Sample records for randomly inhomogeneous ionosphere

  1. Wave reflection from randomly inhomogeneous ionospheric layer: 1. The method of describing the wavefield in a reflecting layer with random irregularities (United States)

    Tinin, Mikhail


    It has been previously proposed to describe wave propagation in inhomogeneous media in a small-angle approximation with the aid of a double weighted Fourier transform (DWFT) method. This method agrees with the methods of geometrical optics, smooth perturbations, and phase screen in domains of their applicability; therefore, it can be employed to solve direct and inverse problems of radio wave propagation in multiscale inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma. In this paper, for the DWFT wide-angle generalization a wave equation is preliminary reduced using the Fock proper-time method to a parabolic equation that then is solved by the DWFT method. The resulting solution is analyzed for the case of wave reflection and scattering by a layer with random irregularities and linear profile of average permittivity. We show the transformation of this solution into strict results in the absence of irregularities and in the single-scatter approximation, including backscattering, during weak phase fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the solution takes the form of the small-angle DWFT with respect to refraction in the layer and backscatter effects. Spatial processing in source and observer coordinates brings a beam of received waves into one wave without amplitude fluctuations, which allows an increase in resolution of vertical ionospheric sounding systems.

  2. Modulational excitation of inhomogeneities in dusty ionospheric plasma (United States)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.; Morozova, T. I.


    The mechanism for the formation of inhomogeneities of the electron and ion densities in dusty ionospheric plasma as a result of the modulational instability of a pump electromagnetic wave caused by the excitation of dust acoustic perturbations is considered. The inhomogeneities of the electron density produced by the monochromatic radiation of heating facilities at altitudes of 80 and 100 km are estimated numerically. The possibility of excitation of relatively large inhomogeneities of the electron and ion densities δ n e( i)/ n e( i) ≈ 0.05 at altitudes of 80-100 km as a result of modulational interaction is demonstrated. The applicability domains of the method presented in this work are determined.

  3. Analytical model of the statistical properties of contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Vsekhsvyatskaya, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Yu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    A new analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative electron-density contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. The model is characterized by other-than-zero skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that the model is applicable in the interval of horizontal dimensions of inhomogeneities from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  4. Structure of isolated large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere (United States)

    Kalinin, Iu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    The structure of large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere is examined with reference to Thomson scattering data. The dependence of delta Ne/Ne and delta Ne on the local coordinates is established. The shape function is also examined.

  5. Excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rapoport


    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new method for the analysis of excitation and propagation of planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW in the ionosphere of the Earth. The nonlinear system of equations for PEMW, valid for any height, from D to F regions, including intermediate altitudes between D and E and between E and F regions, is derived. In particular, we have found the system of nonlinear one-fluid MHD equations in the β-plane approximation valid for the ionospheric F region (Aburjania et al., 2003a, 2005. The series expansion in a "small" (relative to the local geomagnetic field non-stationary magnetic field has been applied only at the last step of the derivation of the equations. The small mechanical vertical displacement of the media is taken into account. We have shown that obtained equations can be reduced to the well-known system with Larichev–Reznik vortex solution in the equatorial region (see e.g. Aburjania et al., 2002. The excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves by different initial perturbations has been investigated numerically. Some means for the PEMW detection and data processing are discussed.

  6. Cherenkov radiation threshold in random inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Grichine, V M


    Cherenkov radiation in media with random inhomogeneities like aerogel or Earth atmosphere is discussed. The spectral-angular distribution of Cherenkov photons emitted by relativistic charged particle and averaged over the dielectric permittivity fluctuations shows angular broadening similarly to the case of media with the photon absorption. The broadening results in the smoothing of Cherenkov threshold, and therefore media with strong photon scattering have more extended dependence of Cherenkov light output on the particle speed. It can be potentially used for the particle identification

  7. Spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in the western part of Nankai subduction zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    In the Nankai trough, there are three seismogenic zones of megathrust earthquakes (Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes). Lithospheric structures in and around these seismogenic zones are important for the studies on mutual interactions and synchronization of their fault ruptures. Recent studies on seismic wave scattering at high frequencies (>1Hz) make it possible to estimate 3D distributions of random inhomogeneities (or scattering coefficient) in the lithosphere, and clarified that random inhomogeneity is one of the important medium properties related to microseismicity and damaged structure near the fault zone [Asano & Hasegawa, 2004; Takahashi et al. 2009]. This study estimates the spatial distribution of the power spectral density function (PSDF) of random inhomogeneities the western part of Nankai subduction zone, and examines the relations with crustal velocity structure and seismic activity. Seismic waveform data used in this study are those recorded at seismic stations of Hi-net & F-net operated by NIED, and 160 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) deployed at Hyuga-nada region from Dec. 2008 to Jan. 2009. This OBS observation was conducted by JAMSTEC as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities is estimated by the inversion analysis of the peak delay time of small earthquakes [Takahashi et al. 2009], where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. We assumed the von Karman type functional form for the PSDF. Peak delay times are measured from root mean squared envelopes at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. Inversion result can be summarized as follows. Random inhomogeneities beneath the Quaternary volcanoes are characterized by strong inhomogeneities at small spatial scale (~ a few hundreds meter) and weak spectral gradient

  8. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  9. Inhomogeneous Linear Random Differential Equations with Mutual Correlations between Multiplicative, Additive and Initial-Value Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.


    The cumulant expansion for linear stochastic differential equations is extended to the general case in which the coefficient matrix, the inhomogeneous part and the initial condition are all random and, moreover, statistically interdependent. The expansion now involves not only the autocorrelation

  10. On the effect of random inhomogeneities in Kerr media modelled by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, Javier [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Montero, Miquel, E-mail: javier@usal.e, E-mail: miquel.montero@ub.ed [Departament de FIsica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    We consider the propagation of optical beams under the interplay of dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity in optical fibres with impurities distributed at random uniformly on the fibre. By using a model based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation we clarify how such inhomogeneities affect different aspects such as the number of solitons present and the intensity of the signal. We also obtain the mean distance for the signal to dissipate to a given level.

  11. Spectral fluctuation analysis of ionospheric inhomogeneities over Brazilian territory. Part I: Equatorial F-region plasma bubbles (United States)

    Fornari, G.; Rosa, R. R.; de Meneses, F. C.; Muralikrishna, P.


    In this Part I of a more general paper on the analysis of ionospheric irregularities over Brazilian territory, we apply the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method to evaluate in situ equatorial F-region plasma bubbles events carried out with a sounding rocket over equatorial region in Brazil. The range of scaling exponents derived from the DFA technique are compared to previous results obtained using Power Spectral Density (PSD) technique (which is widely used in this area despite its recognized inaccuracy to analyze short series). The results obtained in this first part of our investigation, using DFA, also show a wide range of spectral index variation with standard deviation of the same order found from the previous application using PSD (σm ≫ 10 %). Therefore, since the dependence of the technique are disregarded, our findings also supports that the observed lack of a universality class characterized by the nonexistence of a single spectral index (with σm ≈ 2 %) may be due to non-homogeneity energy cascades that can appear in the incoherent ionospheric turbulent process.

  12. Low-coherence interferometry as a method for assessing the transport parameters in randomly inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Sina, J. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Isaeva, E. A.; Chekmasov, S. P.; Ushakova, O. V.


    The specific features of using low-coherence interferometric probing of layers in randomly inhomogeneous media for determination of the radiation propagation transport length both in diffuse regime and in the case of optically thin media are discussed. The transport length is determined by the rate of exponential decay of the interference signal with the increase in the path length difference between the light beams in the reference arm of the low-coherence interferometer and in the object arm, containing the probed layer as a diffuse reflector. The results are presented of experimental testing of the discussed approach with the use of layers of densely packed titanium dioxide nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene.

  13. Inverse random source scattering for the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Peijun


    This paper is concerned with an inverse random source scattering problem in an inhomogeneous background medium. The wave propagation is modeled by the stochastic Helmholtz equation with the source driven by additive white noise. The goal is to reconstruct the statistical properties of the random source such as the mean and variance from the boundary measurement of the radiated random wave field at multiple frequencies. Both the direct and inverse problems are considered. We show that the direct problem has a unique mild solution by a constructive proof. For the inverse problem, we derive Fredholm integral equations, which connect the boundary measurement of the radiated wave field with the unknown source function. A regularized block Kaczmarz method is developed to solve the ill-posed integral equations. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Effect of random surface inhomogeneities on spectral properties of dielectric-disk microresonators: theory and modeling at millimeter wave range. (United States)

    Ganapolskii, E M; Eremenko, Z E; Tarasov, Yu V


    The influence of random axially homogeneous surface roughness on spectral properties of dielectric resonators of circular disk form is studied both theoretically and experimentally. To solve the equations governing the dynamics of electromagnetic fields, the method of eigenmode separation is applied previously developed with reference to inhomogeneous systems subject to arbitrary external static potential. We prove theoretically that it is the gradient mechanism of wave-surface scattering that is highly responsible for nondissipative loss in the resonator. The influence of side-boundary inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum is shown to be described in terms of effective renormalization of mode wave numbers jointly with azimuth indices in the characteristic equation. To study experimentally the effect of inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum, the method of modeling in the millimeter wave range is applied. As a model object, we use a dielectric disk resonator (DDR) fitted with external inhomogeneities randomly arranged at its side boundary. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions as regards the predominance of the gradient scattering mechanism. It is shown theoretically and confirmed in the experiment that TM oscillations in the DDR are less affected by surface inhomogeneities than TE oscillations with the same azimuth indices. The DDR model chosen for our study as well as characteristic equations obtained thereupon enable one to calculate both the eigenfrequencies and the Q factors of resonance spectral lines to fairly good accuracy. The results of calculations agree well with obtained experimental data.

  15. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.


    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  16. Image reconstruction of the location of macro-inhomogeneity in random turbid medium by using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Veksler, Boris A.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Meglinski, Igor V.


    Nowadays the artificial neural network (ANN), an effective powerful technique that is able denoting complex input and output relationships, is widely used in different biomedical applications. In present study the applying of ANN for the determination of characteristics of random highly scattering medium (like bio-tissue) is considered. Spatial distribution of the backscattered light calculated by Monte Carlo method is used to train ANN for multiply scattering regimes. The potential opportunities of use of ANN for image reconstruction of an absorbing macro inhomogeneity located in topical layers of random scattering medium are presented. This is especially of high priority because of new diagnostics/treatment developing that is based on the applying gold nano-particles for labeling cancer cells.

  17. SPARSE: Seed Point Auto-Generation for Random Walks Segmentation Enhancement in medical inhomogeneous targets delineation of morphological MR and CT images. (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Linghong


    In medical image processing, robust segmentation of inhomogeneous targets is a challenging problem. Because of the complexity and diversity in medical images, the commonly used semiautomatic segmentation algorithms usually fail in the segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm imbedded with a seed point autogeneration for random walks segmentation enhancement, namely SPARSE, for better segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. With a few user-labeled points, SPARSE is able to generate extended seed points by estimating the probability of each voxel with respect to the labels. The random walks algorithm is then applied upon the extended seed points to achieve improved segmentation result. SPARSE is implemented under the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming environment on graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware platform. Quantitative evaluations are performed using clinical homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. It is found that the SPARSE can greatly decrease the sensitiveness to initial seed points in terms of location and quantity, as well as the freedom of selecting parameters in edge weighting function. The evaluation results of SPARSE also demonstrate substantial improvements in accuracy and robustness to inhomogeneous target segmentation over the original random walks algorithm.

  18. Non-parametric indices of dependence between types for inhomogeneous multivariate random closed sets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)


    htmlabstractWe propose new summary statistics to quantify the correlation between the components in coverage-reweighted moment stationary multivariate random closed sets. They are defined in terms of the coverage-reweighted cumulant densities and under stationarity reduce to the reduced cross

  19. Percolation and lasing in real 3D crystals with inhomogeneous distributed random pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, Gennadiy, E-mail:; Calderón-Segura, Yessica


    We systematically study the percolation phase transition in real 3D crystals where not only the state of pores but also their radius r and displacement s are random valued numbers. The mean values R=〈r〉 and S=〈s〉 emerge as additional spatial scales in such an extended network. This leads to variations of the threshold (critical) percolation probability p{sub C} and the percolation order parameter P that become to be the intricate functions of R and S. Our numerical simulations have shown that in such extended system the incipient spanning cluster can arise even for situations where for simple periodical system the percolation does not exist. We analyzed the validity of the nearest neighbor's approximation and found that such approximation is not valid for materials with large dispersivity of pores. The lasing of nanoemitters incorporated in such percolating spanning cluster is studied too. This effect can open interesting perspectives in modern nano- and micro-information technologies.

  20. Faster reduction in hyperinflation and improvement in lung ventilation inhomogeneity promoted by aclidinium compared to glycopyrronium in severe stable COPD patients. A randomized crossover study. (United States)

    Santus, Pierachille; Radovanovic, Dejan; Di Marco, Fabiano; Raccanelli, Rita; Valenti, Vincenzo; Centanni, Stefano


    Standard spyrometric assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) only evaluates bronchial obstruction. However, airflow limitation and hyperinflation are the main pathophysiological factors responsible for dyspnoea and reduced exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. This study evaluated the effects of aclidinium bromide 400 μg and glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg on these parameters. Patients with stable severe/very severe COPD were randomized in this double-blind, double-dummy, crossover, Phase IV study. Patients received single doses of each drug on separate days. Primary endpoints were changes in residual volume (RV) and intra-thoracic gas volume (ITGV), assessed by full-body plethysmography. Other endpoints included changes variations in lung ventilation inhomogeneity (Phase III slope of single-breath nitrogen washout test, SBN2), dyspnoea visual analogue scale, and pulmonary specific total airway resistances. Assessments were performed at baseline and 5, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min post-administration. Thirty-seven patients were randomized (31 male; mean age 71 years). Aclidinium and glycopyrronium significantly improved ITGV versus baseline at all-time points (p ventilation inhomogeneity versus baseline at all-time points; no significant changes were observed for glycopyrronium. For the first time two long-acting muscarinic antagonists have been compared in acute conditions with body plethysmography and SBN2 test. We demonstrated that both aclidinium and glycopyrronium significantly reduce hyperinflation and dyspnoea in severe and very severe COPD patients. Aclidinium however promoted a faster reduction in RV and was the only able to reduce lung ventilation inhomogeneity. Trial Registration numbers available on NCT02181023. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study. (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F


    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models. (United States)

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  3. Wavefront Correction of Ionospherically Propagated HF Radio Waves Using Covariance Matching Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu


    Full Text Available High Frequency (HF radio waves propagating in the ionospheric random inhomogeneous media exhibit a spatial nonlinearity wavefront which may limit the performance of conventional high-resolution methods for HF sky wave radar systems. In this paper, the spatial correlation function of wavefront is theoretically derived on condition that the radio waves propagate through the ionospheric structure containing irregularities. With this function, the influence of wavefront distortions on the array covariance matrix can be quantitatively described with the spatial coherence matrix, which is characterized with the coherence loss parameter. Therefore, the problem of wavefront correction is recast as the determination of coherence loss parameter and this is solved by the covariance matching (CM technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated both by the simulated and real radar data. It is shown numerically that an improved direction of arrival (DOA estimation performance can be achieved with the corrected array covariance matrix.

  4. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul


    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...... and Yeh [1966] have examined the excitation of low-frequency imcompressible waves in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. They find that, below the F-region maximum, there may exist instabilities, the growth rate being given approximately by grho'/rhonu, where g is the gravity, rho is the plasma density, rho......' is its height gradients, and nu is the ion-neutral collision frequency. We have examined the stability of the ionosphere against growth of low-frequency quasielectrostatic waves, taking into account the compressibility of the plasma....

  5. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 249–268. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma. ORSOLYA E FERENCZ. Space Research Group, Eötvös University, Geophysical Department, H-1518, Budapest,. P.O. Box 32, Hungary ...... lightning, traveling through the ionosphere up to the magnetosphere (whistler pre- cursors).

  6. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.


    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  7. Ionospheric Digital Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric...

  8. Depression of the ULF geomagnetic pulsation related to ionospheric irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Molchanov


    Full Text Available We consider a depression in intensity of ULF magnetic pulsations, which is observed on the ground surface due to appearance of the irregularities in the ionosphere. It is supposed that oblique Alfven waves in the ULF frequency range are downgoing from the magnetosphere and the horizontal irregularities of ionospheric conductivity are created by upgoing atmospheric gravity waves from seismic source. Unlike the companion paper by Molchanov et al. (2003, we used a simple model of the ionospheric layer but took into consideration the lateral inhomogeneity of the perturbation region in the ionosphere. It is shown that ULF intensity could be essentially decreased for frequencies f = 0.001-0.1 Hz at nighttime but the change is negligible at daytime in coincidence with observational results.

  9. Ionospheric manifestations of earthquakes and tsunamis in a dynamic atmosphere (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zabotina, Liudmila


    Observations of the ionosphere provide a new, promising modality for characterizing large-scale physical processes that occur on land and in the ocean. There is a large and rapidly growing body of evidence that a number of natural hazards, including large earthquakes, strong tsunamis, and powerful tornadoes, have pronounced ionospheric manifestations, which are reliably detected by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. As the focus shifts from detecting the ionospheric features associated with the natural hazards to characterizing the hazards for the purposes of improving early warning systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it becomes imperative to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard. The relation between perturbations at the ground level and their ionospheric manifestations is strongly affected by parameters of the intervening atmosphere. In this paper, we employ the ray theory to model propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Huygens' wavefront-tracing and Hamiltonian ray-tracing algorithms are used to simulate propagation of body waves from an earthquake hypocenter through the earth's crust and ocean to the upper atmosphere. We quantify the influence of temperature stratification and winds, including their seasonal variability, and air viscosity and thermal conductivity on the geometry and amplitude of ionospheric disturbances that are generated by seismic surface waves and tsunamis. Modeling results are verified by comparing observations of the velocity fluctuations at altitudes of 150-160 km by a coastal Dynasonde HF radar system with theoretical predictions of ionospheric manifestations of background infragravity waves in the ocean. Dynasonde radar systems are shown to be a promising means for monitoring acoustic-gravity wave activity and observing ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes and tsunamis. We will discuss

  10. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R


    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  11. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations. (United States)

    Nykiel, Grzegorz; Zanimonskiy, Yevgen M; Yampolski, Yuri M; Figurski, Mariusz


    The technique of the orthogonal projection of ionosphere electronic content variations for mapping total electron content (TEC) allows us to visualize ionospheric irregularities. For the reconstruction of global ionospheric characteristics, numerous global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers located in different regions of the Earth are used as sensors. We used dense GNSS networks in central Europe to detect and investigate a special type of plasma inhomogeneities, called travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID). Such use of GNSS sensors allows us to reconstruct the main TID parameters, such as spatial dimensions, velocities, and directions of their movement. The paper gives examples of the restoration of dynamic characteristics of ionospheric irregularities for quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances stimulated by the magnetic storms of two St. Patrick's Days (17 March 2013 and 2015). Additional opportunities for the remote sensing of the ionosphere with the use of dense regional networks of GNSS receiving sensors have been noted too.

  12. Characterization of Ionosphere Waveguide Propagation by Monitoring HAARP HF Transmissions in Antarctica (United States)


    ionospheric irregularities are of unpredictable character. Their appearance is determined by sporadic factors and depends, specifically, on the enhanced...the ionosphere The effect of ionospheric refraction on the scattering of high frequency (HF) signals by random field-aligned irregularities in the...scattering of high-frequency (HF) (3-30 MHz) and very high- frequency (VHF) (30-300 MHz) waves by field-aligned irregularities of the ionospheric plasma

  13. Ionospheric research opportunity (United States)

    Rickel, Dwight


    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  14. Inhomogeneous non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David


    We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f_NL, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher-order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.

  15. Ionospheric modelling for navigation (United States)

    Aragon Angel, M. A.

    Signals transmitted to and from satellites for communication and navigation purposes must pass through the ionosphere Ionospheric irregularities most common at equatorial latitudes although they could occur anywhere can have a major impact on system performance and reliability and commercial navigation service satellite-based providers need to account for their effects For a GNSS single-frequency receiver the Slant Total Electron Content STEC must be known by the user through broadcast corrections In this context there are several sets of broadcast parameters that can be defined to take into account this ionospheric term The chosen model to generate the ionospheric correction coefficients for the present study is the NeQuick model although with a number of adaptations intended to improve effective ionospheric effect modelling performances The aim of this study is to describe a possible adaptation to the NeQuick model for real time purposes and suitable for single frequency users Therefore it will be necessary to determine the performance of this modified NeQuick model in correcting the ionospheric delay In order to generate the ionospheric corrections for single frequency receivers using the NeQuick model a certain approach should be followed to adapt the performance of NeQuick since this model was originally developed to provide TEC using averaged monthly information of the solar activity and not daily one Thus to use NeQuick for real time applications as an ionospheric broadcasted model such as Klobuchar solar daily information at the user point

  16. Random-field induced memory effects in inhomogeneously diluted antiferromagnets K2NixZn1−xF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dikken, B. J.; Arts, A. F. M.; de Wijn, H. W.


    Using neutron diffraction a random-field generated memory is observed in K2NixZn1−xF4 with x = 0.96, 0.85, and 0.75. The intensities and profiles of magnetic Bragg reflections are found to follow unique trajectories determined by switching the external magnetic field on and off while cooling...

  17. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)


    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  18. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)


    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  19. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  1. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.


    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  2. Sample inhomogeneity in PIXE analysis (United States)

    Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Kornaś, G.


    The influence of sample inhomogeneity on the precision of analytical results obtained by PIXE was investigated. A simple method for the determination of sample inhomogeneity is proposed and its applicability is shown on a series of examples. Differences in the distribution of individual elements in samples were observed.

  3. Noninvasive bipolar double-pulsed-field-gradient NMR reveals signatures for pore size and shape in polydisperse, randomly oriented, inhomogeneous porous media. (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Ozarslan, Evren; Adiri, Tal; Basser, Peter J; Cohen, Yoram


    Noninvasive characterization of pore size and shape in opaque porous media is a formidable challenge. NMR diffusion-diffraction patterns were found to be exceptionally useful for obtaining such morphological features, but only when pores are monodisperse and coherently placed. When locally anisotropic pores are randomly oriented, conventional diffusion NMR methods fail. Here, we present a simple, direct, and general approach to obtain both compartment size and shape even in such settings and even when pores are characterized by internal field gradients. Using controlled porous media, we show that the bipolar-double-pulsed-field-gradient (bp-d-PFG) methodology yields diffusion-diffraction patterns from which pore size can be directly obtained. Moreover, we show that pore shape, which cannot be obtained by conventional methods, can be directly inferred from the modulation of the signal in angular bp-d-PFG experiments. This new methodology significantly broadens the types of porous media that can be studied using noninvasive diffusion-diffraction NMR.

  4. Investigation into the problem of characterization of the HF ionospheric fluctuating channel of propagation: construction of a physically based HF channel simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Strangeways


    Full Text Available A wideband HF simulator has been constructed that is based on a detailed physical model. It can generate an output giving a time realization of the HF wideband channel for any HF carrier frequency and bandwidth and for any given transmitter receiver path, time of day, month and year and for any solar activity/geomagnetic conditions. To accomplish this, a comprehensive solution has been obtained to the problem of HF wave propagation for the most general case of a 3D inhomogeneous ionosphere with time-varying electron density fluctuations. The solution is based on the complex phase method (Rytov s method, which has been extended to the case of an inhomogeneous medium and a point source of the field. Results of simulation obtained according to the technique developed have been presented, calculated for a single-hop path 1000 km long oriented to the south from St. Petersburg and including a horizontal electron density gradient present in the IRI model used as the basis of the ionosphere model. The fluctuations of the ionospheric electron density were characterized by an inverse power law anisotropic spatial spectrum. For this model, the random walk of the phasor at the receiver is determined and shown both for paths reflected in the E- and Fregions, being significantly larger for the latter. The oblique sounding ionogram is constructed and reveals three propagation modes: the E-mode and low and high angle F-mode paths. The time-varying field due to each of these paths is then summed at the receiving location enabling the calculation of the scattering function and also the time realization of the received signal shown as a function of both fast and slow time. This is performed both with and without the presence of the geomagnetic field; in the former case the splitting of the F2-mode into both e- and o-modes is seen. It is also shown how the scattering function can be obtained from the time realization of the channel in a way akin to experimental

  5. Robust detection of ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Walter, T.; Hansen, A.; Blanch, J.; Enge, P.; Mannucci, T.; Pi, X.; Sparks, L.; Iijima, B.; El-Arini, B.; Lejeune, R.; hide


    The approach outlined in this paper conservatively bounds the ionospheric errors even for the worst observed ionospheric conditions to date, using data sets taken from the operational receivers in the WAAS reference station network.

  6. Electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, J


    We derive a general expression for the cumulant generating function describing the propagation of electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media. The results have applications in the theory of particle counting devices which rely on signal amplification by electron multiplication.

  7. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    INHOMOGENEOUS DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATION WITH PRIME. CONSTRAINTS. STEPHAN BAIER AND ANISH GHOSH. Abstract. We study the problem of ... this area under primality constraints. Indeed, the ...... [7] A. Ghosh, Diophantine approximation on subspaces of Rn and dynamics on homogeneous spaces, to.

  9. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin


    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  10. Computerized ionospheric tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austen, J.R.; Raymund, T.D.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Stalker, J.; Liu, C.H.


    In this paper the background of computerized tomography (CT) and its application to the ionosphere is reviewed. CT techniques, using only total electron content (TEC) data, can be used to reconstruct a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The limitations of this technique are discussed and examples showing the limitations and capabilities are presented. Simulation results for two applications are presented: imaging the high latitude trough, and the correction of tracking radar range rate errors. Some possible extensions of the technique are presented.

  11. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  12. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spheric winds, solar heating, photoionization, electrical conduc- tivity, and interactions with the magnetic .... GENERAL ARTICLE in satellites to explore the electric field in the neighbourhood of the magnetopause 2. 2 ... that as soon as a space vehicle is sent to the ionosphere, it can dis- turb the neutral atmosphere and the ...

  13. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  14. Chemistry in the Thermosphere and Ionosphere. (United States)

    Roble, Raymond G.


    An informative review which summarizes information about chemical reactions in the thermosphere and ionosphere. Topics include thermal structure, ultraviolet radiation, ionospheric photochemistry, thermospheric photochemistry, chemical heating, thermospheric circulation, auroral processes and ionospheric interactions. Provides suggested followup…

  15. Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Ionospheric Manifestations of Earthquakes and Tsunamis (United States)

    Godin, O. A.; Zabotin, N. A.; Zabotina, L.


    There is a large and increasing number of ground-based and satellite-borne instruments, which reliably reveal ionospheric manifestations of natural hazards such as large earthquakes, strong tsunamis, and powerful tornadoes. As the focus shifts from detecting the ionospheric features associated with the natural hazards to characterizing the hazards for the purposes of improving early warning systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it becomes imperative to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard. The relation between perturbations at the ground level and their ionospheric manifestations is strongly affected by parameters of the intervening atmosphere. In this paper, we employ the ray theory to model propagation of acoustic gravity waves in three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Huygens' wavefront-tracing and Hamiltonian ray-tracing algorithms are used to simulate wave propagation from an earthquake hypocenter through the earth's crust and ocean to the upper atmosphere as well as the generation of atmospheric waves by seismic surface waves and tsunamis. We quantify the influence of temperature stratification and winds, including their seasonal variability, and air viscosity and thermal conductivity on the geometry and amplitude of ionospheric disturbances. Modeling results are verified by comparing observations of the velocity fluctuations at altitudes of 150-160 km by a coastal Dynasonde HF radar system with theoretical predictions of ionospheric manifestations of background infragravity waves in the ocean. Dynasonde radar systems are shown to be a promising means for monitoring acoustic-gravity wave activity and observing ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes and tsunamis. The effects will be discussed of background ionospheric disturbances and uncertainty in atmospheric parameters on the feasibility and accuracy of retrieval of open-ocean tsunami heights from observations

  16. Local Ionospheric Scintillation Analysis (United States)


    International Conference on Aerospace Electronics, Electrical, Communications & Instrumentation , Vijayawada, India Title: “Ionospheric Impact of Severe...receiver instrumental biases? Radio Sci. 32 (5), 1899–1910, 97RS01457, 1997. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release...Guarnieni, F.L., Tsuda, T., Saito, A., Yumoto, K., Fejer, B., Fuller -Rowell, T.J., Kozyra, J., Foster, J.C.,Coster, A.J., Vasyliunas, V.M. Global

  17. High latitude ionospheric structure. (United States)

    Ossakow, S. L.; Burke, W.; Carlson, H. C.; Gary, P.; Heelis, R.; Keskinen, M.; Maynard, N.; Meng, C.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Vickrey, J.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: Ionospheric structure in general. Equatorial spread-F irregularities - a success story and a guide for high latitudes. Focus on high-latitude structure. 2. Sources and observations of high-latitude structure: Electron precipitation structures. Electric fields. Field-aligned currents. Plasma density structure. 3. Plasma instability theory: Macroinstabilities and high latitude structure. Microinstabilities and high latitude structure. 4. An emerging picture. 5. Future studies: Theoretical thrusts. Experimental emphasis.

  18. CDDIS_DORIS_products_ionosphere (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionosphere correction values derived from analysis of Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) data. These products are the generated...

  19. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben


    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...

  20. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang


    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  1. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard


    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach...

  2. Bayesian ionospheric multi-instrument 3D tomography (United States)

    Norberg, Johannes; Vierinen, Juha; Roininen, Lassi


    The tomographic reconstruction of ionospheric electron densities is an inverse problem that cannot be solved without relatively strong regularising additional information. % Especially the vertical electron density profile is determined predominantly by the regularisation. % %Often utilised regularisations in ionospheric tomography include smoothness constraints and iterative methods with initial ionospheric models. % Despite its crucial role, the regularisation is often hidden in the algorithm as a numerical procedure without physical understanding. % % The Bayesian methodology provides an interpretative approach for the problem, as the regularisation can be given in a physically meaningful and quantifiable prior probability distribution. % The prior distribution can be based on ionospheric physics, other available ionospheric measurements and their statistics. % Updating the prior with measurements results as the posterior distribution that carries all the available information combined. % From the posterior distribution, the most probable state of the ionosphere can then be solved with the corresponding probability intervals. % Altogether, the Bayesian methodology provides understanding on how strong the given regularisation is, what is the information gained with the measurements and how reliable the final result is. % In addition, the combination of different measurements and temporal development can be taken into account in a very intuitive way. However, a direct implementation of the Bayesian approach requires inversion of large covariance matrices resulting in computational infeasibility. % In the presented method, Gaussian Markov random fields are used to form a sparse matrix approximations for the covariances. % The approach makes the problem computationally feasible while retaining the probabilistic and physical interpretation. Here, the Bayesian method with Gaussian Markov random fields is applied for ionospheric 3D tomography over Northern Europe

  3. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  4. Influence of the finite ionospheric conductivity on dispersive, nonradiative field line resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Streltsov


    Full Text Available The influence of the finite ionospheric conductivity on the structure of dispersive, nonradiative field line resonances (FLRs is investigated for the first four odd harmonics. The results are based on a linear, magnetically incompressible, reduced, two-fluid MHD model. The model includes effects of finite electron inertia (at low altitude and finite electron pressure (at high altitude. The ionosphere is treated as a high-integrated conducting substrate. The results show that even very low ionospheric conductivity (ΣP = 2 mho is not sufficient to prevent the formation of a large-amplitude, small-scale, nonradiative FLR for the third and higher harmonics when the background transverse plasma inhomogeneity is strong enough. At the same time, the fundamental FLR is strongly affected by a state of low conductivity, and when ΣP = 2 mho, this resonance forms only small-amplitude, relatively broad electromagnetic disturbance. The difference in conductivities of northern and southern ionospheres does not produce significant asymmetry in the distribution of electric and magnetic fields along the resonant field line. The transverse gradient of the background Alfvén speed plays an important role in structure of the FLR when the ionospheric conductivity is finite. In cases where the transverse inhomogeneity of the plasma is not strong enough, the low ionospheric conductivity can prevent even higher-harmonic FLRs from contracting to small scales where dispersive effects are important. The application of these results to the formation and temporal evolution of small-scale, active auroral arc forms is discussed.

  5. The Ionosphere and Ocean Altimetry (United States)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.


    The accuracy of satellite-based single-frequency radar ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from the global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. We have created a daily automated process called Daily Global Ionospheric Map (Daily-GIM) whose primary purpose is to use global GPS data to provide ionospheric calibration data for the Geosat Follow-On (GFO) ocean altimeter. This process also produces an hourly time-series of global maps of the electron content of the ionosphere. This system is designed to deliver "quick-look" ionospheric calibrations within 24 hours with 90+% reliability and with a root-mean-square accuracy of 2 cm at 13.6 GHz. In addition we produce a second product within 72 hours which takes advantage of additional GPS data which were not available in time for the first process. The diagram shows an example of a comparison between TEC data from the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) ocean altimeter and Daily-GIM. TEC are displayed in TEC units, TECU, where 5 TECU is 1 cm at 13.6 GHz. Data from a single TOPEX track is shown. Also shown is the Bent climatological model TEC for the track. Although the GFO satellite is not yet in its operational mode, we have been running Daily-GIM reliably (much better than 90%) with better than 2-cm accuracy (based on comparisons against TOPEX) for several months. When timely ephemeris files for the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 (ERS-2) are available, daily ERS-2 altimeter ionospheric calibration files are produced. When GFO ephemeris files are made available to us, we produce GFO ionosphere calibration files. Users of these GFO ionosphere calibration files find they are a great improvement over the alternative International Reference Ionosphere 1995 (IRI-95) climatological model. In addition, the TOPEX orbit

  6. Backflow transformations in inhomogeneous systems (United States)

    Lopez Rios, Pablo; Ma, Andrea; Drummond, Neil D.; Needs, Richard J.


    The quality of trial wave-functions, and of their nodal surface in particular, determines the accuracy of the results obtained within the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Backflow transformations have been proven capable of improving the nodal surface of Slater-Jastrow (SJ) wave-functions in homogeneous systems. In this work we will present the extension of backflow to inhomogeneous systems, along with DMC results for atoms, molecules and solids which show the improved accuracy of this form of trial wave-function. We will also discuss the advantages of using electron-by-electron algorithms to enhance the computational efficiency of QMC with backflow wave-functions.

  7. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyasov, Askar A., E-mail: [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Chernyshov, Alexander A., E-mail:; Mogilevsky, Mikhail M., E-mail: [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Golovchanskaya, Irina V., E-mail:; Kozelov, Boris V., E-mail: [Polar Geophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Apatity, Murmansk region 184209 (Russian Federation)


    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  8. Ionospheric precursors to scintillation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S.J. Spencer


    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillation is the rapid fluctuation of both phase and amplitude of trans-ionospheric radio waves due to small scale electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Prediction of the occurrence of scintillation at L band frequencies is needed to mitigate the disruption of space-based communication and navigation systems. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of using tomographic inversions of the ionospheric electron density obtained from ground-based GPS data to infer the location and strength of the post-sunset plasma drift vortex. This vortex is related to the pre-reversal enhancement in the eastwards electric field which has been correlated to the subsequent occurrence of scintillation.

  9. The worldwide ionospheric data base (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter


    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  10. Inhomogeneous dusty universes and their deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy) and Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    Exact results stemming directly from Einstein equations imply that inhomogeneous universes endowed with vanishing pressure density can only decelerate, unless the energy density of the universe becomes negative. Recent proposals seem to argue that inhomogeneous (but isotropic) space-times, filled only with incoherent matter, may turn into accelerated universes for sufficiently late times. To scrutinize these scenarios, fully inhomogeneous Einstein equations are discussed in the synchronous system. In a dust-dominated universe, the inhomogeneous generalization of the deceleration parameter is always positive semi-definite implying that no acceleration takes place.

  11. Physics of the ionosphere ionosfera - atmosfera superior - fisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, J.A.


    A review of the basic concepts of ionospheric physics is presented. The dynamics of the upper neutral atmosphere related to studies of the ionosphere, the formation of the ionosphere, the differences in the various ionospheric layers, physical and chemical processes, ionospheric phenomenon, wave propagation, and a method for measuring ionospheric plasma parameters are presented.

  12. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C.C.; Knudsen, Per


    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) lambda of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) and t...

  13. Variable pixel size ionospheric tomography (United States)

    Zheng, Dunyong; Zheng, Hongwei; Wang, Yanjun; Nie, Wenfeng; Li, Chaokui; Ao, Minsi; Hu, Wusheng; Zhou, Wei


    A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel size was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density (IED) distribution. In variable pixel size computerized ionospheric tomography (VPSCIT) model, the IED distribution is parameterized by a decomposition of the lower and upper ionosphere with different pixel sizes. Thus, the lower and upper IED distribution may be very differently determined by the available data. The variable pixel size ionospheric tomography and constant pixel size tomography are similar in most other aspects. There are some differences between two kinds of models with constant and variable pixel size respectively, one is that the segments of GPS signal pay should be assigned to the different kinds of pixel in inversion; the other is smoothness constraint factor need to make the appropriate modified where the pixel change in size. For a real dataset, the variable pixel size method distinguishes different electron density distribution zones better than the constant pixel size method. Furthermore, it can be non-chided that when the effort is spent to identify the regions in a model with best data coverage. The variable pixel size method can not only greatly improve the efficiency of inversion, but also produce IED images with high fidelity which are the same as a used uniform pixel size method. In addition, variable pixel size tomography can reduce the underdetermined problem in an ill-posed inverse problem when the data coverage is irregular or less by adjusting quantitative proportion of pixels with different sizes. In comparison with constant pixel size tomography models, the variable pixel size ionospheric tomography technique achieved relatively good results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of variable pixel size ionospheric tomography was performed. Finally, according to the results of the statistical analysis and quantitative comparison, the

  14. 3-D stochastic finite elements for thermal creep analysis of piping structures with spatial material inhomogeneities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appalanaidu, Y.; Roy, A.; Gupta, S.


    A stochastic finite element-based methodology is developed for creep damage assessment in pipings carrying high-temperature fluids. The material properties are assumed to be spatially randomly inhomogeneous and are modelled as 3-D non-Gaussian fields. A spectral-based approach for random field

  15. Influence of geomagnetic storms of September 26-30, 2011, on the ionosphere and HF radiowave propagation. II. radiowave propagation (United States)

    Kotova, D. S.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Zakharov, V. E.


    A study of HF wave propagation in the three-dimensional inhomogeneous ionosphere has been carried out in an approximation of geometrical optics. The three-dimensional medium of radio wave propagation is considered to be inhomogeneous, absorbing, and anisotropic due to the influence of the geomagnetic field. The parameters of the medium are described by the results of calculations on the basis of the Global Self-Consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Protonosphere (GSM TIP). The propagation of radio waves in the equatorial, middle-, and high-latitude ionosphere was studied. Comparisons of the ray trajectories, integral attenuation, deviations of the projection of radio wave trajectories onto the Earth's surface from the great-circle arc, and the behavior of the angle between the wave phase and wave energy directions, as well as the angle between the direction of propagation and the external magnetic field obtained for quiet and disturbed conditions, have been performed. We consider a geomagnetic storm that occurred in 2011, with the main storm phase occurring on September 26, and the day after geomagnetic disturbances, September 29, as disturbed conditions in the ionosphere.

  16. Dynamic laser speckle analyzed considering inhomogeneities in the biological sample (United States)

    Braga, Roberto A.; González-Peña, Rolando J.; Viana, Dimitri Campos; Rivera, Fernando Pujaico


    Dynamic laser speckle phenomenon allows a contactless and nondestructive way to monitor biological changes that are quantified by second-order statistics applied in the images in time using a secondary matrix known as time history of the speckle pattern (THSP). To avoid being time consuming, the traditional way to build the THSP restricts the data to a line or column. Our hypothesis is that the spatial restriction of the information could compromise the results, particularly when undesirable and unexpected optical inhomogeneities occur, such as in cell culture media. It tested a spatial random approach to collect the points to form a THSP. Cells in a culture medium and in drying paint, representing homogeneous samples in different levels, were tested, and a comparison with the traditional method was carried out. An alternative random selection based on a Gaussian distribution around a desired position was also presented. The results showed that the traditional protocol presented higher variation than the outcomes using the random method. The higher the inhomogeneity of the activity map, the higher the efficiency of the proposed method using random points. The Gaussian distribution proved to be useful when there was a well-defined area to monitor.

  17. Morphology of atmospheric transparent inhomogeneities (United States)

    Eaton, Frank D.; Peterson, William A.; Hines, John R.; Drexler, James J.; Soules, David B.; Waldie, Arthur H.; Qualtrough, John A.


    Observations are presented displaying the evolution of transparent inhomogeneities in the natural atmosphere. All results are for horizontal paths in the first few meters above ground level. Measurements were taken using both a schlieren optical system capable of sensing fine scale gradients of refractive index and an optical system sensing the fine structure of intensity scintillation over various path lengths. Laser sources were utilized for both systems, and a full description of the two optical systems is included. The schlieren system employs two high quality 10-in-diameter mirrors to produce the illuminated working section. Trade-offs between this and other schlieren optical system configurations are discussed. The intensity scintillation measurements were taken with a collimated laser beam projected on a target board. System characteristics including the CCD camera, sampled frame rates, exposure times, and data processing are discussed. The central problem addressed in this study is to identify the conditions when G. Taylor's "frozen turbulence" hypothesis is justified. The optically derived results are compared to results from previous studies using tower, aircraft, and tethered balloon measurements. Analyses presented include histograms, three-dimensional displays, contour maps of features, and frame subtraction schemes. Simultaneous measurements of integrated path and point measurements of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2), and wind , are included in the results.

  18. Daytime Ionosphere Retrieval Algorithm for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew W.; Korpela, Eric J.; Sirk, Martin M.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.


    The NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer Extreme Ultraviolet spectrograph, ICON EUV, will measure altitude profiles of the daytime extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) OII emission near 83.4 and 61.7 nm that are used to determine density profiles and state parameters of the ionosphere. This paper describes the algorithm concept and approach to inverting these measured OII emission profiles to derive the associated O+ density profile from 150-450 km as a proxy for the electron content in the F-region of the ionosphere. The algorithm incorporates a bias evaluation and feedback step, developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using data from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) missions, that is able to effectively mitigate the effects of systematic instrument calibration errors and inaccuracies in the original photon source within the forward model. Results are presented from end-to-end simulations that convolved simulated airglow profiles with the expected instrument measurement response to produce profiles that were inverted with the algorithm to return data products for comparison to truth. Simulations of measurements over a representative ICON orbit show the algorithm is able to reproduce hmF2 values to better than 5 km accuracy, and NmF2 to better than 12% accuracy over a 12-second integration, and demonstrate that the ICON EUV instrument and daytime ionosphere algorithm can meet the ICON science objectives which require 20 km vertical resolution in hmF2 and 18% precision in NmF2.

  19. Interplanetary phenomenon, geomagnetic and ionospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the D(foF2) plots appear to show that the storm event is characterized by (i) the occurrence of positive ionospheric storm at the high latitudes and mid latitude stations of Khabarovsk, Yamagawa and Okinawa stations before the beginning of the storm event (ii) Presence of strong negative phase at Manila, ...

  20. Preseismic ionospheric electron enhancements revisited (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke; Enomoto, Yuji


    enhancement of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) immediately before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) has been reported by Heki (2011). Critical responses to it often come in two stages; they first doubt the enhancement itself and attribute it to an artifact. Second (when they accept the enhancement), they doubt the significance of the enhancement among natural variability of space weather origin. For example, Kamogawa and Kakinami (2013) attributed the enhancement to an artifact falsely detected by the combined effect of the highly variable TEC under active geomagnetic condition and the occurrence of a tsunamigenic ionospheric hole. Here we closely examine the time series of vertical TEC before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We first demonstrate that the tsunami did not make an ionospheric hole, and next confirm the reality of the enhancement using data of two other sensors, ionosonde and magnetometers. The amplitude of the preseismic TEC enhancement is within the natural variability, and its snapshot resembles to large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. However, distinction could be made by examining their propagation properties. Similar TEC anomalies occurred before all the M ≥ 8.5 earthquakes in this century, suggesting their seismic origin.

  1. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. We show that the central singularity of collapse can be a strong curvature or a weak curvature naked singularity depending on the initial density distribution.

  2. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow (United States)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  3. Non-Gaussian Multi-resolution Modeling of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes (United States)

    Fan, M.; Paul, D.; Lee, T. C. M.; Matsuo, T.


    The most dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere occurs in the Earth's polar atmosphere. Our objective is to model scale-dependent stochastic characteristics of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields that originate from solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. The Earth's high-latitude ionospheric electric field exhibits considerable variability, with increasing non-Gaussian characteristics at decreasing spatio-temporal scales. Accurately representing the underlying stochastic physical process through random field modeling is crucial not only for scientific understanding of the energy, momentum and mass exchanges between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, but also for modern technological systems including telecommunication, navigation, positioning and satellite tracking. While a lot of efforts have been made to characterize the large-scale variability of the electric field in the context of Gaussian processes, no attempt has been made so far to model the small-scale non-Gaussian stochastic process observed in the high-latitude ionosphere. We construct a novel random field model using spherical needlets as building blocks. The double localization of spherical needlets in both spatial and frequency domains enables the model to capture the non-Gaussian and multi-resolutional characteristics of the small-scale variability. The estimation procedure is computationally feasible due to the utilization of an adaptive Gibbs sampler. We apply the proposed methodology to the computational simulation output from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) magnetosphere model. Our non-Gaussian multi-resolution model results in characterizing significantly more energy associated with the small-scale ionospheric electric field variability in comparison to Gaussian models. By accurately representing unaccounted-for additional energy and momentum sources to the Earth's upper atmosphere, our novel random field modeling

  4. Simulation and quantitative assessment of homogeneous and inhomogeneous particle distributions in particulate metal matrix composites. (United States)

    Yang, N.; Boselli, J.; Sinclair, I.


    Reinforcement distributions play an important role in various aspects of the processing and final mechanical behaviour of particulate metal matrix composites (PMMCs). Methods for quantifying spatial distribution in such materials are, however, poorly developed, particularly in relation to the range of particle size, shape and orientation that may be present in any one system. The present work investigates via computer simulations the influences of particle morphology, homogeneity and inhomogeneity on spatial distribution measurements obtained by finite-body tessellation. Distribution inhomogeneity was simulated both by the segregation of particles away from specified regions within a microstructure and by generating point density peaks at random locations within a microstructure. Both isotropic and anisotropic inhomogeneous distributions were considered to simulate distribution patterns in PMMCs before and after mechanical working. It was found that the coefficient of variation of the mean near-neighbour distance (COV(dmean)), derived from particle interfaces using finite-body tessellation, was essentially independent of particle shape, size distribution, orientation and area fraction in homogeneous (random) distributions, but showed great sensitivity to inhomogeneity. Increased values of COV(dmean) were seen for both forms of inhomogeneous distributions considered here, with little influence of particle morphology. The COV(dmean) was also seen to be sensitive to anisotropic clustering, the presence of which was identified via nearest-neighbour angles and cell orientations. Although generally formulated for PMMCs, the present results may be generalized to other systems containing low aspect ratio finite bodies of low to moderate area fraction.

  5. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  6. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan


    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  7. Ionospheric corrections for GPS time transfer (United States)

    Rose, Julian A. R.; Watson, Robert J.; Allain, Damien J.; Mitchell, Cathryn N.


    A real-time ionospheric mapping system is tested to investigate its ability to compensate for the ionospheric delay in single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) time transfer over Europe. This technique is compared with two other single-frequency systems: one that does not incorporate any ionospheric correction and one that uses the broadcast Klobuchar model. A dual-frequency technique is also shown as a benchmark. A period in March 2003, during a solar maximum, has been used to display results when the ionospheric delays are large and variable. Data from two European GPS monitoring centers were used to test the time-transfer methods. For averaging times between several minutes and a few hours, the instabilities in the time transfers were dominated by ionospheric effects. The instabilities at longer averaging times were found to be due to clock noise and hardware instabilities. Improvements in time-transfer instabilities are shown by using the ionospheric tomography system.

  8. An MF/HF radio array for radio and radar imaging of the ionosphere (United States)

    Isham, Brett; Gustavsson, Bjorn; Belyey, Vasyl; Bullett, Terrence


    The Aguadilla Radio Array will be installed at the Interamerican University Aguadilla Campus, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The array is intended for broad-band medium and high-frequency (MF/HF, roughly 2 to 25 MHz) radio and bistatic radar observations of the ionosphere. The main array consists of 20 antenna elements, arranged in a semi-random pattern providing a good distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. A relocatable 6-element array is also being developed, in which each element consists of a crossed pair of active electric dipoles and all associated electronics for phase-coherent radio measurements. A primary scientific goal of the array is to create images of the region of ionospheric radio emissions stimulated by the new Arecibo Observatory high-power high-frequency radio transmitter. A second primary goal is the study of ionospheric structure and dynamics via coherent radar imaging of the ionosphere in collaboration with the University of Colorado / NOAA Versatile Interferometric Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), located at the USGS San Juan Observatory in Cayey, Puerto Rico. In addition to ionospheric research in collaboration with the Cayey and Arecibo Observatories, the goals of the project include the development of radio sounding, polarization, interferometry, and imaging techniques, and training of students at the university and high school levels.

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Ionospheric Irregularities (United States)


    ionospheric dynamics included coupling of neutral fluid, ion gas, electron gas, and electromagnetic equations. 3D Navier- Stokes Equations for Neutral...Scientific Meetings and Conferences • 12th Conference on Space Weather, 95th Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Soci- ety, Phoenix AZ, 4-8 January...flows and the 3D Navier– Stokes equations for neu- trals. In the current literature, the background neutral flow is usually prescribed and not coupled

  10. High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities. (United States)


    Owen, and J. A. Klobuchar , "Recent Studies of the Structure and Morphology of Auroral Zone F- Region Irregularities," Radio Sci., -8, 6, 1167-1180, 1983...We present observations of electron density variations in the F1 region of the ionosphere at two locations near the magnetic equator . Oscillations in...just off the magnetic equator during equatorial spread F conditions. One, a Javalin sounding rocket, was launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, on 18

  11. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina


    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  12. Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Bernert, Barbara


    Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 Within the framework of the UN International Space Weather Initiative, and building upon the achievements of the International Heliophysical Year, the German project SIMONE (Sun Ionosphere MOnitoring NEtwork) operates several SID monitors provided by the University of Stanford. Here we present an overview of sudden ionospheric disturbances recorded since 2006 at the high school Gymnasium Walsrode until to date. The continous measurements allow a detailed comparison of locally measured SIDs with the general trend of solar activity during the current solar maximum. We further show that the measurements reveal specific information on the variable response of the dayside ionosphere to solar flares.

  13. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Matsuo, T.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Hoar, T.; Lu, G.; Mitchell, C. N.; Coster, A. J.; Bust, G. S.; Paxton, L. J.


    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases.

  14. Identifying equatorial ionospheric irregularities using in situ ion drifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. A. Stoneback; R. A. Heelis


    Previous climatological investigations of ionospheric irregularity occurrence in the equatorial ionosphere have utilized in situ measurements of plasma density to identify the presence of an irregularity...

  15. Global Application of TaiWan Ionospheric Model to Single-Frequency GPS Positioning (United States)

    Macalalad, E.; Tsai, L. C.; Wu, J.


    Ionospheric delay is one the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. For single-frequency receivers, this delay is usually removed using ionospheric models. Two of them are the Klobuchar, or broadcast, model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model, is used. It was used to calculate the slant total electron content (STEC) between receiver and GPS satellites to correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to determine a more accurate position of the receiver. Observations were made in July 2, 2011(Kp index = 0-2) in five randomly selected sites across the globe, four of which are IGS stations (station ID: cnmr, coso, irkj and morp) while the other is a low-cost single-frequency receiver located in Chungli City, Taiwan (ID: isls). It was illustrated that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited a detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for single-frequency static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models for all stations. The average %error of the corrections made by Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM in DRMS are 3.88%, 0.78% and 17.45%, respectively. While the average %error in VRMS for Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM are 53.55%, 62.09%, 66.02%, respectively. This shows the capability of TWIM to provide a good global 3-dimensional ionospheric model.

  16. A two-dimensional global simulation study of inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (United States)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul


    We present the numerical methods and results of a global two-dimensional multifluid-collisional-Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation model of the ionosphere-thermosphere system, an extension of our one-dimensional three-fluid MHD model. The model solves, self-consistently, Maxwell's equations, continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple ion and neutral species incorporating photochemistry, collisions among the electron, ion and neutral species, and various heating sources in the energy equations. The inductive-dynamic approach (solving self-consistently Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the plasma momentum equations) used in the model retains all possible MHD waves, thus providing faithful physical explanation (not merely description) of the magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling. In the present study, we simulate the dawn-dusk cross-polar cap dynamic responses of the ionosphere to imposed magnetospheric convection. It is shown that the convection velocity at the top boundary launches velocity, magnetic, and electric perturbations propagating with the Alfvén speed toward the bottom of the ionosphere. Within the system, the waves experience reflection, penetration, and rereflection because of the inhomogeneity of the plasma conditions. The reflection of the Alfvén waves may cause overshoot (stronger than the imposed magnetospheric convection) of the plasma velocity in some regions. The simulation demonstrates dynamic propagation of the field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric field carried by the Alfvén waves, as well as formation of closure horizontal currents (Pedersen currents in the E region), indicating that in the dynamic stage the M-I coupling is via the Alfvén waves instead of field-aligned currents or electric field mapping as described in convectional M-I coupling models.

  17. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. Immunity of intersubband polaritons to inhomogeneous broadening (United States)

    Manceau, J.-M.; Biasiol, G.; Tran, N. L.; Carusotto, I.; Colombelli, R.


    We demonstrate that intersubband (ISB) polaritons are robust to inhomogeneous effects originating from the presence of multiple quantum wells (MQWs). In a series of samples that exhibit mid-infrared ISB absorption transitions with broadenings varying by a factor of 5 (from 4 to 20 meV), we observed polariton linewidths always lying in the 4 to 7 meV range only. We experimentally verified the dominantly inhomogeneous origin of the broadening of the ISB transition, and that the linewidth reduction effect of the polariton modes persists up to room-temperature. This immunity to inhomogeneous broadening is a direct consequence of the coupling of the large number of ISB oscillators to a single photonic mode. It is a precious tool to gauge the natural linewidth of the ISB plasmon that is otherwise masked in such MQWs system, and is also beneficial in view of perspective applications such as intersubband polariton lasers.

  19. Reducing inhomogeneity in the dynamic properties of quantum dots via self-aligned plasmonic cavities. (United States)

    Demory, Brandon; Hill, Tyler A; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Deng, Hui; Ku, P C


    A plasmonic cavity is shown to greatly reduce the inhomogeneity of dynamic optical properties such as quantum efficiency and radiative lifetime of InGaN quantum dots. By using an open-top plasmonic cavity structure, which exhibits a large Purcell factor and antenna quantum efficiency, the resulting quantum efficiency distribution for the quantum dots narrows and is no longer limited by the quantum dot inhomogeneity. The standard deviation of the quantum efficiency can be reduced to 2% while maintaining the overall quantum efficiency at 70%, making InGaN quantum dots a viable candidate for high-speed quantum cryptography and random number generation applications.

  20. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Mohsen, A.


    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  1. Special inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves in hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Kurilkina, S. N.; Petrov, N. S.; Zimin, A. B.; Belyi, V. N.


    Herein, it is shown that under conditions of total internal reflection of plane homogeneous electromagnetic waves at the interface of a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) and an ordinary isotropic medium, special inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves are excited in certain circumstances near the surface of the metamaterial and their amplitude changes with distance according to the non-exponential law. The existence conditions for such waves are established for the case when the optical axis is located within the interface plane and forms an angle with the plane of incidence. The energy flux and density of energy of special inhomogeneous waves in a HMM are determined.

  2. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics. (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P


    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  3. Spectral distortion in a radially inhomogeneous cosmology (United States)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Maksimova, N. A.


    The spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum in a radially inhomogeneous space-time, designed to exactly reproduce a ΛCDM expansion history along the past light cone, is shown to exceed the upper bound established by COBE-FIRAS by a factor of approximately 3700. This simple observational test helps uncover a slew of pathological features that lie hidden inside the past light cone, including a radially contracting phase at decoupling and, if followed to its logical extreme, a naked singularity at the radially inhomogeneous big bang.

  4. Bayesian statistical ionospheric tomography improved by incorporating ionosonde measurements (United States)

    Norberg, Johannes; Virtanen, Ilkka I.; Roininen, Lassi; Vierinen, Juha; Orispää, Mikko; Kauristie, Kirsti; Lehtinen, Markku S.


    We validate two-dimensional ionospheric tomography reconstructions against EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements. Our tomography method is based on Bayesian statistical inversion with prior distribution given by its mean and covariance. We employ ionosonde measurements for the choice of the prior mean and covariance parameters and use the Gaussian Markov random fields as a sparse matrix approximation for the numerical computations. This results in a computationally efficient tomographic inversion algorithm with clear probabilistic interpretation. We demonstrate how this method works with simultaneous beacon satellite and ionosonde measurements obtained in northern Scandinavia. The performance is compared with results obtained with a zero-mean prior and with the prior mean taken from the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 model. In validating the results, we use EISCAT ultra-high-frequency incoherent scatter radar measurements as the ground truth for the ionization profile shape. We find that in comparison to the alternative prior information sources, ionosonde measurements improve the reconstruction by adding accurate information about the absolute value and the altitude distribution of electron density. With an ionosonde at continuous disposal, the presented method enhances stand-alone near-real-time ionospheric tomography for the given conditions significantly.

  5. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley


    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  6. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memarzadeh, Y.


    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer

  7. Artificial neural network applications in ionospheric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander


    Full Text Available The ionosphere of Earth exhibits considerable spatial changes and has large temporal variability of various timescales related to the mechanisms of creation, decay and transport of space ionospheric plasma. Many techniques for modelling electron density profiles through entire ionosphere have been developed in order to solve the "age-old problem" of ionospheric physics which has not yet been fully solved. A new way to address this problem is by applying artificial intelligence methodologies to current large amounts of solar-terrestrial and ionospheric data. It is the aim of this paper to show by the most recent examples that modern development of numerical models for ionospheric monthly median long-term prediction and daily hourly short-term forecasting may proceed successfully applying the artificial neural networks. The performance of these techniques is illustrated with different artificial neural networks developed to model and predict the temporal and spatial variations of ionospheric critical frequency, f0F2 and Total Electron Content (TEC. Comparisons between results obtained by the proposed approaches and measured f0F2 and TEC data provide prospects for future applications of the artificial neural networks in ionospheric studies.

  8. Ionosphere and its Influence on Radio Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Communications. R S Dabas is at the Radio. Science Division of. National Physical. Laboratory, New Delhi and is responsible for characterization of ionospheric media for radio communication applications. His main area of research is the study of equatorial and low latitude ionosphere. i.e. its properties and dynamics.

  9. Ionospheric F-Region Storms: Unsolved Problems (United States)


    Heaviside layer by the echo- method , Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., 17, 1513-1522, 1929 [8] Kil, H, and L.J. Paxton, Ionospheric disturbances during the magnetic...ionospheric storms, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JA900126, 2002 [24] Rishbeth, H., F-region storms and thermospheric dynamics, J. Geomag. Geoelectr

  10. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake ...

  11. Advanced algorithms for ionosphere modelling in GNSS applications within AUDITOR project (United States)

    Goss, Andreas; Erdogan, Eren; Schmidt, Michael; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Lyu, Haixia; Nohutcu, Metin


    The H2020 project AUDITOR of the European Union started on January 1st 2016, with the participation of several European institutions and universities. The goal of the project is the implementation of a novel precise positioning technique, based on augmentation data in a customized GNSS receiver. Therefore more sophisticated ionospheric models have to be developed and implemented to increase the accuracy in real-time at the user side. Since the service should be available for the public, we use public data from GNSS networks (e.g. IGS, EUREF). The contributions of DGFI-TUM and UPC are focusing on the development of high accuracy GNSS algorithms to provide enhanced ionospheric corrections. This includes two major issues: 1. The existing mapping function to convert the slant total electron content (STEC) measurable by GNSS into the vertical total electron content (VTEC) is based on a so called single layer model (SLM), where all electrons are concentrated on an infinitesimal thin layer with fixed height (between 350 and 450 kilometers). This quantity is called the effective ionospheric height (EIH). An improvement of the mapping function shall be achieved by estimating more realistic numerical values for the EIH by means of a voxel-based tomographic model (TOMION). 2. The ionospheric observations are distributed rather unevenly over the globe and within specific regions. This inhomogeneous distribution is handled by data adaptive B-Spline approaches, with polynomial and trigonometric functions used for the latitude and longitude representations to provide high resolution VTEC maps for global and regional purposes. A Kalman filter is used as sequential estimator. The unknown parameters of the filter state vector are composed of the B-spline coefficients as well as the satellite and receiver DCBs. The resulting high accuracy ionosphere products will be disseminated to the users via downlink from a dedicated server to a receiver site. In this context, an appropriate

  12. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities Lawrence Rudnick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomo- geneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ...

  13. Electron magnetohydrodynamics of magnetized, inhomogeneous plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Westerhof, E.; Schep, T. J.; Berning, M.


    A modified EMHD model is derived that includes the effects of density perturbations and inhomogeneity in a strong magnetic field. Similar to previous EMHD models, the derived equation takes the form of a flux conservation law for a modified vorticity. The modified vorticity is frozen into the

  14. Inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis in linearly coasting cosmology (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Lohiya, Daksh


    We investigate primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe in which the scale factor evolves linearly with cosmic time and which has an inhomogeneous baryon density. We report that in principle one can close the bounds on dynamic estimates of matter by baryons alone - with no need of any exotic dark matter. We address to some concerns on the overall viability of such an evolution.

  15. On the inhomogeneous magnetised electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettenis, M.M.


    In this thesis, we investigate an inhomogeneous gas of charged particles in the presence of a hard wall. From the point of view of physics one would like to study a `real' plasma, taking into account the inter-particle (Coulomb) interactions. Unfortunately, this would be a very difficult task. Since

  16. Inhomogeneous Pre-Big Bang String Cosmology


    Veneziano, G


    An inhomogeneous version of pre--Big Bang cosmology emerges, within string theory, from quite generic initial conditions, provided they lie deeply inside the weak-coupling, low-curvature regime. Large-scale homogeneity, flatness, and isotropy appear naturally as late-time outcomes of such an evolution.

  17. Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.


    A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.

  18. Waves and vibrations in inhomogeneous structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Denne afhandling omhandler bølger og vibrationer i inhomogene strukturer med speciel fokus på undersøgelse af båndgabsfænomenet og optimering af båndgabsstrukturer. Afhandlingen består af 21 artikler, hvoraf 17 er publiceret i internationale tidsskrifter og 4 er publiceret i konferenceproceedings...

  19. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure o...

  20. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Simon


    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure o...

  1. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    )] or realistic noble metals, following sharp or smooth size distribution functions around an ensemble mean value, and identify examples where inhomogeneous broadening can be significant. We also explain how its role becomes less important in most experimentally accessible situations, provided that all...

  2. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system (United States)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail


    Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.

  3. Ionospheric total electron content: Spatial patterns of variability (United States)

    Lean, J. L.; Meier, R. R.; Picone, J. M.; Sassi, F.; Emmert, J. T.; Richards, P. G.


    The distinctive spatial patterns of the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) response to solar, seasonal, diurnal, and geomagnetic influences are determined across the globe using a new statistical model constructed from 2-hourly TEC observations from 1998 to 2015. The model combines representations of the physical solar EUV photon and geomagnetic activity drivers with solar-modulated sinusoidal parameterizations of four seasonal cycles and solar-modulated and seasonally modulated parameterizations of three diurnal cycles. The average absolute residual of the data-model differences is 2.1 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) (9%) and the root-mean-square error is 3.5 TECU (15%). Solar and geomagnetic variability, the semiannual oscillation and the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations all impact TEC most at low magnetic latitudes where TEC itself maximizes, with differing degrees of longitudinal inhomogeneity. In contrast, the annual oscillation manifests primarily in the Southern Hemisphere with maximum amplitude over midlatitude South America, extending to higher southern latitudes in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea. Nighttime TEC levels in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea exceed daytime levels every year in Southern Hemisphere summer as a consequence of the modulation of the diurnal oscillations by the seasonal oscillations. The anomaly, which is present at all phases of the solar cycle, commences sooner and ends later under solar minimum conditions. The model minus data residuals maximize at tropical magnetic latitudes in four geographical regions similar to the ionosphere pattern generated by lower atmospheric meteorology. Enhanced residuals at northern midlatitudes during winter are consistent with an influence of atmospheric gravity waves.

  4. Ionospheric modification by rocket effluents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, P.A.; Price, K.M.; da Rosa, A.V.


    This report describes experimental and theoretical studies related to ionospheric disturbances produced by rocket exhaust vapors. The purpose of our research was to estimate the ionospheric effects of the rocket launches which will be required to place the Satellite Power System (SPS) in operation. During the past year, we have developed computational tools for numerical simulation of ionospheric changes produced by the injection of rocket exhaust vapors. The theoretical work has dealt with (1) the limitations imposed by condensation phenomena in rocket exhaust; (2) complete modeling of the ionospheric depletion process including neutral gas dynamics, plasma physics, chemistry and thermal processes; and (3) the influence of the modified ionosphere on radio wave propagation. We are also reporting on electron content measurements made during the launch of HEAO-C on Sept. 20, 1979. We conclude by suggesting future experiments and areas for future research.

  5. Theory and observations of cometary ionospheres (United States)

    Cravens, T. E.

    The basic physical and chemical processes responsible for the makeup of cometary ionospheres are discussed in the framework of relevant in situ measurements on the Halley and Giacobini-Zinner comets, as well as recent theoretical models of cometary ionospheres. Special attention is given to physical processes responsible for the formation of the contact surface (CS), which is that surface where the magnetic field becomes zero or extremely small and which separates the field-free ionosphere and the magnetized plasma on the outside. Results of in situ observations indicate that the plasma just outside the CS is just as ionospheric in nature as the 'classical' ionospheric plasma residing within this surface. An expression for the magnetic field in this region is derived.

  6. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P


    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  7. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A


    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  8. Local principles of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Gingold, Harry; She, Jianming; Zorumski, William E.


    Four local principles are proven for waves propagating in a layered medium with a variable wave speed. These principles are (1) that inhomogeneities increase the amplitude of waves generated by a source of fixed strength, (2) that inhomogeneities reduce spatial oscillation, or increase the wavelength, (3) that inhomogeneities decrease transmission, or increase reflection, and (4) that transmission increases monotonically with frequency. Definitions of inhomogeneity, local wave function, and local reflection and transmission coefficients are made as a basis for stating these principles.

  9. A New Type of Exact Arbitrarily Inhomogeneous Cosmology: Evolution of Deceleration in the Flat Homogeneous-On-Average Case

    CERN Document Server

    Hellaby, Charles


    A new method for constructing exact inhomogeneous universes is presented, that allows variation in 3 dimensions. The resulting spacetime may be statistically uniform on average, or have random, non-repeating variation. The construction utilises the Darmois junction conditions to join many different component spacetime regions. In the initial simple example given, the component parts are spatially flat and uniform, but much more general combinations should be possible. Further inhomogeneity may be added via swiss cheese vacuoles and inhomogeneous metrics. This model is used to explore the proposal, that observers are located in bound, non-expanding regions, while the universe is actually in the process of becoming void dominated, and thus its average expansion rate is increasing. The model confirms qualitatively that the faster expanding components come to dominate the average, and that inhomogeneity results in average parameters which evolve differently from those of any one component, but more realistic mode...

  10. A new type of exact arbitrarily inhomogeneous cosmology: evolution of deceleration in the flat homogeneous-on-average case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellaby, Charles, E-mail: [Dept. of Maths. and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa)


    A new method for constructing exact inhomogeneous universes is presented, that allows variation in 3 dimensions. The resulting spacetime may be statistically uniform on average, or have random, non-repeating variation. The construction utilises the Darmois junction conditions to join many different component spacetime regions. In the initial simple example given, the component parts are spatially flat and uniform, but much more general combinations should be possible. Further inhomogeneity may be added via swiss cheese vacuoles and inhomogeneous metrics. This model is used to explore the proposal, that observers are located in bound, non-expanding regions, while the universe is actually in the process of becoming void dominated, and thus its average expansion rate is increasing. The model confirms qualitatively that the faster expanding components come to dominate the average, and that inhomogeneity results in average parameters which evolve differently from those of any one component, but more realistic modelling of the effect will need this construction to be generalised.

  11. Precise Point Positioning with Ionosphere Estimation and application of Regional Ionospheric Maps (United States)

    Galera Monico, J. F.; Marques, H. A.; Rocha, G. D. D. C.


    The ionosphere is one of most difficult source of errors to be modelled in the GPS positioning, mainly when applying data collected by single frequency receivers. Considering Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with single frequency data the options available include, for example, the use of Klobuchar model or applying Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM). The GIM contains Vertical Electron Content (VTEC) values that are commonly estimated considering a global network with poor covering in certain regions. For this reason Regional Ionosphere Maps (RIM) have been developed considering local GNSS network, for instance, the La Plata Ionospheric Model (LPIM) developed inside the context of SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference System for Americas). The South American RIM are produced with data from nearly 50 GPS ground receivers and considering these maps are generated for each hour with spatial resolution of one degree it is expected to provide better accuracy in GPS positioning for such region. Another possibility to correct for ionosphere effects in the PPP is to apply the ionosphere estimation technique based on Kalman filter. In this case, the ionosphere can be treated as a stochastic process and a good initial guess is necessary what can be obtained from an ionospheric map. In this paper we present the methodology involved with ionosphere estimation by using Kalman filter and also the application of global and regional ionospheric maps in the PPP as first guess. The ionosphere estimation strategy was implemented in the house software called RT_PPP that is capable of accomplishing PPP either for single or dual frequency data. GPS data from Brazilian station near equatorial region were processed and results with regional maps were compared with those by using global maps. Improvements of the order 15% were observed. In case of ionosphere estimation, the estimated coordinates were compared with ionosphere free solution and after PPP convergence the results reached centimeter accuracy.

  12. Acceleration of near-field scattering from an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The back scattering of near-field from a spherical shell, is independent of radial inhomogeneity of wave velocity. Inhomogeneity with smoothly perturbed wave velocity does not back-scatter any acceleration. Accelerations are computed numerically for scattering from a part of inhomogeneous spherical shell.

  13. Droplet induced compositional inhomogeneities in GaAsBi (United States)

    Tait, C. Ryan; Yan, Lifan; Millunchick, Joanna M.


    Compositional inhomogeneities in III-V alloys heavily influence the device performance. This work presents evidence for Ga droplets inducing inhomogeneities in the Bi composition, which we propose is due to a variation in the Ga flux across the surface. These inhomogeneities may be manipulated through the use of growth interrupts, which eliminate the buildup of Ga at the growth front.

  14. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    Full Text Available A physical model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere has been used to determine the accuracy of model predictions of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity, and assess our understanding of the physical processes. The physical model is driven by empirical descriptions of the high-latitude electric field and auroral precipitation, as measures of the strength of the magnetospheric sources of energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. Both sources are keyed to the time-dependent TIROS/NOAA auroral power index. The output of the model is the departure of the ionospheric F region from the normal climatological mean. A 50-day interval towards the end of 1997 has been simulated with the model for two cases. The first simulation uses only the electric fields and auroral forcing from the empirical models, and the second has an additional source of random electric field variability. In both cases, output from the physical model is compared with F-region data from ionosonde stations. Quantitative model/data comparisons have been performed to move beyond the conventional "visual" scientific assessment, in order to determine the value of the predictions for operational use. For this study, the ionosphere at two ionosonde stations has been studied in depth, one each from the northern and southern mid-latitudes. The model clearly captures the seasonal dependence in the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at mid-latitude, reproducing the tendency for decreased ion density in the summer hemisphere and increased densities in winter. In contrast to the "visual" success of the model, the detailed quantitative comparisons, which are necessary for space weather applications, are less impressive. The accuracy, or value, of the model has been quantified by evaluating the daily standard deviation, the root-mean-square error, and the correlation coefficient between the data and model predictions. The modeled quiet-time variability, or standard

  15. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki


    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  16. Polynomial description of inhomogeneous topological superconducting wires (United States)

    Pérez, Marcos; Martínez, Gerardo


    We present the universal features of the topological invariant for p-wave superconducting wires after the inclusion of spatial inhomogeneities. Three classes of distributed potentials are studied, a single-defect, a commensurate and an incommensurate model, using periodic site modulations. An analytic polynomial description is achieved by splitting the topological invariant into two parts; one part depends on the chemical potential and the other does not. For the homogeneous case, an elliptical region is found where the topological invariant oscillates. The zeros of these oscillations occur at points where the fermion parity switches for finite wires. The increase of these oscillations with the inhomogeneity strength leads to new isolated non-topological phases. We characterize these new phases according to each class of spatial distributions. Such phases could also be observed in the XY model, to which our model is dual.

  17. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bengochea


    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  18. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bengochea, Gabriel R; Sudarsky, Daniel


    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  19. Automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies (United States)

    Bentivegna, Eloisa


    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated code generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  20. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)


    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  1. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  2. Inhomogeneous Field MSFVW-Optical Interaction (United States)

    Wey, C. T.; Tuan, H. S.; Parekh, J. P.; Craig, A. E.; Lee, J. N.


    The experimentally determined bandwidth of the interaction of laser light with magnetostatic waves (MSWs) has been limited, until recently, to about 30 MHz. This limitation is caused by the pronounced dispersiveness of the MSW. We report an approach employing an inhomogeneous bias magnetic field which has yielded a significant improvement in the bandwidth of Bragg diffraction of an optical guided wave from magneto-static forward volume waves (MSFVWs). In the experiment, a bandwidth of about 350 MHz was observed.

  3. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    It has been predicted that electric vehicles will play a crucial role in incorporating a large renewable component in the energy sector. If electric vehicles are integrated in a naive way, they may exacerbate issues related to peak demand and transmission capacity limits while not reducing pollut...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  4. Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma (United States)

    Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk


    The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.

  5. The Jindalee ionospheric sounding system (United States)

    Earl, G. F.

    The objectives, geometry, and principles of the Jindalee FMCW ionospheric sounding system are described. The system is intended to collect sounding data (backscatter, oblique, vertical incidence) for a synoptic study of propagation conditions; data collection is to operate unattended 24 hours a day; all data are to be calibrated in absolute units; there are to be on-line displays and automated interpretation for real-time frequency management; and data are to be tape-recorded for off-line statistical analysis. The system provides the main radar with real-time propagating advice for the selection of optimum operating frequencies and acquires a synoptic data base for the off-line analysis of propagation conditions. Facilities of the system are located at Mt Everard (20 km northwest of Alice Springs), at Harts Range (100 km northeast of Alice Springs), and at Darwin. Ionograms and ionogram plots after computer cleanup are given.

  6. CDDIS_GNSS_products_ionosphere_rapid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionosphere Total Electron Content (TEC) grids derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. These products are the generated by analysis...

  7. Intense Harmonic Emissions Observed in Saturn's Ionosphere (United States)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Kurth, W. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Ye, S.-Y.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hadid, L. Z.


    The Cassini spacecraft's first Grand Finale orbit was carried out in April 2017. This set of 22 orbits had an inclination of 63° with a periapsis grazing Saturn's ionosphere, thus providing unprecedented coverage and proximity to the planet. Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument repeatedly detected intense electrostatic waves and their harmonics near closest approach in the dayside equatorial topside ionosphere. The fundamental modes were found to both scale and trend best with the H+ plasma or lower hybrid frequencies, depending on the plasma composition considered. The fine-structured harmonics are unlike previous observations, which scale with cyclotron frequencies. We explore their generation mechanism and show strong evidence of their association with whistler mode waves, consistent with theory. The possibility of Cassini's presence in the ionosphere influencing the resonance and harmonics is discussed. Given their link to the lower hybrid frequency, these emissions may offer clues to constraining Saturn's ionospheric properties.

  8. MAVEN Observations of Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars (United States)

    Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Shaver, S. R.; Thayer, J. P.; Huba, J. D.; Lillis, R.; Usanova, M. E.; Espley, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Mcfadden, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Elrod, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Jakosky, B. M.


    Ionospheric irregularities associated with horizontal magnetic fields below 200 km altitude are observed at Mars. Plasma density modulations of up to 200% are observed during such events and appear correlated with fluctuations in the magnetic field. The observed fluctuations are likely Doppler shifted and represent spatial structures at length scales of 15-20 km or less. Conditions in the Martian ionosphere below 200 km are synonymous with the terrestrial E region, where ionospheric irregularities have been extensively studied. Interestingly, the irregularities at Mars appear to be electromagnetic in nature, in contrast to the electrostatic nature of irregularities at Earth. It is currently unclear what the primary drivers of these irregularities at Mars are, and further study is needed to explain these important phenomenon within the Martian ionosphere.

  9. CDDIS_GNSS_products_ionosphere_predicted (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionosphere Total Electron Content (TEC) grids derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. These products are the generated by analysis...

  10. The magnetohydrodynamic description of Earth's ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, B P


    The wave propagation in the partially ionized ionosphere plays an important role in the magnetosphere ionosphere coupling. For example, the ionosphere may supports very low-frequency Alfven wave which can be caused by a balance between the bulk fluid inertia (mostly due to neutrals in the lower and middle E region) and the deformation of the magnetic field. The plasma neutral collisional momentum exchange facilitates the transfer of the magnetic stress (felt directly by the ions) to the neutrals. Therefore, in the low-frequency (with respect to the neutral ion collision frequency) limit, waves through the ionosphere can propagate with very little damping. In the vanishing plasma inertia limit, waves can be excited due to the loading of neutral inertia on the field lines and thus may have very long wavelength and can easily couple to the magnetosphere. The frequency of these waves are below few Hz.

  11. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  12. The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael C


    Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud

  14. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications


    Memarzadeh, Y.


    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer the high temporal resolution GNSS network data into the spatial domain. This objective led to the development of a recursive physics-based model for the regular TEC variations and an algorithm for r...

  15. Experiments on the Ionospheric Models in GNSS


    Vinh, La The; Quang, Phuong Xuan; García Rigo, Alberto; Rovira Garcia, Adrià; Ibáñez Segura, Deimos


    In GNSS, one of the main error sources of the Standard Positioning Service (SPS) is introduced by the ionosphere. Although this error can be cancelled by combining two signals at different frequencies, most of the single - frequency mass - market receivers do not benefit from this cancel l ation. For that reason, a set of parameter s is included in the navigation message in order to compute the ionospheric delay of any observation by the Klobuchar mod...

  16. Holes: Ionospheric Scintillation, GPS and Imputation (United States)


    by Klobuchar [Parkinson et al., 1996]. 2.3.2 Definition, Characteristics and Models. The situation for scintillation, sadly, is not so simple.Groves...and J. A. Klobuchar (2003), Ionospheric scintillation effects on single and dual frequency gps positioning, in Proceedings of ION GPS/GNSS 2003... Klobuchar (1996), Commercial ionospheric scintillation monitoring receiver development and test results, in Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the

  17. Modeling Weather in the Ionosphere using the Navy's Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES) (United States)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Zawdie, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Coker, C.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.


    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has recently developed a ground-to-space atmosphere-ionosphere prediction capability, the Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES). HITIDES is the U.S. Navy's first coupled, physics-based, atmosphere-ionosphere model, one in which the atmosphere extends from the ground to the exobase ( 500 km altitude) and the ionosphere reaches several 10,000 km in altitude. HITIDES has been developed by coupling the extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X) with NRL's ionospheric model, Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3). Integrated into this model are the effects of drivers from atmospheric weather (day-to-day meteorology), the Sun, and the changing high altitude composition. To simulate specific events, HITIDES can be constrained by data analysis products or observations. We have performed simulations of the ionosphere during January-February 2010 in which lower atmospheric weather patterns have been introduced using the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) data assimilation products. The same time period has also been simulated using the new atmospheric forecast model, the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), which has replaced NOGAPS-ALPHA. The two simulations are compared with each other and with observations of the low latitude ionosphere. We will discuss the importance of including lower atmospheric meteorology in ionospheric simulations to capture day-to-day variability as well as large-scale longitudinal structure in the low-latitude ionosphere. In addition, we examine the effect of the variability on HF radio wave propagation by comparing simulated ionograms calculated from the HITIDES ionospheric specifications to ionosonde measurements.

  18. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation (United States)

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin


    In this work we have investigated the global ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 using GSM TIP (Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere) simulation results. In the GSM TIP storm time model runs, several input parameters such as cross-polar cap potential difference and R2 FAC (Region 2 Field-Aligned Currents) varied as a function of the geomagnetic activity AE-index. Current simulation also uses the empirical model of high-energy particle precipitation by Zhang and Paxton. In this model, the energy and energy flux of precipitating electrons depend on a 3 hour Kp-index. We also have included the 30 min time delay of R2 FAC variations with respect to the variations of cross-polar cap potential difference. In addition, we use the ground-based ionosonde data for comparison our model results with observations. We present an analysis of the physical mechanisms responsible for the ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storms. The obtained simulation results are used by us as a medium for HF radio wave propagation at different latitudes in quiet conditions, and during main and recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. To solve the problem of the radio wave propagation we used Zakharov's (I. Kant BFU) model based on geometric optics. In this model the solution of the eikonal equation for each of the two normal modes is reduced using the method of characteristics to the integration of the six ray equation system for the coordinates and momentum. All model equations of this system are solved in spherical geomagnetic coordinate system by the Runge-Kutta method. This model was tested for a plane wave in a parabolic layer. In this study, the complex refractive indices of the ordinary and extraordinary waves at ionospheric heights was calculated for the first time using the global first-principal model of the thermosphere-ionosphere system that describes the parameters of an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium during a

  19. LIFDAR: A Diagnostic Tool for the Ionosphere (United States)

    Kia, O. E.; Rodgers, C. T.; Batholomew, J. L.


    ITT Corporation proposes a novel system to measure and monitor the ion species within the Earth's ionosphere called Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection and Ranging (LIFDAR). Unlike current ionosphere measurements that detect electrons and magnetic field, LIFDAR remotely measures the major contributing ion species to the electron plasma. The LIFDAR dataset has the added capability to demonstrate stratification and classification of the layers of the ionosphere to ultimately give a true tomographic view. We propose a proof of concept study using existing atmospheric LIDAR sensors combined with a mountaintop observatory for a single ion species that is prevalent in all layers of the atmosphere. We envision the LIFDAR concept will enable verification, validation, and exploration of the physics of the magneto-hydrodynamic models used in ionosphere forecasting community. The LIFDAR dataset will provide the necessary ion and electron density data for the system wide data gap. To begin a proof of concept, we present the science justification of the LIFDAR system based on the model photon budget. This analysis is based on the fluorescence of ionized oxygen within the ionosphere versus altitude. We use existing model abundance data of the ionosphere during normal and perturbed states. We propagate the photon uncertainties from the laser source through the atmosphere to the plasma and back to the collecting optics and detector. We calculate the expected photon budget to determine signal to noise estimates based on the targeted altitude and detection efficiency. Finally, we use these results to derive a LIFDAR observation strategy compatible with operational parameters.

  20. Brief review of the ionospheric delay models (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ping, Jin-Song; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Huang, Cheng


    Usually, the ionospheric delay models can be sorted as three types - the forecast model, the real-time model and the post-processing model. Different purpose for the application of these models is required to choose one that can be used to correct the ionospheric delay efficiently. Here we compare several ionosphere delay models often used, such as the functional model used for Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) - trigonometric series function, polynomial model, and low degree spheric harmonics function. The three models are roughly equivalent to each other in the ionosphere delay correcting for WAAS. The TEC harmonic expansion trend function can be used to analyze the long-trend variations of the ionosphere. The International Ionosphere Reference (IRI) model, as an empirical one, can reach 60 percent of the correcting effect. The Klobuchar model as the GPS broadcast model can also achieve same effect although there are some shortcomings in the parameters setting. This model will be discussed here and some improving methods are presented.

  1. ionospheric effects on ionospheric effects on gps signal in low gps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    position at all different weather around the world [7]–. [9]. Using the GPS dual frequencies receiver system to eliminate ionospheric delays provides a useful tool for .... forecast for the occurrence of 1 - 2 GHz frequency scintillations in the equatorial and low latitude F region using the GPS TEC data [36, 37]. The ionospheric ...

  2. Measurements of ionospheric TEC in the direction of GPS satellites and comparison with three ionospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti


    Full Text Available The IEN Galileo Ferraris uses GPS for time and frequency synchronization. To obtain high performance it is important to reduce the error due to the ionospheric time-delay in GPS measurements. Evaluations of TEC in the direction of GPS satellites, obtained from three different ionospheric models, have been compared with corresponding measurements by GPS signal.

  3. Southern European ionospheric TEC maps based on Kriging technique to monitor ionosphere behavior (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bouza, Marta; Paparini, Claudia; Otero, Xurxo; Herraiz, Miguel; Radicella, Sandro M.; Abe, Oladipo E.; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia


    Global or regional Maps of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) are an efficient tool to monitor the delay introduced by the ionosphere in the satellite signals. Ionospheric disturbance periods are of particular interest because these conditions can strongly affect satellite navigation range measurements. This work presents post-processing regional vertical TEC maps over Southern Europe ([35°N-50°N] latitude) obtained by applying Kriging interpolation to GPS derived TEC over more than 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. These maps are used to study the behavior of the ionosphere during space weather events and their effects. To validate these maps, hereafter called Southern European Ionospheric Maps (SEIMs), their TEC values have been compared with those obtained from EGNOS Message Server (EMS) and with direct experimental TEC data from GNSS stations. Ionospheric space weather events related to geomagnetic storms of March 17th, 2013, February 19th, 2014 and March 17th, 2015 have been selected. To test the methodology, one period of quiet days has been also analyzed. TEC values obtained by SEIMs in the Ionospheric Grid Points (IGPs) defined by EGNOS are very close to those given by EMS and in the period of major geomagnetic storms the difference does not exceed 6 TEC units. These results confirm the good performance of the technique used for obtaining the SEIMs that can be a useful tool to study the ionosphere behavior during geomagnetic storms and their effects in the region of interest.

  4. Genomic mid-range inhomogeneity correlates with an abundance of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes possess different levels of non-randomness, in particular, an inhomogeneity in their nucleotide composition. Inhomogeneity is manifest from the short-range where neighboring nucleotides influence the choice of base at a site, to the long-range, commonly known as isochores, where a particular base composition can span millions of nucleotides. A separate genomic issue that has yet to be thoroughly elucidated is the role that RNA secondary structure (SS plays in gene expression. Results We present novel data and approaches that show that a mid-range inhomogeneity (~30 to 1000 nt not only exists in mammalian genomes but is also significantly associated with strong RNA SS. A whole-genome bioinformatics investigation of local SS in a set of 11,315 non-redundant human pre-mRNA sequences has been carried out. Four distinct components of these molecules (5'-UTRs, exons, introns and 3'-UTRs were considered separately, since they differ in overall nucleotide composition, sequence motifs and periodicities. For each pre-mRNA component, the abundance of strong local SS ( Conclusion We demonstrate that the excess of strong local SS in pre-mRNAs is linked to the little explored phenomenon of genomic mid-range inhomogeneity (MRI. MRI is an interdependence between nucleotide choice and base composition over a distance of 20–1000 nt. Additionally, we have created a public computational resource to support further study of genomic MRI.

  5. Behavior of Parameters of Nighttime Electron Density Enhancements of the Ionospheric F2 Layer (United States)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina


    There is known a wide class of disturbances of the F2-layer of the ionosphere, which are superimposed on the regular diurnal variations of the electron density. Different types of disturbances are characterized by different mechanisms of their generation. Traveling ionospheric disturbances appear to be the most characteristic features of the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere. Another type of ionospheric disturbances presents the nighttime electron density enhancements in the ionospheric F2- layer maximum (NmF2). This type of irregularities is described in numerous papers. There is a concept that, in spite of the various mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances generation a response of F2-layer parameters exhibits similar features associated with the upward lift and the simultaneous expansion of the layer and then its subsequent downward movement, including layer compression, which results in the formation of the electron density peak in the layer maximum at the moment of greatest compression. The aim of this study is a verification of this concept on the example of disturbances related with the nighttime electron density enhancements, and the definition of precise quantitative relationships between the variations of different F2-layer parameters for such disturbances. By using the data of the ionospheric vertical sounding in Almaty, (76° 55'E, 43°15'N) during 2001-2012, analysis of the behavior the F2-layer parameters during the night electron density enhancements was carried out within framework of a single concept of effects of various types of ionospheric plasma perturbations in variations of height and half-thickness of the F2-layer, accompanied by increasing and decreasing NmF2 at moments of maximum compression and expansion of the layer. For a quantitative analysis of the parameters of nighttime enhancements we have selected 20 nights characterized by low magnetic activity (Dst> - 50 nT) and evident manifestations of the nighttime electron density

  6. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.


    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  7. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others


    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  8. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per


    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show that in an inhomogene...... with inhomogeneous aqueous iodixanol solutions in a glass-silicon microchip....... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed......We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...

  9. Latitudinal variation of ionospheric slab thickness (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Jayachandran, B.; Krishnankutty, T. N.

    The ionospheric slab thickness τ, defined as a ratio of the total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density NmF2, is a first order measure of the shape of the electron density profile. In the present study, we use GPS-derived TEC and vertical electron content estimates ITEC from ground-based ionosonde observations together with the corresponding foF2 (F2 layer critical frequency) and hmF2 (F2 layer peak height) at 14 world-wide stations lying at different latitude regions from the geomagnetic equator to north pole. The period of study is during 2001-2002, which is close to the solar maximum phase of the 23rd solar cycle. Hourly values of TEC, ITEC, foF2, hmF2 and τ during the period of study are used to compare τ values from the observation and model predictions using the International Reference Ionosphere extended towards the plasmapause with the plasmasphere option of the Russian standard model of the ionosphere, IRI*. For the three latitudinal zones (high, mid and low latitudes) the IRI* predictions of τ are compared with observed τ values for the bottomside ionosphere (below hmF2), topside ionosphere (between hmF2 and 1000 km), plasmasphere (from 1000 to 20,000 km), and the total height range through the ionosphere and plasmasphere. Significant overestimation of τ has been revealed when using IRI*, particularly for the topside ionosphere at high latitudes. Relation of the topside part of slab thickness with the topside half peak density height above the F2 layer peak provides new characteristic parameter for modeling of the topside shape of electron density profile.

  10. Can Ionospheric Sounding Help Oceanic Monitoring ? (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P.


    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005). All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. The strong amplification mechanism of atmospheric IGW allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. In addition, the dense coverage of ionospheric sounding instruments over the oceans increases over time and more instruments will be able to provide ionospheric measurements: i.d., Doppler sounding, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) and space-based GPS data (e.g., COSMIC). Most of the ionospheric anomalies are also deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006, 2008) via the ocean/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies The sensitivity of altimeters, OTH radar, ground-based and space-based GPS measurements is analyzed in this work by the way of the modeling and data. The results are used to discuss the role of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., 173, 3, 753-1135, 2008.

  11. Ionospheric Impacts on UHF Space Surveillance (United States)

    Jones, J.; Ceron-Gomez, D.; Richards, G.


    Earth's atmosphere contains regions of ionized plasma caused by the interaction of highly energetic solar radiation. This region of ionization is called the ionosphere and varies significantly with altitude, latitude, local solar time, season, and solar cycle. Significant ionization begins at about 100 km (E layer) with a peak in the ionization at about 350 km (F2 layer). Above the F2 layer, the atmosphere is mostly ionized but the ion and electron densities are low due to the unavailability of neutral molecules for ionization so the electron density decreases exponentially with height to well over 1000 km. The gradients of these variations in the ionosphere play a significant role in radio wave propagation. These gradients induce variations in the index of refraction and cause some radio waves to refract. The amount of refraction depends on the magnitude and direction of the electron density gradient and the frequency of the radio wave. The refraction is significant at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz) with decreasing effects toward the UHF (300-3000 MHz) range. UHF is commonly used for tracking of space objects in low Earth orbit (LEO). While ionospheric refraction is small for UHF frequencies, it can cause errors in range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle estimation by ground-based radars tracking space objects. These errors can cause significant uncertainty in precise orbit determinations. For radio waves transiting the ionosphere, it is important to understand and account for these effects. Using a sophisticated radio wave propagation tool suite and an empirical ionospheric model, we calculate the errors induced by the ionosphere in a simulation of a notional space surveillance radar tracking objects in LEO. These errors are analyzed to determine correlations with ionospheric variability. Corrections to surveillance radar measurements can be adapted from our simulation capability.

  12. Delayed Buckling and Guided Folding of Inhomogeneous Capsules


    Datta, Sujit; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A


    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy’s law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  14. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions (United States)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A.; DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia


    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K, such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  15. Inhomogeneous parallel arrays of Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, J.-G., E-mail: caputo@insa-rouen.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, B.P. 8, Avenue de l' Universite, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Loukitch, L., E-mail: lionel.loukitch@insa-rouen.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, B.P. 8, Avenue de l' Universite, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France)


    Highlights: {yields} New long wave model of an inhomogeneous parallel array of Josephson junctions. {yields} Adapted spectral problem giving resonances in the current-voltage characteristic. {yields} At resonances solution is described by two ordinary differential equations. {yields} Good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. - Abstract: We model new inhomogeneous parallel arrays of small Josephson junctions by taking into account the time and space variations of the field in the cavity and the capacity miss-match at the junctions. The model consists in a wave equation with Dirac delta function sine nonlinearities. We introduce an adapted spectral problem whose spectrum gives the resonances in the current-voltage characteristic curve of any array. It is shown that at the resonances the solution is described by two simple ordinary differential equations. The resonances obtained by this approach are in good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. This flexible approach is a first step towards building a device tailored for given purposes.

  16. Inhomogeneous diffusion and ergodicity breaking induced by global memory effects. (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A


    We introduce a class of discrete random-walk model driven by global memory effects. At any time, the right-left transitions depend on the whole previous history of the walker, being defined by an urnlike memory mechanism. The characteristic function is calculated in an exact way, which allows us to demonstrate that the ensemble of realizations is ballistic. Asymptotically, each realization is equivalent to that of a biased Markovian diffusion process with transition rates that strongly differs from one trajectory to another. Using this "inhomogeneous diffusion" feature, the ergodic properties of the dynamics are analytically studied through the time-averaged moments. Even in the long-time regime, they remain random objects. While their average over realizations recovers the corresponding ensemble averages, departure between time and ensemble averages is explicitly shown through their probability densities. For the density of the second time-averaged moment, an ergodic limit and the limit of infinite lag times do not commutate. All these effects are induced by the memory effects. A generalized Einstein fluctuation-dissipation relation is also obtained for the time-averaged moments.

  17. Experimental evidence of electromagnetic pollution of ionosphere (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis

    The Earth’s ionosphere responds to external perturbations originated mainly in the Sun, which is the primary driver of the space weather (SW). But solar activity influences on the ionosphere and the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., the energy transfer in the direction of the Sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere-surface of the Earth), though important, is not a unique factor affecting its state - there is also a significant impact of the powerful natural and anthropogenic processes, which occur on the Earth’s surface and propagating in opposite direction along the Earth’s surface-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere chain. Numerous experimental data confirm that the powerful sources and consumers of electrical energy (radio transmitters, power plants, power lines and industrial objects) cause different ionospheric phenomena, for example, changes of the electromagnetic (EM) field and plasma in the ionosphere, and affect on the state of the Earth atmosphere. Anthropogenic EM effects in the ionosphere are already observed by the scientific satellites and the consequences of their impact on the ionosphere are not currently known. Therefore, it is very important and urgent task to conduct the statistically significant research of the ionospheric parameters variations due to the influence of the powerful man-made factors, primarily owing to substantial increase of the EM energy production. Naturally, the satellite monitoring of the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the frequency range from tens of hertz to tens of MHz with wide ground support offers the best opportunity to observe the EM energy release, both in the global and local scales. Parasitic EM radiation from the power supply lines, when entering the ionosphere-magnetosphere system, might have an impact on the electron population in the radiation belt. Its interaction with trapped particles will change their energy and pitch angles; as a result particle precipitations might occur. Observations of EM emission by

  18. Lightning in the Ionosphere with C/NOFS (United States)


    loca lightning, electric field, ionosphere , ionospheric plasma, plasma irregularities U U U U Prof. Robert H. Holzworth 206 685 7410 Reset INSTRUCTIONS... ionospheric plasma density irregularities and the occurrence of optical lightning activity; and the observation that lightning electric fields were often the...Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2011, abstract #AE21A-0239 On the Relationship between Lightning and Equatorial Ionosphere Density Irregularities , McCarthy

  19. Ionospheric TEC observations from TOPEX satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimer, J.A.; Ewell, V.R.; Lee, M.C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Dept.; Doherty, P.H. [Boston Coll., Newton, MA (United States). Inst. for Science Research; Decker, D.T.; Anderson, D.N.; Klobuchar, J.A. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Ionospheric Effects Branch


    Variability of Total Electron Content (TEC) in the equatorial anomaly region of the ionosphere can be studied extensively using the results of measurements taken by the NASA/CNES satellite, TOPEX/Poseidon. The NASA radar altimeter (NRA) is the first space-borne dual-frequency altimeter capable of accurately measuring vertical ionospheric TEC below 1,340 km. TOPEX TEC observations have already been used to support results from an ionospheric measurement campaign that was conducted in equatorial anomaly regions of South America by Phillips Laboratory in Spring, 1994. The best agreement in TEC values is seen during intervals of longitudinal proximity of the satellites` paths. The TOPEX over-ocean data can be used as a supplement to land based measurements in applications to ionospheric research at low and middle latitudes. This study focuses on comparisons between TOPEX vertical TEC data and GPS equivalent vertical TEC measurements taken near the East and West coastal regions of South America. Also the Phillips Laboratory Global Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) is utilized in an effort to estimate slant to vertical conversion errors.

  20. Comparison of global and regional ionospheric models (United States)

    Ranner, H.-P.; Krauss, S.; Stangl, G.


    Modelling of the Earth's ionosphere means the description of the variability of the vertical TEC (Total Electron Content) in dependence of geographic latitude and longitude, height, diurnal and seasonal variation as well as solar activity. Within the project GIOMO (next Generation near real-time IOnospheric MOdels) the objectives are the identification and consolidation of improved ionospheric modelling technologies. The global models Klobuchar (GPS) and NeQuick (currently in use by EGNOS, in future used by Galileo) are compared to the IGS (International GNSS Service) Final GIM (Global Ionospheric Map). Additionally a RIM (Regional Ionospheric Map) for Europe provided by CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is investigated. Furthermore the OLG (Observatorium Lustbühel Graz) regional models are calculated for two test beds with different latitudes and extensions (Western Austria and the Aegean region). There are three different approaches, two RIMs are based on spherical harmonics calculated either from code or phase measurements and one RIM is based on a Taylor series expansion around a central point estimated from zero-difference observations. The benefits of regional models are the local flexibility using a dense network of GNSS stations. Near real-time parameters are provided within ten minutes after every clock hour. All models have been compared according to their general behavior, the ability to react upon extreme solar events and the robustness of estimation. A ranking of the different models showed a preference for the RIMs while the global models should be used within a fall-back strategy.

  1. Ionospheric Specifications for SAR Interferometry (ISSI) (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Chapman, Bruce D; Freeman, Anthony; Szeliga, Walter; Buckley, Sean M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Lavalle, Marco


    The ISSI software package is designed to image the ionosphere from space by calibrating and processing polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data collected from low Earth orbit satellites. Signals transmitted and received by a PolSAR are subject to the Faraday rotation effect as they traverse the magnetized ionosphere. The ISSI algorithms combine the horizontally and vertically polarized (with respect to the radar system) SAR signals to estimate Faraday rotation and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) with spatial resolutions of sub-kilometers to kilometers, and to derive radar system calibration parameters. The ISSI software package has been designed and developed to integrate the algorithms, process PolSAR data, and image as well as visualize the ionospheric measurements. A number of tests have been conducted using ISSI with PolSAR data collected from various latitude regions using the phase array-type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) onboard Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite mission, and also with Global Positioning System data. These tests have demonstrated and validated SAR-derived ionospheric images and data correction algorithms.

  2. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ionospheric refraction remains a major error source in Global Positioning ... spheric error. This error is negative for carrier phase pseudoranges and positive for the code pseudoranges (Komjathy 1997). The ionospheric delay is ... cause significant changes in the ionospheric morphology, producing large delays of.

  3. Monitoring the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an IRI model assisted GPS-based Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) technique is developed to inverse the ionospheric electron density (IED) distribution over China. Essentially, an improved algebraic reconstruction technique (IART) is first proposed to reconstruct the ionospheric images with high ...

  4. Use of the oblique ionospheric sounding data for detection internal gravity waves in bottom thermosphere (United States)

    Bochkarev, V.; Petrova, I.; Teplov, V.

    The opportunity of use of the oblique ionospheric sounding data for study Internal Gravity Waves at heights of 80-150 kms is discussed in this report. The moving of electronic concentration inhomogeneities caused by passage of Internal Gravity Waves, is resulted in variations of radiowave parameters, such as angle of arrival, phase and Doppler shift of frequency. It is necessary to distinguish variations caused to passages of Internal Gravity Waves from variations caused by other reasons (interference of modes, turbulent scattering etc.). For this purpose the modelling estimations and information on properties of Internal Gravity Waves are used. The period of Internal Gravity Waves depends on Brant- Vaisala's frequency, which is determined by size of a density gradient , and angle between a vector of phase speed and vertical line. The Brant-Vaisala's frequency changes a little (and slowly), therefore angle of a wave vector with a vertical line can be estimated on the period of these variations. Inhomo geneities, which are oriented along a radio beam, do not cause changes of vertical arrival angle. Inhomogeneities, which are oriented across a radio beam, cause fluctuation angle of elevation and horizontal angle. Thus, the amplitudes and phases of Doppler shift variations of frequency and angle of arrival allow to define a direction of propagation of Internal Gravity Waves . The oblique ionospheric sounding experiment in a short-wave region was carried out in the autumn of 2001. The monitoring was carried out by a passive 4-channel complex for measurements of corners and phases with small base. As a result of processing measurements the periodic variations of parameters of an oblique sounding signal which can be interpreted as caused by propagation of Internal Gravity Waves.

  5. Representation of the Auroral and Polar Ionosphere in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo


    This issue of Advances in Space Research presents a selection of papers that document the progress in developing and improving the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), a widely used standard for the parameters that describe the Earths ionosphere. The core set of papers was presented during the 2010 General Assembly of the Committee on Space Research in Bremen, Germany in a session that focused on the representation of the auroral and polar ionosphere in the IRI model. In addition, papers were solicited and submitted from the scientific community in a general call for appropriate papers.

  6. Incredibly distant ionospheric responses to earthquake (United States)

    Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel


    Attempts to observe ionospheric responses to the earthquake has been going on for decades. In recent years, the greatest progress in the study of this question have GPS-measurements with simultaneous HF-measurements. The use of a dense network of GPS-receivers and getting with it sufficiently detailed two-dimensional maps of the total electron content (TEC) greatly clarified the nature of the ionospheric response to strong earthquakes. For ionospheric responses observation, that are remote more than 1000 km from the strong earthquakes epicentres, it is necessary to applying more sensitive methods than GPS. The most experience in the observation of the ionospheric responses to earthquakes accumulated with Doppler sounding. Using these measurements, ionospheric disturbances characteristic features (signature) have been allocated, which associated with the passage of Rayleigh waves on the surface. Particular, this Rayleigh wave signatures allocation is implemented in the Nostradamus coherent backscatter radar. The authors of this method suggest using radar techniques like a sensitive "ionospheric seismometer." The most productive allocation and studying of the vertical structure ionospheric responses could be ionosonde observations. However, their typical 15 minute sounding rate is quite sufficient for observing the regular ionosphere, but it is not enough for studying the ionospheric responses to earthquakes, because ionospheric responses is often seen only in one ionogram and it is absent in adjacent. The decisive factor in establishing the striking ionospheric response to the earthquake was the Tohoku earthquake in 2011, when there was three ionosondes distant at 870-2000 km from the epicentre. These ionosondes simultaneously showed distortion of the F1-layer traces as its multiple stratification (multiple-cusp signature - MCS), which generated by Rayleigh wave. Note that there was another fourth Japanese ionosonde. It is located a little further near boundaries

  7. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.


    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  8. Travelling ionospheric disturbance over California mid 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hawarey


    Full Text Available In this paper, the GPS data collected by more than 130 permanent GPS stations that belong to the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN around the launch of a Minuteman-II missile on 8 July 2000 (UTC is processed to reveal traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID all over the network on average 15 min after the launch. This TID was initially perceived to be excited by the launch itself, but this conclusion is challenged by the propagation direction. This is because this TID seems to travel towards the air force base from where the launch took place, not far away from it. This challenge is based on the assumption that TID is occurring at one single ionospheric altitude. While the nature of ionosphere supports such horizontally-guided propagation, multi-altitude ionospheric pierce points are hypothesized, which would support the suggestion that detected TID is excited by the missile launch itself, despite the apparent reverse direction of propagation. The overall analysis rules out any extra-terrestrial sources like solar flares, or seismic sources like earthquakes, which confirms the conclusion of TID excitation by the launch. There is apparent coherence of the TID for about 45 min and the propagation speed of TID within the layer of ionosphere is calculated to be approximately equal to 1230 m/s. While the usual assumption for TID is that they occur around an altitude of 350 km, such sound speed can only occur at much higher altitudes. Further research is recommended to accurately pinpoint the ionospheric pierce points and develop an algorithm to locate the source of TID in case it is totally unknown.

  9. Can Ionospheric Sounding Help Tsunami Warning Systems ? (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Lognonné, P.; Komjathy, A.; Kherani, E. A.; Crespon, F.; Mannucci, A.


    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been recently reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005). All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. The strong amplification mechanism of atmospheric IGW allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. In addition, the dense coverage of ionospheric sounding instruments over the oceans increases over time and more instruments will be able to provide ionospheric measurements: i.d., Doppler sounding, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) and space-based GPS data (e.g., COSMIC). Most of the ionospheric anomalies are also deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006), this latter will supply an useful help in the estimation of expected anomalies. The sensitivity of altimeters, OTH radar, ground-based and space-based GPS measurements is analyzed in this work by the way of the modeling. The results are used to discuss the role of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006

  10. Global Ionospheric Structure Imaged by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Lin


    Full Text Available Anew era of studying the ionospheric space weather effects has come after launch of the innovative satellite constellation, named as Formosa Satellite 3 or Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (abbreviated as FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC or F3/C in short, performing a radio occultation experiment capable of observing the global ionosphere three-dimensionally. This is the first time that a satellite constellation provides instantaneously both the lower and upper parts of the ionospheric electron density up to the satellite altitude. With more than 2500 soundings of the ionospheric vertical electron density profiles every day, ionospheric plasma structures over many continents and most of oceans, where ground-based observation is limited, are now observed continuously. Important ionospheric research topics, such as space weather effects to the ionosphere, variations of ionospheric plasma structure and dynamics produced by solar outputs, and atmosphere-ionosphere coupling processes, can be widely studied and modeled based on the three-dimensional ionospheric images constructed by the F3/C observations. After one year in orbit, a great amount of radio occultation soundings allow us to construct global ionospheric maps to study the ionospheric seasonal effects and atmosphere-ionosphere interactions. Taking advantage of the uniqueness of dense global coverage, the major physical mechanisms of the two studies are given. For study of the seasonal variation during solstice, electron density images of the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere show a clear north-to-south asymmetry which may be affected by the summer-to-winter neutral wind. Meanwhile a significant longitudinal variation at midnight is also seen in the solstitial season. Another interesting result is the four stronger equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA regions located at different longitudes. This four-peaked EIA structure may result from upward propagating nonmigrating

  11. Model of traveling ionospheric disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Yury P.


    Full Text Available A multiscale semi-empirical model of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs is developed. The model is based on the following assumptions: (1 TIDs are generated by acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs and propagate as pressure waves; (2 time intervals between adjacent extrema of atmospheric pressure oscillations in a disturbance source are constant; (3 the pressure extrema propagate from the source up to ~14 000 km at a constant horizontal velocity; (4 the velocity of each extremum is determined only by its number in a TID train. The model was validated using literature data on disturbances generated by about 20 surface and high-altitude nuclear explosions, two volcano explosions, one earthquake and by energetic proton precipitation events in the magnetospheric cusp of the northern hemisphere. Model tests using literature data show that the spatial and temporal TID periods may be predicted with an accuracy of 12%. Adequacy of the model was also confirmed by our observations collected using transionospheric sounding. The following TID parameters: amplitudes, horizontal spatial periods, and a TID front inclination angle in a vertical plane are increasing as the distance between an AGW and the excitation source is increasing. Diurnal and seasonal variability of the TID occurrence, defined as ratio of TID events to the total number of observations for the corresponding period, is not observed. However, the TID occurrence was growing from ~50% in 1987 to ~98% in 2010. The results of other studies asserting that the TID occurrence does not depend on the number of sunspots and magnetic activity are confirmed. The TID occurrence has doubled over the period from 1987 to 2010 indicating increasing solar activity which is not associated with sunspot numbers. The dynamics of spatial horizontal periods was studied in a range of 150–35 000 km.

  12. Ventilation inhomogeneity in alpha1-antitrypsin-deficient emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fregonese, L.; van Veen, H. P. A. A.; Sterk, P. J.; Stolk, J.


    The slope of phase III of the single-breath nitrogen wash-out test (sbN2-test) measures ventilation inhomogeneity and, in smokers, is strongly associated with small airways pathology. The present authors aimed to study ventilation inhomogeneity in emphysema related to type Z alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT)

  13. Superfluorescence in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening and relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Silk, J.D.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J.W


    In this paper we show how inhomogeneous broadening produces dephasing, inhibits cooperative emission and thus reduces the intensity of the SF pulse. We also show how electronic relaxation or time-dependent hyperfine interactions can mollify the effect of inhomogeneous broadening so that SF can be recovered.

  14. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  15. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Baryon inhomogeneities generated during the quark–hadron transition may alter the abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities survive up to the nucleosynthesis epoch if they are separated by a distance of at least a few metres. In this work we present a ...

  16. Origin of Inhomogeneity in Glass Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The homogeneity of a glass plays a crucial role in many applications as the inhomogeneities can provide local changes in mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal expansion coefficient. Homogeneity is not a single property of the glass, instead, it consists of several factors...... such as bubbles, striae, trace element concentration, undissolved species, and crystallised species. As it is not possible to address all the factors in a single study, this work focuses on one of the major factors: chemical striae. Up to now, the quantification of chemical striae in glasses, particularly......, in less transparent glasses, has been a challenge due to the lack of an applicable method. In this study, we have established a simple and accurate method for quantifying the extent of the striae, which is based on the scanning and picture processing through the Fourier transformation. By performing...

  17. Particle diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringuier, E, E-mail: [UFR de Physique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    This paper is an elementary introduction to particle diffusion in a medium where the coefficient of diffusion varies with position. The introduction is aimed at third-year university courses. We start from a simple model of particles hopping on a discrete lattice, in one or more dimensions, and then take the continuous-space limit so as to obtain the differential equation of diffusion. The discrete-step model is next adapted to investigate diffusion by continuous-length steps; the coefficient of diffusion is related to the mean free path. In both the discrete- and continuous-step models, the diffusion law has the Fokker-Planck (instead of Fick) pattern if the jumps are not biased and occur equally likely in all directions. Lastly, three experimental examples of diffusion in inhomogeneous media are examined; the observed law can be of a Fokker-Planck, Fick or hybrid type.

  18. Ionospheric tomography using the FORTE satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.C.


    The possibility of obtaining ionospheric profile data via tomographic techniques has elicited considerable interest in recent years. The input data for the method is a set of total electron content measurements along intersecting lines of sight which form a grid. This can conveniently be provided by a fast-moving satellite with a VHF beacon which will generate the multiple paths needed for effective tomography. Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories will launch and operate the FORTE satellite for the US Department of Energy, with launch scheduled in 1995. FORTE will provide such a beacon. Additionally, wideband VHF receivers aboard the satellite will allow corraborative measurements of ionospheric profile parameters in some cases.

  19. Using DORIS measurements for ionosphere modeling (United States)

    Dettmering, Denise; Schmidt, Michael; Limberger, Marco


    Nowadays, most of the ionosphere models used in geodesy are based on terrestrial GNSS measurements and describe the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) depending on longitude, latitude, and time. Since modeling the height distribution of the electrons is difficult due to the measurement geometry, the VTEC maps are based on the the assumption of a single-layer ionosphere. Moreover, the accuracy of the VTEC maps is different for different regions of the Earth, because the GNSS stations are unevenly distributed over the globe and some regions (especially the ocean areas) are not very well covered by observations. To overcome the unsatisfying measurement geometry of the terrestrial GNSS measurements and to take advantage of the different sensitivities of other space-geodetic observation techniques, we work on the development of multi-dimensional models of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques. Our approach consists of a given background model and an unknown correction part expanded in terms of B-spline functions. Different space-geodetic measurements are used to estimate the unknown model coefficients. In order to take into account the different accuracy levels of the observations, a Variance Component Estimation (VCE) is applied. We already have proven the usefulness of radio occultation data from space-borne GPS receivers and of two-frequency altimetry data. Currently, we test the capability of DORIS observations to derive ionospheric parameters such as VTEC. Although DORIS was primarily designed for precise orbit computation of satellites, it can be used as a tool to study the Earth's ionosphere. The DORIS ground beacons are almost globally distributed and the system is on board of various Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) with different orbit heights, such as Jason-2, Cryosat-2, and HY-2. The last generation of DORIS receivers directly provides phase measurements on two frequencies. In this contribution, we test the DORIS

  20. Magnetic zenith effect in ionospheric modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Carlson, H.C.; Pedersen, T


    The theory of ionospheric modification for the beam of powerful radio emission directed along magnetic field lines is developed. Nonlinear process of beam self-focusing on striations is shown to determine strong amplification of heating and acceleration of plasma electrons. It results in a dramatic enhancement of optic emission from the magnetic zenith region in ionospheric F-layer. An excellent agreement between the theory and recent fundamental observations at HAARP facility (Alaska) [T. Pedersen et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. (2002), in press] is demonstrated.

  1. Self-consistent Powerful Radio-wave Absorption by Artificial Ionosphere Turbulence (United States)

    Kochetov, Andrey; Menkova, Uliya; Grach, Savely

    The numerical simulations of non-linear Schrodinger equation in inhomogeneous plasma layer with pumping and damping are carried out to investigate the influence of self-consistent incident powerful electromagnetic wave absorption in the regions of plasma turbulence excitation to reflection index dynamics. The damping of electromagnetic wave is taking into account by including in the set of equations (Kochetov A.V., Mironov V. A., Terina G.I., Strong Turbulence Effects in Artificially Disturbed Ionosphere, Adv. Space.Res. 2002,vol.29, No.9, p.1369) imaginary part of plasma dielectric permitivity in the vicinity of wave reflection point in the regions with strong electromagnetic field. The large range of damping parameters: threshold, decrement; different amplitude dependence, including hysteretic one, is studied, in particular, in correlation to (V. D. Shapiro, V. I. Shevchenko, Handbook of Plasma Physics, Eds. A. A. Galeev, R N. Sudan, Elsevier, 1984, vol.2, p.119). It is obtained for some regimes that the calculated reflection index dynamics agrees qualitatively to the experimental results (B. Thide, E. N. Sergeev, S. M. Grach,T. B. Leyser, T. D. Carrozi, Competition between Langmuir and upper hybrid turbulence in an HF pumped ionosphere, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, vol. 95, no.25, p. 255002). The work is supported in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research by the grant No. 06-02-17334.

  2. Penetration characteristics of electromagnetic emissions from an underground seismic source into the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere (United States)

    Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.; Rafalsky, V. A.


    Theoretical calculations are made on electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 10(exp -2) to 10(exp 2) Hz on the ground surface and above the ionosphere induced by stochastic microcurrent activity inside the future seismic sources on the assumption of cylindrical symmetry of the effective current and three types of polarization. The inhomogeneity of the ground and atmosphere conductivity and anisotropy of the ionosphere are taken into consideration. The intensity of ULF magnetic and electric precursors observed on the ground, and their spatial distribution can be explained by using the results of the present computations. It is found that only the fields from a magnetic type source can penetrate into the magnetosphere and generate propagating Alfven waves. The expected values of magnetospheric electric and magnetic field are 1-10 microV/m/square root of Hz and 1-10 pT/square root of Hz respectively, and the horizontal scale of their distribution is about 100-200 km. Finally, these theoretical predictions are compared with the corresponding results of satellite observations.

  3. Methodology and consistency of slant and vertical assessments for ionospheric electron content models (United States)

    Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül


    A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.

  4. Methodology and consistency of slant and vertical assessments for ionospheric electron content models (United States)

    Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül


    A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.

  5. Ionospheric scintilations over the polish LOFAR station PL610 (United States)

    Pożoga, Mariusz; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Grzesiak, Marcin; Przepiórka, Dorota


    Using polish station PL610 of international LOFAR interferometer we present here observations of ionospheric scintillation over station. Scintillation phenomenon occurs as a result of variations in the refractive index of the medium through which waves are traveling. In particular Earth's ionosphere is strongly variable medium where high density gradients occure. Scintillation measurements may be successfully used to study the irregular structure of the ionosphere. The LOFAR telescope operates at frequencies from 10 to 240 MHz thus provides good opportunity to broad-band study of ionospheric irregularities. During the local mode periods four strong radio sources (LOFAR bright A-team sources) were observed in order to measure ionospheric scintillations.

  6. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  7. Ionospheric effects of magnetic storm observed by means of oblique sounding of artificial ionospheric turbulence (United States)

    Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Ponyatov, A. A.

    Results of experimental studies of the influence of the artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) on HF propagation are presented. Ionospheric modification and the creation of a scatterer was produced by powerful radio emission of the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod region). For diagnostics of the AIT were used the Russian chirp sounders network and HF Doppler radar. The reception of scattered signals was carried out in the Rostov-Don on the oblique V-type antenna oriented to the SURA heating facility. It is investigated ionospheric effects of magnetic storm during August 17-22, 2003 accompanied a period of the experiment. It is shown that ionospheric effects of the magnetic storm observed by means of Doppler frequency shift (DFS) measurements signals scattered from artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities correlate well with the behavior of the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field and with variations in the geomagnetic field near the Earth surface. It has been found that at heights of the mid-latitude ionospheric F region under undisturbed conditions the electric field and the drift velocity of irregularities correspond to the typical values about 1 mV m-1 and 20 m s-1, respectively. During magnetic storm these values increase up to values of about 8.6 mV m-1 and 186 m s-1, which better correspond to the values typical for the high-latitude ionosphere. It is found that in the magnetically-disturbed period sporadically appearing trains with quasi-periodical modulation of DFS for the scattered signal with a period of ˜ 40-60 s and amplitude reaching 2 Hz were observed. The relation of the quasi-periodical oscillations of the DFS for the scattered signal to the presence of magnetohydrodynamics waves excited during a magnetic storm is considered. It is concluded that use HF Doppler radar for AIT sounding is of interest for diagnostics of wave processes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The conditions of formation of the HF

  8. A review of ionospheric effects on Earth-space propagation (United States)

    Klobuchar, J. A.


    A short description is given of each ionospheric total electron content (TEC) effect upon radio waves, along with a representative value of the magnitude of each of these effects under normal ionospheric conditions. A discussion is given of the important characteristics of average ionospheric TEC behavior and the temporal and spatial variability of TEC. Radio waves undergo several effects when they pass through the Earth's ionosphere. One of the most important of these effects is a retardation, or group delay, on the modulation or information carried on the radio wave that is due to its encounter with the free, thermal electrons in the Earth's ionosphere. Other effects the ionosphere has on radio waves include: radio frequency (RF) carrier phase advance; Doppler shift of the RF carrier of the radio wave; Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized waves; angular refraction or bending of the radio wave path as it travels through the ionosphere; and amplitude and phase scintillations.

  9. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magneticreconnection: I. ionospheric convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model for predicting the evolution of the pattern of ionospheric convection in response to general time-dependent magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet of the geomagnetic tail. The model quantifies the concepts of ionospheric flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992, assuming a uniform spatial distribution of ionospheric conductivity. The model is demonstrated using an example in which travelling reconnection pulses commence near noon and then move across the dayside magnetopause towards both dawn and dusk. Two such pulses, 8min apart, are used and each causes the reconnection to be active for 1min at every MLT that they pass over. This example demonstrates how the convection response to a given change in the interplanetary magnetic field (via the reconnection rate depends on the previous reconnection history. The causes of this effect are explained. The inherent assumptions and the potential applications of the model are discussed. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  10. Contribution of the International Reference Ionosphere to the progress of the ionospheric representation (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter


    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), a joint project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), is a data-based reference model for the ionosphere and since 2014 it is also recognized as the ISO (International Standardization Organization) standard for the ionosphere. The model is a synthesis of most of the available and reliable observations of ionospheric parameters combining ground and space measurements. This presentation reviews the steady progress in achieving a more and more accurate representation of the ionospheric plasma parameters accomplished during the last decade of IRI model improvements. Understandably, a data-based model is only as good as the data foundation on which it is built. We will discuss areas where we are in need of more data to obtain a more solid and continuous data foundation in space and time. We will also take a look at still existing discrepancies between simultaneous measurements of the same parameter with different measurement techniques and discuss the approach taken in the IRI model to deal with these conflicts. In conclusion we will provide an outlook at development activities that may result in significant future improvements of the accurate representation of the ionosphere in the IRI model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)


    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  12. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paparelli


    Full Text Available Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH. We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided.

  13. Ionosphere and its Influence on Radio Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Ionosphere and its Influence on Radio Communications. R S Dabas. General Article Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 28-43. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  14. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.


    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  15. Method for Canceling Ionospheric Doppler Effect (United States)

    Vessot, R. F. C.


    Unified transponder system with hydrogen-maser oscillators at both stations can compensate for both motional and ionospheric components of Doppler shift. Appropriate choices of frequency shift in output of mixer m3. System exploits proportionality between dispersive component of frequency shift and reciprocal of frequency to achieve cancellation of dispersive component at output.

  16. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in the space weather studies. Scintillation is a major problem in navigation application using GPS and in satellite communication at ...

  17. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  18. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in ... Severe amplitude fading and strong scintillation affect the reliability of GPS navigational system and satellite communication.

  19. Assessment studies on the inversion of satellite to satellite electron content to obtain electron density profiles in the ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hochegger, G P


    The electron content data, obtained by satellite-to-satellite occultations of radio signals can lead to height profiles of electron density by discrete inversion. Since there is no possibility to verify such profiles by means of other measurements (practically never measurements at the same time and same location) it was necessary to simulate occultation scenarios by means of an ionosphere model to obtain a large number of comparisons sufficient for investigations on a statistical basis. The obtained electron contents were inverted and compared with electron density height profiles, obtained with the same ionospheric model for the occultation point. The differences between these profiles were investigated (difference between the F2-peak maxima, the height of the maxima, the shape of the topside and bottom side ionosphere). Since simulations were done for chosen locations (250 randomly spread on the globe) for every month and every second hour and for two solar activity levels (HSA and LSA), a whole year was '...

  20. GPS, GNSS, and Ionospheric Density Gradients (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; O'Hanlon, B.; Humphreys, T. E.


    Ionospheric density and density gradients affect GNSS signals in two ways. They can introduce ranging errors or irregularities that form on the density gradients producing scintillation. Here we focus on the issue of ranging errors. There are two approaches to mitigating ranging errors produced by ionospheric density gradients which can be 20-30 m during major magnetic storms. The first approach is to use a reference receiver(s) to determine the ionospheric contribution to ranging errors. The ranging error is then transmitted to the user for correction within the mobile receiver. This approach is frequently referred to as differential GPS and, when multiple reference receivers are used, the system is referred to as an augmentation system. This approach is vulnerable to ionospheric gradients depending on the reference receiver spacing(s) and latency in applying the correction within the mobile receiver. The second approach is to transmit navigation signals at two frequencies and then use the relative delay between the two signals to both estimate the ranging error and calculate the correct range. Currently the dual frequency technique is used by US military receivers with an encryption key and some civilian receivers which must be stationary and average over times long compared to those required for navigation. However, the technology of space based radio navigation is changing. GPS will soon be a system with three frequencies and multiple codes. Furthermore Europe, Russia, and China are developing independent systems to complement and compete with GPS while India and Japan are developing local systems to enhance GPS performance in their regions. In this talk we address two questions. How do density gradients affect augmentation systems including the social consequences and will the new GPS/GNSS systems with multiple civilian frequencies be able to remove ionospheric errors. The answers are not at all clear.

  1. Remote Oxygen Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kalogerakis


    Full Text Available The principal optical observable emission resulting from ionospheric modification (IM experiments is the atomic oxygen red line at 630 nm, originating from the O(1D–3P transition. Because the O(1D atom has a long radiative lifetime, it is sensitive to collisional relaxation and an observed decay faster than the radiative rate can be attributed to collisions with atmospheric species. In contrast to the common practice of ignoring O-atoms in interpreting such observations in the past, recent experimental studies on the relaxation of O(1D by O(3P have revealed the dominant role of oxygen atoms in controlling the lifetime of O(1D at altitudes relevant to IM experiments. Using the most up-to-date rate coefficients for collisional relaxation of O(1D by O, N2, and O2, it is now possible to analyze the red line decays observed in IM experiments and thus probe the local ionospheric composition. In this manner, we can demonstrate an approach to remotely detect O-atoms at the altitudes relevant to IM experiments, which we call remote oxygen sensing by ionospheric excitation (ROSIE. The results can be compared with atmospheric models and used to study the temporal, seasonal, altitude and spatial variation of ionospheric O-atom density in the vicinity of heating facilities. We discuss the relevance to atmospheric observations and ionospheric heating experiments and report an analysis of representative IM data.

  2. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt


    . This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether......It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...

  3. Hydrodynamic charge and heat transport on inhomogeneous curved spaces (United States)

    Scopelliti, Vincenzo; Schalm, Koenraad; Lucas, Andrew


    We develop the theory of hydrodynamic charge and heat transport in strongly interacting quasirelativistic systems on manifolds with inhomogeneous spatial curvature. In solid-state physics, this is analogous to strain disorder in the underlying lattice. In the hydrodynamic limit, we find that the thermal and electrical conductivities are dominated by viscous effects and that the thermal conductivity is most sensitive to this disorder. We compare the effects of inhomogeneity in the spatial metric to inhomogeneity in the chemical potential and discuss the extent to which our hydrodynamic theory is relevant for experimentally realizable condensed-matter systems, including suspended graphene at the Dirac point.

  4. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.


    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements......Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We...... of graphene....

  5. Evaluation of COMPASS ionospheric model in GNSS positioning (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaogong; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Huijuan; Tang, Chengpan


    As important products of GNSS navigation message, ionospheric delay model parameters are broadcasted for single-frequency users to improve their positioning accuracy. GPS provides daily Klobuchar ionospheric model parameters based on geomagnetic reference frame, while the regional satellite navigation system of China's COMPASS broadcasts an eight-parameter ionospheric model, COMPASS Ionospheric Model(CIM), which was generated by processing data from continuous monitoring stations, with updating the parameters every 2 h. To evaluate its performance, CIM predictions are compared to ionospheric delay measurements, along with GPS positioning accuracy comparisons. Real observed data analysis indicates that CIM provides higher correction precision in middle-latitude regions, but relatively lower correction precision for low-latitude regions where the ionosphere has much higher variability. CIM errors for some users show a common bias for in-coming COMPASS signals from different satellites, and hence ionospheric model errors are somehow translated into the receivers' clock error estimation. In addition, the CIM from the China regional monitoring network are further evaluated for global ionospheric corrections. Results show that in the Northern Hemisphere areas including Asia, Europe and North America, the three-dimensional positioning accuracy using the CIM for ionospheric delay corrections is improved by 7.8%-35.3% when compared to GPS single-frequency positioning ionospheric delay corrections using the Klobuchar model. However, the positioning accuracy in the Southern Hemisphere is degraded due apparently to the lack of monitoring stations there.

  6. Self-Sustained Conditions in Inhomogeneous Fields (United States)

    Held, B.; Soulem, N.; Peyrous, R.; Spyrou, N.


    A theoretical model allowing to plot the breakdown voltage V_B as a function of the product p_d (pressure × interelectrode distance) is presented for a D.C. corona discharge. For a parabolic point, it is shown that the Paschen curve can be generalized to inhomogeneous fields, since the homogeneous fields are the asymptotic limit of this theory. The analytical expression obtained from this model is finally plotted and compared to experimental results in nitrogen and dry air. Un modèle théorique permettant de tracer le potentiel disruptif V_B en fonction du produit p_d (pression × distance interélectrodes) est présenté pour une décharge couronne en tension continue. On montre, pour une pointe parabolique, que la corbe de Paschen peut être généralisée au cas des champs inhomogènes, le cas du champ homogène étant la limite asymptotique de cette théorie, l'expression analytique obtenue à partir de ce modèle est finalement tracée et comparée aux résultats expérimentaux obtenus dans l'air et l'azote.

  7. Global 3-D FDTD Maxwell's-Equations Modeling of Ionospheric Disturbances Associated with Earthquakes Using an Optimized Geodesic Grid (United States)

    Simpson, J. J.; Taflove, A.


    We report a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational solution of Maxwell's equations [1] that models the possibility of detecting and characterizing ionospheric disturbances above seismic regions. Specifically, we study anomalies in Schumann resonance spectra in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range below 30 Hz as observed in Japan caused by a hypothetical cylindrical ionospheric disturbance above Taiwan. We consider excitation of the global Earth-ionosphere waveguide by lightning in three major thunderstorm regions of the world: Southeast Asia, South America (Amazon region), and Africa. Furthermore, we investigate varying geometries and characteristics of the ionospheric disturbance above Taiwan. The FDTD technique used in this study enables a direct, full-vector, three-dimensional (3-D) time-domain Maxwell's equations calculation of round-the-world ELF propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. Our entire-Earth model grids the annular lithosphere-atmosphere volume within 100 km of sea level, and contains over 6,500,000 grid-points (63 km laterally between adjacent grid points, 5 km radial resolution). We use our recently developed spherical geodesic gridding technique having a spatial discretization best described as resembling the surface of a soccer ball [2]. The grid is comprised entirely of hexagonal cells except for a small fixed number of pentagonal cells needed for completion. Grid-cell areas and locations are optimized to yield a smoothly varying area difference between adjacent cells, thereby maximizing numerical convergence. We compare our calculated results with measured data prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan as reported by Hayakawa et. al. [3]. Acknowledgement This work was suggested by Dr. Masashi Hayakawa, University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo. References [1] A

  8. Axi-symmetric analysis of vertically inhomogeneous elastic multilayered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW


    Full Text Available The importance of accounting for material nonlinearity and anisotropic behaviour in order to improve the resilient models for pavement materials and numerical analysis is presented in this paper. Effects of material inhomogeneity on the pavement...

  9. An oscillation criterion for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sayed


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to give an oscillation theorem for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equation of the form p(tx′+∫atx(sdσ=f(t. The paper generalizes the author's work [2].

  10. Recovery of superfluorescence in inhomogeneously broadened systems through rapid relaxation (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J. W.


    This paper shows that time-dependent hyperfine interactions of the nucleus with electrons can enhance the superfluorescence (SF) intensity by countering the destructive effect of inhomogeneous broadening on SF.

  11. Ionospheric effects on repeat-pass SAR interferometry (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Zhen, Weimin; Wu, Zhensen


    InSAR measurements can be significantly affected by the atmosphere when the radar signal propagates through the atmosphere since it varies with space and time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the tropospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating these effects. By using the basic principles of InSAR, the quantitative analysis of ionospheric delay effects on topography and surface deformation have been introduced for the first time. The measurement errors can be related to the vertical ionospheric total electron content (vTEC). By using the ionospheric observations, the effects of temporal ionospheric variations on InSAR have been analyzed. The results indicate that the ionospheric variations with time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activities can compromise the effectiveness of InSAR for both the measurement of topography and surface determination. The repeat-pass SAR interferometry errors induced by ionosphere should be corrected by actual measurements.

  12. Toward storm-time ionosphere forecast using GNSS observations (United States)

    Lin, Charles; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Tiger J. Y.; Chen, Wei-Han


    Previous theoretical simulations of the mid- and low-latitude ionospheric responses to space weather events have indicated general features of electron density disturbances. The magnetic storm produced penetration electric field and neutral wind disturbances lead to formation of various storm-time ionospheric electron density structures, such as super plasma fountain, equatorial electron density trough and F3 layer, as well as long-lasting global ionosphere suppression. We attempt to model these storm-related ionospheric electron density structures using the global assimilative ionospheric model that assimilates electron densities taken from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and TEC from ground-based GNSS receivers. Using the ensemble Kalman filter with consideration of ion densities, electric potential, thermospheric neutral wind and compositions as update variables, we study the performance and forecast capability of the assimilative model. The assimilative model could be utilized for ionosphere forecast in near future.

  13. Ionospheric responses during equinox and solstice periods over Turkey (United States)

    Karatay, Secil; Cinar, Ali; Arikan, Feza


    Ionospheric electron density is the determining variable for investigation of the spatial and temporal variations in the ionosphere. Total Electron Content (TEC) is the integral of the electron density along a ray path that indicates the total variability through the ionosphere. Global Positioning System (GPS) recordings can be utilized to estimate the TEC, thus GPS proves itself as a useful tool in monitoring the total variability of electron distribution within the ionosphere. This study focuses on the analysis of the variations of ionosphere over Turkey that can be grouped into anomalies during equinox and solstice periods using TEC estimates obtained by a regional GPS network. It is observed that noon time depletions in TEC distributions predominantly occur in winter for minimum Sun Spots Numbers (SSN) in the central regions of Turkey which also exhibit high variability due to midlatitude winter anomaly. TEC values and ionospheric variations at solstice periods demonstrate significant enhancements compared to those at equinox periods.

  14. Paraxial theory of electromagnetic waves in plane inhomogeneous media. (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen


    The problem of electromagnetic waves propagating in inhomogeneous media is formulated within the paraxial approximation. The analysis is restricted to a medium with a plane and smooth inhomogeneity. The general form of a Gaussian beam is obtained in terms of the permittivity and permeability of the medium. Particular attention is paid to the case of internal reflection, where a short-wavelength approximation breaks down; a possible treatment of the problem is proposed. A simple model is worked out to illustrate the formalism.

  15. Biexcitonic bound and continuum states of homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We investigate the influence of excitonic localization on the corresponding biexcitonic states in GaAs quantum wells by spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. With increasing localization, the biexciton binding energy increases, while the biexciton continuum shifts to higher energies....... The localization leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the biexciton binding energy and the biexciton continuum edge. Simultaneously, the oscillator strength of the biexciton continuum-edge is reduced. This is interpreted as a result of the different localization of biexcitonic and excitonic states by the random...

  16. The influence of flow maldistribution on the performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exhangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.


    of 50 random stacks having equal average channel thicknesses with 20 channels each are used to provide a statistical base. The standard deviation of the stacks is varied as are the flow rate (Reynolds number) and the thermal conductivity of the solid heat exchanger material. It is found that the heat...... transfer performance of inhomogeneous stacks of parallel plates may be reduced significantly due to the maldistribution of the fluid flow compared to the ideal homogeneous case. The individual channels experience different flow velocities and this further induces an inter-channel thermal cross talk....

  17. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahed, Hamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farshi, Behrooz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail:; Bidabadi, Jalal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far.

  18. Ionospheric scintillation in Brazil: Analyses and Effects on GNSS Positioning (United States)

    Alves, D. B.; Souza, J. S.; Silva, H. D.


    Ionosphere has a great influence on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals and its behavior depends on several variables: local time, geographic location, seasons and solar activity. Besides, there are ionospheric irregularities that also affect the GNSS signal propagation, as the ionospheric scintillation. The ionospheric scintillation can be described as a fast change in phase and amplitude of GNSS signal, caused by irregularities of electron density. Scintillation can degrade or cause the GNSS signal lost. Due to these described factors, one can say that the ionosphere can cause important effects on GNSS positioning. It can degrade the coordinate accuracy obtained by GNSS positioning methods. In this paper the goal is to evaluate the ionospheric effect, in special the ionospheric scintillation in different regions of Brazil, and its effects on GNSS Point Positioning. In order to evaluate the days where the scintillation was more significant it is used a database ( from CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America) project ( Using these data it is possible to obtain information about ionospheric scintillation in different GNSS stations in Brazil. It is possible to correlate the data according to time, season and other factors that can contribute to scintillation analysis. In 2013 must occur an intense solar activity, which can intensify the ionospheric effects, and consequently ionospheric scintillation, mainly in Brazil region, where the scintillation index is already intense. Preliminary evaluations, showed larger values of S4 (scintillation index) in Brazil. For example, in October 2012, it was obtained S4 values larger than 1 in several epochs. This causes severe effects in GNSS Positioning. In this paper, the results of GNSS positioning under ionosphere scintillation effects in different regions of Brazil will be presented.

  19. Solar cycle variations in the ionosphere of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cano, B.; Lester, M.; Witasse, Ol; Blelly, P.L.; Cartacci, M.; Radicella, S.M.; Herraiz, M.


    Solar cycle variations in solar radiation create notable changes in the Martian ionosphere, which have been analysed with Mars Express plasma datasets in this paper. In general, lower densities and temperatures of the ionosphere are found during the low solar activity phase, while higher densities and temperatures are found during the high solar activity phase. In this paper, we assess the degree of influence of the long term solar flux variations in the ionosphere of Mars. (Author)

  20. Scroll-wave dynamics in the presence of ionic and conduction inhomogeneities in an anatomically realistic mathematical model for the pig heart (United States)

    Majumder, R.; Pandit, R.; Panfilov, A. V.


    Nonlinear waves of the reaction-diffusion (RD) type occur in many biophysical systems, including the heart, where they initiate cardiac contraction. Such waves can form vortices called scroll waves, which result in the onset of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The dynamics of scroll waves is affected by the presence of inhomogeneities, which, in a very general way, can be of (i) ionic type; i.e., they affect the reaction part, or (ii) conduction type, i.e., they affect the diffusion part of an RD-equation. We demonstrate, for the first time, by using a state-of-the-art, anatomically realistic model of the pig heart, how differences in the geometrical and biophysical nature of such inhomogeneities can influence scroll-wave dynamics in different ways. Our study reveals that conduction-type inhomogeneities become increasingly important at small length scales, i.e., in the case of multiple, randomly distributed, obstacles in space at the cellular scale (0.2-0.4 mm). Such configurations can lead to scroll-wave break up. In contrast, ionic inhomogeneities affect scroll-wave dynamics significantly at large length scales, when these inhomogeneities are localized in space at the tissue level (5-10 mm). In such configurations, these inhomogeneities can attract scroll waves, by pinning them to the heterogeneity, or lead to scroll-wave breakup.

  1. Waterhole - An auroral-ionosphere perturbation experiment (United States)

    Whalen, B. A.; Yau, A. W.; Creutzberg, F.; Pongratz, M. B.

    Preliminary results of the effect of the detonation of 100 kg of high explosives into the field lines of an auroral arc are presented. The payload was rocket-borne to an altitude of 300 km, and caused a depletion of the local ionospheric F region. The explosives were a mixture of the nitromethane and ammonium nitrate, and were housed in the front of the rocket while an instrument package trailed behind. The launch vehicle was a Black Brant X, and created an expanding cloud 40 km in diam. For 130 sec, a hole was cut in the electron precipitation field, and energetic electron precipitation in the hole dropped to background levels. The luminosity of the auroral arc observed by a ground-based scanning photometer decreased by a factor of two, and the ionospheric E region density below the hole decayed at a rate implying a reduction in particle precipitation.

  2. Dynamic interactions between ionospheric plasma and spacecraft (United States)

    Snyder, David B.


    Studies of the interactions between the Space Station Freedom and ionospheric plasma led to an improved understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. Some of the issues related to developing and sustaining arcs in ionospheric conditions are considered. A technique for the estimation of the amplitude and duration of arcs is presented. The technique uses the capacitance of the system to estimate the peak current and then uses the charge stored to estimate the arc duration. As new technologies are implemented on spacecraft, new environmental compatibility issues will arise. Some of the issues related to driving dielectric surfaces with alternating current voltages are considered. The steady state charging criteria is that over an oscillation, the ion charge collected is compensated for by the electron charge collected. This tends to drive the average potential negative so that the dielectric surface is positive for only a small portion of the cycle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villa


    Full Text Available The problem of the evaluation of the so-called specific area of a random closed set, in connection with its mean boundary measure, is mentioned in the classical book by Matheron on random closed sets (Matheron, 1975, p. 50; it is still an open problem, in general. We offer here an overview of some recent results concerning the existence of the specific area of inhomogeneous Boolean models, unifying results from geometric measure theory and from stochastic geometry. A discussion of possible applications to image analysis concerning the estimation of the mean surface density of random closed sets, and, in particular, to material science concerning birth-and-growth processes, is also provided.

  4. Investigation of ionospheric irregularities by radio holography (United States)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Popov, A. A.; Tereshchenko, A. D.; Khudukon, B. Z.

    Methodological aspects of the design of a radio-holography experiment for the investigation of ionospheric irregularities are considered on the basis of a theoretical examination of the formation of a diffraction field by two coherent satellite signals. The equipment needed to implement such an experiment is described, and results of first observations performed at high latitudes (in the Murmansk region) on February 8, 1978 are examined.

  5. The ionospheric refraction at 38 MHz. (United States)

    Milogradov-Turin, J.

    The investigation of the observed shift of the North Polar Spur (NPS) at the 38 MHz survey of Milogradov-Turin and Smith (1973) in respect to the position of the NPS on the survey at 408 MHz convolved to the same resolution (Haslam and Salter 1977) has shown that there is no dependence of the NPS position on frequency and that the ionospheric refraction should be larger than believed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS


    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  7. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques (United States)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.


    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  8. Ionosphere monitoring and forecast activities within the IAG working group "Ionosphere Prediction" (United States)

    Hoque, Mainul; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Erdogan, Eren; Cueto Santamaría, Marta; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Schmidt, Michael; Wilken, Volker


    Ionospheric disturbances can affect technologies in space and on Earth disrupting satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems. As the world becomes ever more dependent on these technologies, ionospheric disturbances as part of space weather pose an increasing risk to the economic vitality and national security. Therefore, having the knowledge of ionospheric state in advance during space weather events is becoming more and more important. To promote scientific cooperation we recently formed a Working Group (WG) called "Ionosphere Predictions" within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) under Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing" of the Commission 4 "Positioning and Applications". The general objective of the WG is to promote the development of ionosphere prediction algorithm/models based on the dependence of ionospheric characteristics on solar and magnetic conditions combining data from different sensors to improve the spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity taking advantage of different sounding geometries and latency. Our presented work enables the possibility to compare total electron content (TEC) prediction approaches/results from different centers contributing to this WG such as German Aerospace Center (DLR), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Technische Universität München (TUM) and GMV. DLR developed a model-assisted TEC forecast algorithm taking benefit from actual trends of the TEC behavior at each grid point. Since during perturbations, characterized by large TEC fluctuations or ionization fronts, this approach may fail, the trend information is merged with the current background model which provides a stable climatological TEC behavior. The presented solution is a first step to regularly provide forecasted TEC services via SWACI/IMPC by DLR. UPC forecast model is based on applying linear regression to a temporal window of TEC maps in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain

  9. International Reference Ionosphere 2016: From ionospheric climate to real-time weather predictions (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Altadill, D.; Truhlik, V.; Shubin, V.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Huang, X.


    The paper presents the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2016) describing the most important changes and improvements that were included with this version and discussing their impact on the IRI predictions of ionospheric parameters. IRI-2016 includes two new model options for the F2 peak height hmF2 and a better representation of topside ion densities at very low and high solar activities. In addition, a number of smaller changes were made concerning the use of solar indices and the speedup of the computer program. We also review the latest developments toward a Real-Time IRI. The goal is to progress from predicting climatology to describing the real-time weather conditions in the ionosphere.

  10. Formation of ionospheric irregularities over Southeast Asia during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Di Mauro, Domenico; Pezzopane, Michael; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Musicò, Elvira; Povero, Gabriella; Pini, Marco; Dovis, Fabio; Romero, Rodrigo; Linty, Nicola; Abadi, Prayitno; Nuraeni, Fitri; Husin, Asnawi; Le Huy, Minh; Lan, Tran Thi; La, The Vinh; Pillat, Valdir Gil; Floury, Nicolas


    ...), covering a wide longitudinal sector of the low‐latitude ionosphere. A regional characterization of the storm is provided, identifying the peculiarities of ionospheric irregularity formation...

  11. Statistical properties of ionospheric stimulated electromagnetic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Karlsson


    Full Text Available We have analysed the statistical properties of the stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE spectral features in the steady state, reached after a long period of continuous HF pumping of the ionosphere in experiments performed at the Sura ionospheric radio research facility in Russia. Using a digital filter bank method, we have been able to analyse complex valued signals within narrow frequency bands. Each of the SEE spectral features are thereby separated into a number of narrow spectral components. Statistical tests were performed for all these spectral components and the distributions of the spectral amplitudes and phases were evaluated. Also, a test for sinusoidal components was performed. These tests showed that all observed SEE features were indistinguishable from coloured Gaussian noise. The test results exclude that the SEE features can be the result of a single isolated coherent process, but does not rule out that there could be many statistically independent parametric wave-wave processes taking place simultaneously at various parts of the HF-pumped ionosphere, as long as the superposition from all these is incoherent. Furthermore, from the test results, we cannot exclude the possibility that the waveforms of some, or all, of the SEE features may be chaotic.

  12. Equinoctial transitions in the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available Equinoctial summer/winter transitions in the parameters of the F2-region are analyzed using ground-based ionosonde and incoherent scatter observations. Average transition from one type of diurnal NmF2 variation to another takes 20–25 days, but cases of very fast (6–10 days transitions are observed as well. Strong day-time NmF2 deviations of both signs from the monthly median, not related to geomagnetic activity, are revealed for the transition periods. Both longitudinal and latitudinal variations take place for the amplitude of such quiet time NmF2 deviations. The summer-type diurnal NmF2 variation during the transition period is characterized by decreased atomic oxygen concentration [O] and a small equatorward thermospheric wind compared to winter-type days with strong poleward wind and increased [O]. Molecular N2 and O2 concentrations remain practically unchanged in such day-to-day transitions. The main cause of the F2-layer variations during the transition periods is the change of atomic oxygen abundance in the thermosphere related to changes of global thermospheric circulation. A possible relationship with an equinoctial transition of atomic oxygen at the E-region heights is discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry – Ionosphere (ionosphere- atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  13. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS – a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferencz Csaba


    Full Text Available In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service ( offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  14. Temporal distribution characteristics of GNSS ionospheric occultation data and its effects in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying


    Full Text Available The temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are analyzed in detail, and the limitations in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection caused by the temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are discussed using the example of the Wenchuan earthquake. The results demonstrate that there is no fixed temporal resolution for COSMIC occultation data when compared with other ionospheric observation techniques. Therefore, occultation data cannot currently be independently utilized in research studies but can only be used as a complement to other ionospheric observation techniques for applications with high temporal resolution demands, such as earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection.

  15. IGS-global ionospheric maps for accurate computation of GPS single- frequency ionospheric delay-simulation study (United States)

    Farah, A.

    The Ionospheric delay is still one of the largest sources of error that affects the positioning accuracy of any satellite positioning system. This problem could be solved due to the dispersive nature of the Ionosphere by combining simultaneous measurements of signals at two different frequencies but it is still there for single- frequency users. Much effort has been made in establishing models for single- frequency users to make this effect as small as possible. These models vary in accuracy, input data and computational complexity, so the choice between the different models depends on the individual circumstances of the user. From the simulation point of view, the model needed should be accurate with a global coverage and good description to the Ionosphere's variable nature with both time and location. The author reviews some of these established models, starting with the BENT model, the Klobuchar model and the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model. Since quiet a long time, Klobuchar model considers the most widely used model ever in this field, due to its simplicity and time saving. Any GPS user could find Klobuchar model's coefficients in the broadcast navigation message. CODE, Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe provides a new set of coefficients for Klobuchar model, which gives more accurate results for the Ionospheric delay computation. IGS (International GPS Service) services include providing GPS community with a global Ionospheric maps in IONEX-format (IONosphere Map Exchange format) which enables the computation of the Ionospheric delay at the desired location and time. The study was undertaken from GPS-data simulation point of view. The aim was to select a model for the simulation of GPS data that gives a good description of the Ionosphere's nature with a high degree of accuracy in computing the Ionospheric delay that yields to better-simulated data. A new model developed by the author based on IGS global Ionospheric maps. A comparison


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  17. A tractable molecular theory of flow in strongly inhomogeneous fluids (United States)

    Bitsanis, I.; Vanderlick, T. K.; Tirrell, M.; Davis, H. T.


    A recently introduced model is used to study several flows in fluids with large density variations over distances comparable to their molecular dimensions (strongly inhomogeneous fluids). According to our model, the local average density model (LADM), local viscosity coefficients can be assigned at each point in a strongly inhomogeneous fluid and the stress tensor retains its Newtonian form provided that the properly defined local viscosities are used. The model has been previously shown to agree with the results of molecular dynamics simulations on diffusion and flow properties in plane Couette flow. Application of this model requires determination of the molecular density profiles in the flow region. Using a successful closure for the pair distribution function, we solve the Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) equation of fluid structure in order to determine the density profiles of a fluid confined between planar micropore walls only a few molecular diameters apart. The fluid confinement produces a strongly inhomogeneous structure. Subsequently we apply LADM to set up the fluid mechanical equations for Couette flow, Poiseuille flow, and squeezing flow between parallel plates. With the use of the YBG theoretical density profiles we solve the flow equations and predict velocity profiles, stress distributions, and effective viscosities. The dependence of these quantities on the fluid inhomogeneity is described. The effective viscosity of strongly inhomogeneous fluids is found to be quite sensitive to the nature of the flow. Our squeezing flow analysis provides a first explanation of recent experimental findings on the effective viscosity of simple fluids confined in very narrow spaces.

  18. Lung liquid and protein exchange: the four inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Staub, N C


    William of Ockham, 14th-century scholastic philosopher at Oxford and Munich, emphasized the principle of economy, "pleurality is not to be supposed without necessity" (Ockham's razor). Necessity is the key word. In the modeling of steady-state lung liquid and protein exchange, the desire for simplicity has sometimes outweighed good judgment. In fact, we and others have shown that simple models do not work. It is necessary to include several forms of inhomogeneity. The air-filled lung shows regional (top to bottom) variations of mass, microvascular pressure, and perimicrovascular protein concentration. Normally, the small longitudinal (arterioles to venules) gradient of microvascular and perimicrovascular pressures is not a major concern, but in nonuniform disease processes, such as microembolism, longitudinal inhomogeneity, and parallel inhomogeneity are dominant. Multiple pores should also be considered a form of inhomogeneity. The effect on liquid and protein exchange, when plasma protein concentration or microvascular pressure change, can be readily explained using pore heterogeneity. The model I am currently using consists of a large number of discrete compartments (18), rather than a continuous distribution. We have recently identified a fifth inhomogeneity, which is that lung lymph flow might not always represent steady-state transvascular filtration because interstitial liquid may leak through the pleura or along the bronchovascular liquid cuffs into the mediastinum.

  19. Inhomogeneity in microstructure and mechanical properties during twist extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, Sh. Vakili [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivani, A.R., E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaei, M. [Material Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present paper, the effect of twist extrusion (TE) on the variations of hardness and tensile properties in commercial pure copper is investigated. It is found that hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy increased by increasing distance from the center of the sample after one pass TE. Similar consequences are observed when the second pass of deformation is considered. This is attributed to inhomogeneity of deformation and the higher strain imposed on the material at the peripheral regions. It should be noted that the inhomogeneity is increased at the second pass when route A of deformation is utilized and reduces by utilization of route D. This has as a well-established effect on the development of microstructure throughout the cross section of the samples. In fact, it is found that the microstructure at the peripheral regions is more significantly deformed leading to higher dislocation density and extensive subgrain formation. In addition, it is found that at the second pass using route A, inhomogeneity of deformation and microstructure increases. However, less inhomogeneity is observed when route D is utilized which is in line with the hardness and tensile test results. In the end, it is concluded that depending on the aim of the SPD process, if more homogeneous deformation and microstructure is required, route D is recommended and route A should be utilized in case if maximum inhomogeneity is desirable.

  20. Ionosonde measurements in Bayesian statistical ionospheric tomography with incoherent scatter radar validation (United States)

    Norberg, J.; Virtanen, I. I.; Roininen, L.; Vierinen, J.; Orispää, M.; Kauristie, K.; Lehtinen, M. S.


    We validate two-dimensional ionospheric tomography reconstructions against EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements. Our tomography method is based on Bayesian statistical inversion with prior distribution given by its mean and covariance. We employ ionosonde measurements for the choice of the prior mean and covariance parameters, and use the Gaussian Markov random fields as a sparse matrix approximation for the numerical computations. This results in a computationally efficient and statistically clear inversion algorithm for tomography. We demonstrate how this method works with simultaneous beacon satellite and ionosonde measurements obtained in northern Scandinavia. The performance is compared with results obtained with a zero mean prior and with the prior mean taken from the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 model. In validating the results, we use EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements as the ground truth for the ionization profile shape. We find that ionosonde measurements improve the reconstruction by adding accurate information about the absolute value and the height distribution of electron density, and outperforms the alternative prior information sources. With an ionosonde at continuous disposal, the presented method enhances stand-alone near real-time ionospheric tomography for the given conditions significantly.

  1. Impact of Galileo on Global Ionosphere Map Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.


    The upcoming GNSS Galileo, with its new satellite geometry and frequency plan, will not only bring many benefits for navigation and positioning but also help to improve ionosphere delay estimation. This paper investigates ionosphere estimation with Galileo and compares it with the results from

  2. Comparison of two views on the structure of ionospheric currents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two views on the structure of ionospheric currents, here symbolized as VIEW 1 and VIEW 2. The essential difference between them is that VIEW I supports the existence of two ionospheric current layers in the dip equatorial zone as measured by many rockets (Onwumechili,1992b,c). Contrary to the rocket ...

  3. Analysis of ionospheric parameters during Solar events and geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrikova Oksana


    Full Text Available The paper shows new methods of analysis of ionospheric and magnetic data applying the models of multicomponent constructions (MCM models developed by the authors. Based on ground station data, the analysis of ionospheric and magnetic data during increased solar activity was carried out.

  4. Probing ionospheric structures using the LOFAR radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; van der Tol, S.; Pandey, V.N.; Vedantham, H. K.; Brentjens, M. A.; Bruyn, A. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K. M. B.; Bregman, J. D.; Brouw, W. N.; Bus, S.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Jelic, Vibor; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Noordam, J. E.; Offringa, A. R.; Patil, A. H.; Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.


    LOFAR is the LOw-Frequency Radio interferometer ARray located at midlatitude (52°53'N). Here we present results on ionospheric structures derived from 29 LOFAR nighttime observations during the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. We show that LOFAR is able to determine differential ionospheric total

  5. Variability Of Plasma Bubble In The Equatorial Ionosphere At Midnight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are various types of ionospheric irregularities. Among these is the plasma bubble occurrence. They are most prominent at night time in the equatorial ionosphere. Many of the bubbles drift with approximately the velocity of the background plasma, but it is possible to infer that most bubbles have moved upward at some ...

  6. Ninth Workshop 'Solar Influences on the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Atmosphere' (United States)

    Georgieva, Kayta; Kirov, Boian; Danov, Dimitar


    The 9th Workshop "Solar Influences on the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Atmosphere" is an international forum for scientists working in the fields of: Sun and solar activity, Solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions, Solar influences on the lower atmosphere and climate, Solar effects in the biosphere, Instrumentation for space weather monitoring and Data processing and modelling.

  7. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and image processing are used to determine Total Electron Content (TEC) anomalies in the F-layer of the ionosphere relating to Typhoon Nakri for 29 May, 2008 (UTC). PCA and image processing are applied to the global ionospheric map (GIM) with transforms conducted for the time ...

  8. Bayesian estimation for ionospheric calibration in radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tol, S.


    Radio astronomical observations at low frequencies (< 250 MHz), can be severely distorted by fluctuations in electron density in the ionosphere. The free electrons cause a phase change of electromagnetic waves traveling through the ionosphere. This effect increases for lower frequencies. For this

  9. Ionospheric Electron Densities at Mars: Comparison of Mars Express Ionospheric Sounding and MAVEN Local Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Fowler, C.M.; Kopf, A.J.; Andersson, L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Andrews, D.J.; Truhlík, Vladimír

    in press (2017) E-ISSN 2169-9402 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Mars * ionosphere * MARS IS * Mars Express * MAVEN * radar sounding Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Influence of water vapour on the height distribution of positive ions, effective recombination coefficient and ionisation balance in the quiet lower ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barabash


    vapour concentration upper limit at altitudes between 75 and 87 km, beyond which the water vapour concentration ceases to influence the numerical densities of Cl2+ and Cl1+, the effective recombination coefficient and the electron number density in the summer ionosphere. This water vapour concentration limit corresponds to values found in the H2O-1 profile that was observed in the summer mesosphere by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The electron density modelled using the H2O-1 profile agreed well with the electron density measured in the summer ionosphere when the measured profiles did not have sharp gradients. For sharp gradients in electron and positive ion number densities, a water profile that can reproduce the characteristic behaviour of the ionospheric parameters should have an inhomogeneous height distribution of water vapour.

  11. Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation (United States)

    Wu, X.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.


    Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation Wu Xiaocheng, Hu Xiong, Zhang Yanan National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences The assumption that electron density distribution is spherically symmetric, is usually used in the traditional ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) inversion, and it is the main error source of IRO inversion. In order to improve the IRO inversion, many methods were studied. One of them uses known ionosphere background to constrain the inversion of IRO, but it has not been used in the routine processing of observation data, due to that it is difficult to get the proper ionosphere background. Data assimilation can provide accurate electron density on the three dimensional grid, which may be used to constrain the IRO inversion and improve the inversion result. This article assimilates the TEC of ground GPS and IRO observation, and the constrains the IRO inversion. The inversion result is greatly improved. Key Words: Ionospheric radio occultation, Data assimilation, Inversion, GPS

  12. Electrodynamics of the Low-Latitude Ionosphere. (United States)

    Riley, Peter

    We have undertaken a study of the low and mid latitude ionospheric electric field pattern, during both magnetospherically quiet and active periods. Our analysis can be conveniently split into two parts. i.In an effort to study the penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes, we have compared Jicamarca F-region vertical drifts for 10 radar-observation periods with the auroral boundary index (ABI). The ABI is the latitude of the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora at local midnight, as estimated from precipitating-electron fluxes measured from DMSP spacecraft. The periods occurred in the interval January 1984 to June 1991 inclusive and each lasted between 2 and 5 days. We focus on periods that occurred in September 1986, March 1990, and June 1991. In the post-midnight sector, where we expect the penetration to be strongest, we found many examples of correlation; specifically, associated with an ionospheric updraft (implying an eastward electric field) is a strong poleward motion of the auroral boundary. However, we also found a significant number of cases where there was little or no correlation. We conclude that there is only mediocre agreement between the observed Sudden Postmidnight Ionospheric Events (SPIEs) and the ABI. These SPIEs have also been compared with other magnetospheric parameters, namely D_ {rm st} IMF B_{z } and the polar cap potential. D_ {rm st} showed significantly better correlation with the SPIEs. We summarize the proposed models for SPIEs and compare their predictions with the data, concluding that no single model can account for all events. While it is clear that some of these SPIEs can be explained in terms of direct penetration of magnetospheric electric fields, we suggest that the remainder may be due to magnetospherically-generated neutral wind effects. ii. We have constructed a model of the low- and mid-latitude potential distribution, applicable for both quiet and active times. We use the Mass

  13. Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows (United States)

    So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.


    An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.

  14. Local Inhomogeneities and the Value of the Cosmological Constant (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea


    Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inho-mogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant. Neglecting the presence of the inhomogeneity can in fact introduce a systematic misinterpretation of cosmological data, leading to the distinction between an apparent and the true value of the cosmological constant. But is such a difference distinguishable? Recently we set out to model the local inhomogeneity with a ΛLTB solution and computed the relation between the apparent and the true value of the cosmological constant. In this essay we reproduce the essence of our model with the emphasis on its physical implications.

  15. Scattering of Gaussian beam by arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous particles (United States)

    Cui, Z. W.; Han, Y. P.; Wang, J. J.; Zhao, W. J.


    A hybrid finite element-boundary integral method is applied to characterize the scattering of an arbitrarily incident-focused Gaussian beam by arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous particles. Specifically, the Davis-Barton fifth-order approximation in combination with rotation Euler angles is used to represent the arbitrarily incident Gaussian beams. The finite element method is employed to formulate the fields in the interior region of the inhomogeneous particle, while the boundary integral equation is applied to represent the fields in the exterior region. The interior and exterior fields are coupled by means of the field continuity conditions. To reduce the computational burden, the frontal method and the multilevel fast multipole algorithm are adopted to solve the resultant matrix equation. Numerical results for differential scattering cross sections of several selected inhomogeneous particles are presented and can be served as further study on this subject.

  16. A method for longitudinal relaxation time measurement in inhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong


    The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) plays a crucial role in the study of spin dynamics, signal optimization and data quantification. However, the measurement of chemical shift-specific T1 constants is hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity due to poorly shimmed external magnetic fields or intrinsic magnetic susceptibility heterogeneity in samples. In this study, we present a new protocol to determine chemical shift-specific T1 constants in inhomogeneous fields. Based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences, the new method can resolve overlapped peaks in inhomogeneous fields. The measurement results are in consistent with the measurements in homogeneous fields using the conventional method. Since spatial encoding technique is involved, the experimental time for the new method is very close to that for the conventional method. With the aid of T1 knowledge, some concealed information can be exploited by T1 weighting experiments.

  17. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs (United States)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  18. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia


    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K{sub c}, which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  19. Effect of the Inhomogeneity of Ice Crystals on Retrieving Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Size (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Minnis, Patrick; Hu, Yong X.; Kattawar, George W.; Yang, Ping


    Spherical or spheroidal air bubbles are generally trapped in the formation of rapidly growing ice crystals. In this study the single-scattering properties of inhomogeneous ice crystals containing air bubbles are investigated. Specifically, a computational model based on an improved geometric-optics method (IGOM) has been developed to simulate the scattering of light by randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals containing spherical or spheroidal air bubbles. A combination of the ray-tracing technique and the Monte Carlo method is used. The effect of the air bubbles within ice crystals is to smooth the phase functions, diminish the 22deg and 46deg halo peaks, and substantially reduce the backscatter relative to bubble-free particles. These features vary with the number, sizes, locations and shapes of the air bubbles within ice crystals. Moreover, the asymmetry factors of inhomogeneous ice crystals decrease as the volume of air bubbles increases. Cloud reflectance lookup tables were generated at wavelengths 0.65 m and 2.13 m with different air-bubble conditions to examine the impact of the bubbles on retrieving ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. The reflectances simulated for inhomogeneous ice crystals are slightly larger than those computed for homogenous ice crystals at a wavelength of 0.65 microns. Thus, the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses are reduced by employing inhomogeneous ice cloud models. At a wavelength of 2.13 microns, including air bubbles in ice cloud models may also increase the reflectance. This effect implies that the retrieved effective particle sizes for inhomogeneous ice crystals are larger than those retrieved for homogeneous ice crystals, particularly, in the case of large air bubbles.

  20. Asymmetry of the Venus nightside ionosphere: Magnus force effects (United States)

    Pérez-de-Tejada, H.


    A study of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Venus nightside ionosphere is conducted by examining the configuration of the ionospheric trans-terminator flow around Venus and also the dawn-ward displacement of the region where most of the ionospheric holes and the electron density plateau profiles are observed (dawn meaning the west in the retrograde rotation of Venus and that corresponds to the trailing side in its orbital motion). The study describes the position of the holes and the density plateau profiles which occur at neighboring locations in a region that is scanned as the trajectory of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) sweeps through the nightside hemisphere with increasing orbit number. The holes are interpreted as crossings through plasma channels that extend downstream from the magnetic polar regions of the Venus ionosphere and the plateau profiles represent cases in which the electron density maintains nearly constant values in the upper ionosphere along the PVO trajectory. From a collection of PVO passes in which these profiles were observed it is found that they appear at neighboring positions of the ionospheric holes in a local solar time (LST) map including cases where only a density plateau profile or an ionospheric hole was detected. It is argued that the ionospheric holes and the density plateau profiles have a common origin at the magnetic polar regions where plasma channels are formed and that the density plateau profiles represent crossings through a friction layer that is adjacent to the plasma channels. It is further suggested that the dawn-dusk asymmetry in the position of both features in the nightside ionosphere results from a fluid dynamic force (Magnus force) that is produced by the combined effects of the trans-terminator flow and the rotational motion of the ionosphere that have been inferred from the PVO measurements.

  1. Diagnostic study of coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics in D-region ionosphere via VLF signal propagation characteristic (United States)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar


    Geomagnetic disturbances and storms are known to produce significant global disturbances in the ionosphere, including the middle atmosphere and troposphere. There is little understanding about the mechanism and dynamics that drive these processes in lower ionosphere. The ionosphere is also thought to be sensitive to seismic events, and it is believed that it exhibits precursory characteristics as reported in studies via characteristic anomalies in VLF signal. However, distinguishing or separating seismically induced ionospheric fluctuations from those of other origins (e.g., Solar activity, planetary and tidal waves, stratospheric warming etc.) remain vital to robust conclusion, and challenging too. The unique propagation characteristic of VLF radio signal makes it an ideal tool for the study and diagnosis of variability of D-region ionosphere. In this work, we present the analysis of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling dynamics in D-region ionosphere using VLF signal characteristics, and performed an investigation of previously reported 'ionospheric precursors' to understand the true origins of measured anomalies.

  2. Inhomogeneous Long-Range Percolation for Real-Life Network Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez


    Full Text Available The study of random graphs has become very popular for real-life network modeling, such as social networks or financial networks. Inhomogeneous long-range percolation (or scale-free percolation on the lattice Zd, d ≥ 1, is a particular attractive example of a random graph model because it fulfills several stylized facts of real-life networks. For this model, various geometric properties, such as the percolation behavior, the degree distribution and graph distances, have been analyzed. In the present paper, we complement the picture of graph distances and we prove continuity of the percolation probability in the phase transition point. We also provide an illustration of the model connected to financial networks.

  3. Extension of Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model to the case of field propagation in the ionosphere with highly anisotropic irregularities (United States)

    Gherm, Vadim E.; Zernov, Nikolay N.


    The detailed effects of the high-frequency radio wave propagation in a stochastic transionospheric propagation channel are discussed. This is a special case of propagation along or almost along the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the ionospheric random irregularities of the electron density of the ionosphere may have very high values of the aspect ratio, which stands beyond the range of validity of the traditional analytical approaches utilized to treat the appropriate transionospheric propagation problems. In the consideration presented here, new analytical results are obtained for treating the problem under consideration. Based on the analytical results obtained, the previously developed Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model is further extended, which also includes the software simulator of the signals propagating on the transionospheric paths with the random electron density irregularities highly elongated in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field.

  4. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe ...

  5. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016 (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir


    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  6. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin


    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  7. Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning


    The spin diusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diusion coecient leads to inhomogeneous spin diusion that changes from central to surface spin ow as the temperature...... increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller nite trap size signicantly reduce the spin diusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions...

  8. Pyroelectric response of inhomogeneous ferroelectric-semiconductor films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We have modified Landau-Khalatnikov approach and shown that the pyroelectric response of inhomogeneous ferroelectric-semiconductor films can be described by using six coupled equations for the average displacement, its mean-square fluctuation and correlation with charge defects density fluctuations, average pyroelectric coefficient, its fluctuation and correlation with density fluctuations of charged defects. Coupled equations demonstrate the inhomogeneous reversal of pyroelectric response in contrast to the equations of Landau-Khalatnikov type, which describe the homogeneous reversal with sharp pyroelectric coefficient peaks near the thermodynamic coercive field values. Our approach explains pyroelectric loops observed in Pb(Zr,TiO3 film.

  9. Inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar angular-momentum transport (United States)

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu


    Coupled with mean absolute vorticity Ω∗ (rotation and mean relative vorticity), inhomogeneous turbulent helicity is expected to contribute to the generation of global flow structure against the linear and angular momentum mixing due to turbulent or eddy viscosity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect was originally derived in Yokoi & Yoshizawa (1993) [1], and recently has been validated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of rotating helical turbulence [2]. Turbulence effect enters the mean-vorticity equation through the turbulent vortexmotive force ⟨u'×ω'⟩ [u': velocity fluctuation, ω'(= ∇× u'): vorticity fluctuation], which is the vorticity counterpart of the electromotive force ⟨u'× b'⟩ (b': magnetic fluctuation) in the mean magnetic-field induction. The mean velocity induction δU is proportional to the vortexmotive force. According to the theoretical result [1,2], it is expressed as δU = -νT∇×Ω∗-ηT(∇2H)Ω∗, where ηT is the transport coefficient, H = ⟨u'ṡω'⟩ the turbulent helicity, and Ω∗ the mean absolute vorticity. The first term corresponds to the enhanced diffusion due to turbulent viscosity νT. The second term expresses the large-scale flow generation due to inhomogeneous helicity. Since helicity is self-generated in rotating stratified turbulence [3], an inhomogeneous helicity distribution is expected to exist in the solar convection zone. A rising flow with expansion near the surface of the Sun generates a strongly negative helicity there [4]. This spatial distribution of helicity would lead to a positive Laplacian of turbulent helicity (∇2H > 0) in the subsurface layer of the Sun. In the combination with the large-scale vorticity associated with the meridional circulation, the inhomogeneous helicity effect works for accelerating the mean velocity in the azimuthal direction. The relevance of this inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar convection zone is discussed further. References [1] Yokoi, N. and

  10. The physical basis of ionospheric electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas


    Full Text Available The conventional equations of ionospheric electrodynamics, highly succesful in modeling observed phenomena on sufficiently long time scales, can be derived rigorously from the complete plasma and Maxwell's equations, provided that appropriate limits and approximations are assumed. Under the assumption that a quasi-steady-state equilibrium (neglecting local dynamical terms and considering only slow time variations of external or aeronomic-process origin exists, the conventional equations specify how the various quantities must be related numerically. Questions about how the quantities are related causally or how the stress equilibrium is established and on what time scales are not anwered by the conventional equations but require the complete plasma and Maxwell's equations, and these lead to a picture of the underlying physical processes that can be rather different from the commonly presented intuitive or ad hoc explanations. Particular instances include the nature of the ionospheric electric current, the relation between electric field and plasma bulk flow, and the interrelationships among various quantities of neutral-wind dynamo.

  11. Ionospheric electron content: the European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leitinger


    Full Text Available The electron content of the ionosphere is an important quantity which indicates overall ionization. It is measured by means of propagation effects on radio signals which penetrate the ionosphere. In Europe relevant investigations started after the launch of the first artificial satellites. Soon the necessity arose to organize international cooperation: the regional as well as the global geographical distribution of ionization parameters is important knowledge for any meaningful geophysical interpretation of ionization parameters. Despite the fact that international scientific Unions and Committees existed and had proven their usefulness and potential, private initiatives were taken to organize cooperation in the field of research based on transionospheric propagation effects. Only in 1971 three international groups joined together to form the "Beacon Satellite Group"as a "Working Party" of COSPAR. The "Beacon Satellite Group" still exists but is now a Working Group of URSI, the International Union for Radio Science. This contribution tries to summarize the European perspective with special emphasis on the long standing cooperation between the Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche (IROE at Firenze and the Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik of the University of Graz. Examples are given of important results.

  12. Global ionospheric flare detection system (GIFDS) (United States)

    Wenzel, Daniela; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Mayer, Christoph; Valladares, Cesar; Heber, Bernd


    The Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS) is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center as a ground based detector for continuous monitoring of the solar flare activity in order to provide real time warnings on solar X-ray events. GIFDS is using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio transmissions in the northern hemisphere which respond to enhanced ionization in the bottomside ionosphere caused by X-ray flares. Since solar flares can only be detected during daytime, VLF receivers have to be installed around the globe to guarantee continuous records at the dayside sector. GIFDS consists of a network of Perseus SDR (Software Defined Radio) receivers equipped with a MiniWhip antenna each. Reliable detection of solar flares is ensured by recording multiple frequency channels ranging from 0 to 500 kHz. The applicability of the system is demonstrated in a first analysis by comparing VLF measurements with GOES's (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) X-ray flux data. The high potential of GIFDS for a permanent monitoring of solar flares in near real time is discussed.

  13. Imaging meso-scale ionospheric structures (United States)

    Burston, Robert


    The accuracy and capacity to resolve meso-scale structures of a four dimensional ionospheric imaging algorithm in the circumstance of data from dense networks of permanent GNSS ground receiver stations were investigated. Simulation studies were conducted in order to be able to assess the performance of the algorithm over the entire imaged region. The Multi-instrument Data Assimilation Software (MIDAS) algorithm was used for this purpose. Simulated input data in Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) were produced by calculating slant Total Electron Content (sTEC) values for satellite to receiver raypaths through an artificially generated ionosphere. Modeling these signals including Differential Code Biases (DCBs) and noise had negligible impact on the output from the imaging algorithm when compared with modeled signals that included neither. Comparing the output from MIDAS using a range of grid definitions show that finer grids have improved capacity to resolve meso-scale structures in the input model but over all are less accurate than coarser grids. The greatest errors occur in low-data regions of the grid and where structures in the input have the greatest gradients in vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC). A good compromise between the conflicting needs of resolution and accuracy is given by a grid defined with 2° × 2° latitude by longitude local horizontal grid divisions.

  14. Solar Data Assimilation Engine for Ionospheric Forecasts (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; Eccles, J. V.


    The Space Weather Modeling System (SWMS) is a Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI) project that couples space environment models together under the Earth System Modeling Framework, while ensuring that the component models are scalable and portable. BEI is sponsored by the High Performance Computing Modernization Office and managed by Air Force Weather Agency and Naval Research Laboratory. The Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv2) solar wind model and the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) model are the first two coupled components in the SWMS. Serving as a data assimilation engine, the HAFv2 model uses solar observations to prepare its initial solar wind conditions. Then, the HAFv2 internal algorithms and the initial conditions determine the present and future states of the solar wind conditions at Earth. The outputs of HAFv2 are provided to GAIM to forecast the time-dependent energy input into the high- latitude ionosphere. This presentation describes how the HAFv2 model is being used as a solar data assimilation engine for producing forecasts of solar wind parameters, that then serve as inputs to drive GAIM and other near-Earth space environment models. The overarching goal is to extend the lead time and skill of forecasts of space weather conditions and their corresponding impacts on operational customers.

  15. Coupling between Earth Surface and Ionosphere before Earthquakes: Positive Air Ionization at the Ground-to-Air Interface as Major Driving Mechanism (United States)

    Roberts, L. E.; Freund, F. T.


    When positive holes, h^{bullet}, stress-activated deep below, arrive at Earth's surface, they establish microscopic E fields that eventually become strong enough to (i) field-ionize air molecules and (ii) trigger tiny corona discharges. The injection of positive airborne ions will have a number of predictable consequences: Due to electrostatic repulsion among the positive ions, the ionized air volume will expand upward. Acting as condensation nuclei for water droplets, ion-laden air will lead to haze/fog/cloud formation. Dragging along the ground potential, ion-laden air will change the vertical E field. Ionospheric plasma will polarize with electrons being pulled down. Positive ions at the top of stratosphere will be accelerated upward in prevailing E field. With decreasing air pressure, vertical ion current will accelerate. Electrons in the ionosphere will respond, moving downward with the same speed, leading to a Doppler shift experienced by radio waves reflected off the ionosphere. Due to magnetohydrodynamic coupling, an initially homogeneous vertical ion current will break up into bubbles of higher and lower ion densities. E fields will develop in the mesosphere, possibly to the point of triggering lightning very short lightning strikes, similar to sprites, but randomly oriented. Bubbles of higher and lower ion densities in the mesosphere will lead to bumps in the ionosphere's E field, which satellites record as apparent turbulences. This process only applies to situations where the air at ground level becomes positively ionized. When ionization switches to tiny corona discharges, the air will have roughly equal numbers of positive and negative ions. As a result, the selective upward current of positive air ions will fade away along with the predicted phenomena such as ionospheric TEC anomalies, Doppler shift and ionospheric E field turbulences.; Figure: Positive air ionization at ground level. The rise of positive ion-laden air leads to anomalies in the Total

  16. Formation and detection of high latitude ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Weber, E. J.


    Measurements of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow variations show that large scale plasma patches appearing in the high-latitude ionsophere have irregular structures evidenced by the satellite phase and amplitude scintillations. Whistler waves, intense quasi-DC electric field, and atmospheric gravity waves can become potential sources of various plamsa instabilities. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by these sources is discussed. Meter-scale irregularities in the ionospheric E and F regions can be excited parametrically with lower hybrid waves by intense whistler waves. Ohmic dissipation of Pedersen current in the electron gas is able to create ionospheric F region irregularities in plasma blobs or plasma patches (i.e., high ambient plasma density environment) with broad scale lengths ranging from tens of meters to a few kilometers. Through the neutral-charged particle collisions, gravity waves can excite large-scale (less than tens of kilometers) ionospheric irregularities simultaneously with forced ion acoustic modes in the E region. The large-scale ionospheric density fluctuations produced in the E region can extend subsequently alogn the earth's magnetic field to the F region and the topside ionospheric regions. These mechanisms characterized by various thermal effects can contribute additively with other processes to the formation of ionospheric irregularities in the high latitude region.

  17. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo


    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  18. Role of the ionosphere for the atmospheric evolution of planets. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wahlund, Jan-Erik


    We have synthesized current understanding, mainly observations, with regard to ion escape mechanisms to space from the ionosphere and exosphere of Titan and Earth-type planets, with the intent to provide an improved input for models of atmospheric evolution on early Earth and Earth-type planets and exoplanets. We focus on the role of the ionosphere and its non-linear response to solar parameters, all of which have been underestimated in current models of ancient atmospheric escape (4 billion years ago). Factors that have been overlooked include the following: (1) Much larger variation of O(+) outflow than H(+) outflow from the terrestrial ionosphere, depending on solar and geomagnetic activities (an important consideration when attempting to determine the oxidized state of the atmosphere of early Earth); (2) magnetization of the ionopause, which keeps ionospheric ions from escaping and controls many other escape processes; (3) extra ionization by, for example, the critical ionization velocity mechanism, which expands the ionosphere to greater altitudes than current models predict; and (4) the large escape of cold ions from the dense, expanded ionosphere of Titan. Here we offer, as a guideline for quantitative simulations, a qualitative diagnosis of increases or decreases of non-thermal escape related to the ionosphere for magnetized and unmagnetized planets in response to changes in solar parameters (i.e., solar EUV/FUV flux, solar wind dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field).

  19. Calculating the absorption of HF radio waves in the ionosphere (United States)

    Zawdie, K. A.; Drob, D. P.; Siskind, D. E.; Coker, C.


    It has long been known that the ionospheric absorption of HF radio waves is dependent on the electron density in the ionosphere. This paper examines two aspects of the absorption calculation that have not been as thoroughly investigated. First, the correct method to calculate ionospheric absorption is explored; while the Sen Wyller ray trace formulation is generally cited as the best approximation in the D and E regions of the ionosphere, the Appleton-Hartree formulation is more consistent with the theory in the F region of the ionosphere. It is shown that either ray trace formulation can be used to calculate ionospheric absorption if the correct collision frequencies are utilized. Another frequently overlooked aspect of the attenuation calculation are the variations in the electron-neutral and electron-ion collision frequencies as a function of local time, season, latitude, and solar cycle. These variations result in differences on the order of 30% in the total ionospheric attenuation and should be included in absorption calculations.

  20. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four...

  1. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.


    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  2. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 33; Issue 2. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in the Astronomical Unit. Hideyoshi Arakida. Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 201-211 ...

  3. One-dimensional diffusion model in an Inhomogeneous region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to describe atomic diffusion in a graphite tube atomizer for electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry. The underlying idea of the model is the solution of an inhomogeneous one-dimensional diffusion equation...

  4. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik


    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems...

  5. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons-positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and width of the ...

  6. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons–positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by. Korteweg–de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and ...

  7. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin micro-rods and micro-brushes: Confocal microscopy. SHYAMTANU CHATTORAJ KANKAN BHATTACHARYYA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1717-1724 ...

  8. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determin...... the scattering cross-sections by spherical particles, the fields inside which correspond to the Airy-exponential waves....

  9. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 34; Issue 4. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the ... A complex chemical evolutionary history is inferred that registers episodes of time-dependent contributions from SN II+Ib/c with respect to SN Ia. It was observed that heterogeneities can remerge even ...

  10. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano


    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  11. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the density ...

  12. Collisionless stopping of electron current in an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A brief review of a recent work on a novel collisionless scheme for stopping electron cur- rent pulse in plasma is presented. This scheme relies on the inhomogeneity of the plasma medium. This mechanism can be used for heating an overdense regime of plasma where lasers cannot pene- trate. The method can ...

  13. Material inhomogeneities and their evolution a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    Presents a unified treatment of the inhomogeneity theory using some of the tools of modern differential geometry. This book deals with the geometrical description of uniform bodies and their homogeneity conditions. It also develops a theory of material evolution and discusses its relevance in various applied contexts.

  14. Inhomogeneous magnetic field in AdS/CFT superconductor


    Wen, Wen-Yu


    We study the holographically dual description of superconductor in (2+1)-dimensions in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic field and observe that there exists type I and type II superconductor. A new feature of type changing is observed for type I superconductor near critical temperature.

  15. Mindlin plate theory for damage detection: imaging of flexural inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H


    The scattering of plate waves by localized damage or defects that can be modeled as flexural inhomogeneities is examined within the framework of Mindlin plate theory. These inhomogeneities are characterized by variations in one or more of the four plate-theory parameters: the bending stiffness, shear stiffness, rotary inertia, and transverse inertia. It is shown that the Born approximation for the scattered field leads to a plate-theory analog of the Fourier diffraction theorem, which relates the far-field scattering amplitude to the spatial Fourier transform of the inhomogeneity variations. The application of this result is illustrated by using synthetic data derived for an idealized model of a delamination as a flexural inhomogeneity, ignoring mode coupling effects. A computationally efficient implementation of the filtered back-propagation algorithm, based on the eigensystem of the scattering operator, is employed for image reconstruction. The implications for in-situ imaging of structural damage in plate-like structures are briefly discussed, and some directions for further work are indicated.

  16. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  17. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  18. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. N-body numerical simulations of an inhomogeneous Galac- tic Chemical Evolution (GCE) of the solar neighbourhood with a high temporal resolution are presented. The solar annular ring is divided into distinct spatial grids of area ∼1–2 kpc2. Each grid evolves distinctly in terms of star formation and ...

  19. Nonlinear interaction of waves in a hot inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Prasad Khan


    inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, is used to determine the threshold value of the electric field and the frequency shift. The results of this paper are also compared with the other known results. It is shown that the findings of this study are in excellent agreement with the results of earlier investigators.

  20. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.N.; Serra, P.; van Zanten, H.


    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. To motivate our results we start by analyzing count data coming from a call center which we model as a Poisson process. This analysis is carried out using a certain

  1. Particle Production and Effective Thermalization in Inhomogeneous Mean Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Smit, J.


    As a toy model for dynamics in nonequilibrium quantum field theory we consider the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions with fermions. In the approximate dynamical equations, inhomogeneous classical (mean) Bose fields are coupled to quantized fermion fields, which are treated with a mode function

  2. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms ...

  3. Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans


    The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatial...... enhancements of the wave amplitude are interpreted as a result of caustic formation....

  4. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the propagation and dissipation of slow magneto- acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous viscous coronal loop plasma permeated by uniform magnetic field. Only viscosity and thermal con- ductivity are taken into account as dissipative processes in the coronal loop. The damping length of slow-mode ...

  5. Two-terminal quantized conductance in inhomogeneous graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zhimin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Han Binghong; Zhou Yangbo [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yu Dapeng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    Quantized two-terminal conductance plateaus in graphene were observed and were explained through the mechanism of different Landau level filling factors in inhomogeneous sample. Furthermore, the quantized conductance plateaus are different due to the difference of the carrier exchange through the graphene-substrate interface during the increasing and decreasing gate voltage-sweeps.

  6. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.


    The importance of inhomogeneous broadening due to the size dependence of plasmon resonances in few-nm metallic particle ensembles is investigated through different models describing the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanospheres. Modal shifts and plasmon line broadening are shown to becom...

  7. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.


    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  8. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 57; Issue 5-6. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. Ajit Kumar. Theoretical aspects of optical solitons Volume 57 Issue 5-6 November-December 2001 pp 969-979 ...

  9. An algorithm of computing inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals


    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Kenta


    We give an algorithm to compute inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals with parameters. The algorithm is based on the integration algorithm for $D$-modules by Oaku. Main tool in the algorithm is the Gr\\"obner basis method in the ring of differential operators.

  10. A modern trans-ionospheric propagation sensing system (United States)

    Bishop, G. J.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Ronn, A. E.; Bedard, M. G.


    One of the most important potential problems with modern military systems which utilize spacecraft is the effect of the ionosphere on the radio signals which pass to and from the spacecraft. Such systems include active communications and navigation satellites as well as both ground-based and potential space-based ranging systems. The major effects the ionosphere can have on such systems are the additional time delay the electrons in the earth's ionosphere add to the free space path delay, the short term rate of change of this additional delay, amplitude scintillation or fading effects the signal encounters due to irregularities in the ionosphere, and Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere. While some of these effects were studied adequate models of these effects on military systems still do not exist. A modern trans-ionospheric sensing system, called TISS, is being procured which will consist of a number of stations located throughout the world, making real time measurements of the time delay of the ionosphere, and its rate of change, as well as amplitude scintillation, along several different viewing directions from each station. These trans-ionospheric measurements will be used to allow models, which currently provide only monthly propagation parameters. The real-time specifications of these parameters can then be used as decision aids in both the tactical and the strategic military environments. The TISS will include first order artificial intelligence design to aid in gathering the most appropriate sets of available real-time trans-ionospheric propagation data, and will communicate these data sets to the Air Weather Service Forecasting Center where they will be tailored to specific military customers.

  11. GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services (United States)

    Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.


    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space

  12. Whistler Wave Propagation Through the Ionosphere of Venus (United States)

    Pérez-Invernón, F. J.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Luque, A.


    We investigate the attenuation of whistler waves generated by hypotetical Venusian lightning occurring at the altitude of the cloud layer under different ionospheric conditions. We use the Stanford full-wave method for stratified media of Lehtinen and Inan (2008) to model wave propagation through the ionosphere of Venus. This method calculates the electromagnetic field created by an arbitrary source in a plane-stratified medium (i.e., uniform in the horizontal direction). We see that the existence of holes in electronic densities and the magnetic field configuration caused by solar wind play an important role in the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the Venusian ionosphere.

  13. Considering the potential of IAR emissions for ionospheric sounding (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Polyushkina, T. N.; Tsegmed, B.; Oinats, A. V.; Pashinin, A. Yu.; Edemskiy, I. K.; Mylnikova, A. A.; Ratovsky, K. G.


    Knowledge of the ionospheric state allows us to adjust the forecasts of radio wave propagation, specify the environment models, and follow the changes of space weather. At present, probing of the ionosphere is produced by radio sounding with ground ionosondes, as well as by raying signals from satellites. We want to draw attention to the possibility of the diagnosis of the ionospheric parameters by detecting ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic emission generated in the so-called ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR). To do this, we present observations of the IAR emission made simultaneously for the first time at three stations using identical induction magnetometers. The stations are within one-hour difference of local time, two of them are mid-latitudinal; the third one is situated in the auroral zone. We compare frequency and frequency difference between adjacent harmonics of the observed multi-band emission with ionospheric parameters measured at the stations using ionosondes and GPS-observations. Diurnal variations of the ionospheric and ULF emission characteristics are also compared. The results show that there is quite a stable correlation between the resonant frequencies of the resonator bands and the critical frequency of the F2 layer of the ionosphere, namely, the frequency of the IAR emission varies inversely as the critical frequency of the ionosphere. This is due to the fact that the frequency of oscillation captured in the resonator is primarily determined by the Alfvén velocity (which depends on the plasma density) in the ionospheric F2 layer. The correlation is high; it varies at different stations, but is observed distinctly along the whole meridian. However, coefficients of a regression equation that connects the ionosphere critical frequency with DSB frequency vary significantly from day to day at all stations. The reason for such a big spread of the regression parameters is not clear and needs further investigation before we are able to

  14. Use of raytracing in models to investigate ionospheric channel performance (United States)

    Miró Amarante, G.; Radicella, S. M.

    The main parameters that characterize an ionospheric channel, frequency, elevation angle, group path, ground range, and apogee have been obtained by means of 2D raytracing program called abcray03. The analysis has considered different hourly ionospheric conditions for four quiet days (25-28 March 2000) and five geographic locations distributed in the two hemispheres. Electron density profiles define the selected ionospheric conditions. Raytracing is run considering experimental electron density profiles from manually scaled measurements obtained with ionosondes. The resulting radio propagation parameters are compared with those obtained using the IRI and NeQuick models driven by measured F2 peak values.

  15. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes (United States)

    Baker, Kay D.


    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  16. Lung Volume, Breathing Pattern and Ventilation Inhomogeneity in Preterm and Term Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latzin, Philipp; Roth, Stefan; Thamrin, Cindy; Hutten, Gerard J.; Pramana, Isabelle; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Casaulta, Carmen; Nelle, Matthias; Riedel, Thomas; Frey, Urs


    Background: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants,

  17. Inhomogeneity of methane emissions from a dairy waste lagoon. (United States)

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T


    Methane (CH4) is the dominant greenhouse gas emitted by animal agriculture manure. Since the gas is relatively insoluble in water, it is concentrated in discrete bubbles that rise through waste lagoons and burst at the surface. This results in lagoon emissions that are inhomogeneous in both space and time. Emissions from a midwestern dairy waste lagoon were measured over 2 weeks to evaluate the spatial homogeneity of the source emissions and to compare two methods for measuring this inhomogeneous emission. Emissions were determined using an inverse dispersion model based on CH4 concentrations measured both by a single scanning tunable diode laser (TDL) aimed at a series of reflectors and by flame ionization detection (FID) gas chromatography on line-sampled air. Emissions were best estimated using scanned TDL concentrations over relatively short optical paths that collectively span the entire cross-wind width of the source, so as to provide both the best capture of discrete plumes from the bursting bubbles on the lagoon surface and the best detection of CH4 background concentrations. The lagoon emissions during the study were spatially inhomogeneous at hourly time scales. Partitioning the inhomogeneous source into two source regions reduced the estimated emissions of the overall lagoon by 57% but increased the variability. Consequently, it is important to assess the homogeneity of a source prior to measurements and final emissions calculation. Plans for measuring methane emissions from waste lagoons must take into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the source strength. The assumption of emission source homogeneity for a low-solubility gas such as CH4 emitted from an animal waste lagoon can result in significant emission overestimates. The entire breadth and length of the area source must be measured, preferably with multiple optical paths, for the detection of discrete plumes from the different emitting regions and for determining the background concentration

  18. Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav


    Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.

  19. The study of the structural stability of the spiral laser beams propagation through inhomogeneous phase medium (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.


    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.

  20. Using ionospheric scintillation observations for studying the morphology of equatorial ionospheric bubbles (United States)

    Dandekar, B. S.; Groves, K. M.


    For a study of the equatorial ionosphere, ionospheric scintillation data at VHF and L-band frequencies have been routinely collected by ground-based receivers at Ancon, Peru, Antofagasta, Chile, and Ascension Island, UK, since May 1994. The receivers routinely monitor VHF transmissions from two geosynchronous satellites located at 100°W longitude and 23°W longitude, and L-band signals from satellites located at 75°W longitude and 15°W longitude. This combination provides a network of seven usable, reasonably separated links for monitoring ionospheric equatorial bubble activity in the South American longitude sector. A data set of seven years covering the period from 1995 to 2001 was studied to determine the temporal, diurnal, and seasonal behavior of equatorial bubbles. The results of our statistical study are presented here. In general the equatorial ionospheric bubble activity shows a strong systematic and primary dependence in temporal, diurnal, and seasonal variation, and a secondary weak dependence on geomagnetic and solar flux activity. At present, the dependence on solar and magnetic activity is not usable for near-time and short-term prediction of the equatorial bubble activity. Equatorial bubbles usually start 1 hour after sunset, the activity peaks before local midnight, and vanishes by early morning. The activity peaks in the months of November and January-February and is practically absent (weak) from May to August. On a daily basis on the average one sees 1 to 3 bubbles. The duration of bubbles is about 70 min, and the time spacing between the bubbles is 1 to 2 hours. The bubble activity in general follows the phase of solar cycle activity. The observed systematic behavior of the equatorial bubbles allows for a now cast and short-term forecast of the bubble activity in the South American sector.

  1. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard


    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  2. Ionospheric Correction Based on Ingestion of Global Ionospheric Maps into the NeQuick 2 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu


    Full Text Available The global ionospheric maps (GIMs, generated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE during a period over 13 years, have been adopted as the primary source of data to provide global ionospheric correction for possible single frequency positioning applications. The investigation aims to assess the performance of new NeQuick model, NeQuick 2, in predicting global total electron content (TEC through ingesting the GIMs data from the previous day(s. The results show good performance of the GIMs-driven-NeQuick model with average 86% of vertical TEC error less than 10 TECU, when the global daily effective ionization indices (Az versus modified dip latitude (MODIP are constructed as a second order polynomial. The performance of GIMs-driven-NeQuick model presents variability with solar activity and behaves better during low solar activity years. The accuracy of TEC prediction can be improved further through performing a four-coefficient function expression of Az versus MODIP. As more measurements from earlier days are involved in the Az optimization procedure, the accuracy may decrease. The results also reveal that more efforts are needed to improve the NeQuick 2 model capabilities to represent the ionosphere in the equatorial and high-latitude regions.

  3. Modeling the ionospheric prereversal enhancement by using coupled thermosphere-ionosphere data assimilation (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Lin, Charles; Chen, Wei-Han; Matsuo, Tomoko


    We report that assimilating total electron content (TEC) into a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model by using the ensemble Kalman filter results in improved specification and forecast of eastward prereversal enhancement (PRE) electric field (E field). Through data assimilation, the ionospheric plasma density, thermospheric winds, temperature, and compositions are adjusted simultaneously. The improvement of duskside PRE E field calculation over the prior state is achieved primarily by intensification of eastward neutral wind. The improved E field calculation promotes a stronger plasma fountain and deepens the equatorial trough. As a result, the horizontal gradients of Pedersen conductivity and eastward wind are increased due to greater zonal electron density gradient and smaller ion drag at dusk, respectively. Such modifications provide preferable conditions and obtain a strengthened PRE magnitude closer to the observation. The adjustment of PRE E field is enabled through self-consistent thermosphere and ionosphere coupling processes captured in the model. This study suggests that the PRE E field that is critical in driving the evening equatorial plasma instability could be better forecasted by assimilation of TECs in the 10 min cycling.

  4. LEISA: CubeSat for Ionospheric Characterization (United States)

    Suddarth, S. C.; Vera, A.; Pollard, H.; Burgett, T.; King, B.; Hulem, D.; MacGillivray, J.; Montoya, M.; Stanton, W.; Trujillo, B.; Wilson, S.; Heileman, G.


    The University of New Mexico / Configurable Space Microsystems Innovation and Applications Center (COSMIAC) is designing a highly affordable research satellite called LEISA (Low Earth Ionospheric Spectrum Analyzer) to characterize Ionospheric properties that affect electromagnetic wave propagation. By measuring spectral distortion of both natural and man-made impulses LEISA will measure Total Electron Content (TEC), magnetic field strength, refractive effects, plasma properties, and higher-order electron density profile effects. Additionally, LEISA may shed light on the relationships between lightning effects and thunderstorm weather in the troposphere and the potential relationship between the acoustic/seismic events around thunderstorms and Ionospheric weather. The LEISA design effort has led to a number of innovations that may be relevant to other small science spacecraft. The design is particularly challenging because of the need to implement broadband RF reception from 20-200 MHz as well as to capture and process the resulting signals within a 1u spacecraft (10cm x 10cm x 10cm) with less than 2 watts of average available power. One particular challenge is the deployable electrically small biconic wideband UHF antenna that deploys to approximately 1.5m in length and .5 m in width. The resulting antenna system deploys from a diminutive 500 cubic centimeter volume. The remaining electronics must fit within the remaining 500 cubic centimeters, leading the team to develop a system-on-a-chip (SoC) design using a Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA. The resulting circuit handles the spectrogram capture as well as all command and data handling functions within an average power footprint of approximately 200mW, reserving energy for analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) during capture events. LEISA builds upon prior work by Los Alamos National Laboratory with FORTE and Cibola Flight Experiment. In addition to being much more affordable, LEISA offers the potential of geo-locating events

  5. Signatures of mesospheric particles in ionospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Friedrich


    Full Text Available The state of the ionosphere during the 2007 ECOMA/MASS campaign is described by in-situ observations by three sounding rockets launched from the Andøya Rocket Range and by ground based observations. The ground based measurements included the incoherent scatter radar EISCAT near Tromsø (both on UHF and VHF, as well as an MF radar, a meteor radar and an imaging riometer all located in the close vicinity of the rocket range. The pronounced electron density bite-outs seen by two of the rockets could not be detected from the ground, but the associated PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes provide indirect evidence of pronounced perturbations of mesospheric electron densities.

  6. Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric...

  7. Modeling ray tracing through heating perturbed ionosphere with SAMI2 (United States)

    Wu, T.; Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.


    We present simulations of high frequency (HF) signals/rays tracing through perturbed ionosphere by combining the NRL ionosphere model [Huba, 2000] and the ray tracing program [Jones, 1966]. We show with modeling that by creating artificial disturbances to the ionosphere, i.e. heating-induced geomagnetic-field-aligned density ducts, the radio signal transmission may be deflected out of its original propagation path and may exit the top ionosphere through the density breach at the F2 peak layer. Our results show the possibility to control or disrupt the communication channels in the future.; The solid line shows deviated ray trace due to F2 layer breach created by heat-induced density ducts. The dashed line shows the original ray path when no disturbances present.

  8. Analysis of ionospheric parameters by the software system "Aurora" (United States)

    Polozov, Yury; Fetisova, Nadezhda


    The paper presents methods of modeling and analysis of ionospheric parameters, which realized in the program system of complex analysis of geophysical parameters "Aurora". The methods allow to analyze of characteristic changes in the ionospheric parameters and allocate the anomalous features during periods of ionospheric disturbances. The algorithm parameters are adapted for analyzing the ionospheric data of the Paratunka station (Kamchatka) and based on results of the estimates (station data of Yakutsk, Gakona, etc. were analyzed). Methods can be applied for the mid-latitude region. The system is implemented in the public domain (" ext-link-type="uri"> The research was supported by RSF Grant, project No 14-11-00194.

  9. Identification of rocket-induced acoustic waves in the ionosphere (United States)

    Mabie, Justin; Bullett, Terence; Moore, Prentiss; Vieira, Gerald


    Acoustic waves can create plasma disturbances in the ionosphere, but the number of observations is limited. Large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by energetic sources like large earthquakes and tsunamis are more readily observed than acoustic waves generated by weaker sources. New observations of plasma displacements caused by rocket-generated acoustic waves were made using the Vertically Incident Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), an advanced high-frequency radar. Rocket-induced acoustic waves which are characterized by low amplitudes relative to those induced by more energetic sources can be detected in the ionosphere using the phase data from fixed frequency radar observations of a plasma layer. This work is important for increasing the number and quality of observations of acoustic waves in the ionosphere and could help improve the understanding of energy transport from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere.

  10. Modeling of the ionosphere response on the earthquake preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, M I; Namgaladze, A A


    Seismo-ionosphere coupling processes have been investigated considering the GPS observed anomalous ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations before strong earthquakes as their precursors. The numerical simulations' results of the TEC response on the vertical electric currents flowing between the Earth and ionosphere during the earthquake (EQ) preparation time have been performed. Model experiments have been carried out using the Upper Atmosphere Model. The following currents' parameters were varied in: (i) direction (to or from the ionosphere); (ii) latitudinal zone of the sources' (EQ epicenters) location; (iii) currents' configuration: (1) grid nodes with "straight" currents were surrounded by "border" grid points with currents of opposite direction ("return" currents); (2) the "return" currents were spread out over the globe; (3) without "return" currents. Numerical simulations have shown that electric currents with density of 4\\times10-8 A/m2 over the area of about 200 km in longitude and 2500 k...

  11. Klobuchar-like Ionospheric Model for Different Scales Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LIU Chen; LIU Changjian; FENG Xu; XU Lingfeng; DU Ying


    Nowadays, Klobuchar is the most widely used ionospheric model in the positioning based on single-frequency terminal, and its different refined models have been proposed for a higher and higher accuracy of positioning...

  12. SAMI3_ICON: Model of the Ionosphere/Plasmasphere System (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Maute, A.; Crowley, G.


    The NRL ionosphere/plasmasphere model SAMI3 has been modified to support the NASA ICON mission. Specifically, SAMI3_ICON has been modified to import the thermospheric composition, temperature, and winds from TIEGCM-ICON and the high-latitude potential from AMIE data. The codes will be run on a daily basis during the ICON mission to provide ionosphere and thermosphere properties to the science community. SAMI3_ICON will provide ionospheric and plasmaspheric parameters such as the electron and ion densities, temperatures, and velocities, as well as the total electron content (TEC), peak ionospheric electron density (NmF2) and height of the F layer at NmF2 (hmF2).

  13. Global GPS Ionospheric Modelling Using Spherical Harmonic Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi


    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a global ionosphere model based on measurements from a worldwide network of global positioning system (GPS. The total number of the international GPS reference stations for development of ionospheric model is about 100 and the spherical harmonic expansion approach as a mathematical method was used. In order to produce the ionospheric total electron content (TEC based on grid form, we defined spatial resolution of 2.0 degree and 5.0 degree in latitude and longitude, respectively. Two-dimensional TEC maps were constructed within the interval of one hour, and have a high temporal resolution compared to global ionosphere maps which are produced by several analysis centers. As a result, we could detect the sudden increase of TEC by processing GPS observables on 29 October, 2003 when the massive solar flare took place.

  14. Magnetic and solar effects on ionospheric absorption at high latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella


    Full Text Available Some periods of intense solar events and of strong magnetic storms have been selected and their effects on the ionospheric D region have been investigated on the basis of ionospheric absorption data derived from riometer measurements made at the Italian Antarctic Base of Terra Nova Bay (geographic coordinates: 74.69 S, 164.12 E; geomagnetic coordinates: 77.34 S, 279.41 E. It was found that sharp increases in ionospheric absorption are mainly due to solar protons emission with an energy greater than 10 MeV. Moreover, the day to night ratios of the ionospheric absorption are greater than 2 in the case of strong events of energetic protons emitted by the Sun, while during magnetic storms, these ratios range between 1 and 2.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 5600 ionospheric electron density profiles (EDS files) derived from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation data. The profiles were...

  16. Low ionospheric reactions on tropical depressions prior hurricanes (United States)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Radovanović, Milan; Milovanović, Boško; Kovačević, Andjelka; Bajčetić, Jovan; Popović, Luka Č.


    We study the reactions of the low ionosphere during tropical depressions (TDs) which have been detected before the hurricane appearances in the Atlantic Ocean. We explore 41 TD events using very low frequency (VLF) radio signals emitted by NAA transmitter located in the USA and recorded by VLF receiver located in Belgrade (Serbia). We found VLF signal deviations (caused ionospheric turbulence) in the case of 36 out of 41 TD events (88%). Additionally, we explore 27 TDs which have not been developed in hurricanes and found similar low ionospheric reactions. However, in the sample of 41 TDs which are followed by hurricanes the typical low ionosphere perturbations seem to be more frequent than other TDs.

  17. The Shock Wave in the ionosphere during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir


    Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud.

  18. Modeling the Electrodynamics of the Low-Latitude Ionosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wohlwend, Christian S


    .... This two-part study focused on the gravity wave seeding mechanism of equatorial plasma depletions in the ionosphere and the associated-equatorial spread F, as well as the differences between a two...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ADAPTIVE MODEL REFINEMENT FOR THE IONOSPHERE AND THERMOSPHERE ANTHONY M. D’AMATO∗, AARON J. RIDLEY∗∗, AND DENNIS S. BERNSTEIN∗∗∗ Abstract. Mathematical models of...

  20. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka


    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 ( The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  1. Universality for distances in power-law random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.


    We survey the recent work on phase transition and distances in various random graph models with general degree sequences. We focus on inhomogeneous random graphs, the configuration model, and affine preferential attachment models, and pay special attention to the setting where these random graphs

  2. Testing GNSS ionosphere models based on the position domain (United States)

    Orus-Perez, Raul; Rovira, Adria


    As is well know, the ionosphere is one of the main contributors to the navigation error of single-frequency users. Currently, there are many models available for correcting the ionosphere delay. Thus, the different GNSS provide its own ionosphere corrections in the Signal-in-Space as for instance, NeQuick G for Galileo or Klobuchar for GPS. Other sources for ionosphere corrections are the Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (i.e. EGNOS or WAAS), Global Ionospheric Maps (i.e. provided by IGS), regional maps and even climatological models, like NeQuick or IRI. With this large variety of models, there have been a lot of efforts to define a suitable strategy to test the accuracy of the different models. Usually, this testing has been done by computing a "reference ionosphere", using all kind of GNSS techniques, using ionosonde data or using altimeter data. These techniques are not bias free and they may raise questions on which is the absolute accuracy they achieve. In order to complement these tests, a new methodology has been developed to test ionosphere models for GNSS. This methodology is based on the position domain, modeling the observables on each frequency with geodetic accuracy, and then to combine the obtained least square solutions to determine the ionosphere error. The results of the testing for different GIMs from IGS and different Signal-in-Space models (GPS, Galileo, and EGNOS) will be presented for 2 years of the last Solar Maximum with more than 40 receivers worldwide. The weaknesses and strengths of the new methodology will also be shown to get a comprehensive idea of its capabilities.

  3. Effect of the Ionosphere on Space and Terrestrial Systems (United States)


    of the ionospheric conditions along the path. shown schematically in Figure 1. The energetic par- ticle data were obtained by the Space Sciences Labor ...Adaptive tures, of difficult inclusion in clima - Ionospheric Range Error Correction for tological models. To accommodate then High Accuracy Radars, URSI...that size and a consistent identification in clima - are effervescent from hour to hour. tology, such as the nighttime trough and the plasmapause

  4. Ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and field-aligned currents


    Oliveira, D


    It is presented in this paper a review of one of several interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere through the field-aligned currents (FACs). Some characteristics and physical implications of the currents flowing in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field at high latitudes are discussed. The behavior of this system as an electric circuit is explained, where momentum and energy are transferred via Poynting flux from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere. É apresentada ne...

  5. Remote double resonance coupling of radar energy to ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.


    Experimental results indicate that low frequency modulation of a high power radar beam, tuned to one of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere, may produce field-aligned density irregularities when the modulation frequency matches an ionospheric eigenfrequency. By choosing the radar carrier frequency and polarization, a number of interaction layers were selected. The variety of possible excitations shows that the double resonance technique may be adaptable to a number of different objectives.

  6. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters


    Wang, Ningbo; YUAN Yunbin; LI Zishen; Li, Min; HUO Xingliang


    Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS). In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionosphe...

  7. Empirical modeling of the total electron content in the ionosphere (United States)

    Gorbachev, O. A.; Ivanov, V. B.; Ivel'Skaya, M. K.


    A method of modeling the total electron content (TEC) based on the semi-empirical ionospheric model developed in Irkutsk State University is suggested. Comparison with the Klobuchar model has shown that the proposed method provides a more accurate presentation of TEC. A conclusion is drawn that the use of this method for compensation of the ionospheric error in single-frequency navigation receivers would lead to a substantial increase in the accuracy of their positioning.

  8. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter for ionospheric data assimilation: Observation influence analysis during a geomagnetic storm event (United States)

    Durazo, Juan A.; Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex


    We propose a targeted observation strategy, based on the influence matrix diagnostic, that optimally selects where additional observations may be placed to improve ionospheric forecasts. This strategy is applied in data assimilation observing system experiments, where synthetic electron density vertical profiles, which represent those of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate/Formosa satellite 3, are assimilated into the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter during the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm. During each analysis step, the observation vector is augmented with five synthetic vertical profiles optimally placed to target electron density errors, using our targeted observation strategy. Forecast improvement due to assimilation of augmented vertical profiles is measured with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of analyzed electron density, averaged over 600 km regions centered around the augmented vertical profile locations. Assimilating vertical profiles with targeted locations yields about 60%-80% reduction in electron density RMSE, compared to a 15% average reduction when assimilating randomly placed vertical profiles. Assimilating vertical profiles whose locations target the zonal component of neutral winds (Un) yields on average a 25% RMSE reduction in Un estimates, compared to a 2% average improvement obtained with randomly placed vertical profiles. These results demonstrate that our targeted strategy can improve data assimilation efforts during extreme events by detecting regions where additional observations would provide the largest benefit to the forecast.

  9. Yearly variations in the low-latitude topside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Bailey


    Full Text Available Observations made by the Hinotori satellite have been analysed to determine the yearly variations of the electron density and electron temperature in the low-latitude topside ionosphere. The observations reveal the existence of an equinoctial asymmetry in the topside electron density at low latitudes, i.e. the density is higher at one equinox than at the other. The asymmetry is hemisphere-dependent with the higher electron density occurring at the March equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and at the September equinox in the Southern Hemisphere. The asymmetry becomes stronger with increasing latitude in both hemispheres. The behaviour of the asymmetry has no significant longitudinal and magnetic activity variations. A mechanism for the equinoctial asymmetry has been investigated using CTIP (coupled thermosphere ionosphere plasmasphere model. The model results reproduce the observed equinoctial asymmetry and suggest that the asymmetry is caused by the north-south imbalance of the thermosphere and ionosphere at the equinoxes due to the slow response of the thermosphere arising from the effects of the global thermospheric circulation. The observations also show that the relationship between the electron density and electron temperature is different for daytime and nighttime. During daytime the yearly variation of the electron temperature has negative correlation with the electron density, except at magnetic latitudes lower than 10°. At night, the correlation is positive.Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density

  10. Evaluation of the performance of DIAS ionospheric forecasting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna


    Full Text Available Nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric products and services for the European region are regularly provided since August 2006 through the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS, Currently, DIAS ionospheric forecasts are based on the online implementation of two models: (i the solar wind driven autoregression model for ionospheric short-term forecast (SWIF, which combines historical and real-time ionospheric observations with solar-wind parameters obtained in real time at the L1 point from NASA ACE spacecraft, and (ii the geomagnetically correlated autoregression model (GCAM, which is a time series forecasting method driven by a synthetic geomagnetic index. In this paper we investigate the operational ability and the accuracy of both DIAS models carrying out a metrics-based evaluation of their performance under all possible conditions. The analysis was established on the systematic comparison between models’ predictions with actual observations obtained over almost one solar cycle (1998–2007 at four European ionospheric locations (Athens, Chilton, Juliusruh and Rome and on the comparison of the models’ performance against two simple prediction strategies, the median- and the persistence-based predictions during storm conditions. The results verify operational validity for both models and quantify their prediction accuracy under all possible conditions in support of operational applications but also of comparative studies in assessing or expanding the current ionospheric forecasting capabilities.

  11. Comparison of ionospheric radio occultation CHAMP data with IRI 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski


    Full Text Available GPS radio occultation measurements on board low Earth orbiting satellites can provide vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere from satellite orbit heights down to the bottomside. Ionospheric radio occultation (IRO measurements carried out onboard the German CHAMP satellite mission since 11 April 2001 were used to derive vertical electron density profiles (EDP’s on a routine basis. About 150 vertical electron density profiles may be retrieved per day thus providing a huge data basis for testing and developing ionospheric models. Although the validation of the EDP retrievals is not yet completed, the paper addresses a systematic comparison of about 78 000 electron density profiles derived from CHAMP IRO data with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001. The results are discussed for quite different geophysical conditions, e.g. as a function of latitude, local time and geomagnetic activity. The comparison of IRO data with corresponding IRI data indicates that IRI generally overestimates the upper part of the ionosphere whereas it underestimates the lower part of the ionosphere under high solar activity conditions. In a first order correction this systematic deviation could be compensated by introducing a height dependence correction factor in IRI profiling.

  12. Evaluation of six ionospheric models as predictors of TEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.D.; Daniell, R.E.; Fox, M.W.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Doherty, P.H.


    The authors have gathered TEC data from a wide range of latitudes and longitudes for a complete range of solar activity. This data was used to evaluate the performance of six ionospheric models as predictors of Total Electron Content (TFC). The TEC parameter is important in correcting modern DOD space systems, which propagate radio signals from the earth to satellites, for the time delay effects of the ionosphere. The TEC data were obtained from polarimeter receivers located in North America, the Pacific, and the East Coast of Asia. The ionospheric models evaluated are: (1) the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI); (2) the Bent model; (3) the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) model; (4) the Penn State model; (5) the Fully Analytic Ionospheric Model (FAIM, a modification of the Chiu model); and (6) the Damen-Hartranft model. They will present extensive comparisons between monthly mean TEC at all local times and model TEC obtained by integrating electron density profiles produced by the six models. These comparisons demonstrate that even thought most of the models do very well at representing f0F2, none of them do very well with TEC, probably because of inaccurate representation of the topside scale height. They suggest that one approach to obtaining better representations of TEC is the use of f0E2 from coefficients coupled with a new slab thickness developed at Boston University.

  13. Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Express. 2. Influence of solar irradiance on upper ionosphere and escape fluxes (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; Andrews, D.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.; Barabash, S.


    We present multi-instrument observations of the effects of solar irradiance on the upper Martian ionosphere and escape fluxes based on Mars Express measurements obtained over almost 12 years. It is shown that the variations in the upper ionosphere caused by solar irradiance lead to significant changes in the trans-terminator fluxes of low-energy ions and total ion losses through the tail. The observed dependence of the electron number density in the upper ionosphere at altitudes above 300 km on solar irradiance implies that the ionosphere at such altitudes was denser by a factor of ten during the periods of solar maxima in solar cycles 22-23. Correspondingly, the trans-terminator fluxes of cold ions and escape fluxes through the tail were also significantly higher. We estimate an increase of total ion losses through the tail during these solar maxima by a factor of 5-6.

  14. Monitoring of ionospheric irregularities with multi-GNSS observations: a new ionosphere activity index and product services (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Yuan, Yunbin; Yuan, Hong


    Key words: Ionospheric irregularity, Rate of TEC (ROT), Rate of ROT index (RROT), GPS and GLONASS The ionospheric irregularities have a strong impact on many applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems. The rate of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) change index (ROTI, TECu/min), defined as the standard deviation of rate of TEC change (ROT) within a short time (e.g. 5 minutes), has been developed to describe the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillations. However, ROT parameter may still contain the trend term of ionospheric TEC in spite of small-scale fluctuations. On the basis of single-differenced ROT (dROT) values, we develop a new ionosphere activity index, rate of ROT change index (RROT, TECu/min), to characterize the irregularity degree of the ionosphere. To illustrate the use of the index, we investigated the consistency between ROTI and RROT indexes, through the analysis of GPS data and S4 observations collected at two high-latitude stations of the northern hemisphere. It is confirmed that the correlation coefficients between RROT and S4 are higher than those between ROTI and S4 for the test period, meaning that the proposed RROT index is applicable to monitor the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillations. RROT index can be easily calculated from dual-frequency GNSS signals (like GPS L1 and L2 carrier phase measurements). On the basis of GPS and GLONASS data provided by the IGS, ARGN, EPN and USCORS tracking networks (more than 1500 stations per day), absolute ROT (AROT), gradient of TEC index (GOTI), ROTI and RROT maps are generated to reflect the ionospheric irregularity activities. These maps are provided in an IONEX-like format on a global scale with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes and a spatial resolution of 5 and 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively, and the maps with high spatial resolution (2x2 degrees) are also generated for European, Australia

  15. Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel


    The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.

  16. Influence of inhomogeneities on holographic mutual information and butterfly effect (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing


    We study the effect of inhomogeneity, which is induced by the graviton mass in massive gravity, on the mutual information and the chaotic behavior of a 2+1-dimensional field theory from the gauge/gravity duality. When the system is near-homogeneous, the mutual information increases as the graviton mass grows. However, when the system is far from homogeneity, the mutual information decreases as the graviton mass increases. By adding the perturbations of energy into the system, we investigate the dynamical mutual information in the shock wave geometry. We find that the greater perturbations disrupt the mutual information more rapidly, which resembles the butterfly effect in chaos theory. Besides, the greater inhomogeneity reduces the dynamical mutual information more quickly just as in the static case.

  17. Phase transitions, inhomogeneous horizons and second-order hydrodynamics (United States)

    Attems, Maximilian; Bea, Yago; Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Triana, Miquel; Zilhão, Miguel


    We use holography to study the spinodal instability of a four-dimensional, strongly-coupled gauge theory with a first-order thermal phase transition. We place the theory on a cylinder in a set of homogeneous, unstable initial states. The dual gravity configurations are black branes afflicted by a Gregory-Laflamme instability. We numerically evolve Einstein's equations to follow the instability until the system settles down to a stationary, inhomogeneous black brane. The dual gauge theory states have constant temperature but non-constant energy density. We show that the time evolution of the instability and the final states are accurately described by second-order hydrodynamics. In the static limit, the latter reduces to a single, second-order, non-linear differential equation from which the inhomogeneous final states can be derived.

  18. Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.

  19. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects on nuclear resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J.D.; Herling, G


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Moessbauer effect in isomers like {sup 107}Ag with a half-life of 44s. It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus the Moessbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Moessbauer experiments, unless the radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width {gamma}{sub H} which exceeds the natural width {gamma}, and the inhomogeneous width {delta}, the Moessbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}/{gamma}{sub H}.

  20. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects onnuclear resonance experiments (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J. D.; Herling, G.


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Mössbauer effect in isomers like 107Ag with a half-life of 44s.It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus theMössbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Mössbauer experiments, unless the radiative width ΓΓ also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width Γ_H which exceeds the natural width Γ, and the inhomogeneous width Δ, the Mössbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of Γγ/Γ H.

  1. Cloaking by shells with radially inhomogeneous anisotropic permittivity. (United States)

    Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Sluckin, T J; Evans, D R


    We model electromagnetic cloaking of a spherical or cylindrical nanoparticle enclosed by an optically anisotropic and optically inhomogeneous symmetric shell, by examining its electric response in a quasi-static uniform electric field. When the components of the shell permittivity are radially anisotropic and power-law dependent (ε~r(m)) whereris distance to the shell center, and m a positive or negative exponent which can be varied), the problem is analytically tractable. Formulas are calculated for the degree of cloaking in the general case, allowing the determination of a dielectric condition for the shells to be used as an invisibility cloak. Ideal cloaking is known to require that homogeneous shells exhibit an infinite ratio of tangential and radial components of the shell permittivity, but for radially inhomogeneous shells ideal cloaking can occur even for finite values of this ratio.

  2. An automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bentivegna, Eloisa


    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated-code-generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  3. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)


    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T{sub AN}=200, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T{sub C} was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  4. Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system (United States)

    Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž


    Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.

  5. A Survey of Ionospheric Models A Preliminary Report on the Development of an Ionospheric Model Thesaurus and Users Guide. (United States)


    H . Sizun , 1979, "The French Short-Term Radio Propagation Predictions in the HF Band" in Solar-Terrestrial...34 Nauka. 117, Moscow (in Russian) Price G. H 1973, "High-Frequency Radio - Wave Propagation Through Plane-Stratified Ionospheric Models," Radio Science...8 (2) 133-138 Price G H .. 1972, "Analytic Ray Solutions for High-Frequency Radio - Wave Propagation Through Plane Stratified ionosphere Models" Ro-

  6. Polarized beam splitting effect in inhomogeneously magnetized magnetooptic films. (United States)

    Waring, M


    Linearly polarized light passing through a several micron thick magnetooptic film in the inhomogeneous magnetization state is split into a linearly polarized central beam and linearly polarized first and higher order diverging rings. The polarization of the central output beam lies in the same direction as the linearly polarized input, while the polarization of the diverging rings lies in a direction orthogonal to the input plane of polarization. The effect is described, and applications of the effect are discussed.

  7. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.


    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  8. Nonlinear gas chromatography as a way of studying inhomogeneous sorbents (United States)

    Kotel'nikova, T. A.


    A way of organizing and processing the results from gas-chromatographic experiments to obtain chromatographic retention characteristics for a fixed concentration of sorbate in the gas phase or on the surface of the sorbent is proposed and substantiated. The suitability and expediency of such retention characteristics for describing the sorption properties of inhomogenous sorbents is demonstrated using a wide variety of adsorbents of different natures (activated carbons, swelling and nonswelling polymers, silicas and their silver derivatives) as examples.

  9. Fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star


    Bastrukov, S. I.; Chang, H. -K.; Wu, E. -H.; Molodtsova, I. V.


    The eigenfrequency problem of fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star, modeled by self-gravitating mass of viscous liquid with singular density at the center, is considered in juxtaposition with that for Kelvin fundamental mode in the liquid star model with uniform density. Particular attention is given to the difference between spectral equations for the frequency and lifetime of f-mode in the singular and homogeneous star models. The newly obtained results are discussed ...

  10. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    This paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in a seco...... step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rain forests....

  11. Some Inhomogeneous Magnetized Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models with Varying $\\Lambda$


    Pradhan,Anirudh; Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar; Jotania, Kanti R.


    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous fluid cosmological models with electro-magnetic field are obtained. To get a solution a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. Without assumin g any {\\it ad hoc} law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. The behaviour of the electro-magnetic field tensor together with some p hysical aspects of t...

  12. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo


    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  13. Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)


    Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3σ CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3σ CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are Ω{sub inh} = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and α = 7.31 × 10{sup –9} (s km{sup –1}){sup 2/3} Mpc{sup –4/3} (model IIB).

  14. Non-Linear Forced Vibrations of AN Inhomogeneous Layer (United States)



    The non-linear vibrations of an inhomogeneous soil layer which is subjected to a harmonic motion along its bottom are investigated in this study. The Ramberg-Osgood model is transformed to a suitable form to obtain an analytical solution and it is assumed that the shear modulus of the layer varies with depth. The governing equation is a non-linear partial differential equation. Because of weak non-linearity, the displacement and forcing frequency are expanded into perturbation series by using the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and it is assumed that the response has the same periodicity as the forcing. Then, the zeroeth and the first order linear equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained. Different types of solutions are obtained for the zeroeth order equation depending on the inhomogeneity parameter α. The orthogonality condition of Millman-Keller [1] is used to extract secular terms which are important in the resonance region. Then, the variation of the amplitude at the top versus the forcing frequency Ω is investigated for some values of inhomogeneity and perturbation parameters.

  15. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов


    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  16. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten


    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.

  17. The high latitudes in the International Reference Ionosphere; Meeting C4 of Commission C, COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 30th, Hamburg, Germany, July 11-21, 1994 (United States)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.; Singer, W.


    An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.

  18. Study of homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom in CUDA EGS for small field dosimetry (United States)

    Yani, Sitti; Rhani, Mohamad Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy; Arif, Idam


    CUDA EGS was CUDA implementation to simulate transport photon in a material based on Monte Carlo algorithm for X-ray imaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inhomogeneities in inhomogeneity phantom for small field dosimetry (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 and 5×5 cm2). Two phantoms, homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom were used. The interaction in homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom was dominated by Compton interaction and multiple scattering. The CUDA EGS can represent the inhomogeneity effect in small field dosimetry by combining the grayscale curve between homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom. The grayscale curve in inhomogeneity phantom is not asymmetric because of the existence of different material in phantom.

  19. Excitation of earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.C.; Bloom, R.M.


    In this report the authors use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Their results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.

  20. F-region Magnetospheric ULF Generation by Modulated Ionospheric Heating (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Tesfaye, B.; Shroff, H.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G.; Chang, C.; Wallace, T.; Inan, U.; Piddyachiy, D.


    Current modulation of D/E region ionospheric currents at ULF frequencies results in generation of Shear Alfven Waves injected upwards and guided by the magnetic field lines towards the conjugate ionosphere. Under particular ionospheric conditions frequencies in the PC1 range (.2-6Hz) are reflected by the gradient in the Alfven velocity above the F-region resulting in the well-known Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR) structure. Ground detection of ULF waves due to current modulation on the ground is thus limited to the vicinity of the heated spot since at these frequencies the coupling to the earth ionosphere waveguide is evanescent. Propagation of ULF waves at significant lateral distances requires generation of magnetosonic waves since they are the only mode that propagates isotropically and can thus couple efficiently in the Alfvenic duct. In this paper we present a completely new mechanism to generate magnetosonic waves by modulated ionospheric heating that does not require the presence of electrojet currents. The process relies in anomalous electron heating near the F-region peak by preferably using O-mode upper hybrid heating modulated at ULF Pc-1 frequencies. The modulation in the electron pressure drives a Bxgrad(p) oscillatory current. The resultant field aligned magnetic moment generates predominantly magnetosonic waves that are injected laterally into the Alfvenic duct and can also detected above the F-peak by over-flying satellites over distances larger than spanned by the field lines connecting to heated area. In addition to the concept and analytic results the paper will present simulations results using the ZEUS-MP MHD. Non-uniform grids are used to adapt to non-uniform ionospheric plasma density and thin layer of heating source. The effective heating region is placed at about 200-300 km in altitude (F-layer ionosphere). The modulated heating source is modeled as a source with perturbed density, temperature and magnetic field and it transmits

  1. Radiotomographic observations of corpuscular ionization in the ionosphere (United States)

    Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Krysanov, B. Yu.; Nazarenko, M. O.


    Along with the antisunward cross-polar convection of the ionospheric plasma and the field-aligned electric currents, the corpuscular fluxes play an important role in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Being more tightly coupled with the magnetosphere, the subauroral and auroral ionosphere noticeably differs from the midlatitude ionosphere. It experiences much stronger and faster variations in space and time. The particle fluxes and the electric fields of magnetospheric origin penetrate into the ionosphere and substantially affect the production, loss and transport of charged particles. The rate of ionization in the midlatitude ionosphere is controlled almost solely by the X-ray and UV/EUV solar radiation, whereas in high latitudes the fluxes of particles precipitating from the magnetosphere are significant sources of ionization. Moreover, they are probably the single source during the polar night. Typically, the contribution of the magnetospheric corpuscular fluxes into the ionization is small compared to the contribution of electromagnetic radiation; however, during the geomagnetic storms, it may prove significant, especially if these fluxes are sufficiently strong and act in the nighttime when the solar electromagnetic radiation is absent. The present work is devoted to radio tomographic imaging of the ionospheric effects of particle precipitation using the data from low-orbital navigational satellite systems. The ionospheric radio tomography is actively developed during the past two decades. It provides images of the 2D distribution of electron density in the vertical plane (latitude-altitude cross-sections) (averaged over an interval of 10-15 minutes) for the spatial sector covering several thousand kilometers. The horizontal and vertical resolution of the RT method is 20-30 km and 30-40 km, respectively. In the present work, the particle precipitation events are identified from the particle flux measurements onboard DMSP satellites. We present and discuss

  2. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos


    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  3. Evaluation of GPS Standard Point Positioning with Various Ionospheric Error Mitigation Techniques (United States)

    Panda, Sampad K.; Gedam, Shirish S.


    The present paper investigates accuracy of single and dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) standard point positioning solutions employing different ionosphere error mitigation techniques. The total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere is the prominent delay error source in GPS positioning, and its elimination is essential for obtaining a relatively precise positioning solution. The estimated delay error from different ionosphere models and maps, such as Klobuchar model, global ionosphere models, and vertical TEC maps are compared with the locally derived ionosphere error following the ion density and frequency dependence with delay error. Finally, the positional accuracy of the single and dual-frequency GPS point positioning solutions are probed through different ionospheric mitigation methods including exploitation of models, maps, and ionosphere-free linear combinations and removal of higher order ionospheric effects. The results suggest the superiority of global ionosphere maps for single-frequency solution, whereas for the dual-frequency measurement the ionosphere-free linear combination with prior removal of higher-order ionosphere effects from global ionosphere maps and geomagnetic reference fields resulted in improved positioning quality among the chosen mitigation techniques. Conspicuously, the susceptibility of height component to different ionospheric mitigation methods are demonstrated in this study which may assist the users in selecting appropriate technique for precise GPS positioning measurements.

  4. Relationships between electron density, height and sub-peak ionospheric thickness in the night equatorial ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. W. Lynn


    Full Text Available The development and decay of the southern equatorial anomaly night-time peak in electron density as seen at a number of ionosonde reflection points extending from New Guinea and Indonesia into northern Australia was examined in terms of the characteristic rise and fall in height associated with the sunset ionisation-drift vortex at the magnetic equator. The observations relate to measurements made in November 1997. Following sunset, the ionospheric profile was observed to narrow as the maximum electron density increased during a fall in height that took the peak of the layer at Vanimo and Sumedang down to some 240 km. The fall was followed by a strong rise in which the electron density sub-peak profile expanded from a slab width (as given by POLAN of 20 km to over 100km with no corresponding change in peak electron density. The post-sunset equatorial fall in height and associated changes in profile density and thickness continued to be seen with diminishing amplitude and increasing local time delay in moving from the anomaly peak at Vanimo to the southernmost site of observation at Townsville. Secondary events on a lesser scale sometimes occurred later in the night and may provide evidence of the multiple vortices suggested by Kudeki and Bhattacharyya (1999. Doppler measurements of vertical velocity as seen at Sumedang in Java are compared with the observed changes in electron density profile in the post-sunset period. The normal post-sunset variation in ionospheric parameters was disrupted on the night of 7 November, the night before a negative ionospheric storm was observed.

  5. Cubesat-Based Dtv Receiver Constellation for Ionospheric Tomography (United States)

    Bahcivan, H.; Leveque, K.; Doe, R. A.


    The Radio Aurora Explorer mission, funded by NSF's Space Weather and Atmospheric Research program, has demonstrated the utility of CubeSat-based radio receiver payloads for ionospheric research. RAX has primarily been an investigation of microphysics of meter-scale ionospheric structures; however, the data products are also suitable for research on ionospheric effects on radio propagation. To date, the spacecraft has acquired (1) ground-based UHF radar signals that are backscattered from meter-scale ionospheric irregularities, which have been used to measure the dispersion properties of meter-scale plasma waves and (2) ground-based signals, directly on the transmitter-spacecraft path, which have been used to measure radio propagation disturbances (scintillations). Herein we describe the application of a CubeSat constellation of UHF receivers to expand the latter research topic for global-scale ionospheric tomography. The enabling factor for this expansion is the worldwide availability of ground-based digital television (DTV) broadcast signals whose characteristics are optimal for scintillation analysis. A significant part of the populated world have transitioned, or soon to be transitioned, to DTV. The DTV signal has a standard format that contains a highly phase-stable pilot carrier that can be readily adapted for propagation diagnostics. A multi-frequency software-defined radar receiver, similar to the RAX payload, can measure these signals at a large number of pilot carrier frequencies to make radio ray and diffraction tomographic measurements of the ionosphere and the irregularities contained in it. A constellation of CubeSats, launched simultaneously, or in sequence over years, similar to DMSPs, can listen to the DTV stations, providing a vast and dense probing of the ionosphere. Each spacecraft can establish links to a preprogrammed list of DTV stations and cycle through them using time-division frequency multiplexing (TDFM) method. An on board program can

  6. Products of Dissociative Recombination in the Ionosphere (United States)

    Cosby, Philip


    SRI International undertook a novel experimental measurement of the product states formed by dissociative recombination (DR) of O2(+), NO(+), and N2(+) as a function of both electron energy and reactant ion vibrational level. For these measurements we used a recently developed experimental technique for measuring dissociation product distributions that allows both the branching ratios to be accurately determined and the electronic and rovibrational state composition of the reactant ions to be specified. DR is the dominant electron loss mechanism in all regions of the ionosphere. In this process, electron attachment to the molecular ion produces an unstable neutral molecule that rapidly dissociates. For a molecular ion such as O2(+), the dissociation recombination reaction is (1) O2(+) + e yields O + O + W. The atomic products of this reaction, in this case two oxygen atoms, can be produced in a variety of excited states and with a variety of kinetic energies, as represented by W in Eq. (1). These atoms are not only active in the neutral chemistry of the ionosphere, but are also especially important because their optical emissions are often used to infer in situ concentrations of the parent molecular ion and ambient electron densities. Many laboratory measurements have been made of DR reaction rates under a wide range of electron temperatures, but very little is known about the actual distributions among the final states of the atomic products. This lack of knowledge seriously limits the validity and effectiveness of efforts to model both natural and man-made ionospheric disturbances. Bates recently identified major deficiencies in the currently accepted branching ratios for O2(+) as they relate to blue and green line emission measurements in the nocturnal F-region. During our two-year effort, we partially satisfied our ambitious goals. We constructed and operated a variable pressure, electron-impact ion source and a high pressure, hollow-cathode discharge ion

  7. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.


    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  8. Simulation of Ionospheric Response During Solar Eclipse Events (United States)

    Kordella, L.; Earle, G. D.; Huba, J.


    Total solar eclipses are rare, short duration events that present interesting case studies of ionospheric behavior because the structure of the ionosphere is determined and stabilized by varying energies of solar radiation (Lyman alpha, X-ray, U.V., etc.). The ionospheric response to eclipse events is a source of scientific intrigue that has been studied in various capacities over the past 50 years. Unlike the daily terminator crossings, eclipses cause highly localized, steep gradients of ionization efficiency due to their comparatively small solar zenith angle. However, the corona remains present even at full obscuration, meaning that the energy reduction never falls to the levels seen at night. Previous eclipse studies performed by research groups in the US, UK, China and Russia have shown a range of effects, some counter-intuitive and others contradictory. In the shadowed region of an eclipse (i.e. umbra) it is logical to assume a reduction in ionization rates correlating with the reduction of incident solar radiation. Results have shown that even this straightforward hypothesis may not be true; effects on plasma distribution, motion and temperature are more appreciable than might be expected. Recent advancements in ionospheric simulation codes present the opportunity to investigate the relationship between geophysical conditions and geomagnetic location on resulting eclipse event ionosphere. Here we present computational simulation results using the Naval Research Lab (NRL) developed ionospheric modeling codes Sami2 and Sami3 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) modified with spatio-temporal photoionization attenuation functions derived from theory and empirical data.

  9. Ionospheric forecasts for the European region for space weather applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in the implementation and validation of the Solar Wind driven autoregression model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast (SWIF that is running in the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS to release ionospheric forecasting products for the European region. The upgraded implementation plan expands SWIF’s capabilities in the high latitude ionosphere while the extensive validation tests in the two solar cycles 23 and 24 allow the comprehensive analysis of the model’s performance in all terms. Focusing on disturbed conditions, the results demonstrate that SWIF’s alert detection algorithm forecasts the occurrence of ionospheric storm time disturbances with probability of detection up to 98% under intense geomagnetic storm conditions and up to 63% when storms of moderate intensity are also considered. The forecasts show relative improvement over climatology of about 30% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 40% in middle-to-high latitudes. This indicates that SWIF is able to capture on average more than one third (35% of the storm-associated ionospheric disturbances. Regarding the accuracy, the averaged mean relative error during storm conditions usually ranges around 20% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 24% in the middle-to-high latitudes. Our analysis shows clearly that SWIF alert criteria were designed to effectively anticipate the ionospheric storm time effects that occurred under specific interplanetary conditions, e.g., cloud Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs and/or associated sheaths. The results provide valuable input in advancing our ability in predicting the space weather effects in the ionosphere for future developments, and further work is proposed to enhance the model forecasting efficiency to support operational applications.

  10. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov, V.V.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of cyclone impact on ionosphere parameters. Ionosphere state was observed by the automatic sounding equipment applying low-orbital navigational spacecrafts in the conditions of low seismicity

  12. Colloids in inhomogeneous external magnetic fields: particle tweezing, trapping and void formation (United States)

    Froltsov, V. A.; Likos, C. N.; Löwen, H.


    Two-dimensional super-paramagnetic suspensions that are confined to a planar liquid-gas interface and exposed to an inhomogeneous external magnetic field directed perpendicular to the interface are studied by extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. The external field is a superposition of a homogeneous field and a localized inhomogeneity, modelled by a Gaussian function. The inhomogeneity causes two combined effects that compete against each other: it provides an external potential, modifying at the same time the mutual interparticle repulsion. If the inhomogeneity enhances the strength of the homogeneous profile, the inhomogeneous field is a 'magnetic tweezer' for low particle densities. At higher densities, on the other hand, there is a small accumulation in the centre of the inhomogeneous field, which leads to a depletion zone outside the inhomogeneity due to the mutual interparticle repulsion. Very large inhomogeneities produce local crystallites surrounded by a depletion ring. If the inhomogeneity reduces the total field strength, particles are repelled from the inhomogeneity and voids are generated in the suspension. Our predictions are of relevance to the direct transport of magnetic particles and can be verified in real-space experiments of super-paramagnetic suspensions.

  13. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  14. Ion Heating in the Martian Ionosphere (United States)

    Fowler, C. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L.; Peterson, W. K.; Hara, T.; Mcfadden, J.; Espley, J.; Halekas, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Jakosky, B. M.


    Energetic O+ and O2+ ions with energies of up to a few hundred eV are observed in the Martian ionosphere. Corresponding ion velocity distributions show ion conics, suggesting that the observed ion populations have been heated perpendicular to the local magnetic field before experiencing a magnetic mirror force. Magnetic field observations support these interpretations: wave power at the local O+ and O2+ gyrofrequencies in the spacecraft frame is observed coincident with the energetic ions, within an apparent magnetic field bottle-like topology. Analysis of the observed ion conics leads to estimates of ion temperatures of 10-30 eV. We suggest that the ion populations are initially heated perpendicular to the local magnetic field by wave power propagating inward from the Mars-solar wind interaction. The local magnetic field "balloons out" in response to these enhanced ion temperatures and pressures. The resultant magnetic field topology is bottle like; the transversely heated ions would subsequently experience a magnetic mirror force in the converging field regions, agreeing with the reported observations. Such strong heating events that significantly increase the ion temperature and pressure, thereby decreasing the net magnetic field, are rare and seem to occur under specific interplanetary magnetic field orientations. Events were observed to span the upper exobase region and just above, a region characterized by significant ion densities in an increasingly collisionless domain. Ion heating in this region has the potential to drive significant ion outflows, thus contributing to atmospheric loss from the planet.

  15. The Role of Ionospheric Conductivity in the Response of the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere to Changes in the Earth's Magnetic Field (United States)

    Cnossen, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Richmond, A. D.; Ouellette, J.


    The strength and orientation of the Earth's magnetic field play an important role in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. This is demonstrated in a set of idealized experiments with the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere model using a dipolar magnetic field. A decrease of the dipole moment (M) causes an increase in ionospheric conductance. This increase in conductance results in enhanced field-aligned currents (FACs), which change the shape of the magnetosphere, and causes a deviation from theoretical scaling relations of the stand-off distance, the size of the polar cap, and the cross-polar cap potential with M. The orientation of the Earth's magnetic field determines how the angle μ between the geomagnetic dipole axis and the geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM) z-axis varies with season and universal time (UT). The angle μ can affect solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in two distinct ways: via variations in ionospheric conductivity over the polar caps or via a change in the coupling efficiency between the solar wind and magnetosphere as a result of changes in geometry. Simulations in which the ionospheric conductivity was either kept fixed or allowed to vary realistically demonstrated that variations in ionospheric conductance are responsible for ~10-30% of the variations in the cross-polar cap potential associated with variations in μ for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The remainder was mostly due to variations in the magnetic reconnection rate, which were associated with variations in the length of the section of the separator line along which relatively strong reconnection occurs.

  16. Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities for the Assessment of Impacts on Communication/Navigation System (7) (United States)


    Final Report of AFRL-AOARD Project 11-4040 (2011-2013) “Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities for the Assessment of Impacts on...DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01-08-2011 to 01-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities both temporal and amplitude variations. Second, since the ionospheric density irregularities are the source of ionospheric radiowave scintillation

  17. Investigation of Ionospheric Turbulence and Whistler Wave Interactions with Space Plasmas (United States)


    rely on naturally occurring spread F irregularities to serve as ionospheric ducts. We can also use HF wave-created ducts/artificial waveguides, as... ionospheric plasma structures have different configurations. In brief, large-scale sheet- like ionospheric density irregularities can be excited within and...Burke W J, Sulzer M P, Kuo S P and Klien E M C 1998 Generation of large sheet-like ionospheric plasma irregularities at Arecibo Geophys. Res. Lett

  18. Monitoring the ionosphere during the earthquake on GPS data (United States)

    Smirnov, V. M.; Smirnova, E. V.

    The problem of stability estimation of physical state of an atmosphere attracts a rapt attention of the world community but it is still far from being solved A lot of global atmospheric processes which have direct influence upon all forms of the earth life have been detected The comprehension of cause effect relations stipulating their origin and development is possible only on the basis of long-term sequences of observations data of time-space variations of the atmosphere characteristics which should be received on a global scale and in the interval of altitudes as brand as possible Such data can be obtained only with application satellite systems The latest researches have shown that the satellite systems can be successfully used for global and continuous monitoring ionosphere of the Earth In turn the ionosphere can serve a reliable indicator of different kinds of effects on an environment both of natural and anthropogenic origin Nowadays the problem of the short-term forecast of earthquakes has achieved a new level of understanding There have been revealed indisputable factors which show that the ionosphere anomalies observed during the preparation of seismic events contain the information allowing to detect and to interpret them as earthquake precursors The partial decision of the forecast problem of earthquakes on ionospheric variations requires the processing data received simultaneously from extensive territories Such requirements can be met only on the basis of ground-space system of ionosphere monitoring The navigating systems

  19. Influence of Solar Irradiance on Polar Ionospheric Convection (United States)

    Burrell, A. G.; Yeoman, T. K.; Stephen, M.; Lester, M.


    Plasma convection over the poles shows the result of direct interactions between the terrestrial atmosphere, magnetosphere, and the sun. The paths that the ionospheric plasma takes in the polar cap form a variety of patterns, which have been shown to depend strongly on the direction of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and the reconnection rate. While the IMF and level of geomagnetic activity clearly alter the plasma convection patterns, the influence of changing solar irradiance is also important. The solar irradiance and magnetospheric particle precipitation regulate the rate of plasma production, and thus the ionospheric conductivity. Previous work has demonstrated how season alters the convection patterns observed over the poles, demonstrating the importance that solar photoionisation has on plasma convection. This study investigates the role of solar photoionisation on convection more directly, using measurements of ionospheric convection made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and solar irradiance observations made by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) to explore the influence of the solar cycle on ionospheric convection, and the implications this may have on magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  20. Ionospheric annual anomaly—New insights to the physical mechanisms (United States)

    Sai Gowtam, V.; Tulasi Ram, S.


    The ionospheric annual anomaly or nonseasonal anomaly of the ionosphere is characterized by globally increased ionization in December solstice than in June solstice. Though this phenomenon was reported several decades ago, the causal mechanisms have not been fully understood till today. In this paper, the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) data from Formosa satellite 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate-radio occultation observations during the low solar activity year 2009 were systematically analyzed to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for annual anomaly and its local time, latitudinal, and longitudinal variability. It is found that the annual anomaly is primarily dominant at Southern Hemisphere at all local times, with significant enhancements at equatorial ionization anomaly crest latitudes during noon to afternoon hours and at high latitudes during nighttimes. The annual anomaly in Northern Hemisphere occurs with relatively smaller magnitudes and confined only to morning to early afternoon hours (08-14 LT). This study brings out the important roles of effective neutral winds due to the geomagnetic field configuration and the offset between geomagnetic equator and subsolar point for the enhanced plasma density in the Southern Hemisphere during December that majorly contributes to the ionospheric annual anomaly. These results provide new insights to the responsible mechanisms behind the ionospheric annual anomaly and its local time latitudinal, and longitudinal variation

  1. Towards Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using GPS TEC Measurements (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Mannucci, A.; Hickey, M. P.; Schubert, G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Occhipinti, G.


    Recent modeling results and observations have demonstrated that the ionospheric signature of an ocean tsunami can potentially be detected as a traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) produced by internal gravity waves propagating upward in the atmosphere [e.g., Hickey et al., (2009), Occhipinti et al., (2006)]. These tsunamigenic TID’s have been demonstrated to be present in total electron content (TEC) measurements using ground-based GPS radio signals [e.g., Artru et al., (2005)] and satellite-based altimeter radar [Occhipinti et al., (2006)]. There are many remaining unanswered questions regarding the reliability of detecting tsunamigenic TIDs, including how to distinguish them from TIDs of non-tsunamigenic origin, as well as factors affecting the propagation of internal gravity waves in the ionosphere. We present ongoing research analyzing ground-based GPS TEC observations during multiple known tsunami events. Specifically, fluctuations in TEC are obtained by comparing observed TEC with modeled TEC estimates using JPL’s Global Ionospheric Mapping (GIM) system. These small fluctuations are then band-passed filtered and Fourier analyzed, across multiple GPS satellites and ground stations, to search for wave patterns similar to the coincident ocean tsunami in the same geographic region. Results are discussed in terms of the degree to which a tsunamigenic TID is observed in each case, and the possible causes for failing to observe them. Comparisons between observations and results from theoretical models of tsunamigenic ionospheric wave propagation are also discussed for specific cases.

  2. GPS, Earthquakes, the Ionosphere, and the Space Shuttle (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Minster, J. Bernard


    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes producing strong vertical ground displacements are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere. Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System provides a way of directly measuring the Total Electron Content in the ionosphere and, therefore. of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In this work, we demonstrate the capabilities of the GPS technique to detect ionospheric perturbations caused by the January 17. 1994, M (sub w) =6.7, Northridge earthquake and the STS-58 Space Shuttle ascent. In both cases, we observe a perturbation of the ionospheric electron density lasting for about 30 m, with periods less than 10 m. The perturbation is complex and shows two sub-events separated by about 15 m. The phase velocities and waveform characteristics of the two sub-events lead us to interpret the first arrival as the direct propagation of 2 free wave, followed by oscillatory guided waves propagating along horizontal atmospheric interfaces at 120 km altitude and below.

  3. Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymund, T.D.; Austen, J.R.; Franke, S.J.; Liu, C.H.; Klobuchar, J.A.


    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements, obtained simultaneously at several locations, can be processed using computerized tomography (CT) algorithms to obtain two-dimensional images of ionospheric electron density. Using TEC data computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) reconstructs an image of the electron density structures in a vertical slice above the receiving stations. We successfully applied this technique to realistic simulations of ionospheric density variations over 16 degree of latitude and a height range of 50 to 1000 km. A method for approximating the peak height and scale height of the electron density profile will be discussed as well as a reconstruction technique based on the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm and a back projection based initial guess. The quality of reconstructions is considered for two geometries and image resolutions. In particular, the image of a mid-latitude trough with background horizontal density gradient and large-scale irregular structures has been reconstructed from TEC data generated from a model based on an incoherent scatter radar observation. The CT reconstructed image was compared with the original contour map obtained by the incoherent scatter radar. Good agreement has been achieved. The CIT technique has also been applied to a modeled ionosphere to calculate the range rate corrections for a Doppler-tracking radar. Reprint

  4. Ionospheric conductance distribution and MHD wave structure: observation and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Budnik

    Full Text Available The ionosphere influences magnetohydrodynamic waves in the magnetosphere by damping because of Joule heating and by varying the wave structure itself. There are different eigenvalues and eigensolutions of the three dimensional toroidal wave equation if the height integrated Pedersen conductivity exceeds a critical value, namely the wave conductance of the magnetosphere. As a result a jump in frequency can be observed in ULF pulsation records. This effect mainly occurs in regions with gradients in the Pedersen conductances, as in the auroral oval or the dawn and dusk areas. A pulsation event recorded by the geostationary GOES-6 satellite is presented. We explain the observed change in frequency as a change in the wave structure while crossing the terminator. Furthermore, selected results of numerical simulations in a dipole magnetosphere with realistic ionospheric conditions are discussed. These are in good agreement with the observational data.

    Key words. Ionosphere · (Ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics · Magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · MHD waves and instabilities.

  5. Ionospheric conductance distribution and MHD wave structure: observation and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Budnik


    Full Text Available The ionosphere influences magnetohydrodynamic waves in the magnetosphere by damping because of Joule heating and by varying the wave structure itself. There are different eigenvalues and eigensolutions of the three dimensional toroidal wave equation if the height integrated Pedersen conductivity exceeds a critical value, namely the wave conductance of the magnetosphere. As a result a jump in frequency can be observed in ULF pulsation records. This effect mainly occurs in regions with gradients in the Pedersen conductances, as in the auroral oval or the dawn and dusk areas. A pulsation event recorded by the geostationary GOES-6 satellite is presented. We explain the observed change in frequency as a change in the wave structure while crossing the terminator. Furthermore, selected results of numerical simulations in a dipole magnetosphere with realistic ionospheric conditions are discussed. These are in good agreement with the observational data.Key words. Ionosphere · (Ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics · Magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · MHD waves and instabilities.

  6. Improved estimation of Mars ionosphere total electron content (United States)

    Cartacci, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Orosei, R.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Witasse, O.; Cantini, F.; Rossi, A. P.


    We describe an improved method to estimate the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the Mars ionosphere from the echoes recorded by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005; Orosei et al., 2015) onboard Mars Express in its subsurface sounding mode. In particular, we demonstrate that this method solves the issue of the former algorithm described at (Cartacci et al., 2013), which produced an overestimation of TEC estimates on the day side. The MARSIS signal is affected by a phase distortion introduced by the Mars ionosphere that produces a variation of the signal shape and a delay in its travel time. The new TEC estimation is achieved correlating the parameters obtained through the correction of the aforementioned effects. In detail, the knowledge of the quadratic term of the phase distortion estimated by the Contrast Method (Cartacci et al., 2013), together with the linear term (i.e. the extra time delay), estimated through a radar signal simulator, allows to develop a new algorithm particularly well suited to estimate the TEC for solar zenith angles (SZA) lower than 95° The new algorithm for the dayside has been validated with independent data from MARSIS in its Active Ionospheric Sounding (AIS) operational mode, with comparisons with other previous algorithms based on MARSIS subsurface data, with modeling and with modeling ionospheric distortion TEC reconstruction.

  7. Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0082 IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES PREDICTIONS AND PLUMES CHARACTERIZATION FOR SATELLITE Eurico De Paula FUNCATE - FUNDACACAO DE... Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0564

  8. High-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation (United States)

    Li, Junhai; Jin, Shuanggen


    GPS radio occultation can estimate ionospheric electron density and total electron content (TEC) with high spatial resolution, e.g., China's recent Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation. However, high-order ionospheric delays are normally ignored. In this paper, the high-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from the Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation data are estimated and investigated using the NeQuick2 ionosphere model and the IGRF12 (International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 12th generation) geomagnetic model. Results show that the high-order ionospheric delays have large effects on electron density estimation with up to 800 el cm-3, which should be corrected in high-precision ionospheric density estimation and applications. The second-order ionospheric effects are more significant, particularly at 250-300 km, while third-order ionospheric effects are much smaller. Furthermore, the high-order ionospheric effects are related to the location, the local time, the radio occultation azimuth and the solar activity. The large high-order ionospheric effects are found in the low-latitude area and in the daytime as well as during strong solar activities. The second-order ionospheric effects have a maximum positive value when the radio occultation azimuth is around 0-20°, and a maximum negative value when the radio occultation azimuth is around -180 to -160°. Moreover, the geomagnetic storm also affects the high-order ionospheric delay, which should be carefully corrected.

  9. Anomalies in the Ionosphere around the Southern faults of Haiti near the 2010 Earthquake (United States)

    Cornely, P.; Daniell, R. E.


    In the last few decades, research on earthquake prediction has resulted in the recognition that there may exist many earthquake precursors in the lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere. The ionosphere is naturally perturbed by solar and geomagnetic disturbances and it is difficult to extract the variations connected with earthquakes particularly for the equatorial and high latitude ionosphere. Several researchers have contending theories on the mechanisms associated with pre-earthquake signals. The basic premise is that a thin layer of particles created before earthquakes due to ions originating from the earth's crust travel to the earth's surface and begin radiating from the earth's surface due to strong electric fields Namgaladze et al., [2009]. The ions can then travel from above earth's surface to the ionosphere where they can create ionospheric disturbances. When solar and geomagnetic disturbances can be ruled out, the effects of pre-seismic activities in the ionosphere can be assessed using fluctuations in the ionospheric electron density in the vicinity of fault lines. The Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) is a fast global ionospheric model which produces electron density profiles (EDPs) between 90 and 25000 km altitude, which corresponds to critical altitudes of the ionosphere Daniell et al., [1995]. Since PIM only simulates a statistical mean ionosphere, sudden variations in ionospheric electron density will not be represented in the models, which make PIM ideal for background electron density predictions. The background predictions can then removed from the actual electron density data which could provide means for identifying pre-seismic electron density perturbations.

  10. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 1, Notivation and basic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittitoe, C.N.


    Properties of the ionosphere are reviewed along with its correlations with other geophysical phenomena and with applications of ionospheric studies to communication, navigation, and surveillance systems. Computer tomography is identified as a method to determine the detailed, three-dimensional distribution of electron density within the ionosphere. Several tomography methods are described, with a basic approach illustrated by an example. Limitations are identified.

  11. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edemskiy, I.; Laštovička, Jan; Burešová, Dalia; Habarulema, J. B.; Nepomnyashchikh, I.


    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2018), s. 71-79 ISSN 0992-7689 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * ionospheric disturbances * midlatitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2016

  12. Information Theory Approach to Evaluate the Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Parameters (United States)

    Seemala, G. K.; R, S.; Bhaskara, V.; Ramesh, D. S.


    The importance of space weather and understanding onset o geomagnetic storms is increasing day by day as the space missions increase. It is known from the ground-based and space-borne observations that a geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind and/or solar eruptions. Geomagnetic storms are more disruptive now than in the past because of our greater dependence on technical systems that can be affected by electric currents and energetic particles high in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is known that number of phenomena occurs during the space weather events; and there are many un-solved questions like solar wind coupling with magnetosphere and ionosphere, relationship between geomagnetic storms & sub-storms etc. To evaluate contribution of various interplanetary parameters that have major role in the geomagnetic storm/geomagnetic variations, the information theory approach is used. In information theory, the measure of uncertainty or randomness of a signal can be quantified by using Shannon entropy or entropy for short. And Transfer entropy is capable of quantifying the directional flow of information between two signals. Thus the Transfer entropy is capable of distinguishing effectively driving and responding signals. In this study, we use Transfer entropy function on Solar wind parameters and ground magnetic data to derive the drivers and relations between them, and also study their contributed effect on ionospheric TEC. In this presentation, we will evaluate and present the results obtained, and discuss about the driving forces on the geomagnetic field disturbances.

  13. A note on chaotic vs. stochastic behavior of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Wernik


    Full Text Available Four data sets of density fluctuations measured in-situ by the Dynamics Explorer (DE 2 were analyzed in an attempt to study chaotic nature of the high-latitude turbulence and, in this way to complement the conventional spectral analysis. It has been found that the probability distribution function of density differences is far from Gaussian and similar to that observed in the intermittent fluid or MBD turbulence. This indicates that ionospheric density fluctuations are not stochastic but coherent to some extent. Wayland's and surrogate data tests for determinism in a time series of density data allowed us to differentiate between regions of intense shear and moderate shear. We observe that in the region of strong field aligned currents (FAC and intense shear, or along the convection in the collisional regime, ionospheric turbulence behaves like a random noise with non-Gaussian statistics implying that the underlying physical process is nondeterministic. On the other hand, when FACs are weak, and shear is moderate or observations made in the inertial regime the turbulence is chaotic. The attractor dimension is lowest (1.9 for 'old' convected irregularities. The dimension 3.2 is found for turbulence in the inertial regime and considerably smaller (2.4 in the collisional regime. It is suggested that a high dimension in the inertial regime may be caused by a complicated velocity structure in the shear instability region.

  14. NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A


    A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}){right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.

  15. Application of TaiWan Ionosphere Model to Single-Frequency Ionospheric Delay Correction for GPS Static Position Positioning (United States)

    Macalalad, E. P.; Tsai, L.; Wu, J.


    Ionospheric delay is one of the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges can vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. This effect can be practically removed using dual-frequency receivers. However, these types of receivers are very expensive and thus, impractical for most users. Therefore, for single-frequency receivers, ionosphere is usually modeled to attempt to remove this effect analytically. Numerous ionosphere models have been introduced in the past. Some of which are the Klobuchar (or broadcast) model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, another model, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model (TWIM) was used to correct this effect. TWIM is a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, was used to calculate ionospheric delay for GPS single-frequency positioning. The ne profiles were used to calculate the slant TEC (STEC) between a receiver and each GPS satellite and correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to calculate the position of the receiver. Observations were made in a low-latitude location near one of the peaks of the equatorial anomaly. It was shown that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models. That is, on the average, the horizontal accuracy, represented by the circular error probable (CEP), distance RMS (DRMS) and twice the DRMS (2DRMS), were better by 15-18% as compared with the CEP, DRMS and 2DRMS of uncorrected, Klobuchar and GIM. Moreover

  16. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...... express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance...

  17. Intrinsic inhomogeneities and effects of resistive switching in doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulina, N.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Uspenskaya, L.S. [Institute of Solid State Physics RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation); Sirotkin, V.V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation); Mukovskii, Y.M. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Institute, Leninskii pr-t 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shulyatev, D.A. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Institute, Leninskii pr-t 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    The effect of resistive switching in doped manganites being in the ferromagnetic state has been studied using resistive and magneto-optic methods. The visualization of magnetic structure of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3-x} single crystals, and its transformation under electric current proposed local superheating of the material above the Curie temperature, which was supported by numerical calculation. The obtained results suggest a significant role of micrometer-scale inhomogeneity of manganites in phase separation, magnetic and transport properties of the material.

  18. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices. (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F


    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.

  19. Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, Alexander, E-mail:; Wilms, Jochen [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)


    The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.

  20. Inhomogeneity-induced cosmic acceleration in a dust universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C-H; Gu, J-A; Hwang, W-Y P [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    It is the common consensus that the expansion of a universe always slows down if the gravity provided by the energy sources therein is attractive and accordingly one needs to invoke dark energy as a source of anti-gravity for understanding the cosmic acceleration. To examine this point we find counterexamples for a spherically symmetric dust fluid described by the LemaItre-Tolman-Bondi solution without singularity. Thus, the validity of this naive consensus is indeed doubtful and the effects of inhomogeneities should be restudied. These counter-intuitive examples open a new perspective on the understanding of the evolution of our universe.

  1. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps (United States)

    Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.


    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  2. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao


    The paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second-order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated by using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in the ...... and in the second step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rainforests....

  3. Slices method to describe ray propagation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Aguilar-Gutiérrez, J. F.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.


    We describe an alternative method that numerically calculates the trajectory followed by a light ray in rotationally symmetric inhomogeneous media in the paraxial approximation. The medium is divided into thin parallel slices and a radial quadratic refractive index is considered for each slice. The ABCD matrix is calculated in each slice and the trajectory of the ray was obtained. The method is demonstrated considering media with a refractive index distribution used to describe the human eye lens. The results are compared with the exact numerical solution for each particular distribution. In all cases, a good agreement is obtained for the proposed method and the exact numerical solution.

  4. Ventilation inhomogeneity in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik F; Marthin, June Kehlet


    damage in children with cystic fibrosis, which shares features with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Normalised phase III slope indices S(cond) and S(acin) reflect function of the small conducting and acinar airways, respectively. The involvement of the peripheral airways assessed by MBW tests has......The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) test reflects global ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. It is more sensitive than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for detecting abnormal airway function and correlates closely with structural lung...

  5. Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The tight coupling expansion, appropriately generalized to include large-scale magnetic fields, allows the estimate of the brightness perturbations of CMB anisotropies for typical wavelengths that are larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality. After discussing the basic features of the the pre-decoupling initial conditions in the presence of fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the tight coupling expansion is studied both analytically and numerically. From the requirement that the amplitudes and phases of Sakharov oscillations are (predominantly) adiabatic and from the inferred value of the plateau in the temperature autocorrelation, the effects of the magnetized contribution can be systematically investigated and constrained.

  6. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)


    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  7. Inhomogeneous critical current in nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudio, R., E-mail:; Hoog, K. P. M. op ' t; Zhou, Z.; Sahin, D.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    A superconducting thin film with uniform properties is the key to realize nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) with high performance and high yield. To investigate the uniformity of NbN films, we introduce and characterize simple detectors consisting of short nanowires with length ranging from 100 nm to 15 μm. Our nanowires, contrary to meander SSPDs, allow probing the homogeneity of NbN at the nanoscale. Experimental results, endorsed by a microscopic model, show the strongly inhomogeneous nature of NbN films on the sub-100 nm scale.

  8. Ionospheric Gradient Threat Mitigation in Future Dual Frequency GBAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Felux


    Full Text Available The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context.

  9. Ionospheric effects on terrestrial communications :Working Group 3 overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourdillon


    Full Text Available Telecommunications via ionospheric reflection of radio signals of ground-based transmitters are a traditional area. However, this technique is still in use in telecommunications, broadcasting, etc. Various problems have not yet been solved and some of them were studied in Working Group 3 (WG3. Structure of WG 3 and the terms of reference of its four working packages are described in the introductory paper by Zolesi and Cander (2004. Here we describe the main results achieved in COST 271 in the following areas: i large-scale fluctuations of planetary and gravity waves; ii development of a new type of HF channel simulator; iii geomagnetic storm effects on the F1-region ionosphere; iv the sporadic E-layer and spread-F phenomena; v the HF radio wave propagation over northerly paths; vi how to increase the bit rate in ionospheric radio links. In general, substantial progress was achieved but some problems remain open for future investigations.

  10. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A


    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  11. Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymund, T.D.; Franke, S.J.; Liu, C.H.; Austen, J.R.; Klobuchar, J.A. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA) Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (USA) USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (USA))


    It is shown that ionospheric total electron content measurements, obtained simultaneously at several locations, can be processed using computerized tomography (CT) algorithms to obtain two-dimensional images of ionospheric electron density. CT, using ionospheric total electron content data, is applied to simulate density variations over 16 deg of latitude and a height range of 50 to 1000 km. A method of approximating the peak height and scale height of the electron density profile is presented, as well as a reconstruction technique using a multiplicative algebraic algorithm and a back projection based initial guess. The quality of the images is examined for two geometries and resolutions. It is suggested that the reconstruction algorithm is sufficiently robust to perform well even in the presence of broad-band noise of reasonable level. 12 refs.

  12. Ionosphere monitoring with polish LOFAR station PL610 (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Przepiórka, Dorota; Wronowski, Roman; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Grzesiak, Marcin


    LOFAR the Low-Frequency Array is very powerful tool not only for the radio astronomy but also for space weather monitoring. Single station consists of two groups of antennas LBA (Low Band Antenna) and HBA (High Band Antenna) working in different frequency ranges from 10-90 MHz and 110-250 MHz. LOFAR has a multi-arm log-spiral geometry that provides a well filled U,V plane and individual sharp beams that can be digitally steered independently. All this features are very useful for ionospheric studies and allow for local and global analysis of ionospheric plasma characteristic over whole teloscope and single station. Here we present new approach of using LOFAR radio observations from polish station PL610 in Borówiec as a complementary tool for ionospheric diagnostic and space weather monitoring.

  13. Correction of Single Frequency Altimeter Measurements for Ionosphere Delay (United States)

    Schreiner, William S.; Markin, Robert E.; Born, George H.


    This study is a preliminary analysis of the accuracy of various ionosphere models to correct single frequency altimeter height measurements for Ionospheric path delay. In particular, research focused on adjusting empirical and parameterized ionosphere models in the parameterized real-time ionospheric specification model (PRISM) 1.2 using total electron content (TEC) data from the global positioning system (GPS). The types of GPS data used to adjust PRISM included GPS line-of-sight (LOS) TEC data mapped to the vertical, and a grid of GPS derived TEC data in a sun-fixed longitude frame. The adjusted PRISM TEC values, as well as predictions by IRI-90, a climatotogical model, were compared to TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) TEC measurements from the dual-frequency altimeter for a number of T/P tracks. When adjusted with GPS LOS data, the PRISM empirical model predicted TEC over 24 1 h data sets for a given local time to with in a global error of 8.60 TECU rms during a midnight centered ionosphere and 9.74 TECU rms during a noon centered ionosphere. Using GPS derived sun-fixed TEC data, the PRISM parameterized model predicted TEC within an error of 8.47 TECU rms centered at midnight and 12.83 TECU rms centered at noon. From these best results, it is clear that the proposed requirement of 3-4 TECU global rms for TOPEX/Poseidon Follow-On will be very difficult to meet, even with a substantial increase in the number of GPS ground stations, with any realizable combination of the aforementioned models or data assimilation schemes.

  14. Ionospheric signatures during a magnetospheric flux rope event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Juusola


    Full Text Available On 13 August 2002, during a substorm, Cluster encountered two earthward moving flux ropes (FR in the central magnetotail. The first FR was observed during the expansion phase of the substorm, and the second FR during the recovery phase. In the conjugate ionospheric region in Northern Fennoscandia, the ionospheric equivalent currents were observed by the MIRACLE network and the auroral evolution was monitored by the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC on-board the IMAGE satellite. Extending the study of Amm et al. (2006, we examine and compare the possible ionospheric signatures associated with the two FRs. Amm et al. studied the first event in detail and found that the ionospheric footprint of Cluster coincided with a region of downward field-aligned current. They suggested that this region of downward current, together with a trailing region of upward current further southwestward, might correspond to the ends of the FR. Unlike during the first FR, however, we do not see any clear ionospheric features associated with the second one. In the GSM xy-plane, the first flux rope axis was tilted with respect to the y-direction by 29°, while the second flux rope axis was almost aligned in the y-direction, with an angle of 4° only. It is possible that due to the length and orientation of the second FR, any ionospheric signatures were simply mapped outside the region covered by the ground-based instruments. We suggest that the ground signatures of a FR depend on the orientation and the length of the structure.

  15. Isolated ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Afraimovich


    Full Text Available We investigate an unusual class of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances of the nonwave type, isolated ionospheric disturbances (IIDs that manifest themselves in total electron content (TEC variations in the form of single aperiodic negative TEC disturbances of a duration of about 10min (the total electron content spikes, TECS. The data were obtained using the technology of global detection of ionospheric disturbances using measurements of TEC variations from a global network of receivers of the GPS. For the first time, we present the TECS morphology for 170 days in 1998–2001. The total number of TEC series, with a duration of each series of about 2.3h (2h18m, exceeded 850000. It was found that TECS are observed in no more than 1–2% of the total number of TEC series mainly in the nighttime in the spring and autumn periods. The TECS amplitude exceeds the mean value of the "background" TEC variation amplitude by a factor of 5–10 as a minimum. TECS represent a local phenomenon with a typical radius of spatial correlation not larger than 500km. The IID-induced TEC variations are similar in their amplitude, form and duration to the TEC response to shock-acoustic waves (SAW generated during rocket launchings and earthquakes. However, the IID propagation velocity is less than the SAW velocity (800–1000m/s and are most likely to correspond to the velocity of background medium-scale acoustic-gravity waves, on the order of 100–200m/s. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, instruments and techniques - Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  16. Isolated ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Afraimovich


    Full Text Available We investigate an unusual class of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances of the nonwave type, isolated ionospheric disturbances (IIDs that manifest themselves in total electron content (TEC variations in the form of single aperiodic negative TEC disturbances of a duration of about 10min (the total electron content spikes, TECS. The data were obtained using the technology of global detection of ionospheric disturbances using measurements of TEC variations from a global network of receivers of the GPS. For the first time, we present the TECS morphology for 170 days in 1998–2001. The total number of TEC series, with a duration of each series of about 2.3h (2h18m, exceeded 850000. It was found that TECS are observed in no more than 1–2% of the total number of TEC series mainly in the nighttime in the spring and autumn periods. The TECS amplitude exceeds the mean value of the "background" TEC variation amplitude by a factor of 5–10 as a minimum. TECS represent a local phenomenon with a typical radius of spatial correlation not larger than 500km. The IID-induced TEC variations are similar in their amplitude, form and duration to the TEC response to shock-acoustic waves (SAW generated during rocket launchings and earthquakes. However, the IID propagation velocity is less than the SAW velocity (800–1000m/s and are most likely to correspond to the velocity of background medium-scale acoustic-gravity waves, on the order of 100–200m/s.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, instruments and techniques - Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  17. How Does A Porous Shell Collapse? Delayed Buckling And Guided Folding Of Inhomogeneous Capsules


    Datta, Sujit S.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A


    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy's law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  18. Imaging magnetospheric boundaries at ionospheric heights (United States)

    Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Martinis, Carlos; Smith, Steven; Merenda, Kevin-Druis; Fritz, Theodore; Hairston, Marc; Heelis, Rod; Barbieri, Cesare


    all-sky imager (ASI) records atmospheric emissions from zenith to low on the horizon at all azimuths, a region typically spanning millions of square kilometers. Each pixel (with its unique elevation, azimuth, and emission height) can be mapped along B-field lines to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Auroral and subauroral structures and boundaries seen in emission within the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system can thus be related to source regions. For a midlatitude site, this I-T to inner magnetosphere connection typically falls within the L = 2-5 earth radii domain. In this study, we present the first case of a stable auroral red (SAR) arc observed from three widely spaced ASI sites (Europe, North America, New Zealand). SAR arcs are produced during the main and recovery phases of a geomagnetic storm, with emission driven by heat conduction from a very specific location in the magnetosphere—the L value where the plasmapause and the inner edge of the ring current overlap. Using three-site observations, we show that this boundary can be followed for 24 consecutive hours. Simultaneous observations made by three satellites in the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) show that the lowest latitude peak in electron temperature can be used to map the same boundary. A key structure of the inner magnetosphere that cannot be observed continuously from sensors orbiting within the magnetosphere is made continuously visible to ground-based optical systems via effects caused by the drainage of small amounts of ring current energy into the I-T system.

  19. Convection surrounding mesoscale ionospheric flow channels (United States)

    Rinne, Y.; Moen, J.; Baker, J. B. H.; Carlson, H. C.


    We evaluate data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard radar (ESR) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft coupled with data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) polar cap convection patterns in order to study how the ionospheric convection evolves around a sequence of transient, mesoscale flow channel events in the duskside of the cusp inflow region. On a northwestward convection background for the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BY positive and BZ negative, a sequence of three eastward flow channels formed over the course of 1 hour in response to three sharp IMF rotations to IMF BY negative and IMF BZ positive. The first and third channels, due to IMF BY negative periods of ˜13 min and >30 min, respectively, develop in a similar manner: they span the entire ESR field of view and widen poleward with increasing time elapsed since their first appearance until the IMF rotates back. The convection patterns are consistent with the line-of-sight data from the ESR and DMSP within a 10 min adaption time. The flow lines form a twin-vortex flow, with the observed channel being the twin vortices' center flow. The fitting algorithm was pushed to its limits in terms of spatial resolution in this study. During portions of the channel events, the suggested twin-cell flow is not in agreement with our physical interpretation of the flow channels being reconnection events because cell closure is suggested across an anticipated nonreconnecting open-closed boundary. For these segments, we present simulated patterns which have been arrived at by a combination of looking at the raw data and examining the fitted convection patterns.

  20. Nowcasting, forecasting and warning for ionospheric propagation: supporting databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski


    Full Text Available The use of data is essential in the context of nowcasting, forecasting and warning of ionospheric propagation conditions, with roles to play in the development, evaluation and operation of models and services. Descriptions are given of three databases that have been established in the course of the COST 271 Action: a database of prompt ionospheric soundings, an extension to a database generated by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, and a database intended to facilitate evaluation of TEC estimation methods. Each database includes some background information, a description of the contents and interface, and instructions as to how to gain access to it.

  1. Lightning impact on micro-second long ionospheric variability (United States)

    Koh, Kuang Liang; Liu, Zhongjian; Fullekrug, Martin


    Lightning discharges cause electron heating and enhanced ionisation in the D region ionosphere which disturb the transmission of VLF communications [Inan et al., 2010]. A disturbance of such nature was measured in a VLF transmission with a sampling rate of 1 MHz, enabling much faster ionospheric variability to be observed when compared to previous studies which typically report results with a time resolution >5-20ms. The disturbance resembles "Long Recovery Early VLF" (LORE) events [Haldoupis et al. 2013, Cotts & Inan 2007]. LOREs exhibit observable ionospheric effects that last longer (>200s) than other lightning related disturbances. It was proposed that the mechanism behind the long-lasting effects of LOREs is different to shorter events [Gordillo-Vázquez et al. 2016]. The ionospheric variability inferred from the transmitted signal is seen to change dramatically after the lightning onset, suggesting that there are fast processes in the ionosphere affected or produced which have not been considered in previous research. The ionospheric variability inferred from the main two frequencies of the transmission is different. A possible explanation is a difference in the propagation paths of the two main frequencies of the transmission [Füllekrug et al., 2015]. References Inan, U.S., Cummer, S.A., Marshall, R.A., 2010. A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges. J. Geophys. Res. 115, A00E36. doi:10.1029/2009JA014775 Cotts, B.R.T., Inan, U.S., 2007. VLF observation of long ionospheric recovery events. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L14809. doi:10.1029/2007GL030094 Haldoupis, C., Cohen, M., Arnone, E., Cotts, B., Dietrich, S., 2013. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 118, 5392-5402. doi:10.1002/jgra.50489 Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J., Luque, A., Haldoupis, C., 2016. Upper D region chemical kinetic modeling of

  2. EMP-002a Phase Shift through the Ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simons, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fenimore, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In this note we review the derivation and use of the Ionospheric Transfer Function (ITF) in the DIO- RAMA model to calculate the propagation of a broad band ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) through the Ionosphere in the limit of geometric optics. This note is intended to resolve a misunderstanding between the NDS VVA and EMP modeling teams regarding the appropriate use of the phase and group velocities in DIORAMA. The di erent approaches are documented in EMP-002 note, \\Phase vs. Group" [1], generated by the LLNL DIORAMA VVA team, and the subsequent response from the DIORAMA EMP modeling team' [2].

  3. Annals of the international geophysical year ionospheric drift observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rawer, K; Beloussov, V V; Beynon, W J G


    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 33: Results of Ionospheric Drift Observations describes the systematic changes in individual ionospheric observations during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with a presentation of the general data on stations and the lists of publications concerning drift work during IGY/IGC. The next chapter contains the results obtained mainly by intercomparison of the time shift between fadings observed on three antenna separated by a distance of roughly a wavelength. These data are followed by

  4. A ring of traveling ionospheric disturbances around Moscow megapolis (United States)

    Zakharov, V. I.; Gorchakov, G. I.; Kunitsyn, V. E.


    According to interferometric data of radio waves from GPS satellites, which are received in Moscow region on the stations of the Moscow Navigation-Geodesic Support Network and the International Geophysical Survey (IGS) network, traveling ionospheric disturbances are detected moving from the Moscow megapolis and forming a ring around it. The empirical velocity distribution functions of this movement, the observed duration, and the direction of propagation of these disturbances are presented. It is shown that the observed traveling ionospheric disturbances may be due to the urban heat island effect.

  5. HF beacon network for ionospheric specification in Peru (United States)

    Hysell, D. L.; Milla, M. A.; Vierinen, J.


    A growing network of HF beacon transmitters and receivers is being deployed in Peru for specifying the F region ionosphere regionally. The effort is motivated by ionospheric disturbances associated with equatorial spread F (ESF), especially disturbances arising under inauspicious ESF conditions. The beacons use dual frequencies (2.72 and 3.64 MHz). They incorporate PRN coding to afford group-delay measurements. Scatered power, Doppler shift, bearing, and polarization are also measured. An algorithm for inverting the beacon data combined with electron density profiles from Jicamarca is described. Data and representative solutions from recent campaigns will be reviewed.

  6. Inhomogeneous Deformation of Brain Tissue During Tension Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael D; 10.1016/j.commatsci.2012.05.030


    Mechanical characterization of brain tissue has been investigated extensively by various research groups over the past fifty years. These properties are particularly important for modelling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In this research, we present the design and calibration of a High Rate Tension Device (HRTD) capable of performing tests up to a maximum strain rate of 90/s. We use experimental and numerical methods to investigate the effects of inhomogeneous deformation of porcine brain tissue during tension at different specimen thicknesses (4.0-14.0 mm), by performing tension tests at a strain rate of 30/s. One-term Ogden material parameters (mu = 4395.0 Pa, alpha = -2.8) were derived by performing an inverse finite element analysis to model all experimental data. A similar procedure was adopted to determine Young's modulus (E= 11200 Pa) of the linear elastic regime. Based on this analysis, brain specimens of aspect ratio (diameter/thickness) S < 1.0 are required to minimise the effects of inhomogeneous...

  7. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Y.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, K.Y., E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Aifantis, E.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials (LMM), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); International Laboratory for Modern Functional Materials, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 191002 (Russian Federation)


    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO{sub 3}), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO{sub 3}), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  8. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion. (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji


    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  9. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa) (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin


    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  10. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation. (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred


    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Modeling of sectionally continuous communication channel with inhomogeneously distributed tissues. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Yu-Ping; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Yi-He; Yang, Ji-Ning; Yin, Fu-Cheng


    This study aimed to investigate effects on the transmission channel caused by heterogeneous distribution in tissues and joint characteristics. Human arm section scans were taken using CT technology, and zoned, following which, a circumference measurement experiment was performed to analyze the effect of inhomogeneous distribution of tissues. In order to analyze the arm joint's effect on channel transmission, we proposed a piecewise modeling method in combination with connection conditions. It can be seen from the experiment that, in the quasi-static mode, the communication channel error caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of tissues is small enough to be negligible. The error between calculated and experimental results is reduced by 3.93 dB in this experiment relative to models that did not include joint characteristics, and the average error is lowered by 0.73 dB. The variation curve fit to experimental data is also improved in this method. As such, it can be quantitatively determined that a channel model with joint characteristics is superior to models excluding joint characteristics.

  12. Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems. (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J


    Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below.

  13. Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties. (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Joon; Jang, Kyu-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Seong-Cheol


    In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior.

  14. Kinetic approach to the dynamics of strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas (United States)

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J.; Bonitz, Michael


    Based on the BBGKY hierarchy and an extended STLS ansatz for the two-particle distribution function, we derive kinetic and fluid equations for strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas that take both strong coupling and thermal effects into account. The kinetic equation is employed to study the collective modes in a uniform plasma. The fluid equations are used to study the temperature dependence of the breathing mode of confined dusty plasmas, where excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations is observed. In the limit of weak density inhomogeneities, they can be reduced to the equations of linearized elasticity theory. The bulk and shear moduli emerge directly from the theory as integrals over the pair correlation function, and previous results in the literature are recovered. The theory should be useful to study the collective modes of confined strongly coupled plasmas, where large density variations make the application of methods that were developed for uniform systems impractical. Supported by the DAAD via a postdoctoral scholarship and the DFG via SFB-TR24.

  15. Ionospheric Slant Total Electron Content Analysis Using Global Positioning System Based Estimation (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Komjathy, Attila (Inventor)


    A method, system, apparatus, and computer program product provide the ability to analyze ionospheric slant total electron content (TEC) using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-based estimation. Slant TEC is estimated for a given set of raypath geometries by fitting historical GNSS data to a specified delay model. The accuracy of the specified delay model is estimated by computing delay estimate residuals and plotting a behavior of the delay estimate residuals. An ionospheric threat model is computed based on the specified delay model. Ionospheric grid delays (IGDs) and grid ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) are computed based on the ionospheric threat model.

  16. Wealth per capita in inhomogeneous wealth distributions model of self-organized hierarchies (United States)

    Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Naumis, Gerardo; Perez, Luis; Vazquez-Fonseca, Gerardo


    A simple model explained the emergence of social hierarchies through fighting and randomness, and a phase transition between an egalitarian and an hierarchical society was found when the past fights are not forgotten fast enough [1]. Here we include in the model inhomogeneous wealth (water, food, oil, etc.) in the 2D lattice. Agents move randomly except when a preferred rich rich site is nearby. A strong dependence of the global inequality on the distribution of wealth is found, specially in the case when the density of the agents is small. Therefore, the overall phase diagram for the first-order transition between egalitarian and hierarchical societies does change much by inclusion of preferred sites. For low densities of agents with a poor distribution of wealth, it is found that the wealth per capita does not reach its maximum value due to lack of global information of the agents. [1] A. O. Sousa and D. Stauffer, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 11, 1063 (2000).

  17. Asymptotic Properties of Multistate Random Walks. I. Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Shuler, K.E.


    A calculation is presented of the long-time behavior of various random walk properties (moments, probability of return to the origin, expected number of distinct sites visited) for multistate random walks on periodic lattices. In particular, we consider inhomogeneous periodic lattices, consisting of

  18. Ionospheric response to magnetar flare: signature of SGR J1550-5418 on coherent ionospheric Doppler radar (United States)

    Mahrous, Ayman


    This paper presents observational evidence of frequent ionospheric perturbations caused by the magnetar flare of the source SGR J1550-5418, which took place on 22 January 2009. These ionospheric perturbations are observed in the relative change of the total electron content (ΔTEC/Δt) measurements from the coherent ionospheric Doppler radar (CIDR). The CIDR system makes high-precision measurements of the total electron content (TEC) change along ray-paths from ground receivers to low Earth-orbiting (LEO) beacon spacecraft. These measurements can be integrated along the orbital track of the beacon satellite to construct the relative spatial, not temporal, TEC profiles that are useful for determining the large-scale plasma distribution. The observed spatial TEC changes reveal many interesting features of the magnetar signatures in the ionosphere. The onset phase of the magnetar flare was during the CIDR's nighttime satellite passage. The nighttime small-scale perturbations detected by CIDR, with ΔTEC/Δt ≥ 0.05 TECU s-1, over the eastern Mediterranean on 22 January 2009 were synchronized with the onset phase of the magnetar flare and consistent with the emission of hundreds of bursts detected from the source. The maximum daytime large-scale perturbation measured by CIDR over northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean was detected after ˜ 6 h from the main phase of the magnetar flare, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1. These ionospheric perturbations resembled an unusual poleward traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) caused by the extraterrestrial source. The TID's estimated virtual velocity is 385.8 m s-1, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1.

  19. The effect of dissipative inhomogeneous medium on the statistics of the wave intensity (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.


    One of the main theoretical points in the theory of wave propagation in random medium is the derivation of closed form equations to describe the statistics of the propagating waves. In particular, in one dimensional problems, the closed form representation of the multiple scattering effects is important since it contributes in understanding such problems like wave localization, backscattering enhancement, and intensity fluctuations. In this the propagation of plane waves in a layer of one-dimensional dissipative random medium is considered. The medium is modeled by a complex permittivity whose real part is a constant representing the absorption. The one dimensional problem is mathematically equivalent to the analysis of a transmission line with randomly perturbed distributed parameters and a single mode lossy waveguide and the results can be used to study the propagation of radio waves through atmosphere and the remote sensing of geophysical media. It is assumed the scattering medium consists of an ensemble of one-dimensional point scatterers randomly positioned in a layer of thickness L with diffuse boundaries. A Poisson impulse process with density lambda is used to model the position of scatterers in the medium. By employing the Markov properties of this process an exact closed form equation of Kolmogorov-Feller type was obtained for the probability density of the reflection coefficient. This equation was solved by combining two limiting cases: (1) when the density of scatterers is small; and (2) when the medium is weakly dissipative. A two variable perturbation method for small lambda was used to obtain solutions valid for thick layers. These solutions are then asymptotically evaluated for small dissipation. To show the effect of dissipation, the mean and fluctuations of the reflected power are obtained. The results were compared with a lossy homogeneous medium and with a lossless inhomogeneous medium and the regions where the effect of absorption is not

  20. Ionospheric Effects Observed by Radio Tomography during Severe Geomagnetic Storms (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena S.; Kunitsyn, Vyacheslav E.; Tereshchenko, Evgeniy D.; Nazarenko, Marina O.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Tumanova, Yuila S.


    The geomagnetic storms are an important element of space weather. As known, the distributions of all ionospheric parameters are determined by the interplay of many complex diverse processes of solar-terrestrial coupling. The intervals of geomagnetic storms are marked by dramatic changes in the dynamics of the ionosphere, whose parameters experience significant disturbances. The ionospheric signatures of geomagnetic perturbations are highly diverse in both spatiotemporal scales, ranging from a few seconds to few days and from a few meters to dozen thousand kilometers, and intensity. The methods of GNSS-based radio tomography (RT) are suitable for diagnosing the spatiotemporal structure of ionospheric disturbances caused by different space-weather factors. GNSS comprise the first-generation satellite navigation systems such as low-orbiting (LO) Russian Tsikada and American Transit satellites and second-generation satellite systems such as high-orbiting GPS and GLONASS constellations. The LORT methods reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) structure of the ionospheric electron density distribution in the vertical (altitude-latitude) plane within a spatial sector spanning a few thousand km and a time interval of 10-15 min. The horizontal and vertical resolution of LORT is typically 15-25 km and 25-30 km, respectively. The HORT methods use radio transmissions from HO satellites recorded at the receiving ground network of the International Geodetic Service (IGS), which currently comprises about 2000 receivers. The HORT methods are capable of reconstructing the four-dimensional (4D) (three spatial coordinates and time) structure of the ionosphere. Generally, HORT has a spatial resolution of 100 km at best and a time step of 60-20 min. In the regions covered by dense receiving networks (e.g., in Europe, Alaska, USA), the resolution can be improved to 30-50 and the time step reduced to 30-10 min. The resolution of 10-30 km in space and up to 2 min in time is only achievable in

  1. Space-polarization Collaborative Suppression Method for Ionospheric Clutter in HFSWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yunlong


    Full Text Available High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR is able to receive surface target and low-flying aircraft echoes at a long-distance, but it suffers severely from ionospheric clutter. In this paper, a spacepolarization collaborative-based filter is introduced to mitigate ionospheric clutter. For parameter estimation on ionospheric clutter used for filters, a spatial parameter estimation algorithm based on compressive sensing is introduced to the DOA estimation of ionospheric clutter. In addition, a polarized parameter estimation algorithm based on statistical characteristics is proposed for ionospheric clutter in the range-Doppler spectrum. Higher estimation accuracy is achieved as a result of the range-Doppler spectrum; therefore, these two estimation algorithms enhance the performance of the space-polarization collaborative suppression method for ionospheric clutter. Experimental results of practical dual-polarized HFSWR data show the effectiveness of the two algorithms and the above mentioned filter for ionospheric clutter suppression.

  2. Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test (United States)

    Park, Jihye; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.


    The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs.

  3. Thermal Ion Upwelling in the High-Altitude Ionosphere (United States)


    unpublished). In each of these cases, time dependencies in frictional heating rates are considered parametrically or with less formalism than is...altitudinal distributions of upward flowing energetic ions of ionospheric orgin, Geophys Res. Lett., 5, 59, 1978. Godunov, S. K., Raznostnyi metod

  4. estimation of ionospheric energy dissipation for the year 2012 using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Corresponding ABSTRACT. The energy dissipation in the ionosphere resulting from the geomagnetic activity have caused an increasing number of major disruptions of important power and communication services, malfunctions and loss of expensive equipment. In this paper, data for the ...

  5. Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Hao


    Full Text Available Following prolonged and extremely quiet solar activity from 2008 to 2009, the 24th solar cycle started slowly. It has been almost 5 years since then. The measurement of ionospheric critical frequency (foF2 shows the fact that solar activity has been significantly lower in the first half of cycle 24, compared to the average levels of cycles 19 to 23; the data of global average total electron content (TEC confirm that the global ionosphere around the cycle 24 peak is much more weakly ionized, in contrast to cycle 23. The weak ionization has been more notable since the year 2012, when both the ionosphere and solar activity were expected to be approaching their maximum level. The undersupply of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV irradiance somewhat continues after the 2008–2009 minimum, and is considered to be the main cause of the weak ionization. It further implies that the thermosphere and ionosphere in the first solar cycle of this millennium would probably differ from what we have learned from the previous cycles of the space age.

  6. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric E-region irregularities linked with daytime scintillations. Derived spectral index ranges between −2 and −9. Assuming velocity of irregularities, the characteristic lengths of the ...

  7. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter


    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  8. Global Variations of Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Bernhardt et al.,. 1998). ... It is a satellite based navigation radio system which is used to verify the position and time in space and on the. Earth. ... Earth's surface. The signals from the GPS satellites travel through the ionosphere on their way to.

  9. Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil


    The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...

  10. Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.


    ), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...

  11. Global Variations of Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed to investigate diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of ionospheric total electronic content (TEC) obtained from two GPS satellites IGS and COD and to inspect mean VTEC Correlation between the two satellites by the year of 2008. TEC is defined by the integral of electron density in a 1 m2 column ...

  12. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.


    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  13. Ionospheric effects of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves: Dispersion relation (United States)

    Jones, R. Michael; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Bedard, Alfred J.


    There is extensive evidence for ionospheric effects associated with earthquake-related atmospheric disturbances. Although the existence of earthquake precursors is controversial, one suggested method of detecting possible earthquake precursors and tsunamis is by observing possible ionospheric effects of atmospheric waves generated by such events. To study magneto-acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere, we have derived a general dispersion relation including the effects of the Earth's magnetic field. This dispersion relation can be used in a general atmospheric ray tracing program to calculate the propagation of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves from the ground to the ionosphere. The presence of the Earth's magnetic field in the ionosphere can radically change the dispersion properties of the wave. The general dispersion relation obtained here reduces to the known dispersion relations for magnetoacoustic waves and acoustic-gravity waves in the corresponding particular cases. The work described here is the first step in achieving a generalized ray tracing program permitting propagation studies of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves.

  14. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 5. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total electron content: A case study from Indian sector. Monti Chakraborty Sanjay Kumar Barin Kumar De Anirban Guha. Volume 124 Issue 5 July 2015 pp 1115-1126 ...

  15. Ionospheric correction for spaceborne single-frequency GPS based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tudes were calculated. Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) trajectories of the dlft station (an IGS station located at the longitude of 4 ... mate Experiment (GRACE) is a typical low earth orbit (LEO) satellite system with GPS receiver .... of IPP trajectories for both ground and spaceborne. GPS users. The Klobuchar model for ground ...

  16. Modelling ionospheric scintillation under the crest of the equatorial anomaly (United States)

    Alfonsi, L.; Wernik, A. W.; Materassi, M.; Spogli, L.


    WAM is realized making use of the plasma density data collected via the retarding potential analyser on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft, capable to model the scintillation climatology over the northern hemisphere high latitude ionosphere. More recently, WAM has been tuned to model the ionospheric scintillations also over the equatorial latitudes. The effort has been done to support the CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America) project in the assessment of the scintillations climatology over Latin America. The concept of the new release of WAM is the same already adopted for the high latitudes: the in situ measurements, supplemented with an ionospheric model and with the irregularity anisotropy model, are treated to describe the morphology of scintillation, provided a suitable propagation model is used. Significant differences have been included in the low latitudes release to account for the anisotropy of the irregularities and for strong scattering regime. The paper describes the new WAM formulation and presents comparisons of the model predictions with the actual measurements collected in Brazil.

  17. Comparison of Vertical Ionospheric Drifts Obtained by Different Techniques (United States)

    Kouba, D.


    Since 2004 the ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 50N, 14.9E) provides regular ionospheric sounding using Digisonde. In addition to classical ionograms the drift velocities in both E and F region using DDA method are measured routinely. However, vertical component of the drift velocity vector can be estimated by several different methods which can be found in the literature; for example the indirect estimation based on the temporal evolution of measured ionospheric characteristics is often used for calculation of the vertical drift component. The vertical velocity is thus estimated according to the change of characteristics scaled from the classical quarter-hour ionograms. In present paper the direct drift measurement is compared with technique based on measuring of the virtual height at fixed frequency from the F-layer trace on ionogram, technique based on variation of h`F and hmF. The ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice is midlatitudinal station and typicaly provides measurements in 15 minutes cadence. Due to the fact that the most papers use different indirect methods use equatorial data, we also focuse on results of equatorial stations and other stations that carry out measurements with higher cadence (5 minutes). Our comparison shows possibility of using different methods for calculating vertical drift velocity and their relationship to the direct measurement used by Digisondes.

  18. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    9426 (Orchid) observed by the MU radar at Shigaraki. (34.85. ◦. N, 136.10. ◦. E), J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19) 4595, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003489. Dymond K F, Bernhardt P A, Rooken C and Syndergaard. S 2007 Ionospheric Electron Density Measurements using. Cosmic; Plasma Science 2007, ICOPS 2007, IEEE 34th.

  19. Ionosphere Scintillation at Low and High Latitudes (Modelling vs Measurement) (United States)

    Béniguel, Yannick


    This paper will address the problem of scintillations characteristics, focusing on the parameters of interest for a navigation system. Those parameters are the probabilities of occurrence of simultaneous fading, the bubbles surface at IPP level, the cycle slips and the fades duration statistics. The scintillation characteristics obtained at low and high latitudes will be compared. These results correspond to the data analysis performed after the ESA Monitor ionosphere measurement campaign [1], [2]. A second aspect of the presentation will be the modelling aspect. It has been observed that the phase scintillation dominates at high latitudes while the intensity scintillation dominates at low latitudes. The way it can be reproduced and implemented in a propagation model (e.g. GISM model [3]) will be presented. Comparisons of measurements with results obtained by modelling will be presented on some typical scenarios. References [1] R. Prieto Cerdeira, Y. Beniguel, "The MONITOR project: architecture, data and products", Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria (Va), May 2011 [2] Y. Béniguel, R Orus-Perez , R. Prieto-Cerdeira , S. Schlueter , S. Scortan, A. Grosu "MONITOR 2: ionospheric monitoring network in support to SBAS and other GNSS and scientific purposes", IES Conference, Alexandria (Va), May 2015-05-22 [3] Y. Béniguel, P. Hamel, "A Global Ionosphere Scintillation Propagation Model for Equatorial Regions", Journal of Space Weather Space Climate, 1, (2011), doi: 10.1051/swsc/2011004

  20. UK Solar System Data Centre: Data Archive for Ionospheric Research (United States)

    Wild, Matthew; James, Sarah; Bogdanova, Yulia; Crothers, Steve


    The UK Solar System Data Centre (UKSSDC) has been working to improve access to its extensive holdings of historical ionospheric data. In our archive, ionospheric data from 200 stations worldwide (1930s-present), such as ionograms and scaled ionospheric parameters (e.g., foF2, fmin, h'F2), is held on both digital and physical media. From the 1990s these data sets are available in digital form and can be downloaded from our web-interface. Thanks to a Natural Environment Research Council grant we are in the process of digitising a selection, 2,200 out of ~27,000, of UK ionosonde film data to be made available via the web interface. It is hoped that more funding will be made available to continue this exercise over the next few years. The UKSSDC also provides real-time ionospheric data retrieval from two RAL Space ionosondes, Chilton and Port Stanley, alongside other European observatories. The UKSSDC is part of RAL Space based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the electronic address: This is a UK national data archive facility with open data access and can be used by scientists around the globe.