can be prevented. At an alternative place of residence assisted living and residential care in particular can significantly enhance the willingness to

  8. Inflation Targeting and Business Cycle Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Robert P; Rose, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Inflation targeting seems to have a small but positive effect on the synchronization of business cycles; countries that target inflation seem to have cycles that move slightly more closely with foreign cycles. Thus the advent of inflation targeting does not explain the decoupling of global business cycles, for two reasons. Indeed business cycles have not in fact become less synchronized across countries.

  9. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  10. Moving stormwater P management upstream (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.; Hobbie, S. E.; Finlay, J. C.; Kalinosky, P.; Janke, B.

    2013-12-01

    take a decade or more. Our Twin Cities Household Ecosystem Project has shown that with the P fertilizer law in effect, the main source of P to lawns is now pet wastes left on lawns. Among lawns, P export to streets is likely highly disproportionate, depending on both social factors such as fertilization rates (even for N) and mulching; and biophysical factors such as slope and soil texture. Modeling these fluxes at the lawn scale could be used to target high-risk sites and tailor messages to homeowners that match their lawn management goals. In summary, urban ecologists and engineers are rethinking strategies for reducing urban P inputs to surface waters. As we develop better understanding of flowpaths of P through urban watersheds, we can use this knowledge to move P reduction strategies upstream, shifting the focus from removing P from stormwater to preventing it from entering stormwater in the first place.

  11. SEEDS Moving Groups and CHARIS Status Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present the status update for the SEEDS Moving Groups category. To date, we have observed 59 targets and currently have more than 20 candidates. We also present the expected scientific capabilities of CHARIS, the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph, which is being built for the Subaru 8.2 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. CHARIS will be implemented behind the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, SCExAO, and the existing 188-actuator system AO188. CHARIS will offer three observing modes over nearinfrared wavelengths from 0.9 to 2.4 microns (the y-, J-, H-, and K-bands), including a low-spectral-resolution mode covering this entire wavelength range and a high-resolution mode within a single band. With these capabilities, CHARIS will offer exceptional sensitivity for discovering giant exoplanets, and will enable detailed characterization of their atmospheres, CHARIS, the only planned high-contrast integral field spectrograph on an 8m-class telescope in the Northern Hemisphere, will complement the similar instruments such as Project 1640 at Palomar, and GPI and SPHERE in Chile.

  12. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  13. Moving forward with safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Radiation safety and protection of people are shared goals of the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A positive safety culture contributes to achieving radiation safety and protection of people, which are important to both the HPS and the NRC. Through unprecedented collaboration and engagement with diverse stakeholders, the NRC and the stakeholders developed a Safety Culture Policy Statement. The policy statement defines safety culture and describes the traits of a positive safety culture. Consideration of both safety and security issues and the interface of safety and security are underlying principles that support the policy. Examination of significant events, both within the nuclear industry and in society at large, illustrates how weaknesses in these traits can contribute to the occurrence and consequences of safety incidents, including serious injury and loss of life. With the policy statement in place, the NRC is moving forward with outreach and education about safety culture. Health physicists and other radiation safety specialists play an essential role in enhancing safety culture.

  14. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  15. Leadership in Moving Human Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Pritz, Johannes; Lange, Simon; Belz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I) humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II) whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III) how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group – on the basis of movement alone – a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a) their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b) they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement. PMID:24699264

  16. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  17. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang Vi Thanh; Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Sievenpiper, John L; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Duvnjak, Lea; Leiter, Lawrence; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Results: Twelve studies ( n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B. Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02068248. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Slope failure analysis using the random material point method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The random material point method (RMPM), which combines random field theory and the material point method (MPM), is proposed. It differs from the random finite-element method (RFEM), by assigning random field (cell) values to material points that are free to move relative to the computational grid

  20. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-14

    The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N=454: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (N=454: no intervention). The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention. We expect a reduction of mean weekly alcohol

  1. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  2. Acquisition of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meling, John

    1994-01-01

    .... Joint STARS is a surveillance, battle-management, and target attack support system being developed to detect, locate, and track moving and stationary targets located beyond the forward line of our troops...

  3. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  4. How the unstable eye sees a stable and moving world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathorn, David W; Stevenson, Scott B; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin

    2013-08-29

    Eye motion, even during fixation, results in constant motion of the image of the world on our retinas. Vision scientists have long sought to understand the process by which we perceive the stable parts of the world as unmoving despite this instability and perceive the moving parts with realistic motion. We used an instrument capable of delivering visual stimuli with controlled motion relative to the retina at cone-level precision while capturing the subjects' percepts of stimulus motion with a matching task. We found that the percept of stimulus motion is more complex than conventionally thought. Retinal stimuli that move in a direction that is consistent with eye motion (i.e., opposite eye motion) appear stable even if the magnitude of that motion is amplified. The apparent stabilization diminishes for stimulus motions increasingly inconsistent with eye motion direction. Remarkably, we found that this perceived direction-contingent stabilization occurs separately for each separately moving pattern on the retina rather than for the image as a whole. One consequence is that multiple patterns that move at different rates relative to each other in the visual input are perceived as immobile with respect to each other, thereby disrupting our hyperacute sensitivity to target motion against a frame of reference. This illusion of relative stability has profound implications regarding the underlying visual mechanisms. Functionally, the system compensates retinal slip induced by eye motion without requiring an extremely precise optomotor signal and, at the same time, retains an exquisite sensitivity to an object's true motion in the world.

  5. An autonomous robot inspired by insect neurophysiology pursues moving features in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra M.; Cazzolato, Benjamin S.; Grainger, Steven; O’Carroll, David C.; Wiederman, Steven D.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. Approach. We used our recent recordings from ‘small target motion detector’ neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm. This model exploits facilitation, a slow build-up of response to targets which move along long, continuous trajectories, as seen in our electrophysiological data. To test performance in real-world conditions, we implemented this model on a robotic platform that uses active pursuit strategies based on insect behaviour. Main results. Our robot performs robustly in closed-loop pursuit of targets, despite a range of challenging conditions used in our experiments; low contrast targets, heavily cluttered environments and the presence of distracters. We show that the facilitation stage boosts responses to targets moving along continuous trajectories, improving contrast sensitivity and detection of small moving targets against textured backgrounds. Moreover, the temporal properties of facilitation play a useful role in handling vibration of the robotic platform. We also show that the adoption of feed-forward models which predict the sensory consequences of self-movement can significantly improve target detection during saccadic movements. Significance. Our results provide insight into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie biological target detection and selection (from a moving platform), as well as highlight the effectiveness of our bio-inspired algorithm in an artificial visual system.

  6. Quantum randomness and unpredictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gregg [Quantum Communication and Measurement Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Quantum mechanics is a physical theory supplying probabilities corresponding to expectation values for measurement outcomes. Indeed, its formalism can be constructed with measurement as a fundamental process, as was done by Schwinger, provided that individual measurements outcomes occur in a random way. The randomness appearing in quantum mechanics, as with other forms of randomness, has often been considered equivalent to a form of indeterminism. Here, it is argued that quantum randomness should instead be understood as a form of unpredictability because, amongst other things, indeterminism is not a necessary condition for randomness. For concreteness, an explication of the randomness of quantum mechanics as the unpredictability of quantum measurement outcomes is provided. Finally, it is shown how this view can be combined with the recently introduced view that the very appearance of individual quantum measurement outcomes can be grounded in the Plenitude principle of Leibniz, a principle variants of which have been utilized in physics by Dirac and Gell-Mann in relation to the fundamental processes. This move provides further support to Schwinger's ''symbolic'' derivation of quantum mechanics from measurement. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Point target detection using super-resolution reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, D.J.J. de; Dijk, J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.

    2007-01-01

    Surveillance applications are primarily concerned with detection of targets. In electro-optical surveillance systems, missiles or other weapons coming towards you are observed as moving points. Typically, such moving targets need to be detected in a very short time. One of the problems is that the

  8. ALICE moves into warp drive.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems in order to spot reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fix...

  9. A Benchmark for Evaluating Moving Object Indexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Progress in science and engineering relies on the ability to measure, reliably and in detail, pertinent properties of artifacts under design. Progress in the area of database-index design thus relies on empirical studies based on prototype implementations of indexes. This paper proposes a benchmark...... that targets techniques for the indexing of the current and near-future positions of moving objects. This benchmark enables the comparison of existing and future indexing techniques. It covers important aspects of such indexes that have not previously been covered by any benchmark. Notable aspects covered...... include update efficiency, query efficiency, concurrency control, and storage requirements. Next, the paper applies the benchmark to half a dozen notable moving-object indexes, thus demonstrating the viability of the benchmark and offering new insight into the performance properties of the indexes....

  10. Calibration of asynchronous smart phone cameras from moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Oksana; Istenič, Klemen; Bharti, Vibhav; Dhali, Maruf Ahmed; Barmaimon, Daniel; Houssineau, Jérémie; Clark, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Calibrating multiple cameras is a fundamental prerequisite for many Computer Vision applications. Typically this involves using a pair of identical synchronized industrial or high-end consumer cameras. This paper considers an application on a pair of low-cost portable cameras with different parameters that are found in smart phones. This paper addresses the issues of acquisition, detection of moving objects, dynamic camera registration and tracking of arbitrary number of targets. The acquisition of data is performed using two standard smart phone cameras and later processed using detections of moving objects in the scene. The registration of cameras onto the same world reference frame is performed using a recently developed method for camera calibration using a disparity space parameterisation and the single-cluster PHD filter.

  11. The Ontario printed educational message (OPEM trial to narrow the evidence-practice gap with respect to prescribing practices of general and family physicians: a cluster randomized controlled trial, targeting the care of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy

    2007-11-01

    -level modeling will be used to study patterns in physician-prescribing quality over four quarters, before and after each of the three interventions. Subgroup analyses will be performed to assess the association between the characteristics of the physician's place of practice and target behaviours. A further analysis of the immediate and delayed impacts of the PEMs will be performed using time-series analysis and interventional, auto-regressive, integrated moving average modeling. Trial registration number Current controlled trial ISRCTN72772651.

  12. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  13. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  14. Improvisation: Another Way to Move and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using improvisation in movement and dance classes is an ideal way to help students relate to how their bodies move. Students can learn confidence from the way they move by experimenting with unconventional and different methods. Improvisation, as such, is responding spontaneously to stimuli (music) in order to create a composition that allows for…

  15. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  16. Multivariate Exponential Autoregressive and Autoregressive Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes with multivariate exponential (ME) distribution are presented and discussed. The theory of positive dependence is used to show that in many cases, multivariate exponential autoregressive (MEAR) and multivariate autoregressive moving average ...

  17. Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laminar steady natural convection flow of viscous, incompressible fluid between two moving vertical plates is considered. It is assumed that the plates are moving in opposite direction with equal velocity. The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is ...

  18. Saccades to remembered targets: the effects of smooth pursuit and illusory stimulus motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Rottach, K. G.; Averbuch-Heller, L.; Kori, A. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Dell'Osso, L. F.; Leigh, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Measurements were made in four normal human subjects of the accuracy of saccades to remembered locations of targets that were flashed on a 20 x 30 deg random dot display that was either stationary or moving horizontally and sinusoidally at +/-9 deg at 0.3 Hz. During the interval between the target flash and the memory-guided saccade, the "memory period" (1.4 s), subjects either fixated a stationary spot or pursued a spot moving vertically sinusoidally at +/-9 deg at 0.3 Hz. 2. When saccades were made toward the location of targets previously flashed on a stationary background as subjects fixated the stationary spot, median saccadic error was 0.93 deg horizontally and 1.1 deg vertically. These errors were greater than for saccades to visible targets, which had median values of 0.59 deg horizontally and 0.60 deg vertically. 3. When targets were flashed as subjects smoothly pursued a spot that moved vertically across the stationary background, median saccadic error was 1.1 deg horizontally and 1.2 deg vertically, thus being of similar accuracy to when targets were flashed during fixation. In addition, the vertical component of the memory-guided saccade was much more closely correlated with the "spatial error" than with the "retinal error"; this indicated that, when programming the saccade, the brain had taken into account eye movements that occurred during the memory period. 4. When saccades were made to targets flashed during attempted fixation of a stationary spot on a horizontally moving background, a condition that produces a weak Duncker-type illusion of horizontal movement of the primary target, median saccadic error increased horizontally to 3.2 deg but was 1.1 deg vertically. 5. When targets were flashed as subjects smoothly pursued a spot that moved vertically on the horizontally moving background, a condition that induces a strong illusion of diagonal target motion, median saccadic error was 4.0 deg horizontally and 1.5 deg vertically; thus the horizontal

  19. 25 CFR 700.157 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... services, including architect's, attorney's and engineer's fees, and consultant's charges, necessary for (i) planning the move of the personal property, (ii) moving the personal property, or (iii) installing the...

  20. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  1. 29 CFR 779.249 - Goods which move or have moved across State lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sells the goods. Thus, if goods have moved across State lines at some stage in the flow of trade before... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods which move or have moved across State lines. 779.249... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise...

  2. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  3. The importance of drug-induced sedation endoscopy (D.I.S.E.) techniques in surgical decision making: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques-a prospective randomized controlled study and a retrospective surgical outcomes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Zani, Gianluca; Corso, Ruggero Massimo; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Firinu, Elisabetta; Marchi, Chiara; Hsu, Ying-Shuo; Maitan, Stefano; Vicini, Claudio

    2017-05-01

    Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, long-term study and a retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes. The apnea-event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plan of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to January 2011, OSA patients were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the TCI-DISE group. Third endpoint is to compare the surgical outcomes enrolling OSA patients from January 2009 to June 2015. We recorded the complete apnea-event at oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 15/50 pts in conventional DISE group (30%) and in 99/123 pts in TCI-DISE group (81%) (p surgical patients we reported a significant reduction of postoperative AHI (from 42.7 ± 20.2 to 11.4 ± 10.3) in comparison with postoperative AHI in 15 C-DISE group surgical patients (from 41.3 ± 23.4 to 20.4 ± 15.5) (p = 0.05). Our results suggest the DISE-TCI technique as first choice in performing sleep-endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and safety. However, it is mandatory an accurate assessment of PSG/PM, which allows us to differentiate OSA patients in whom UA anatomical abnormalities are predominant in comparison with not-anatomical pathophysiologic factors, achieving good surgical patient's selection and outcomes as a

  4. COLOR INFLUENCES IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOVING OBJECTS MORE THAN SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When people track moving objects, they concentrate on different characteristics.Recent results show that people more often concentrate on spatiotemporalthan featural properties of the objects. In other words, location and directionof motion seem to be more informative properties than the stable featuralcharacteristics. This finding contradicts some of our knowledge about cognitivesystem. Current research was done in attempt to specify the effect of featuralcharacteristics, especially color and shape. In Experiment 1, subjects were askedto track four mobile targets presented with another four moving objects. Afterthe motion has stopped, they had to mark the initial four targets. Our resultshave shown that participants pay more attention to the featural properties thanto spatiotemporal characteristics. Since our task was more difficult than thetasks typically reported in the literature, the results might be interpreted as if thesubjects relied mostly on attentional processes. The task in Experiment 2 wasmade even more difficult: the subjects were asked to direct attention on identityof every target. Consequently, the task demanded more complex cognitiveprocesses and emphasizing effects of featural properties. Results suggest thatcolor and shape does not have the same influences on multiple object tracking,but that color has more significant effect.

  5. Conveying Communicative Intent: Moves and Metadiscourse in Abstract Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuah Ek Lon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts form the first reading contact of extended discourse in pursuance of a meaningful engagement with a report. An abstract possesses distinct features drawn from a specific genre of academic writing that communicates its discourse intent to any academic or professional community. Among the discourse conventions is the use of a move pattern and metadiscourse elements which together, establishes logical connections with the reader. This paper investigates good communication practice in abstract writing, a significant preliminary that fronts a report. The effectiveness of an abstract specifically, can be tied to the realization of a peculiar move structure that is accompanied by a judicious choice of words and phrases that relates to and involves the reader both interactively and interactionally. A content analysis of the move structure and its underlying metadiscourse in 100 randomly selected abstracts gives petite indication of how students manage abstract writing in a technical report. The results will have a bearing on situating appropriate pedagogical approaches for the teaching of a salient feature in academic writing and will also inform students of related genre expectations towards abstract writing. It is a skill that they may not have sufficient contact with in their university writing experience, though, nonetheless, one that needs to be accomplished to fulfill communicative intent that serves both local and international purposes insofar as academic writing is concerned.

  6. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  7. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  8. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong-hui

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90% than in adolescents and young adults (70%. Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%, malaise (19% and local redness (19% were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

  9. Exoplanet Caught on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, astronomers have been able to directly follow the motion of an exoplanet as it moves from one side of its host star to the other. The planet has the smallest orbit so far of all directly imaged exoplanets, lying almost as close to its parent star as Saturn is to the Sun. Scientists believe that it may have formed in a similar way to the giant planets in the Solar System. Because the star is so young, this discovery proves that gas giant planets can form within discs in only a few million years, a short time in cosmic terms. Only 12 million years old, or less than three-thousandths of the age of the Sun, Beta Pictoris is 75% more massive than our parent star. It is located about 60 light-years away towards the constellation of Pictor (the Painter) and is one of the best-known examples of a star surrounded by a dusty debris disc [1]. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and comets falling onto the star. "Those were indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggested the presence of a massive planet, and our new observations now definitively prove this," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "Because the star is so young, our results prove that giant planets can form in discs in time-spans as short as a few million years." Recent observations have shown that discs around young stars disperse within a few million years, and that giant planet formation must occur faster than previously thought. Beta Pictoris is now clear proof that this is indeed possible. The team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [2]), mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris in 2003, 2008 and 2009. In 2003 a faint source inside the disc was seen (eso0842), but it was not possible to exclude the remote possibility that it was a background star. In new images taken in 2008 and spring 2009 the source had disappeared! The most recent

  10. Target noise in overlay metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligson, Joel L.; Adel, Mike E.; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Yaffe, Dan

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a method for calculating the statistical effects of spatial noise on the overlay measurement extracted from a given overlay target. The method has been applied to two kinds of overlay targets on three process layers, and the new metric, Target Noise, has been shown to correlate well to the random component of Overlay Mark Fidelity. A significant difference in terms of robustness has been observed between AIM targets and conventional Frame-in-Frame targets. The results fit well into the spatial noise hierarchy presented in this paper.

  11. Infrared small target tracking based on sample constrained particle filtering and sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Kan; Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Infrared search and track technology for small target plays an important role in infrared warning and guidance. In view of the tacking randomness and uncertainty caused by background clutter and noise interference, a robust tracking method for infrared small target based on sample constrained particle filtering and sparse representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, to distinguish the normal region and interference region in target sub-blocks, we introduce a binary support vector, and combine it with the target sparse representation model, after which a particle filtering observation model based on sparse reconstruction error differences between sample targets is developed. Secondly, we utilize saliency extraction to obtain the high frequency area in infrared image, and make it as a priori knowledge of the transition probability model to limit the particle filtering sampling process. Lastly, the tracking result is brought about via target state estimation and the Bayesian posteriori probability calculation. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that our method can enhance the state estimation ability of stochastic particles, improve the sparse representation adaptabilities for infrared small targets, and optimize the tracking accuracy for infrared small moving targets.

  12. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  13. Moving Women Up the District Ladder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merri Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    ..., was clearly moving on a fast track. [...]when her husband, who works in educational technology in another Ohio district, spotted a promotional notice on the AASA website about the association's upcoming Women's Leadership Consortium...

  14. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  15. MOVES2010a regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This document discusses the sensitivity of various input parameter effects on emission rates using the US Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) MOVES2010a model at the regional level. Pollutants included in the study are carbon monoxide (CO),...

  16. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  17. SAR moving object imaging using sparsity imposing priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önhon, N. Özben; Çetin, Müjdat

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) returns from a scene with motion can be viewed as data from a stationary scene, but with phase errors due to motion. Based on this perspective, we formulate the problem of SAR imaging of motion-containing scenes as one of joint imaging and phase error compensation. The proposed method is based on the minimization of a cost function which involves sparsity-imposing regularization terms on the reflectivity field to be imaged, considering that it admits a sparse representation as well as on the spatial structure of the motion-related phase errors, reflecting the assumption that only a small percentage of the entire scene contains moving objects. To incorporate the spatial structure of the phase errors into the problem, we provide three different sparsity-enforcing prior terms. In order to achieve computational gains, we also present a two-step version of our approach, which first determines regions of interest that are likely to contain the moving objects and then applies our sparsity-driven approach for joint image reconstruction and autofocusing in such a spatially constrained setting. Our preliminary experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of this new moving target SAR imaging approach.

  18. Moving the Force: Desert Storm and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Desert Shield~ Desert Storm, we could have met our airlift deployment requirements 20 to 35 percent faster. ~° Similar analyses of the Somalian Restore...DATE DEC 1994 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Moving The Force: Desert Storm and Beyond 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...MOVING THE FORCE: Desert Storm and Beyond SCOTT W. CONRAD McNair Paper 32 December 1994 INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES NATIONAL DEFENSE

  19. Moving Wallpaper-Digital Interactive Projections.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Moving Wallpaper is an computational generative and reactive piece of work which comes from a desire to apply the ethos and design sensibilities of the Arts and Crafts movement within the context of contemporary design. Inspired by the elegant patterns, forms and structure of the Willow and Jasmine wallpaper designs of William Morris, the Moving Wallpaper project seeks to create digital ‘wallpaper’ which introduces the elegance, beauty and humanity of Arts and Crafts design into digital progr...

  20. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns, feeling qualities, and the affective signature of being moved and related emotional states. The great majority of the eliciting scenarios can be assigned to significant relationship and critical life events (especially death, birth, marriage, separation, and reunion). Sadness and joy turned out to be the two preeminent emotions involved in episodes of being moved. Both the sad and the joyful variants of being moved showed a coactivation of positive and negative affect and can thus be ranked among the mixed emotions. Moreover, being moved, while featuring only low-to-mid arousal levels, was experienced as an emotional state of high intensity; this applied to responses to fictional artworks no less than to own-life and other real, but media-represented, events. The most distinctive findings regarding cognitive appraisal dimensions were very low ratings for causation of the event by oneself and for having the power to change its outcome, along with very high ratings for appraisals of compatibility with social norms and self-ideals. Putting together the characteristics identified and discussed throughout the three studies, the paper ends with a sketch of a psychological construct of being moved. PMID:26042816

  1. Towards a psychological construct of being moved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Menninghaus

    Full Text Available The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns, feeling qualities, and the affective signature of being moved and related emotional states. The great majority of the eliciting scenarios can be assigned to significant relationship and critical life events (especially death, birth, marriage, separation, and reunion. Sadness and joy turned out to be the two preeminent emotions involved in episodes of being moved. Both the sad and the joyful variants of being moved showed a coactivation of positive and negative affect and can thus be ranked among the mixed emotions. Moreover, being moved, while featuring only low-to-mid arousal levels, was experienced as an emotional state of high intensity; this applied to responses to fictional artworks no less than to own-life and other real, but media-represented, events. The most distinctive findings regarding cognitive appraisal dimensions were very low ratings for causation of the event by oneself and for having the power to change its outcome, along with very high ratings for appraisals of compatibility with social norms and self-ideals. Putting together the characteristics identified and discussed throughout the three studies, the paper ends with a sketch of a psychological construct of being moved.

  2. Moving traffic object retrieval in H.264/MPEG compressed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu-li; Xiao, Guang; Wang, Shuo-zhong; Zhang, Zhao-yang; An, Ping

    2006-05-01

    Moving object retrieval technique in compressed domain plays an important role in many real-time applications, e.g. Vehicle Detection and Classification. A number of retrieval techniques that operate in compressed domain have been reported in the literature. H.264/AVC is the up-to-date video-coding standard that is likely to lead to the proliferation of retrieval techniques in the compressed domain. Up to now, few literatures on H.264/AVC compressed video have been reported. Compared with the MPEG standard, H.264/AVC employs several new coding block types and different entropy coding method, which result in moving object retrieval in H.264/ AVC compressed video a new task and challenging work. In this paper, an approach to extract and retrieval moving traffic object in H.264/AVC compressed video is proposed. Our algorithm first Interpolates the sparse motion vector of p-frame that is composed of 4*4 blocks, 4*8 blocks and 8*4 blocks and so on. After forward projecting each p-frame vector to the immediate adjacent I-frame and calculating the DCT coefficients of I-frame using information of spatial intra-prediction, the method extracts moving VOPs (video object plan) using an interactive 4*4 block classification process. In Vehicle Detection application, the segmented VOP in 4*4 block-level accuracy is insufficient. Once we locate the target VOP, the actual edges of the VOP in 4*4 block accuracy can be extracted by applying Canny Edge Detection only on the moving VOP in 4*4 block accuracy. The VOP in pixel accuracy is then achieved by decompressing the DCT blocks of the VOPs. The edge-tracking algorithm is applied to find the missing edge pixels. After the segmentation process a retrieval algorithm that based on CSS (Curvature Scale Space) is used to search the interested shape of vehicle in H.264/AVC compressed video sequence. Experiments show that our algorithm can extract and retrieval moving vehicles efficiency and robustly.

  3. Target visibility for multiple maneuvering target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    We present a recursion of the probability of target visibility and its applications to analysis of track life and termination in the context of Global Nearest Neighbour (GNN) approach and Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. In the presence of uncertainties brought about by clutter; decisions to retain a track, terminate it or initialise a new track are based on probability, rather than on distance criterion or estimation error. The visibility concept is introduced into a conventional data-association-oriented multitarget tracker, the GNN; and a random finite set based-tracker, the PHD filter, to take into account instances when targets become invisible or occluded by obstacles. We employ the natural logarithmof the Dynamic Error Spectrum to assess the performance of the trackers with and without probability of visibility incorporated. Simulation results show that the performance of the GNN tracker with visibility concept incorporated is significantly enhanced.

  4. An intervention targeting fundamental values among caregivers at residential facilities: effects of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on residents' self-reported empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charlotte; Silén, Marit; Skytt, Bernice; Engström, Maria

    2016-07-07

    In Sweden the national fundamental values for care of older people state that care should ensure that they can live in dignity and with a sense of well-being. Our hypothesis was that a caregiver intervention targeting the national fundamental values would improve perceived empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction among older people living in residential facilities. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with a pre- and one post-test design, conducted in 27 units (17 study units) at 12 residential facilities for older people in five municipalities in central Sweden. The units in each municipality were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. The caregiver intervention was carried out using an interpretative approach with eight guided face-to-face seminars, where self-reflection and dialogue were used. Data were collected using questionnaires. The number of residents was 43 (78 %) in the intervention group and 37 (71 %) in the control group. The Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed to detect differences between groups and Wilcoxon signed rank tests to explore differences in change over time within groups. Furthermore, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to study effects of the intervention controlling for clustering effects. Primary outcome measures were empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction. In the intervention group, improvements at follow-up were found in residents' self-reported empowerment (n = 42; p = 0.001, Median difference 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5;6.0), person-centered climate (n = 42; p ≤0.001, Median difference 8.0, 95 % CI 4.5;11.4) and life satisfaction regarding the factor quality of everyday activities (n = 40; p = 0.033, Median difference 9.7, 95 % CI 1.0;21.9) while disempowerment decreased (n = 43; p = 0.018, Median difference -1.3, 95 % CI -2.0;0.0). In the control group person-centered climate decreased (n = 37; p

  5. Using a state cancer registry to recruit young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives: protocol of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a targeted versus a tailored intervention to increase breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Northouse, Laurel L; Schafenacker, Ann M; Duquette, Debra; Duffy, Sonia A; Ronis, David L; Anderson, Beth; Janz, Nancy K; McLosky, Jennifer; Milliron, Kara J; Merajver, Sofia D; Duong, Linh M; Copeland, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    The Michigan Prevention Research Center, the University of Michigan Schools of Nursing, Public Health, and Medicine, and the Michigan Department of Community Health propose a multidisciplinary academic-clinical practice three-year project to increase breast cancer screening among young breast cancer survivors and their cancer-free female relatives at greatest risk for breast cancer. The study has three specific aims: 1) Identify and survey 3,000 young breast cancer survivors (diagnosed at 20-45 years old) regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 2) Identify and survey survivors' high-risk relatives regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 3) Test two versions (Targeted vs. Enhanced Tailored) of an intervention to increase breast cancer screening among survivors and relatives. Following approval by human subjects review boards, 3,000 young breast cancer survivors will be identified through the Michigan Cancer Registry and mailed an invitation letter and a baseline survey. The baseline survey will obtain information on the survivors': a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening; c) family health history. Based on the family history information provided by survivors, we will identify up to two high-risk relatives per survivor. Young breast cancer survivors will be mailed consent forms and baseline surveys to distribute to their selected high-risk relatives. Relatives' baseline survey will obtain information on their: a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; and b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening. Young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives will be randomized as a family unit to receive two versions of an intervention aiming to increase breast cancer screening and use of cancer genetic services. A follow-up survey will be mailed 9 months after the intervention to survivors and high-risk relatives to evaluate

  6. Moving KML geometry elements within Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Pan, Xin

    2014-11-01

    During the process of modeling and visualizing geospatial information on the Google Earth virtual globe, there is an increasing demand to carry out such operations as moving geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements horizontally or vertically. Due to the absence of the functionality and user interface for performing the moving transformation, it is either hard or impossible to interactively move multiple geospatial objects only using the existing Google Earth desktop application, especially when the data sets are in large volume. In this paper, we present a general framework and associated implementation methods for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. In our proposed framework, we first load KML objects into the Google Earth plug-in, and then extract KML geometry elements from the imported KML objects. Subsequently, we interactively control the movement distance along a specified orientation by employing a custom user interface, calculate the transformed geographic location for each KML geometry element, and adjust geographic coordinates of the points in each KML objects. And finally, transformed KML geometry elements can be displayed in Google Earth for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. A key advantage of the proposed framework is that it provides a simple, uniform and efficient user interface for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. More importantly, the proposed framework and associated implementations can be conveniently integrated into other customizable Google Earth applications to support interactively visualizing and analyzing geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements.

  7. Monitoring moving queries inside a safe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Betts, John; Alamri, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns.

  8. Maxwell Equations for Slow-Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of theory of relativity are used to describe electromagnetic fields in moving media. But important electromagnetic processes run under non-relativistic conditions of slow-moving media. Therefore, one should carry out its description in terms of classical mechanics. Hertz derived electrodynamic equations for moving media within the frame of classical mechanics on the basis of the Maxwell theory. His equations disagree with the experimental data concerned with the moving dielectrics. In the paper, a way of description of electromagnetic fields in slow-moving media on the basis of the Maxwell theory within the frame of classical mechanics is offered by combining the Hertz approach and the experimental data concerned with the movement of dielectrics in electromagnetic fields. Received Maxwell equations lack asymmetry in the description of the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor and conform to known experimental data. Comparative analysis of the Minkowski and Maxwell models is carried out.

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  10. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  11. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    or inaccuracy at any step can make the bag risky, i.e., the bag may be delayed at the airport or sent to a wrong airport. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic approach for predicting the risk of an indoor moving object in real-time. We propose a probabilistic flow graph (PFG) and an aggregated......Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency...... probabilistic flow graph (APFG) that capture the historical object transitions and the durations of the transitions. In the graphs, the probabilistic information is stored in a set of histograms. Then we use the flow graphs for obtaining a risk score of an online object and use it for predicting its riskiness...

  12. Quasi-steady-state analysis of two-dimensional random intermittent search processes

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-06-01

    We use perturbation methods to analyze a two-dimensional random intermittent search process, in which a searcher alternates between a diffusive search phase and a ballistic movement phase whose velocity direction is random. A hidden target is introduced within a rectangular domain with reflecting boundaries. If the searcher moves within range of the target and is in the search phase, it has a chance of detecting the target. A quasi-steady-state analysis is applied to the corresponding Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. This generates a reduced Fokker-Planck description of the search process involving a nonzero drift term and an anisotropic diffusion tensor. In the case of a uniform direction distribution, for which there is zero drift, and isotropic diffusion, we use the method of matched asymptotics to compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) to the target, under the assumption that the detection range of the target is much smaller than the size of the domain. We show that an optimal search strategy exists, consistent with previous studies of intermittent search in a radially symmetric domain that were based on a decoupling or moment closure approximation. We also show how the decoupling approximation can break down in the case of biased search processes. Finally, we analyze the MFPT in the case of anisotropic diffusion and find that anisotropy can be useful when the searcher starts from a fixed location. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. Random organization and plastic depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We provide evidence that the general phenomenon of plastic depinning can be described as an absorbing phase transition, and shows the same features as the random organization which was recently studied in periodically driven particle systems [L. Corte, Nature Phys. 4, 420 (2008)]. In the plastic flow system, the pinned regime corresponds to the absorbing state and the moving state corresponds to the fluctuating state. When an external force is suddenly applied, the system eventually organizes into one of these two states with a time scale that diverges as a power law at a nonequilibrium transition. We propose a simple experiment to test for this transition in systems with random disorder.

  14. INFLUENCE OF MOVING LOADS ON CURVED BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Thamer A. Z*, Jabbbar S. A

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a curved slab bridge decks with uniform thickness under moving load is investigated in this study. Three radii of curvature "R" are used (25, 50 and 75m) along with the straight bridge, R = ∞. The decks are simply supported or clamped along the radial edges and free at the circular edges. The AASHTO[1] standard axle load of the truck H20-44 is used and assumed to move in three track positions on the bridge. The finite element method is employed for the analysis and the ANSYS 5...

  15. DIFFUSION BACKGROUND MODEL FOR MOVING OBJECTS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Vishnyakov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for moving objects detection in video surveillance systems. It is based on construction of the regression diffusion maps for the image sequence. This approach is completely different from the state of the art approaches. We show that the motion analysis method, based on diffusion maps, allows objects that move with different speed or even stop for a short while to be uniformly detected. We show that proposed model is comparable to the most popular modern background models. We also show several ways of speeding up diffusion maps algorithm itself.

  16. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...

  17. Memory for moving and static images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W J; Benjamin, Clare; Osborne, Claire

    2007-10-01

    Despite the substantial interest in memory for complex pictorial stimuli, there has been virtually no research comparing memory for static scenes with that for their moving counterparts. We report that both monochrome and color moving images are better remembered than static versions of the same stimuli at retention intervals up to one month. When participants studied a sequence of still images, recognition performance was the same as that for single static images. These results are discussed within a theoretical framework which draws upon previous studies of scene memory, face recognition, and representational momentum.

  18. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  19. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0<α ≤slant 2 is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  20. Partner (Dis)agreement on Moving Desires and the Subsequent Moving Behaviour of Couples (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulter, R.; Van Ham, M.; Feijten, P.

    2011-01-01

    Residential mobility decisions are known to be made at the household level. However, most empirical analyses of residential mobility relate moving behaviour to the housing and neighbourhood satisfaction and pre-move thoughts of individuals. If partners in a couple do not share evaluations of

  1. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National... Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following information collection has been..., Institute of Museum and Library Services, 1800 M Street NW., 9th Floor, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: 202...

  2. Robotic radiosurgery. Treating tumors that move with respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urschel, Harold C. Jr. [Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Chair of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgical Research, Education and Clinical Excellence; Kresl, John J. [Arizona Oncology Services at St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Luketich, James D. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center PUH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). The Heart, Lung and Esophageal Surgery Inst.; Papiez, Lech; Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schulz, Raymond A. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Addresses in detail all aspects of the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat tumors of the lung, liver, and pancreas Includes full consideration of tumor tracking techniques, dosimetry, radiobiology, and fiducial placement strategies Written by leading experts Includes many high quality illustrations Stereotactic radiosurgery continues to evolve in ways that allow this powerful technology to reach and treat more tumors in more patients. This volume in the Robotic Radiosurgery series is devoted to theory and practice in the emerging field of stereotactic radiosurgery (also called stereotactic body radiation therapy) for extracranial tumors, particularly those that move as patients breathe. The book is divided into six sections. The first three sections address tumor motion due to respiration and tumor tracking techniques; dosimetry, radiobiology, and imaging; and fiducial placement systems. The fourth and fifth sections then discuss in depth the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat lung and abdominal tumors, respectively, and a final section explains emerging concepts and techniques. Within this framework, detailed information is provided on the technology and methodology for delivery of high doses of radiation to moving targets, radiobiological and radiological principles, and the challenges faced by clinicians performing extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery. Furthermore, there are thorough reviews of the general clinical literature on stereotactic radiation treatment of tumors of the lungs, liver, and pancreas, and the latest clinical data from clinicians conducting clinical studies using the CyberKnife {sup registered} Robotic Radiosurgery System. Special attention is given to the frameless robotic radiosurgery device known as the CyberKnife, the only image-guided radiosurgery system that utilizes intelligent robotics to track, detect, and correct for changes in tumor position during treatments. Tumors that move with respiration are treated with the Cyber

  3. Moving object detection via low-rank total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Qian; Shao, Na

    2016-09-01

    Moving object detection is a challenging task in video surveillance. Recently proposed Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) can recover the outlier patterns from the low-rank data under some mild conditions. However, the l-penalty in RPCA doesn't work well in moving object detection because the irrepresentable condition is often not satisfied. In this paper, a method based on total variation (TV) regularization scheme is proposed. In our model, image sequences captured with a static camera are highly related, which can be described using a low-rank matrix. Meanwhile, the low-rank matrix can absorb background motion, e.g. periodic and random perturbation. The foreground objects in the sequence are usually sparsely distributed and drifting continuously, and can be treated as group outliers from the highly-related background scenes. Instead of l-penalty, we exploit the total variation of the foreground. By minimizing the total variation energy, the outliers tend to collapse and finally converge to be the exact moving objects. The TV-penalty is superior to the l-penalty especially when the outlier is in the majority for some pixels, and our method can estimate the outlier explicitly with less bias but higher variance. To solve the problem, a joint optimization function is formulated and can be effectively solved through the inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) method. We evaluate our method along with several state-of-the-art approaches in MATLAB. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method works effectively on a large range of complex scenarios.

  4. Design of a Handheld Pseudo Random Coded UWB Radar for Human Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zheng-huan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a handheld pseudo random coded Ultra-WideBand (UWB radar for human sensing. The main tasks of the radar are to track the moving human object and extract the human respiratory frequency. In order to achieve perfect penetrability and good range resolution, m sequence with a carrier of 800 MHz is chosen as the transmitting signal. The modulated m-sequence can be generated directly by the high-speed DAC and FPGA to reduce the size of the radar system, and the mean power of the transmitting signal is 5 dBm. The receiver has two receiving channels based on hybrid sampling, the first receiving channel is to sample the reference signal and the second receiving channel is to obtain the radar echo. The real-time pulse compression is computed in parallel with a group of on-chip DSP48E slices in FPGA to improve the scanning rate of the radar system. Additionally, the algorithms of moving target tracking and life detection are implemented using Intel’s micro-processor, and the detection results are sent to the micro displayer fixed on the helmet. The experimental results show that the moving target located at less than 16 m far away from the wall can be tracked, and the respiratory frequency of the static human at less than 14 m far away from the wall can be extracted.

  5. Behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of target interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Prado, Luis; Pérez, Oswaldo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of manual interception. We review the most important elements of an interceptive action from the sensory and cognitive stage to the motor side of this behavior. We describe different spatial and temporal target parameters that can be used to control the interception movement, as well as the different strategies used by the subject to intercept a moving target. We review the neurophysiological properties of the parietofrontal system during target motion processing and during a particular experiment of target interception. Finally, we describe the neural responses associated with the temporal and spatial parameters of a moving target and the possible neurophysiological mechanisms used to integrate this information in order to trigger an interception movement.

  6. Moving to paperlessness: a case study from a large general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carr-Bains

    2003-11-01

    The implications of this case study are that a committed general practice can achieve a largely paperless environment in approximately two years. The practice is now fit to be part of any move towards integration of records within its local health community, and can demonstrate from its computer records that it meets the quality targets for primary care.

  7. Copy-move forgery detection using multiresolution local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarzani, Reza; Yaghmaie, Khashayar; Mozaffari, Saeed; Tapak, Meysam

    2013-09-10

    Copy-move forgery is one of the most popular tampering artifacts in digital images. In this paper, we present an efficient method for copy-move forgery detection using Multiresolution Local Binary Patterns (MLBP). The proposed method is robust to geometric distortions and illumination variations of duplicated regions. Furthermore, the proposed block-based method recovers parameters of the geometric transformations. First, the image is divided into overlapping blocks and feature vectors for each block are extracted using LBP operators. The feature vectors are sorted based on lexicographical order. Duplicated image blocks are determined in the block matching step using k-d tree for more time reduction. Finally, in order to both determine the parameters of geometric transformations and remove the possible false matches, RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm is used. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to precisely detect duplicated regions even after distortions such as rotation, scaling, JPEG compression, blurring and noise adding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  9. Electromagnetic Force on a Moving Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the force acting on a moving dipole due to an external electromagnetic field and show that the expression derived in Vekstein (1997 "Eur. J. Phys." 18 113) is erroneous and suggest the correct equation for the description of this force. We also discuss the physical meaning of the relativistic transformation of current for a closed…

  10. Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 2. Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in ... Zbinden1 Nicolas Gisin1 Antoine Suarez1 2. Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland; Center for Quantum Philosophy, P.O. Box 304, CH-8044 Zurich, Switzerland ...

  11. Strategic Game Moves Mediate Implicit Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…

  12. Information Literacy Assessment: Moving beyond Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignite, Michael; Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept that has evolved as a result of recent efforts to move technology-based instruction and research to a level above the long-held concepts previously associated with "computer literacy"; the focus of information literacy education being the development of students' abilities to construct/collect and…

  13. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  14. 39 CFR 777.23 - Moving expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.23 Moving expenses. (a) Eligibility. (1) Residential... and marketing studies. (ix) Advertisement of replacement location, not to exceed $1,500 (x..., machinery, or trade fixtures. (ii) Purchase of manufacturing materials, production supplies, product...

  15. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  16. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  17. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  18. Moving dislocations studied by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Gezinus

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a new approach to the study of moving dislocations in crystalline solids during plastic deformation will be presented. Since the process of dislocation motion is made up of atomic movements nuclear magnetic resonance techniques should offer a possibility to determine the manner in

  19. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  20. Electromagnetic Sources in Moving Simple Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1970-01-01

    A retarded potential tensor (4-vector) is derived in an arbitrary system of inertia for an arbitrary electromagnetic source in a moving homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, lossless dielectric. The velocity is uniform, and the result is relativistic correct. ©1970 The American Institute...