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Sample records for randomly generated temperature-sensitive

  1. Generation and thermally adjustable catalysis of silver nanoparticle immobilized temperature-sensitive nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Lei, E-mail: jlxj@hpu.edu.cn; Shen, Xiaoke; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Huijun; Xu, Zhouqing; Cao, Jianliang, E-mail: caojianliang@hpu.edu.cn [Henan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-03-15

    The rise in environmental issues due to the catalytic degradation of pollutants in water has received much attention. In this report, a facile method was developed for the generation of a novel thermosensitive Ag-decorated catalyst, SiO{sub 2}@PNIPAM@Ag (the average particle size is around 540 nm), through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and mild reducing reactions. First, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was used to create a shell around mercapto-silica spheres that allowed for enhanced catalyst support dispersion into water. Second, through a mild reducing reaction, these Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were then anchored to the surface of SiO{sub 2}@PNIPAM spheres. The resulting catalyst revealed catalytic activity to degrade various nitrobenzenes and organic dyes in an aqueous solution with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity can be adjusted in different temperatures through the aggregation or dispersion of Ag catalyst on the polymer supporters, which is due to the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell. The ease of preparation and efficient catalytic activity of the catalyst can make it a promising candidate for the use in degrading organic pollutants for environmental remediation.

  2. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  3. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA: Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Sanders

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the

  4. Thermodynamics of random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamic costs of the three main approaches to generating random numbers via the recently introduced Information Processing Second Law. Given access to a specified source of randomness, a random number generator (RNG) produces samples from a desired target probability distribution. This differs from pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) that use wholly deterministic algorithms and from true random number generators (TRNGs) in which the randomness source is a physical system. For each class, we analyze the thermodynamics of generators based on algorithms implemented as finite-state machines, as these allow for direct bounds on the required physical resources. This establishes bounds on heat dissipation and work consumption during the operation of three main classes of RNG algorithms—including those of von Neumann, Knuth, and Yao and Roche and Hoshi—and for PRNG methods. We introduce a general TRNG and determine its thermodynamic costs exactly for arbitrary target distributions. The results highlight the significant differences between the three main approaches to random number generation: One is work producing, one is work consuming, and the other is potentially dissipation neutral. Notably, TRNGs can both generate random numbers and convert thermal energy to stored work. These thermodynamic costs on information creation complement Landauer's limit on the irreducible costs of information destruction.

  5. Random Process Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Address: Professor Bruce W. Schmeiser School of Industrial Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 UjDISTIUMUTIO" TTMJ Approved for...algorithms developed under this contract are about twice as fast as the best alternatives available today. Peter Lewis at the Naval Postgraduate School ...generating bivariate gazua vectors. These algorithms are the only methods available which are valid for an gaia marginal distributions and j 6 -. . 4

  6. Generating random networks and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...

  7. Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, M. P.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.; Owens, L. R.; Wahls, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    New facilities and test techniques afford research aerodynamicists many opportunities to investigate complex aerodynamic phenomena. For example, NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) can hold Mach number, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure, stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure constant during testing. This is important because the wing twist associated with model construction may mask important Reynolds number effects associated with the flight vehicle. Beyond this, the NTF's ability to vary Reynolds number allows for important research into the study of boundary layer transition. The capabilities of facilities such as the NTF coupled with test techniques such as temperature sensitive paint yield data that can be applied not only to vehicle design but also to validation of computational methods. Development of Luminescent Paint Technology for acquiring pressure and temperature measurements began in the mid-1980s. While pressure sensitive luminescent paints (PSP) were being developed to acquire data for aerodynamic performance and loads, temperature sensitive luminescent paints (TSP) have been used for a much broader range of applications. For example, TSP has been used to acquire surface temperature data to determine the heating due to rotating parts in various types of mechanical systems. It has been used to determine the heating pattern(s) on circuit boards. And, it has been used in boundary layer analysis and applied to the validation of full-scale flight performance predictions. That is, data acquired on the same model can be used to develop trends from off design to full scale flight Reynolds number, e.g. to show the progression of boundary layer transition. A discussion of issues related to successfully setting-up TSP tests and using TSP systems for boundary layer studies is included in this paper, as well as results from a variety of TSP tests. TSP images included in this paper are all grey-scale so that similar to

  8. Overview of low temperature sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    A review of the literature on low temperature sensitization (LTS) has been conducted to determine if LTS-related microstructural changes can occur in Type 304L stainless steel within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel is susceptible to sensitization and LTS, and that cold work plays an important role in determining the rate of LTS. Severely cold worked Type 304L stainless steel would clearly develop LTS-related microstructural changes within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. These changes could lead to increased susceptibility to corrosion. Significant improvements in the long-term resistance to sensitization, LTS and corrosion can be achieved by modest changes in alloy composition and fabrication practices. Therefore, Type 304L would not be the preferred alloy of construction for nuclear waste storage canisters. The final qualification of an alternate canister alloy should involve corrosion experiments on actual canisters. Suggestions for alternate canister alloys are 316L, 316LN, 316ELC, 347, and XM-19. 47 references, 4 figures.

  9. Theoretical study on ignition compensating temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature sensitivity of the propellant has significant influence on the interior ballistic performance of guns. Many physical and chemical approaches are employed to decrease this temperature sensitivity of the propellant. In this article, it is proposed that the temperature sensitivity of the propellant is changed by altering the factors required to ignition. A one-dimensional two-phase flow interior ballistic model is established to analyze the relation between ignition factors and temperature sensitivity. The simulation results show that the propellant temperature sensitivity is changed by altering the ignition factors. That is, the interior ballistic performance is affected by altering the size of fire hole, breaking liner pressure, and ignition location. Based on the simulation results, the temperature sensitivity can be controlled by matching of charges and intelligent control ignition system.

  10. Self-correcting random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  11. Analysis of android random number generator

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  12. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  13. Random Number Generators in Secure Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hars Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptographic random number generators seeded by physical entropy sources are employed in many embedded security systems, including self-encrypting disk drives, being manufactured by the millions every year. Random numbers are used for generating encryption keys and for facilitating secure communication, and they are also provided to users for their applications. We discuss common randomness requirements, techniques for estimating the entropy of physical sources, investigate specific nonrandom physical properties, estimate the autocorrelation, then mix reduce the data until all common randomness tests pass. This method is applied to a randomness source in disk drives: the always changing coefficients of an adaptive filter for the read channel equalization. These coefficients, affected by many kinds of physical noise, are used in the reseeding process of a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator in a family of self encrypting disk drives currently in the market.

  14. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  15. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  16. A Hybrid Random Number Generator(HRNG

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    Osvaldo Skliar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a novel Hybrid Random Number Generator (HRNG. Here “hybrid” refers to the fact that to construct this generator it is necessary to use 1physical components – texts – and a physical process, and 2 a mathematical procedure. This HRNG makes it possible to generate genuine random numbers which may be used both for computer simulation of probabilistic systems and in the field of cryptography. The results of a comparative study of the binary strings generated by this HRNG and of those generated by two highly used implementations of a congruential algorithm designed to generate pseudorandom numbers are given here. One of the latter is the implementation incorporated into the Java 2 platform (version 1.6, and the other is the implementation incorporated into the runtime library of Microsoft’s Visual C++ 2008 compiler.

  17. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)], E-mail: kaiwang@seu.edu.cn; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Cheung Yiuming [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-06-09

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.

  18. Fully Digital Chaotic Oscillators Applied to Pseudo Random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents a generalized approach for the fully digital design and implementation of chaos generators through the numerical solution of chaotic ordinary differential equations. In particular, implementations use the Euler approximation with a fixed-point twos complement number representation system for optimal hardware and performance. In general, digital design enables significant benefits in terms of power, area, throughput, reliability, repeatability and portability over analog implementations of chaos due to lower process, voltage and temperature sensitivities and easy compatibility with other digital systems such as microprocessors, digital signal processing units, communication systems and encryption systems. Furthermore, this thesis introduces the idea of implementing multidimensional chaotic systems rather than 1-D chaotic maps to enable wider throughputs and multiplier-free architectures that provide significant performance and area benefits. This work focuses efforts on the well-understood family of autonomous 3rd order "jerk" chaotic systems. The effect of implementation precision, internal delay cycles and external delay cycles on the chaotic response are assessed. Multiplexing of parameters is implemented to enable switching between chaotic and periodic modes of operation. Enhanced chaos generators that exploit long-term divergence in two identical systems of different precision are also explored. Digital design is shown to enable real-time controllability of 1D multiscroll systems and 4th order hyperchaotic systems, essentially creating non-autonomous chaos that has thus far been difficult to implement in the analog domain. Seven different systems are mathematically assessed for chaotic properties, implemented at the register transfer level in Verilog HDL and experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA. The statistical properties of the output are rigorously studied using the NIST SP. 800-22 statistical testing suite. The output is

  19. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  20. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  1. Fast Generation of Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two methods and provide C programs for generating discrete random variables with functions that are simple and fast, averaging ten times as fast as published methods and more than five times as fast as the fastest of those. We provide general procedures for implementing the two methods, as well as specific procedures for three of the most important discrete distributions: Poisson, binomial and hypergeometric.

  2. Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A physical principle (more precisely, a principle that incorporates mathematical models used in physics) has been conceived as the basis of a method of generating randomness in Monte Carlo simulations. The principle eliminates the need for conventional random-number generators. The Monte Carlo simulation method is among the most powerful computational methods for solving high-dimensional problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and information processing. The Monte Carlo simulation method is especially effective for solving problems in which computational complexity increases exponentially with dimensionality. The main advantage of the Monte Carlo simulation method over other methods is that the demand on computational resources becomes independent of dimensionality. As augmented by the present principle, the Monte Carlo simulation method becomes an even more powerful computational method that is especially useful for solving problems associated with dynamics of fluids, planning, scheduling, and combinatorial optimization. The present principle is based on coupling of dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation. The randomness is generated by non-Lipschitz instability of dynamics triggered and controlled by feedback from the Liouville equation. (In non-Lipschitz dynamics, the derivatives of solutions of the dynamical equations are not required to be bounded.)

  3. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random

  4. Random Numbers Generated from Audio and Video Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Random numbers are very useful in simulation, chaos theory, game theory, information theory, pattern recognition, probability theory, quantum mechanics, statistics, and statistical mechanics. The random numbers are especially helpful in cryptography. In this work, the proposed random number generators come from white noise of audio and video (A/V sources which are extracted from high-resolution IPCAM, WEBCAM, and MPEG-1 video files. The proposed generator applied on video sources from IPCAM and WEBCAM with microphone would be the true random number generator and the pseudorandom number generator when applied on video sources from MPEG-1 video file. In addition, when applying NIST SP 800-22 Rev.1a 15 statistics tests on the random numbers generated from the proposed generator, around 98% random numbers can pass 15 statistical tests. Furthermore, the audio and video sources can be found easily; hence, the proposed generator is a qualified, convenient, and efficient random number generator.

  5. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as well. Quantification of trait-like individual differences of thermal preferences and experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation is therefore relevant to obtain a complete understanding of human thermophysiology. Whereas several scales have been developed to assess instantaneous appreciation of heat and cold exposure, a comprehensive scale dedicated to assess subjectively experienced autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory activity has been lacking so far. We constructed a survey that specifically approaches these domains from a trait-like perspective, sampled 240 volunteers across a wide age range, and analyzed the emergent component structure. Participants were asked to report their thermal experiences, captured in 102 questions, on a 7-point bi-directional Likert scale. In a second set of 32 questions, participants were asked to indicate the relative strength of experiences across different body locations. Principal component analyses extracted 21 meaningful dimensions, which were sensitive to sex-differences and age-related changes. The questions were also assessed in a matched sample of 240 people with probable insomnia to evaluate the sensitivity of these dimensions to detect group differences in a case-control design. The dimensions showed marked mean differences between cases and controls. The survey thus has discriminatory value. It can freely be used by anyone interested in studying individual or group differences in thermosensitivity and thermoregulation. PMID:27227080

  6. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Steinle; Greiner, Johannes N.; Jörg Wrachtrup; Harald Giessen; Ilja Gerhardt

    2017-01-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random number generators. These exhibit often a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be post-processed to "ir...

  7. Engineering a temperature sensitive tobacco etch virus protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J; Chen, X; Truong, K

    2017-10-01

    Since tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) has a high specificity and efficiency in cleaving its target substrates, many groups have attempted to engineer conditional control of its activity. Temperature induction is widely used for modulating gene function because it has fast temporal response, good penetrability and applicability to many model organisms. Here, we engineered a temperature sensitive TEVp (tsTEVp) by using N-terminal truncations to TEVp that achieved efficient proteolysis on a timescale of 4 h after 30°C induction, while remaining relatively inactive at 37°C. As demonstration, tsTEVp was used to generate temperature-induced biological responses for protein translocation, protein degradation and Ca2+-mediated cellular blebbing. Lastly, tsTEVp and their engineered target substrates could find applications in engineered synthetic biological systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ternary jitter-based true random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Rustam; Stolov, Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a novel family of generators producing true uniform random numbers in ternary logic is presented. The generator consists of a number of identical ternary logic combinational units connected into a ring. All the units are provided to have a random delay time, and this time is supposed to be distributed in accordance with an exponential distribution. All delays are supposed to be independent events. The theory of the generator is based on Erlang equations. The generator can be used for test production in various systems. Features of multidimensional random vectors, produced by the generator, are discussed.

  9. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  10. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  11. Random number datasets generated from statistical analysis of randomly sampled GSM recharge cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Ugwoke, Paulinus O

    2017-02-01

    In this article, a random number of datasets was generated from random samples of used GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communications) recharge cards. Statistical analyses were performed to refine the raw data to random number datasets arranged in table. A detailed description of the method and relevant tests of randomness were also discussed.

  12. Quantum Random Number Generation on a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sanguinetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum random number generators (QRNGs can significantly improve the security of cryptographic protocols by ensuring that generated keys cannot be predicted. However, the cost, size, and power requirements of current Quantum random number generators have prevented them from becoming widespread. In the meantime, the quality of the cameras integrated in mobile telephones has improved significantly so that now they are sensitive to light at the few-photon level. We demonstrate how these can be used to generate random numbers of a quantum origin.

  13. SPRNG Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator LIbrary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-16

    This revision corrects some errors in SPRNG 1. Users of newer SPRNG versions can obtain the corrected files and build their version with it. This version also improves the scalability of some of the application-based tests in the SPRNG test suite. It also includes an interface to a parallel Mersenne Twister, so that if users install the Mersenne Twister, then they can test this generator with the SPRNG test suite and also use some SPRNG features with that generator.

  14. Temperature sensitivity of decomposition of soil organic carbon fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilasvuori, Emmi; Järvenpää, Marko; Akujärvi, Anu; Arppe, Laura; Christensen, Bent T.; Fritze, Hannu; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Karhu, Kristiina; Oinonen, Markku; Palonen, Vesa; Pitkänen, Juha-Matti; Repo, Anna; Vanhala, Pekka; Liski, Jari

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is important for estimating the release of carbon from soil to the atmosphere in response to global warming. This temperature sensitivity is known relatively well for the most labile SOM fractions but still quite poorly for more recalcitrant fractions that represent the great majority of SOM. We report results for the temperature sensitivity of various SOM fractions in two different experiments in which we utilized natural abundances of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C combined with Bayesian mathematical modelling. In one experiment, the different age fractions were distinguished based on depth in a peat profile. In the other experiment, the age fractions were separated based on a time series of conversion from C3 vegetation to C4 vegetation. In both experiments, the temperature sensitivity of the SOM fractions was estimated by measuring the carbon isotope composition of heterotrophic soil respiration at different temperatures in laboratory. The results from these experiments suggest that the temperature sensitivity of unprotected SOM fractions increases with age, but if an environmental factor, such as bonding to soil minerals, limits decomposition of a SOM fraction, the temperature sensitivity is reduced. Our results are in agreement with the theory that suggests that in soil without environmental, physical or chemical protection, temperature sensitivity of carbon compounds is mainly determined by its chemical structure. The more complex the structure is the higher activation energy is needed and the higher its temperature sensitivity. Since SOM enriches with more complicated carbon compounds with time, this leads to increase in temperature sensitivity as SOM ages. However, our results also indicate that if the soil carbon is associated with minerals it might exhibit lower temperature sensitivities than when the carbon is "free" in the soil. Since the mineral associated carbon can have high

  15. Humans cannot consciously generate random numbers sequences: Polemic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Maciej; Kulesza, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    It is widely believed, that randomness exists in Nature. In fact such an assumption underlies many scientific theories and is embedded in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Assuming that this hypothesis is valid one can use natural phenomena, like radioactive decay, to generate random numbers. Today, computers are capable of generating the so-called pseudorandom numbers. Such series of numbers are only seemingly random (bias in the randomness quality can be observed). Question whether people can produce random numbers, has been investigated by many scientists in the recent years. The paper "Humans can consciously generate random numbers sequences..." published recently in Medical Hypotheses made claims that were in many ways contrary to state of art; it also stated far-reaching hypotheses. So, we decided to repeat the experiments reported, with special care being taken of proper laboratory procedures. Here, we present the results and discuss possible implications in computer and other sciences.

  16. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered; I .,.,•• n .„^iMl~^.-». H .,il~l.*...,...-•..,.,.., • 1 ——’"- •"•’ ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE RANDOM...among my teachers two of the best: my parents, Bil and Marleen Reiser. - , i — - •- - J I " ii. .1 I l. Kl U...the period, we know that r(pa*z) * pr(pa) and k - • - ----• •--- - -— — ...., . H ..J 1-..11.111 ’ Introduction that r(pa *’) divides

  17. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.

  18. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  19. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Steinle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to “iron out” such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  20. Streaming Algorithms for Optimal Generation of Random Bits

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hongchao; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2012-01-01

    Generating random bits from a source of biased coins (the biased is unknown) is a classical question that was originally studied by von Neumann. There are a number of known algorithms that have asymptotically optimal information efficiency, namely, the expected number of generated random bits per input bit is asymptotically close to the entropy of the source. However, only the original von Neumann algorithm has a 'streaming property' - it operates on a single input bit at a time and it genera...

  1. Influence of temperature on the formation and encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using a temperature-sensitive template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Peter Bengzon Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the synthesis of temperature-sensitive and amine-rich microgel particle as a dual reductant and template to generate smart gold/polymer nanocomposite particle. TEM images illustrate the influence of reaction temperature on the formation and in-site encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using the temperature-sensitive microgel template. Thermal stability of the resultant gold/polymer composite particles was also examined.

  2. Random Number Generation for Petascale Quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok Srinivasan

    2010-03-16

    The quality of random number generators can affect the results of Monte Carlo computations, especially when a large number of random numbers are consumed. Furthermore, correlations present between different random number streams in a parallel computation can further affect the results. The SPRNG software, which the author had developed earlier, has pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) capable of producing large numbers of streams with large periods. However, they had been empirically tested on only thousand streams earlier. In the work summarized here, we tested the SPRNG generators with over a hundred thousand streams, involving over 10^14 random numbers per test, on some tests. We also tested the popular Mersenne Twister. We believe that these are the largest tests of PRNGs, both in terms of the numbers of streams tested and the number of random numbers tested. We observed defects in some of these generators, including the Mersenne Twister, while a few generators appeared to perform well. We also corrected an error in the implementation of one of the SPRNG generators.

  3. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  4. Generation of Random Numbers and Parallel Random Number Streams for Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods and libraries for high quality pseudorandom number generation and for generation of parallel random number streams for Monte Carlo simulations are considered. The probability equidistribution property and the parameters when the property holds at dimensions up to logarithm of mesh size are considered for Multiple Recursive Generators.

  5. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  6. Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J., E-mail: ben.sussman@nrc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-02-03

    The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.

  7. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  8. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  9. A Quickly Tested Pascal Random Number Generator for Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in any way at equal intervals spaced h units apart, the serial correlation of the series can be obtained for various lags and tested against...pass handily. The unit range between zero and unity was divided into 100 equally spaced frequencies, and the generated random numbers were...NSDTEST; (*MEAN AND SDEV TESTS*) FREQKOLTEST; (*CHISQ FREQ DISTR AND KOLMOGOROFF -SMIRNOV TESTS*) PAIRTEST; (*TEST DISTR OF RANDOM PAIRS*) TRIOTEST; (*TEST

  10. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  11. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  12. Magnetocaloric effect in temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetocaloric properties of three different temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids were studied. The pyromagnetic coefficient for all the materials were obtained and it was found that this property depends on physical and magnetic properties like size, magnetization and Curie temperature. A theoretical model was ...

  13. Escherichia coli mutants with a temperature-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorowitz, W; CLARK, D.

    1982-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli resistant to allyl alcohol were selected. Such mutants were found to lack alcohol dehydrogenase. In addition, mutants with temperature-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase activity were obtained. These mutations, designated adhE, are all located at the previously described adh regulatory locus. Most adhE mutants were also defective in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  14. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  15. Temperature-sensitive PSII: a novel approach for sustained photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2016-12-01

    The need for energy and the associated burden are ever growing. It is crucial to develop new technologies for generating clean and efficient energy for society to avoid upcoming energetic and environmental crises. Sunlight is the most abundant source of energy on the planet. Consequently, it has captured our interest. Certain microalgae possess the ability to capture solar energy and transfer it to the energy carrier, H2. H2 is a valuable fuel, because its combustion produces only one by-product: water. However, the establishment of an efficient biophotolytic H2 production system is hindered by three main obstacles: (1) the hydrogen-evolving enzyme, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, is highly sensitive to oxygen; (2) energy conversion efficiencies are not economically viable; and (3) hydrogen-producing organisms are sensitive to stressful conditions in large-scale production systems. This study aimed to circumvent the oxygen sensitivity of this process with a cyclic hydrogen production system. This approach required a mutant that responded to high temperatures by reducing oxygen evolution. To that end, we randomly mutagenized the green microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to generate mutants that exhibited temperature-sensitive photoautotrophic growth. The selected mutants were further characterized by their ability to evolve oxygen and hydrogen at 25 and 37 °C. We identified four candidate mutants for this project. We characterized these mutants with PSII fluorescence, P700 absorbance, and immunoblotting analyses. Finally, we demonstrated that these mutants could function in a prototype hydrogen-producing bioreactor. These mutant microalgae represent a novel approach for sustained hydrogen production.

  16. The Evolution of Random Number Generation in MUVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    3 2. Collins JC . Testing, selection, and implementation of random number genera- tors. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US...261–269. 13, 16 5. L‘Ecuyer P. Tables of linear congruential generators of different sizes and good lattice structure. Mathematics of Computation

  17. Random Scenario Generation for a Multiple Target Tracking Environment Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study on the generation of a random scenario for the performance of track splitting algorithm on a digital signal processor.  Much of the previous work [1] was done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, wh...

  18. Simulations Using Random-Generated DNA and RNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, C. F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a very simple computer program written in BASIC, a very large number of random-generated DNA or RNA sequences are obtained. Students use these sequences to predict complementary sequences and translational products, evaluate base compositions, determine frequencies of particular triplet codons, and suggest possible secondary structures.…

  19. REGAL: a library to randomly and exhaustively generate automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bassino, Frédérique; David, Julien; Nicaud, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a library devoted to the random and exhaustive generation of finite deterministic automata. This package provides a toolkit to experimentally study properties of automata, average complexities of algorithms dealing with automata or to compare different implementations of the same algorithm.

  20. Generation of genetically modified rodents using random ENU mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of genetically modified animals using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a fast and highly effective method. The technique is based on treating male animals with the supermutagen ENU, which randomly introduces mutations in the spermatogonial stem cells. By breeding these

  1. Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.

  2. Source-Device-Independent Ultrafast Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Davide G.; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Secure random numbers are a fundamental element of many applications in science, statistics, cryptography and more in general in security protocols. We present a method that enables the generation of high-speed unpredictable random numbers from the quadratures of an electromagnetic field without any assumption on the input state. The method allows us to eliminate the numbers that can be predicted due to the presence of classical and quantum side information. In particular, we introduce a procedure to estimate a bound on the conditional min-entropy based on the entropic uncertainty principle for position and momentum observables of infinite dimensional quantum systems. By the above method, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of secure true random bits at a rate greater than 1.7 Gbit /s .

  3. Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slone, Dale M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-28

    A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation ρt + ρρx = vρxx in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.

  4. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  5. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. GASPRNG: GPU accelerated scalable parallel random number generator library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2013-04-01

    Graphics processors represent a promising technology for accelerating computational science applications. Many computational science applications require fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties, so they use the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG). We present the GPU Accelerated SPRNG library (GASPRNG) to accelerate SPRNG in GPU-based high performance computing systems. GASPRNG includes code for a host CPU and CUDA code for execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) along with a programming interface to support various usage models for pseudorandom numbers and computational science applications executing on the CPU, GPU, or both. This paper describes the implementation approach used to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use GASPRNG the same way as SPRNG on traditional serial or parallel computers as well as to develop tightly coupled programs executing primarily on the GPU. We also describe how to install GASPRNG and use it. To help illustrate linking with GASPRNG, various demonstration codes are included for the different usage models. GASPRNG on a single GPU shows up to 280x speedup over SPRNG on a single CPU core and is able to scale for larger systems in the same manner as SPRNG. Because GASPRNG generates identical streams of pseudorandom numbers as SPRNG, users can be confident about the quality of GASPRNG for scalable computational science applications. Catalogue identifier: AEOI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: UTK license. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167900 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1422058 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and CUDA. Computer: Any PC or

  7. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. New Design of Crypto-Based Pseudo random number generator (CBPRNG) using BLOW FISH cipher

    OpenAIRE

    T.Chalama Reddy; Dr.R.Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Random Number Generators (RNGs) are an important building block for algorithms and protocols in cryptography. Random number generation is used in a wide variety of cryptographic operations, such as key generation and challenge/response protocols. A random number generator outputs a sequence of 0s and 1s such that at any position, the next bit cannot be expected on the previous bits. However, true random number produces non- deterministic output since if the same random generator is run twice,...

  9. PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beletsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.

  10. At least some errors are randomly generated (Freud was wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, A. J.; Senders, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to expose something about human error generating mechanisms. In the context of the experiment, an error was made when a subject pressed the wrong key on a computer keyboard or pressed no key at all in the time allotted. These might be considered, respectively, errors of substitution and errors of omission. Each of seven subjects saw a sequence of three digital numbers, made an easily learned binary judgement about each, and was to press the appropriate one of two keys. Each session consisted of 1,000 presentations of randomly permuted, fixed numbers broken into 10 blocks of 100. One of two keys should have been pressed within one second of the onset of each stimulus. These data were subjected to statistical analyses in order to probe the nature of the error generating mechanisms. Goodness of fit tests for a Poisson distribution for the number of errors per 50 trial interval and for an exponential distribution of the length of the intervals between errors were carried out. There is evidence for an endogenous mechanism that may best be described as a random error generator. Furthermore, an item analysis of the number of errors produced per stimulus suggests the existence of a second mechanism operating on task driven factors producing exogenous errors. Some errors, at least, are the result of constant probability generating mechanisms with error rate idiosyncratically determined for each subject.

  11. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2012-11-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  12. Temperature-Sensitive Coating Sensor Based on Hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive coating, based on hematite (iron III oxide), has been developed to measure surface temperature using spectral techniques. The hematite powder is added to a binder that allows the mixture to be painted on the surface of a test specimen. The coating dynamically changes its relative spectral makeup or color with changes in temperature. The color changes from a reddish-brown appearance at room temperature (25 C) to a black-gray appearance at temperatures around 600 C. The color change is reversible and repeatable with temperature cycling from low to high and back to low temperatures. Detection of the spectral changes can be recorded by different sensors, including spectrometers, photodiodes, and cameras. Using a-priori information obtained through calibration experiments in known thermal environments, the color change can then be calibrated to yield accurate quantitative temperature information. Temperature information can be obtained at a point, or over an entire surface, depending on the type of equipment used for data acquisition. Because this innovation uses spectrophotometry principles of operation, rather than the current methods, which use photoluminescence principles, white light can be used for illumination rather than high-intensity short wavelength excitation. The generation of high-intensity white (or potentially filtered long wavelength light) is much easier, and is used more prevalently for photography and video technologies. In outdoor tests, the Sun can be used for short durations as an illumination source as long as the amplitude remains relatively constant. The reflected light is also much higher in intensity than the emitted light from the inefficient current methods. Having a much brighter surface allows a wider array of detection schemes and devices. Because color change is the principle of operation, the development of high-quality, lower-cost digital cameras can be used for detection, as opposed to the high-cost imagers

  13. Quantifying the bending of bilayer temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels can serve as manipulators, including grippers, sensors, etc., where structures can undergo significant bending. Here, a finite-deformation theory is developed to quantify the evolution of the curvature of bilayer temperature-sensitive hydrogels when subjected to a temperature change. Analysis of the theory indicates that there is an optimal thickness ratio to acquire the largest curvature in the bilayer and also suggests that the sign or the magnitude of the curvature can be significantly affected by pre-stretches or small pores in the bilayer. This study may provide important guidelines in fabricating temperature-responsive bilayers with desirable mechanical performance.

  14. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  15. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  16. Random Sequence for Optimal Low-Power Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Gulino, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power laser generated ultrasounds are lately gaining importance in the research world, thanks to the possibility of investigating a mechanical component structural integrity through a non-contact and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) procedure. The ultrasounds are, however, very low in amplitude, making it necessary to use pre-processing and post-processing operations on the signals to detect them. The cross-correlation technique is used in this work, meaning that a random signal must be used as laser input. For this purpose, a highly random and simple-to-create code called T sequence, capable of enhancing the ultrasound detectability, is introduced (not previously available at the state of the art). Several important parameters which characterize the T sequence can influence the process: the number of pulses Npulses , the pulse duration δ and the distance between pulses dpulses . A Finite Element FE model of a 3 mm steel disk has been initially developed to analytically study the longitudinal ultrasound generation mechanism and the obtainable outputs. Later, experimental tests have shown that the T sequence is highly flexible for ultrasound detection purposes, making it optimal to use high Npulses and δ but low dpulses . In the end, apart from describing all phenomena that arise in the low-power laser generation process, the results of this study are also important for setting up an effective NDT procedure using this technology.

  17. Random phase-free computer-generated hologram

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Addition of random phase to the object light is required in computer-generated holograms (CGHs) to widely diffuse the object light and to avoid its concentration on the CGH; however, this addition causes considerable speckle noise in the reconstructed image. For improving the speckle noise problem, techniques such as iterative phase retrieval algorithms and multi-random phase method are used; however, they are time consuming and are of limited effectiveness. Herein, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive method that drastically improves the image quality and reduces the speckle noise by multiplying the object light with the virtual convergence light. Feasibility of the proposed method is shown using simulations and optical reconstructions; moreover, we apply it to lens-less zoom-able holographic projection. The proposed method is useful for the speckle problems in holographic applications.

  18. Soliton generation from randomly modulated return-to-zero pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.

    2008-11-01

    We consider return-to-zero (RZ) pulses with random phase modulation propagating in a nonlinear channel (modelled by the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation, NLSE). We suggest two different models for the phase fluctuations of the optical field: (i) Gaussian short-correlated fluctuations and (ii) generalized telegraph process. Using the rectangular-shaped pulse form we demonstrate that the presence of phase fluctuations of both types strongly influences the number of solitons generated in the channel. It is also shown that increasing the correlation time for the random phase fluctuations affects the coherent content of a pulse in a non-trivial way. The result obtained has potential consequences for all-optical processing and design of optical decision elements.

  19. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  20. The relationship between virtual body ownership and temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; Sanchez-Vives, M V; Slater, Mel

    2013-08-06

    In the rubber hand illusion, tactile stimulation seen on a rubber hand, that is synchronous with tactile stimulation felt on the hidden real hand, can lead to an illusion of ownership over the rubber hand. This illusion has been shown to produce a temperature decrease in the hidden hand, suggesting that such illusory ownership produces disownership of the real hand. Here, we apply immersive virtual reality (VR) to experimentally investigate this with respect to sensitivity to temperature change. Forty participants experienced immersion in a VR with a virtual body (VB) seen from a first-person perspective. For half the participants, the VB was consistent in posture and movement with their own body, and in the other half, there was inconsistency. Temperature sensitivity on the palm of the hand was measured before and during the virtual experience. The results show that temperature sensitivity decreased in the consistent compared with the inconsistent condition. Moreover, the change in sensitivity was significantly correlated with the subjective illusion of virtual arm ownership but modulated by the illusion of ownership over the full VB. This suggests that a full body ownership illusion results in a unification of the virtual and real bodies into one overall entity-with proprioception and tactile sensations on the real body integrated with the visual presence of the VB. The results are interpreted in the framework of a 'body matrix' recently introduced into the literature.

  1. Substrate-dependent temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myachina, Olga; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Activity of extracellular enzymes responsible for decomposition of organics is substrate dependent. Quantity of the substrate is the main limiting factor for enzymatic or microbial heterotrophic activity in soils. Different mechanisms of enzymes response to temperature suggested for low and high substrate availability were never proved for real soil conditions. We compared the temperature responses of enzymes-catalyzed reactions in soils. Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found that substrate affinity of enzymes (which is usually decreases with the temperature) differently responded to warming for the process of depolymerisation versus monomers oxidation. We suggest the mechanism to temperature acclimation based on different temperature sensitivity of enzymes kinetics for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation.

  2. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-12-05

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  4. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 Histone Adult Temperature sensitiv...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 Histone Adult Temperature sensitiv...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 Histone Adult Temperature sensitiv...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  8. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...... at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than...... warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence...

  9. High-Quality Random Number Generation Software for High-Performance Computing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Random number (RN) generation is the key software component that permits random sampling. Software for parallel RN generation (RNG) should be based on RNGs that are...

  10. Glucose- and temperature-sensitive nanoparticles for insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Zi; Williams, Gareth R; Li, He-Yu; Wang, Dongxiu; Wu, Huanling; Li, Shu-De; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-01-01

    Glucose- and temperature-sensitive polymers of a phenylboronic acid derivative and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (poly(3-acrylamidophenyl boronic acid-b-diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate); p(AAPBA-b-DEGMA)) were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Successful polymerization was evidenced by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy, and the polymers were further explored in terms of their glass transition temperatures and by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The materials were found to be temperature sensitive, with lower critical solution temperatures in the region of 12°C-47°C depending on the monomer ratio used for reaction. The polymers could be self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs), and the zeta potential and size of these particles were determined as a function of temperature and glucose concentration. Subsequently, the optimum NP formulation was loaded with insulin, and the drug release was studied. We found that insulin was easily encapsulated into the p(AAPBA-b-DEGMA) NPs, with a loading capacity of ~15% and encapsulation efficiency of ~70%. Insulin release could be regulated by changes in temperature and glucose concentration. Furthermore, the NPs were non-toxic both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of the formulations at managing blood glucose levels in a murine hyperglycemic diabetes model was studied. The insulin-loaded NPs could reduce blood glucose levels over an extended period of 48 h. Since they are both temperature and glucose sensitive and offer a sustained-release profile, these systems may comprise potent new formulations for insulin delivery.

  11. Temperature sensitivity of organic compound destruction in SCWO process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaqin; Shen, Zhemin; Guo, Weimin; Ouyang, Chuang; Jia, Jinping; Jiang, Weili; Zhou, Haiyun

    2014-03-01

    To study the temperature sensitivity of the destruction of organic compounds in supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO), oxidation effects of twelve chemicals in supercritical water were investigated. The SCWO reaction rates of different compounds improved to varying degrees with the increase of temperature, so the highest slope of the temperature-effect curve (imax) was defined as the maximum ratio of removal ratio to working temperature. It is an important index to stand for the temperature sensitivity effect in SCWO. It was proven that the higher imax is, the more significant the effect of temperature on the SCWO effect is. Since the high-temperature area of SCWO equipment is subject to considerable damage from fatigue, the temperature is of great significance in SCWO equipment operation. Generally, most compounds (imax > 0.25) can be completely oxidized when the reactor temperature reaches 500°C. However, some compounds (imax > 0.25) need a higher temperature for complete oxidation, up to 560°C. To analyze the correlation coefficients between imax and various molecular descriptors, a quantum chemical method was used in this study. The structures of the twelve organic compounds were optimized by the Density Functional Theory B3LYP/6-311G method, as well as their quantum properties. It was shown that six molecular descriptors were negatively correlated to imax while other three descriptors were positively correlated to imax. Among them, dipole moment had the greatest effect on the oxidation thermodynamics of the twelve organic compounds. Once a correlation between molecular descriptors and imax is established, SCWO can be run at an appropriate temperature according to molecular structure. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. File list: DNS.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 DNase-seq Adult Temperature sensit...ive cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 DNase-seq Adult Temperature sensit...ive cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 DNase-seq Adult Temperature sensit...ive cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  15. Rendering poly(amidoamine) or poly(propylenimine) dendrimers temperature sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yasuhiro; Harada, Atsushi; Takagishi, Toru; Kono, Kenji

    2004-10-13

    The poly(amidoamine) dendrimers having terminal isobutyramide (IBAM) groups were prepared by the reaction of isobutyric acid and the amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with generations (G) of 2 to 5 by using a condensing agent, 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 1H and 13C NMR revealed that an IBAM group was attached to essentially every chain end of the dendrimers. While the IBAM-terminated G2 dendrimer was soluble in water, the IBAM-terminated G3, G4, and G5 dendrimers exhibited the lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) at 75, 61, and 43 degrees C, respectively. Because the density of the terminal IBAM groups in the periphery of the dendrimer progressively increases with increasing dendrimer generation, the interaction of the IBAM groups might take place more efficiently, resulting in a remarkable decrease in the LCST. In addition, attachment of IBAM groups to poly(propylenimine) dendrimers could give the temperature-sensitive property, indicating that this is an efficient method to render dendrimers temperature sensitive.

  16. Generative Learning Objects Instantiated with Random Numbers Based Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan Chirila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of interactive e-learning content requires special skills like programming techniques, web integration, graphic design etc. Generally, online educators do not possess such skills and their e-learning products tend to be static like presentation slides and textbooks. In this paper we propose a new interactive model of generative learning objects as a compromise betweenstatic, dull materials and dynamic, complex software e-learning materials developed by specialized teams. We find that random numbers based automatic initialization learning objects increases content diversity, interactivity thus enabling learners’ engagement. The resulted learning object model is at a limited level of complexity related to special e-learning software, intuitive and capable of increasing learners’ interactivity, engagement and motivation through dynamic content. The approach was applied successfully on several computer programing disciplines.

  17. Temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis in a thermokarst lake sediment core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, J. K.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Grosse, G.; Anthony, P.; Bondurant, A.

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about temperature sensitivity of permafrost organic carbon (OC) mineralization over time scales of years to centuries following thaw. Due to their formation and thaw histories, taliks (thaw bulbs) beneath thermokarst lakes provide a unique natural laboratory from which to examine how permafrost thawed in saturated anaerobic conditions responds to changes in temperature following long periods of time since thaw. We anaerobically incubated samples from a 590 cm thermokarst lake sediment core near Fairbanks, Alaska at four temperatures (0, 3, 10, and 25 ºC) bracketing observed talik temperatures. We show that since initial thaw 400 yr BP CH4 production shifts from being most sensitive to at lower (0-3 ºC; Q10-EC=1.15E7) temperatures to being most sensitive at higher (10-25 ºC; Q10-EC=67) temperatures. Frozen sediments collected from beneath the talik, thawed at the commencement of the incubation, had significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in CH4 production rates at lower temperatures but did not show significant CH4 production rate increases at higher temperatures (10-25 ºC). We hypothesize the thawing of sediments removed a major barrier to C mineralization, leading to rapid initial permafrost C mineralization and preferential mineralization of the most biolabile OC compounds. In contrast, sediments which had been thawed beneath the lake for longer periods of time did not experience statistically significant increases in CH4 production at lower temperatures (0-10 ºC), but had high temperature sensitivities at higher temperatures (10-25 ºC). We believe these rate increases are due to warmer temperatures in the experimental incubations crossing activation energy thresholds, allowing previously recalcitrant fractions of OC to be utilized, and/or the presence of different microbial communities adapted to thawed sediments. Recently-deposited sediments at shallow depths in the lake core experienced increases in CH4 production across all incubation

  18. Mechanisms of temperature sensitivity of attenuated Urabe mumps virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Stephanie C Burke; Rubin, Steven; Wright, Kathryn E

    2017-01-02

    Temperature sensitivity is a phenotype often associated with attenuation of viruses. Previously, we purified several mumps variants from an incompletely attenuated Urabe strain live attenuated vaccine. Here we characterize one isolate that is sensitive to growth at high temperature. This virus was attenuated in a small animal model of mumps virulence, and we identified unique coding substitutions in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), the viral polymerase (L) gene, and a non-coding substitution close to the anti-genome promoter sequences. At the non-permissive temperature, transcription of viral mRNAs and production of the replication intermediate were reduced compared to events at the permissive temperature and to a non-ts virulent Urabe virus. As well, synthesis of viral proteins was also reduced at the higher temperature. While the actual sequence substitutions in the ts virus were unique, the pattern of substitutions in HN, L and genome end sequences is similar to another attenuated Urabe virus previously described by us. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypomorphic Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of NSDHL Cause CK Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarren, Keith W.; Severson, Tesa M.; du Souich, Christèle; Stockton, David W.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Cunningham, David; Hendson, Glenda; Morin, Ryan D.; Wu, Diane; Paul, Jessica E.; An, Jianghong; Nelson, Tanya N.; Chou, Athena; DeBarber, Andrea E.; Merkens, Louise S.; Michaud, Jacques L.; Waters, Paula J.; Yin, Jingyi; McGillivray, Barbara; Demos, Michelle; Rouleau, Guy A.; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Raffaella; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Shears, Debbie; Schwartz, Charles E.; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R.; Arbour, Laura; Hurlburt, Jane; Van Allen, Margot I.; Herman, Gail E.; Zhao, Yongjun; Moore, Richard; Kelley, Richard I.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Steiner, Robert D.; Raymond, F. Lucy; Marra, Marco A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    CK syndrome (CKS) is an X-linked recessive intellectual disability syndrome characterized by dysmorphism, cortical brain malformations, and an asthenic build. Through an X chromosome single-nucleotide variant scan in the first reported family, we identified linkage to a 5 Mb region on Xq28. Sequencing of this region detected a segregating 3 bp deletion (c.696_698del [p.Lys232del]) in exon 7 of NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), a gene that encodes an enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We also found that males with intellectual disability in another reported family with an NSDHL mutation (c.1098 dup [p.Arg367SerfsX33]) have CKS. These two mutations, which alter protein folding, show temperature-sensitive protein stability and complementation in Erg26-deficient yeast. As described for the allelic disorder CHILD syndrome, cells and cerebrospinal fluid from CKS patients have increased methyl sterol levels. We hypothesize that methyl sterol accumulation, not only cholesterol deficiency, causes CKS, given that cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels are normal in males with CKS. In summary, CKS expands the spectrum of cholesterol-related disorders and insight into the role of cholesterol in human development. PMID:21129721

  20. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-01

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  1. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, whi...

  2. Temperature Sensitivity as a Microbial Trait Using Parameters from Macromolecular Rate Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Charlotte J; Baas, Peter; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Johnson, Nels G; von Fischer, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    The activity of soil microbial extracellular enzymes is strongly controlled by temperature, yet the degree to which temperature sensitivity varies by microbe and enzyme type is unclear. Such information would allow soil microbial enzymes to be incorporated in a traits-based framework to improve prediction of ecosystem response to global change. If temperature sensitivity varies for specific soil enzymes, then determining the underlying causes of variation in temperature sensitivity of these enzymes will provide fundamental insights for predicting nutrient dynamics belowground. In this study, we characterized how both microbial taxonomic variation as well as substrate type affects temperature sensitivity. We measured β-glucosidase, leucine aminopeptidase, and phosphatase activities at six temperatures: 4, 11, 25, 35, 45, and 60°C, for seven different soil microbial isolates. To calculate temperature sensitivity, we employed two models, Arrhenius, which predicts an exponential increase in reaction rate with temperature, and Macromolecular Rate Theory (MMRT), which predicts rate to peak and then decline as temperature increases. We found MMRT provided a more accurate fit and allowed for more nuanced interpretation of temperature sensitivity in all of the enzyme × isolate combinations tested. Our results revealed that both the enzyme type and soil isolate type explain variation in parameters associated with temperature sensitivity. Because we found temperature sensitivity to be an inherent and variable property of an enzyme, we argue that it can be incorporated as a microbial functional trait, but only when using the MMRT definition of temperature sensitivity. We show that the Arrhenius metrics of temperature sensitivity are overly sensitive to test conditions, with activation energy changing depending on the temperature range it was calculated within. Thus, we propose the use of the MMRT definition of temperature sensitivity for accurate interpretation of

  3. Temperature Sensitivity as a Microbial Trait Using Parameters from Macromolecular Rate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Jean Alster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of soil microbial extracellular enzymes is strongly controlled by temperature, yet the degree to which temperature sensitivity varies by microbe and enzyme type is unclear. Such information would allow soil microbial enzymes to be incorporated in a traits-based framework to improve prediction of ecosystem response to global change. If temperature sensitivity varies for specific soil enzymes, then determining the underlying causes of variation in temperature sensitivity of these enzymes will provide fundamental insights for predicting nutrient dynamics belowground. In this study, we characterized how both microbial taxonomic variation as well as substrate type affects temperature sensitivity. We measured β-glucosidase, leucine aminopeptidase, and phosphatase activities at six temperatures: 4, 11, 25, 35, 45, and 60°C, for seven different soil microbial isolates. To calculate temperature sensitivity, we employed two models, Arrhenius, which predicts an exponential increase in reaction rate with temperature, and Macromolecular Rate Theory (MMRT, which predicts rate to peak and then decline as temperature increases. We found MMRT provided a more accurate fit and allowed for more nuanced interpretation of temperature sensitivity in all of the enzyme × isolate combinations tested. Our results revealed that both the enzyme type and soil isolate type explain variation in parameters associated with temperature sensitivity. Because we found temperature sensitivity to be an inherent and variable property of an enzyme, we argue that it can be incorporated as a microbial functional trait, but only when using the MMRT definition of temperature sensitivity. We show that the Arrhenius metrics of temperature sensitivity are overly sensitive to test conditions, with activation energy changing depending on the temperature range it was calculated within. Thus, we propose the use of the MMRT definition of temperature sensitivity for accurate

  4. Variations in the temperature sensitivity of spring leaf phenology from 1978 to 2014 in Mudanjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Xu, Yunjia; Wang, Huanjiong; Alatalo, Juha; Tao, Zexing; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term temperature sensitivity (ST) of leaf unfolding date (LUD) and main impacting factors in spring in the period 1978-2014 for 40 plant species in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, were analyzed by using observation data from the China Phenological Observation Network (CPON), together with the corresponding meteorological data from the China Meteorological Data Service Center. Temperature sensitivities, slopes of the regression between LUD and mean temperature during the optimum preseason (OP), were analyzed using 15-year moving window to determine their temporal trends. Major factors impacting ST were then chosen and evaluated by applying a random sampling method. The results showed that LUD was sensitive to mean temperature in a defined period before phenophase onset for all plant species analyzed. Over the period 1978-2014, the mean ST of LUD for all plant species was - 3.2 ± 0.49 days °C-1. The moving window analysis revealed that 75% of species displayed increasing ST of LUD, with 55% showing significant increases (P < 0.05). ST for the other 25% exhibited a decreasing trend, with 17% showing significant decreases (P < 0.05). On average, ST increased by 16%, from - 2.8 ± 0.83 days °C-1 during 1980-1994 to - 3.30 ± 0.65 days °C-1 during 2000-2014. For species with later LUD and longer OP, ST tended to increase more, while species with earlier LUD and shorter OP tended to display a decreasing ST. The standard deviation of preseason temperature impacted the temporal variation in ST. Chilling conditions influenced ST for some species, but photoperiod limitation did not have significant or coherent effects on changes in ST.

  5. Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady

    2017-12-15

    Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

  6. Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady

    2017-12-01

    Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

  7. LOMA: A fast method to generate efficient tagged-random primers despite amplification bias of random PCR on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen detection using DNA microarrays has the potential to become a fast and comprehensive diagnostics tool. However, since pathogen detection chips currently utilize random primers rather than specific primers for the RT-PCR step, bias inherent in random PCR amplification becomes a serious problem that causes large inaccuracies in hybridization signals. Results In this paper, we study how the efficiency of random PCR amplification affects hybridization signals. We describe a model that predicts the amplification efficiency of a given random primer on a target viral genome. The prediction allows us to filter false-negative probes of the genome that lie in regions of poor random PCR amplification and improves the accuracy of pathogen detection. Subsequently, we propose LOMA, an algorithm to generate random primers that have good amplification efficiency. Wet-lab validation showed that the generated random primers improve the amplification efficiency significantly. Conclusion The blind use of a random primer with attached universal tag (random-tagged primer in a PCR reaction on a pathogen sample may not lead to a successful amplification. Thus, the design of random-tagged primers is an important consideration when performing PCR.

  8. Temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of fine root litter in a temperate broad-leaved forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Makita

    Full Text Available The microbial decomposition respiration of plant litter generates a major CO2 efflux from terrestrial ecosystems that plays a critical role in the regulation of carbon cycling on regional and global scales. However, the respiration from root litter decomposition and its sensitivity to temperature changes are unclear in current models of carbon turnover in forest soils. Thus, we examined seasonal changes in the temperature sensitivity and decomposition rates of fine root litter of two diameter classes (0-0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm of Quercus serrata and Ilex pedunculosa in a deciduous broad-leaved forest. During the study period, fine root litter of both diameter classes and species decreased approximately exponentially over time. The Q10 values of microbial respiration rates of root litter for the two classes were 1.59-3.31 and 1.28-6.27 for Q. serrata and 1.36-6.31 and 1.65-5.86 for I. pedunculosa. A significant difference in Q10 was observed between the diameter classes, indicating that root diameter represents the initial substrate quality, which may determine the magnitude of Q10 value of microbial respiration. Changes in these Q10 values were related to seasonal soil temperature patterns; the values were higher in winter than in summer. Moreover, seasonal variations in Q10 were larger during the 2-year decomposition period than the 1-year period. These results showed that the Q10 values of fine root litter of 0-0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm have been shown to increase with lower temperatures and with the higher recalcitrance pool of the decomposed substrate during 2 years of decomposition. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration in root litter showed distinct patterns according to the decay period and season because of the temperature acclimation and adaptation of the microbial decomposer communities in root litter.

  9. Temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of fine root litter in a temperate broad-leaved forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Naoki; Kawamura, Ayumi

    2015-01-01

    The microbial decomposition respiration of plant litter generates a major CO2 efflux from terrestrial ecosystems that plays a critical role in the regulation of carbon cycling on regional and global scales. However, the respiration from root litter decomposition and its sensitivity to temperature changes are unclear in current models of carbon turnover in forest soils. Thus, we examined seasonal changes in the temperature sensitivity and decomposition rates of fine root litter of two diameter classes (0-0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm) of Quercus serrata and Ilex pedunculosa in a deciduous broad-leaved forest. During the study period, fine root litter of both diameter classes and species decreased approximately exponentially over time. The Q10 values of microbial respiration rates of root litter for the two classes were 1.59-3.31 and 1.28-6.27 for Q. serrata and 1.36-6.31 and 1.65-5.86 for I. pedunculosa. A significant difference in Q10 was observed between the diameter classes, indicating that root diameter represents the initial substrate quality, which may determine the magnitude of Q10 value of microbial respiration. Changes in these Q10 values were related to seasonal soil temperature patterns; the values were higher in winter than in summer. Moreover, seasonal variations in Q10 were larger during the 2-year decomposition period than the 1-year period. These results showed that the Q10 values of fine root litter of 0-0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm have been shown to increase with lower temperatures and with the higher recalcitrance pool of the decomposed substrate during 2 years of decomposition. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration in root litter showed distinct patterns according to the decay period and season because of the temperature acclimation and adaptation of the microbial decomposer communities in root litter.

  10. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Temperature s...ensitive cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 TFs and others Adult Temperature s...ensitive cells SRX699115 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells dm3 Unclassified Adult Temperature sen...sitive cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Temperature_sensitive_cells.bed ...

  6. Algorithm for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Єременко

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Method for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law has been proposed. The praxis of using proposed method for generation pseudo-random series with anti-modal and approximate to Gaussian distribution law has been investigated.

  7. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random-time reinforcement schedule values. PMID:18595286

  8. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.

  9. Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process

    CERN Document Server

    Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2002-01-01

    A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)

  10. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Terashima, Yuta; Uchida, Atsushi; Baumgartner, Gerald B.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-09-01

    The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h (𝜖 ,τ ) as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  11. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  12. Lightweight PUF-based Key and Random Number Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herrewege, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    As embedded electronics continue to be integrated into our daily lives at such a pace that there are nowadays more cellphones than people on the planet, security is becoming ever more crucial. Unfortunately, this is all too often realized as an afterthought and thus the security implementations in many embedded devices offer little to no practical protection. Security does not require only cryptographic algorithms; two other critical modules in a secure system are a key generation module and ...

  13. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  14. Doing Better by Getting Worse: Posthypnotic Amnesia Improves Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Brugger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although forgetting is often regarded as a deficit that we need to control to optimize cognitive functioning, it can have beneficial effects in a number of contexts. We examined whether disrupting memory for previous numerical responses would attenuate repetition avoidance (the tendency to avoid repeating the same number) during random number generation and thereby improve the randomness of responses. Low suggestible and low dissociative and high dissociative highly suggestible individuals completed a random number generation task in a control condition, following a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget previous numerical responses, and in a second control condition following the cancellation of the suggestion. High dissociative highly suggestible participants displayed a selective increase in repetitions during posthypnotic amnesia, with equivalent repetition frequency to a random system, whereas the other two groups exhibited repetition avoidance across conditions. Our results demonstrate that temporarily disrupting memory for previous numerical responses improves random number generation. PMID:22195022

  15. Doing better by getting worse: posthypnotic amnesia improves random number generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Blair Terhune

    Full Text Available Although forgetting is often regarded as a deficit that we need to control to optimize cognitive functioning, it can have beneficial effects in a number of contexts. We examined whether disrupting memory for previous numerical responses would attenuate repetition avoidance (the tendency to avoid repeating the same number during random number generation and thereby improve the randomness of responses. Low suggestible and low dissociative and high dissociative highly suggestible individuals completed a random number generation task in a control condition, following a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget previous numerical responses, and in a second control condition following the cancellation of the suggestion. High dissociative highly suggestible participants displayed a selective increase in repetitions during posthypnotic amnesia, with equivalent repetition frequency to a random system, whereas the other two groups exhibited repetition avoidance across conditions. Our results demonstrate that temporarily disrupting memory for previous numerical responses improves random number generation.

  16. Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Respiration of Fine Root Litter in a Temperate Broad-Leaved Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Naoki; Kawamura, Ayumi

    2015-01-01

    The microbial decomposition respiration of plant litter generates a major CO2 efflux from terrestrial ecosystems that plays a critical role in the regulation of carbon cycling on regional and global scales. However, the respiration from root litter decomposition and its sensitivity to temperature changes are unclear in current models of carbon turnover in forest soils. Thus, we examined seasonal changes in the temperature sensitivity and decomposition rates of fine root litter of two diameter classes (0–0.5 and 0.5–2.0 mm) of Quercus serrata and Ilex pedunculosa in a deciduous broad-leaved forest. During the study period, fine root litter of both diameter classes and species decreased approximately exponentially over time. The Q10 values of microbial respiration rates of root litter for the two classes were 1.59–3.31 and 1.28–6.27 for Q. serrata and 1.36–6.31 and 1.65–5.86 for I. pedunculosa. A significant difference in Q10 was observed between the diameter classes, indicating that root diameter represents the initial substrate quality, which may determine the magnitude of Q10 value of microbial respiration. Changes in these Q10 values were related to seasonal soil temperature patterns; the values were higher in winter than in summer. Moreover, seasonal variations in Q10 were larger during the 2-year decomposition period than the 1-year period. These results showed that the Q10 values of fine root litter of 0–0.5 and 0.5–2.0 mm have been shown to increase with lower temperatures and with the higher recalcitrance pool of the decomposed substrate during 2 years of decomposition. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration in root litter showed distinct patterns according to the decay period and season because of the temperature acclimation and adaptation of the microbial decomposer communities in root litter. PMID:25658106

  17. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ∼30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  18. Note: A 10 Gbps real-time post-processing free physical random number generator chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Liang, Futian; Wang, Xinzhe; Li, Feng; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2017-09-01

    A random number generator with high data rate, small size, and low power consumption is essential for a certain quantum key distribution (QKD) system. We designed a 10 Gbps random number generator ASIC, TRNG2016, for the QKD system. With a 6 mm × 6 mm QFN48 package, TRNG2016 has 10 independent physical random number generation channels, and each channel can work at a fixed frequency up to 1 Gbps. The random number generated by TRNG2016 can pass the NIST statistical tests without any post-processing. With 3.3 V IO power supply and 1.2 V core power supply, the typical power consumption of TRNG2016 is 773 mW with 10 channels on and running at 1 Gbps data rate.

  19. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  20. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corndorf, Eric

    objectives of key generation and direct data-encryption, a new quantum cryptographic principle is demonstrated wherein keyed coherent-state signal sets are employed. Taking advantage of the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states, these schemes do not require the users to measure the influence of an attacker. Experimental key-generation and data encryption schemes based on these techniques, which are compatible with today's WDM fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, are implemented and analyzed.

  1. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  2. Modal generation of the design parameters of an elastic spacecraft by the random search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, B. A.

    A method for the modal generation of the dynamic properties of an elastic spacecraft is proposed which is based on algorithms of random search in the space of design parameters. A practical implementation of this approach is illustrated by an example. It is shown that the modal parameter generation procedure based on the random search solves the problem of parameter selection. However, as in any other method, the accuracy of the computation of matrix elements is largely determined by the initial set of permissible values and the number of random samples in determining the subgradient of the objective function.

  3. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  4. 640-Gbit/s fast physical random number generation using a broadband chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Pan, Biwei; Chen, Guangcan; Guo, Lu; Lu, Dan; Zhao, Lingjuan; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    An ultra-fast physical random number generator is demonstrated utilizing a photonic integrated device based broadband chaotic source with a simple post data processing method. The compact chaotic source is implemented by using a monolithic integrated dual-mode amplified feedback laser (AFL) with self-injection, where a robust chaotic signal with RF frequency coverage of above 50 GHz and flatness of ±3.6 dB is generated. By using 4-least significant bits (LSBs) retaining from the 8-bit digitization of the chaotic waveform, random sequences with a bit-rate up to 640 Gbit/s (160 GS/s × 4 bits) are realized. The generated random bits have passed each of the fifteen NIST statistics tests (NIST SP800-22), indicating its randomness for practical applications.

  5. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways ...

  6. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  7. Higher temperature variability reduces temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth in Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Guo, Weichao; Yin, Yi; Poulter, Ben; Peng, Changhui; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yongmei

    2017-06-01

    Interannual air temperature variability has changed over some regions in Northern Hemisphere (NH), accompanying with climate warming. However, whether and to what extent it regulates the interannual sensitivity of vegetation growth to temperature variability (i.e., interannual temperature sensitivity)—one central issue in understanding and predicting the responses of vegetation growth to changing climate—still remains poorly quantified and understood. Here we quantify the relationships between the interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season (April-October) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ecosystem model simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP), and variability in mean growing-season temperature for forest, shrub, and grass over NH. We find that higher interannual variability in mean growing-season temperature leads to consistent decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI among all vegetation types but not in model simulations of GPP. Drier condition associates with 130 ± 150% further decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI by temperature variability in forest and shrub. These results illustrate that varying temperature variability can significantly regulate the interannual temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth over NH, interacted with drought variability and nonlinear responses of photosynthesis to temperature. Our findings call for an improved characterization of the nonlinear effects of temperature variability on vegetation growth within global ecosystem models.

  8. Concurrent Generation of Pseudo Random Numbers with LFSR of Fibonacci and Galois Type

    OpenAIRE

    Emina I. Milovanović; Stojčev, Mile K.; Igor Ž. Milovanović; Tatjana R. Nikolić; Zoran Stamenković

    2016-01-01

    We have considered implementation of parallel test pattern generator based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) with multiple outputs used as a building block in built-in-self-test (BIST) design within SoC. The proposed design can drive several circuits under test (CUT) simultaneously. The mathematical procedure for concurrent pseudo random number (PRN) generation is described. We have implemented LFSRs that generate two and three PRNs in FPGA and ASIC technology. The design was tested ...

  9. Random laser action with coherent feedback via second-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yanqi; Cai, Zengyan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The random laser action with coherent feedback by second-harmonic generation (SHG) was experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Compared with the conventional random laser action based on photoluminescence effect, which needs strong photoresponse in the active medium and has a fixed response waveband due to the inherent energy level structure of the material, this random SHG laser action indicates a possible confinement of the nonlinear signal with ring cavities and widens the response waveband due to the flexible frequency conversion in nonlinear process. The combination of coherent random laser and nonlinear optics will provide us another possible way to break phase-matching limitations, with fiber or feedback-based wavefront shaping method to transmit the emission signal directionally. This work suggests potential applications in band-tunable random laser, phase-matching-free nonlinear optics and even brings in new consideration about random nonlinear optics (RNO).

  10. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  11. Fractal generator for efficient production of random planar patterns and symbols in digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiaogang; Li, Xinchuan; He, Zhenwen

    2017-08-01

    In digital cartography, the automatic generation of random planar patterns and symbols is still an ongoing challenge. Those patterns and symbols of randomness have randomly variated configurations and boundaries, and their generating algorithms are constrained by the shape features, cartographic standards and many other conditions. The fractal geometry offers favorable solutions to simulate random boundaries and patterns. In the work presented in this paper, we used both fractal theory and random Iterated Function Systems (IFS) to develop a method for the automatic generation of random planar patterns and symbols. The marshland and the trough cross-bedding patterns were used as two case studies for the implementation of the method. We first analyzed the morphological characteristics of those two planar patterns. Then we designed algorithms and implementation schemes addressing the features of each pattern. Finally, we ran the algorithms to generate the patterns and symbols, and compared them with the requirements of a few digital cartographic standards. The method presented in this paper has already been deployed in a digital mapping system for practical uses. The flexibility of the method also allows it to be reused and/or adapted in various software platforms for digital mapping.

  12. Coupling behavior of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels for the inhomogeneous and homogeneous swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, H.; Baghani, M.; Naghdabadi, R.; Sohrabpour, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a model is developed to continuously predict homogeneous and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of pH/temperature sensitive PNIPAM hydrogels. Employing the model, homogeneous swelling of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogel is investigated for free and biaxial constrained swelling cases. Comparing the model results with the experimental data available in the literature, the validity of the model is confirmed. The model is then employed to investigate inhomogeneous swelling of a spherical shell on a hard core both analytically and numerically for pH or temperature variations. In this regard, numerical tools are developed via preparing a user defined subroutine in ABAQUS software. Then, the complicated problem of contact between the hydrogel shell and a micro-channel with rigid walls is also investigated. Considering the results, we can say that the model is applicable for solving engineering boundary value problem of pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels.

  13. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  14. A revision of the subtract-with-borrow random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibidanov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    The most popular and widely used subtract-with-borrow generator, also known as RANLUX, is reimplemented as a linear congruential generator using large integer arithmetic with the modulus size of 576 bits. Modern computers, as well as the specific structure of the modulus inferred from RANLUX, allow for the development of a fast modular multiplication - the core of the procedure. This was previously believed to be slow and have too high cost in terms of computing resources. Our tests show a significant gain in generation speed which is comparable with other fast, high quality random number generators. An additional feature is the fast skipping of generator states leading to a seeding scheme which guarantees the uniqueness of random number sequences. Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++, C, Assembler

  15. Compact quantum random number generator based on superluminescent light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shihai; Yang, Jie; Fan, Fan; Huang, Wei; Li, Dashuang; Xu, Bingjie

    2017-12-01

    By measuring the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise of the superluminescent light emitting diodes, we propose and realize a quantum random number generator (QRNG) featured with practicability. In the QRNG, after the detection and amplification of the ASE noise, the data acquisition and randomness extraction which is integrated in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) are both implemented in real-time, and the final random bit sequences are delivered to a host computer with a real-time generation rate of 1.2 Gbps. Further, to achieve compactness, all the components of the QRNG are integrated on three independent printed circuit boards with a compact design, and the QRNG is packed in a small enclosure sized 140 mm × 120 mm × 25 mm. The final random bit sequences can pass all the NIST-STS and DIEHARD tests.

  16. Quantum random number generation enhanced by weak-coherent states interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, T; Xavier, G B; Amaral, G C; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P

    2016-08-22

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for quantum random number generation based on the random population of the output spatial modes of a beam splitter when both inputs are simultaneously fed with indistinguishable weak coherent states. We simulate and experimentally validate the probability of generation of random bits as a function of the average photon number per input, and compare it to the traditional approach of a single weak coherent state transmitted through a beam-splitter, showing an improvement of up to 32%. The ensuing interference phenomenon reduces the probability of coincident counts between the detectors associated with bits 0 and 1, thus increasing the probability of occurrence of a valid output. A long bit string is assessed by a standard randomness test suite with good confidence. Our proposal can be easily implemented and opens attractive performance gains without a significant trade-off.

  17. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  18. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    OpenAIRE

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to writ...

  19. Theory of fast nondeterministic physical random-bit generation with chaotic lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Arai, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Atsushi; Davis, Peter

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically show that completely stochastic fast physical random bit generation at a rate of more than one gigabit per second can be realized by using lasers with optical delayed feedback which creates high-dimensional chaos of laser light outputs. The theory is based on the mixing property of chaos, which transduces microscopic quantum noise of spontaneous emission in lasers into random transitions between discrete macroscopic states.

  20. Graphene based widely-tunable and singly-polarized pulse generation with random fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B. C.; Rao, Y. J.; Wang, Z. N.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, J. H.; Wu, H.; Fan, M. Q.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, W. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, Y. R.; Churkin, D.; Turitsyn, S.; Wong, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Pulse generation often requires a stabilized cavity and its corresponding mode structure for initial phase-locking. Contrastingly, modeless cavity-free random lasers provide new possibilities for high quantum efficiency lasing that could potentially be widely tunable spectrally and temporally. Pulse generation in random lasers, however, has remained elusive since the discovery of modeless gain lasing. Here we report coherent pulse generation with modeless random lasers based on the unique polarization selectivity and broadband saturable absorption of monolayer graphene. Simultaneous temporal compression of cavity-free pulses are observed with such a polarization modulation, along with a broadly-tunable pulsewidth across two orders of magnitude down to 900 ps, a broadly-tunable repetition rate across three orders of magnitude up to 3 MHz, and a singly-polarized pulse train at 41 dB extinction ratio, about an order of magnitude larger than conventional pulsed fiber lasers. Moreover, our graphene-based pulse formation also demonstrates robust pulse-to-pulse stability and wide-wavelength operation due to the cavity-less feature. Such a graphene-based architecture not only provides a tunable pulsed random laser for fiber-optic sensing, speckle-free imaging, and laser-material processing, but also a new way for the non-random CW fiber lasers to generate widely tunable and singly-polarized pulses.

  1. Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2014-08-01

    Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  2. Random bit generation using an optically injected semiconductor laser in chaos with oversampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Zhou; Chan, Sze-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Random bit generation is experimentally demonstrated using a semiconductor laser driven into chaos by optical injection. The laser is not subject to any feedback so that the chaotic waveform possesses very little autocorrelation. Random bit generation is achieved at a sampling rate of 10 GHz even when only a fractional bandwidth of 1.5 GHz within a much broader chaotic bandwidth is digitized. By retaining only 3 least significant bits per sample, an output bit rate of 30 Gbps is attained. The approach requires no complicated postprocessing and has no stringent requirement on the electronics bandwidth.

  3. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  4. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of 16 S rRNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triman, K; Becker, E; Dammel, C

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants have been isolated following hydroxylamine mutagenesis of a plasmid containing Escherichia coli rRNA genes carrying selectable markers for spectinomycin resistance (U1192 in 16 S rRNA) and erythromycin resistance (G2058 in 23 S rRNA). These antibiotic resistance...

  5. Temperature sensitivity of soil microbial communities: An application of macromolecular rate theory to microbial respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Charlotte J.; Koyama, Akihiro; Johnson, Nels G.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; von Fischer, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    There is compelling evidence that microbial communities vary widely in their temperature sensitivity and may adapt to warming through time. To date, this sensitivity has been largely characterized using a range of models relying on versions of the Arrhenius equation, which predicts an exponential increase in reaction rate with temperature. However, there is growing evidence from laboratory and field studies that observe nonmonotonic responses of reaction rates to variation in temperature, indicating that Arrhenius is not an appropriate model for quantitatively characterizing temperature sensitivity. Recently, Hobbs et al. (2013) developed macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), which incorporates thermodynamic temperature optima as arising from heat capacity differences between isoenzymes. We applied MMRT to measurements of respiration from soils incubated at different temperatures. These soils were collected from three grassland sites across the U.S. Great Plains and reciprocally transplanted, allowing us to isolate the effects of microbial community type from edaphic factors. We found that microbial community type explained roughly 30% of the variation in the CO2 production rate from the labile C pool but that temperature and soil type were most important in explaining variation in labile and recalcitrant C pool size. For six out of the nine soil × inoculum combinations, MMRT was superior to Arrhenius. The MMRT analysis revealed that microbial communities have distinct heat capacity values and temperature sensitivities sometimes independent of soil type. These results challenge the current paradigm for modeling temperature sensitivity of soil C pools and understanding of microbial enzyme dynamics.

  6. Investigation of Temperature Sensitivity of a Polymer-Overlaid Microfiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Geun

    2017-10-21

    The temperature sensitivity of the free spectral range (FSR) for a polymer-overlaid microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The waist diameter of the optical microfiber can be controlled to alter the thermal expansion and optic properties of the polymer-coated MZI. Inserting an optical microfiber with a strong evanescent field into the MZI, a low index polymer with high thermal characteristics is deposited on the surface of the microfibers to realize a polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI. It was found that the thermal expansion factor in the proposed MZI plays an important role in the temperature sensitivity of the FSR. The temperature sensitivity of the polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI is improved, which is measured to be -8.29 nm/°C at 25 °C. The optical transmission spectrum of the polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI is converted to the spatial frequency spectrum via fast Fourier transform. The temperature sensitivity of the spatial frequency in the proposed polymer-overlaid MZI is estimated to be 18.31 pm(-1) °C(-1), which is 17 times higher than that of the microfiber MZI without polymer coating (1.04 pm(-1) °C(-1)).

  7. Investigation of Temperature Sensitivity of a Polymer-Overlaid Microfiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Geun Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity of the free spectral range (FSR for a polymer-overlaid microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The waist diameter of the optical microfiber can be controlled to alter the thermal expansion and optic properties of the polymer-coated MZI. Inserting an optical microfiber with a strong evanescent field into the MZI, a low index polymer with high thermal characteristics is deposited on the surface of the microfibers to realize a polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI. It was found that the thermal expansion factor in the proposed MZI plays an important role in the temperature sensitivity of the FSR. The temperature sensitivity of the polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI is improved, which is measured to be −8.29 nm/°C at 25 °C. The optical transmission spectrum of the polymer-overlaid microfiber MZI is converted to the spatial frequency spectrum via fast Fourier transform. The temperature sensitivity of the spatial frequency in the proposed polymer-overlaid MZI is estimated to be 18.31 pm−1 °C−1, which is 17 times higher than that of the microfiber MZI without polymer coating (1.04 pm−1 °C−1.

  8. Preparation and anti-bacterial properties of a temperature sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel temperature-sensitive spray gel containing silver nanoparticles and investigate its anti-bacterial properties in vitro. Methods: The aqueous complex gel was prepared by Pluronic F127 (18-22%) and Pluronic F68 (3-9%) through a cold method to obtain a p...

  9. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  10. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1976-11-01

    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  11. Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention with Random Number Generators--A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Steinkamp, Fiona; Boller, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Seance-room and other large-scale psychokinetic phenomena have fascinated humankind for decades. Experimental research has reduced these phenomena to attempts to influence (a) the fall of dice and, later, (b) the output of random number generators (RNGs). The meta-analysis combined 380 studies that assessed whether RNG output correlated with human…

  12. A time series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, W.; Maes, J.H.R.; Hasselman, F.W.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG) task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and

  13. Spectral turning bands for efficient Gaussian random fields generation on GPUs and accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2015-11-01

    A random field (RF) is a set of correlated random variables associated with different spatial locations. RF generation algorithms are of crucial importance for many scientific areas, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics, and many others. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT), which does not scale well for RF bigger than the available memory; they are also limited to regular rectilinear meshes. We introduce random field generation with the turning band method (RAFT), an RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs and accelerators. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower-order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. RAFT can easily generate RF on non-regular (non-uniform) meshes and efficiently produce fields with mesh sizes bigger than the available device memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. Our algorithm generates RF with the correct statistical behavior and is tested on a variety of modern hardware, such as NVIDIA Tesla, AMD FirePro and Intel Phi. RAFT is faster than the traditional methods on regular meshes and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  14. Performance of university students on random number generation at different rates to evaluate executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Amer C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of adult young subjects in a Random Number Generation (RNG task by controlling the response speed (RS. METHOD: Sixty-nine university students of both sexes took part in the experiment (25.05 ± 6.71 year-old. Participants were alloted into 3 groups which differed in RS rates to generate numbers: 1, 2 and 4 seconds to generate each number. A digital metronomer was used to control RS. Participants were asked to generate 100 numbers. The responses were mensured through Evans's RNG Index. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups [F (3, 68 = 7.120; p < .05]. Differences were localized between 1 and 2 seconds (p = 0.004 and between 1 and 4 seconds (p = 0.006. No differences were observed between 2 and 4 seconds (p = 0.985. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that the response speed in production of random numbers influences the performance of the Random Numbers Generation task.

  15. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  16. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method.

  17. Dynamics of a semiconductor laser with polarization-rotated feedback and its utilization for random bit generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neus; Soriano, Miguel C; Sukow, David W; Fischer, Ingo

    2011-12-01

    Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4 Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Temperature-Sensitive Live-Attenuated Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Rodriguez, Laura; Chauché, Caroline; Huang, Kai; Reilly, Emma C; Topham, David J; Murcia, Pablo R; Parrish, Colin R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2017-02-15

    Canine influenza is a respiratory disease of dogs caused by canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV subtypes responsible for influenza in dogs include H3N8, which originated from the transfer of H3N8 equine influenza virus to dogs; and the H3N2 CIV, which is an avian-origin virus that adapted to infect dogs. Influenza infections are most effectively prevented through vaccination to reduce transmission and future infection. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIV in dogs. However, the efficacy of IIVs is suboptimal, and novel approaches are necessary for the prevention of disease caused by this canine respiratory pathogen. Using reverse genetics techniques, we have developed a live-attenuated CIV vaccine (LACIV) for the prevention of H3N8 CIV. The H3N8 LACIV replicates efficiently in canine cells at 33°C but is impaired at temperatures of 37 to 39°C and was attenuated compared to wild-type H3N8 CIV in vivo and ex vivo The LACIV was able to induce protection against H3N8 CIV challenge with a single intranasal inoculation in mice. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy were better than that observed with a commercial CIV H3N8 IIV but provided limited cross-reactive immunity and heterologous protection against H3N2 CIV. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a LAIV approach for the prevention and control of H3N8 CIV in dogs and suggest the need for a new LAIV for the control of H3N2 CIV. Two influenza A virus subtypes has been reported in dogs in the last 16 years: the canine influenza viruses (CIV) H3N8 and H3N2 of equine and avian origins, respectively. To date, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available to prevent CIV infections. Here, we report the generation of a recombinant, temperature-sensitive H3N8 CIV as a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which was attenuated in mice and dog tracheal, explants compared to CIV H3N8 wild type. A single dose of H3N8 LACIV showed

  19. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Marmolejo

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  20. PUFKEY: A High-Security and High-Throughput Hardware True Random Number Generator for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Random number generators (RNG play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  1. PUFKEY: a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin

    2015-10-16

    Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  2. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  3. Nonwoven supported temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/polyurethane copolymer hydrogel with antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Hu, Jinlian; Meng, Qinghao

    2009-04-01

    This article is focused on the study of the antibacterial activity of temperature sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide/polyurethane (PNIPAAm/PU) hydrogel grafted nonwoven fabrics with chitosan modification. A series of temperature sensitive hydrogel grafted nonwoven fabrics with different N-isopropylacrylamide/polyurethane (NIPAAm/PU) feeding ratios have been synthesized by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-ethane-1,2-diamine (TEMED) as accelerator. FTIR and XPS were used to examine the surface modification of chitosan. The phase transition temperature of hydrogel grafted nonwoven fabrics was about 32 degrees C by DSC. S. aureus and E. coli were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of the fabric composite. After chitosan modification, the hydrogel grafted nonwoven cellulose fabrics demonstrates an antibacterial activity to S. aureus. and E. coli and the antibacterial efficiency is about 80%.

  4. Imaging heat transfer processes in a fluid with temperature sensitive paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Liu, Tianshu; Luo, Weili

    2014-03-01

    The temperature profile inside a fluid was imaged by temperature sensitive paint in a quasi one-dimensional cell, where temperature gradients were established by heating on one side of the sample and cooling on the other. Similar experiment was performed on colloids consisting nanoparticles suspended in solvent. The change of the profile for different heat-transfer processes as functions of time will be discussed.

  5. Soil organic matter decomposition and temperature sensitivity after forest fire in permafrost regions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Heidi; Palviainen, Marjo; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-04-01

    On the Northern Hemisphere, 24% of soils are underlain by permafrost. These soils contain 50% of the global soil carbon pool. The Northern Hemisphere is also the region which is predicted to be most affected by climate warming and this causes uncertainties over the future of the permafrost. It has been estimated that 25% of permafrost might thaw by 2100, exposing previously frozen carbon pools to decomposition. In addition, global warming is expected to cause increase in the frequency of wild fires, which further increase permafrost melting by removing the insulating organic surface layer. The amount of released soil carbon from permafrost soils after forest fire is affected by degradability and temperature sensitivity of the soil organic matter, as well as soil depth and the stage of succession. Yet the common effect of these factors remains unclear. We studied how soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity (Q10) vary in different depths and within time by taking soil samples from different fire chronosequence areas (burned 3, 25, 46 and 100 years ago) from permafrost region in Northern Canada (Yukon and Northwest Territories, along Dempster Highway). The samples from three different depths (5, 10 and 30 cm) were incubated in four different temperatures (1, 7, 13 and 19°C) over 24h. Our results showed that the CO2 fluxes followed the stages of succession, with recently burned sites having lowest rates. The organic matter at 5 cm depth proved to be more labile and temperature sensitive than in deeper depths. The Q10 values, however, did not differ between sites, excluding 30 cm at the most recently burned site that had a significantly higher Q10 value than the other sites. The results implicate that heterotrophic soil respiration decreases on permafrost regions during the first stages after forest fire. At the same time the temperature sensitivity in deeper soil layers may increase.

  6. Allele-specific suppression of the temperature sensitivity of fitA/fitB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature sensitive transcription defective mutant of Escherichia coli originally called fitA76 has been shown to harbour two missense mutations namely pheS5 and fit95. In order to obtain a suppressor of fitA76, possibly mapping in rpoD locus, a Ts+ derivative (JV4) was isolated from a fitA76 mutant. It was found that ...

  7. Temperature-Sensitive Plant Cells with Shunted Indole-3-Acetic Acid Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetiker, J. H.; Aeschbacher, G.

    1997-01-01

    Cells of henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus L.) grow indefinitely in culture without exogenous auxin. Cells of its temperature-sensitive variant XIIB2 grow like the wild type at 26[deg]C but die rapidly at 33[deg]C unless auxin is added to the medium. Despite this temperature-sensitive auxin auxotrophy, XIIB2 produces wild-type amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the predominant auxin and is important for plant growth and development. Since the IAA production of the variant is functional, we investigated whether the synthesis or degradation of IAA metabolites, possibly active auxins themselves, is altered. The IAA metabolites were IAA-aspartate (IAAsp) and IAA-glucose. The wild type converted IAA mainly to IAAsp, whereas the variant produced mainly IAA-glucose. Exogenous auxin corrected the shunted IAA metabolism of the variant. The half-life of labeled IAAsp in the variant was reduced 21-fold, but in the presence of exogenous auxin it was not different from the wild type. The temperature sensitivity of XIIB2 was also corrected by supplying IAAsp. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that henbane rapidly metabolizes IAAsp to compounds not identical to IAA. The data show that the variant XIIB2 is a useful tool to study the function of IAA conjugates to challenge the popular hypothesis that IAA conjugates are merely slow-release storage forms of IAA. PMID:12223777

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. An Architecturally Constrained Model of Random Number Generation and its Application to Modelling the Effect of Generation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sexton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Random number generation (RNG is a complex cognitive task for human subjects, requiring deliberative control to avoid production of habitual, stereotyped sequences. Under various manipulations (e.g., speeded responding, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or neurological damage the performance of human subjects deteriorates, as reflected in a number of qualitatively distinct, dissociable biases. For example, the intrusion of stereotyped behaviour (e.g., counting increases at faster rates of generation. Theoretical accounts of the task postulate that it requires the integrated operation of multiple, computationally heterogeneous cognitive control ('executive' processes. We present a computational model of RNG, within the framework of a novel, neuropsychologically-inspired cognitive architecture, ESPro. Manipulating the rate of sequence generation in the model reproduced a number of key effects observed in empirical studies, including increasing sequence stereotypy at faster rates. Within the model, this was due to time limitations on the interaction of supervisory control processes, namely, task setting, proposal of responses, monitoring, and response inhibition. The model thus supports the fractionation of executive function into multiple, computationally heterogeneous processes.

  16. Complexity and properties of a multidimensional Cat-Hadamard map for pseudo random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hue, Ta Thi; Hoang, Thang Manh

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method to extend the Cat map from 2-dimension to higher dimension using the fast pseudo Hadamard Transform, and the resulted maps are called Cat-Hadamard maps. The complexity and properties of Cat-Hadamard maps are investigated under the point of view for cryptographic applications. In addition, we propose a method for constructing a pseudo random number generator using a novel design concept of the high dimensional Cat map. The simulation results show that the proposed generator fulfilled all the statistic tests of the NIST SP 800-90 A.

  17. Generation of random numbers on graphics processors: forced indentation in silico of the bacteriophage HK97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmurov, A; Rybnikov, K; Kholodov, Y; Barsegov, V

    2011-05-12

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) in simulation applications offers a significant speed gain as compared to computations on central processing units (CPUs). Many simulation methods require a large number of independent random variables generated at each step. We present two approaches for implementation of random number generators (RNGs) on a GPU. In the one-RNG-per-thread approach, one RNG produces a stream of random numbers in each thread of execution, whereas the one-RNG-for-all-threads method builds on the ability of different threads to communicate, thus, sharing random seeds across an entire GPU device. We used these approaches to implement Ran2, Hybrid Taus, and Lagged Fibonacci algorithms on a GPU. We profiled the performance of these generators in terms of the computational time, memory usage, and the speedup factor (CPU time/GPU time). These generators have been incorporated into the program for Langevin simulations of biomolecules fully implemented on the GPU. The ∼250-fold computational speedup on the GPU allowed us to carry out single-molecule dynamic force measurements in silico to explore the mechanical properties of the bacteriophage HK97 in the experimental subsecond time scale. We found that the nanomechanical response of HK97 depends on the conditions of force application, including the rate of change and geometry of the mechanical perturbation. Hence, using the GPU-based implementation of RNGs, presented here, in conjunction with Langevin simulations, makes it possible to directly compare the results of dynamic force measurements in vitro and in silico.

  18. Analysis of a non-diffractive beam generated from an annular beam in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ziqi; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-11-01

    An annular beam has the ability to self-transform into a non-diffractive beam when it propagates in air at a long distance. In our previous study, we propagated an annular beam in random media and obtained a non-diffractive beam at a short propagation distance of a few tens centimeters by adjusting the concentration of random media and narrowing the view angle of the receiver. In this paper, we aim to analyze the components and characteristics of a non-diffractive beam and elucidate how the non-diffractive beam is generated in random media. The intensity variation of the scattered waveform is examined when the distance between the receiver and the back plane of a medium tank is changed. The waveform scattered in random media is constructed from forward scattering light at the center and multiple scattering light in the surrounding part. The forward scattering light at the center generates the non-diffractive beam. In numerical analysis based on diffusion theory, the calculation result of the non-diffractive beam shows agreement with the experimental result.

  19. Leveraging Random Number Generation for Mastery of Learning in Teaching Quantitative Research Courses via an E-Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsathorn, Wasita; Charoen, Danuvasin; Dryver, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    E-Learning brings access to a powerful but often overlooked teaching tool: random number generation. Using random number generation, a practically infinite number of quantitative problem-solution sets can be created. In addition, within the e-learning context, in the spirit of the mastery of learning, it is possible to assign online quantitative…

  20. Analysis of remineralisation, lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of organic matter from the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Richardson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) synthesised by plankton is exported out of the surface layer as particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon. This 'biological pump' constitutes a major pathway in the global marine carbon cycle, each year exporting about 10 Pg C into the ocean interior, where it is subsequently remineralised via biological decomposition. Remineralised inorganic nutrients and carbon are, ultimately, again brought to the surface by advection and turbulent mixing which closes the OC-cycle in the upper ocean. Thus, remineralisation rates of OC are a critical component of the biological pump. These rates are regulated by the lability of the material and the environmental conditions in the ambient water. Temperature is particularly important in regulating the rate of microbial respiration and, thus, remineralisation rates. A significant temperature dependence of the microbial metabolic activity in the ocean interior is expected, as this is a feature observed elsewhere in the biosphere. Such temperature dependence of microbial remineralisation of POC and DOC will alter the amount of material available for transport by the biological pump to the deep ocean. Very few studies on the lability of OC and temperature sensitivity of microbial degradation processes in the mesopelagic zone (∼100-1000 m) have, to date, been carried out. Here, we present a comprehensive new experimental data set from all major ocean basins and quantify remineralisation rates of OC and their temperature sensitivity in long-term incubations of water from the upper 350 m. Microbial respiration was measured by non-invasive oxygen optodes and oxygen consumption was used as a constraint for determining the remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity by two complementary methods. First, we analysed the oxygen consumption from a multi-component OC-model where the concentration, remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity of two bio-available (labile) pools of organic carbon were

  1. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B

    2017-10-01

    In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.

  2. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlumecký, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The efficient calibration of rainfall-runoff models is a difficult issue, even for experienced hydrologists. Therefore, fast and high-quality model calibration is a valuable improvement. This paper describes a novel methodology and software for the optimisation of a rainfall-runoff modelling using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a newly prepared concept of a random number generator (HRNG), which is the core of the optimisation. The GA estimates model parameters using evolutionary principles, which requires a quality number generator. The new HRNG generates random numbers based on hydrological information and it provides better numbers compared to pure software generators. The GA enhances the model calibration very well and the goal is to optimise the calibration of the model with a minimum of user interaction. This article focuses on improving the internal structure of the GA, which is shielded from the user. The results that we obtained indicate that the HRNG provides a stable trend in the output quality of the model, despite various configurations of the GA. In contrast to previous research, the HRNG speeds up the calibration of the model and offers an improvement of rainfall-runoff modelling.

  3. Engineering applications of fpgas chaotic systems, artificial neural networks, random number generators, and secure communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers a clear guide to implementing engineering applications with FPGAs, from the mathematical description to the hardware synthesis, including discussion of VHDL programming and co-simulation issues. Coverage includes FPGA realizations such as: chaos generators that are described from their mathematical models; artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict chaotic time series, for which a discussion of different ANN topologies is included, with different learning techniques and activation functions; random number generators (RNGs) that are realized using different chaos generators, and discussions of their maximum Lyapunov exponent values and entropies. Finally, optimized chaotic oscillators are synchronized and realized to implement a secure communication system that processes black and white and grey-scale images. In each application, readers will find VHDL programming guidelines and computer arithmetic issues, along with co-simulation examples with Active-HDL and Simulink. Readers will b...

  4. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  5. Thermodynamic method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a new method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault, suitable for use as initial conditions in a dynamic rupture simulation. The method employs concepts from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A pattern of fault slip is considered to be analogous to a micro-state of a thermodynamic system. The energy of the micro-state is taken to be the elastic energy stored in the surrounding medium. Then, the Boltzmann distribution gives the probability of a given pattern of fault slip and stress. We show how to decompose the system into independent degrees of freedom, which makes it computationally feasible to select a random state. However, due to the equipartition theorem, straightforward application of the Boltzmann distribution leads to a divergence which predicts infinite stress. To avoid equipartition, we show that the finite strength of the fault acts to restrict the possible states of the system. By analyzing a set of earthquake scaling relations, we derive a new formula for the expected power spectral density of the stress distribution, which allows us to construct a computer algorithm free of infinities. We then present a new technique for controlling the extent of the rupture by generating a random stress distribution thousands of times larger than the fault surface, and selecting a portion which, by chance, has a positive stress perturbation of the desired size. Finally, we present a new two-stage nucleation method that combines a small zone of forced rupture with a larger zone of reduced fracture energy.

  6. Accuracy of critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients predicted by multilayered composite plate theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Burton, Scott

    1992-01-01

    An assessment is made of the accuracy of the critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients of multilayered plates predicted by different modeling approaches, based on two-dimensional shear-deformation theories. The sensitivity coefficients considered measure the sensitivity of the critical temperatures to variations in different lamination and material parameters of the plate. The standard of comparison is taken to be the sensitivity coefficients obtained by the three-dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Numerical studies are presented showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters of the plate on the accuracy of both the sensitivity coefficients and the critical temperatures predicted by the different modeling approaches.

  7. Mars Thermospheric Temperature Sensitivity to Solar EUV Forcing from the MAVEN EUV Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Ed; Eparvier, Francis; Andersson, Laila; Pilinski, Marcin; Chamberlin, Phillip; Fowler, Christopher; MAVEN Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor Team, MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves Team

    2017-10-01

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the primary heat source for the Mars thermosphere, and the primary source of long-term temperature variability. The Mars obliquity, dust cycle, tides and waves also drive thermospheric temperature variability; and it is important to quantify the role of each in order to understand processes in the upper atmosphere today and, ultimately, the evolution of Mars climate over time. Although EUV radiation is the dominant heating mechanism, accurately measuring the thermospheric temperature sensitivity to EUV forcing has remained elusive, in part, because Mars thermospheric temperature varies dramatically with latitude and local time (LT), ranging from 150K on the nightside to 300K on the dayside. It follows that studies of thermospheric variability must control for location.Instruments onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) orbiter have begun to characterize thermospheric temperature sensitivity to EUV forcing. Bougher et al. [2017] used measurements from the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) to characterize solar activity trends in the thermosphere with some success. However, aside from restricting measurements to solar zenith angles (SZAs) below 75 degrees, they were unable to control for latitude and LT because repeat-track observations from either instrument were limited or unavailable.The MAVEN EUV Monitor (EUVM) has recently demonstrated the capability to measure thermospheric density from 100 to 200 km with solar occultations of its 17-22 nm channel. These new density measurements are ideal for tracking the long-term thermospheric temperature variability because they are inherently constrained to either 06:00 or 18:00 LT, and the orbit has precessed to include a range of ecliptic latitudes, a number of which have been revisited multiple times over 2.5 years. In this study we present, for the first-time, measurements of thermospheric

  8. rMotifGen: random motif generator for DNA and protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardin C Timothy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of short, subtle conserved motif regions within a set of related DNA or amino acid sequences can lead to discoveries about important regulatory domains such as transcription factor and DNA binding sites as well as conserved protein domains. In order to help assess motif detection algorithms on motifs with varying properties and levels of conservation, we have developed a computational tool, rMotifGen, with the sole purpose of generating a number of random DNA or protein sequences containing short sequence motifs. Each motif consensus can be user-defined, randomly generated, or created from a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Insertions and mutations within these motifs are created according to user-defined parameters and substitution matrices. The resulting sequences can be helpful in mutational simulations and in testing the limits of motif detection algorithms. Results Two implementations of rMotifGen have been created, one providing a graphical user interface (GUI for random motif construction, and the other serving as a command line interface. The second implementation has the added advantages of platform independence and being able to be called in a batch mode. rMotifGen was used to construct sample sets of sequences containing DNA motifs and amino acid motifs that were then tested against the Gibbs sampler and MEME packages. Conclusion rMotifGen provides an efficient and convenient method for creating random DNA or amino acid sequences with a variable number of motifs, where the instance of each motif can be incorporated using a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM or by creating an instance mutated from its corresponding consensus using an evolutionary model based on substitution matrices. rMotifGen is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.louisville.edu/brg/rMotifGen/.

  9. Effects of different tree species on soil organic matter composition, decomposition rates and temperature sensitivities in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Javier; Nilsson, Mats B.; Erhagen, Björn; Sparrman, Tobias; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Schleucher, Jürgen; Öquist, Mats

    2017-04-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store a large proportion of the global soil organic matter (SOM) and its mineralization constitutes a major carbon flux to the atmosphere. It has been suggested that different tree species can significantly influence organo-chemical composition of SOM, and rate and temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. In this study we used surface soil samples (top 5 cm) from a field experiment where five different tree species (Pinus silvestrys L, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix decidua Mill., Betula pendula Roth, and Pinus contorta Douglas) were planted on a grass meadow in a randomized block design (n=3) ca. 40 years ago. The samples were incubated at 4, 9, 14, and 19 °C at a soil water potential of -25 kPa (previously determined as optimal water content for decomposition). CO2 production rates were measured hourly for 13 days. CO2 production rates were consequently lowest in the control plots and increased in the order Meadow< Contorta < Betula < Larix < Pinus < Picea. The values ranged between 0.03-0.1, 0.06-0.154, 0.1-0.24 and 0.13-0.36 mg CO2 g-1 OM (dw) h-1 at 4, 9, 14 and 19°C respectively. The temperature response of CO2 production corresponded to Q10s of 2.22 (±0.11), 2.22(±0.15), 2.66 (±0.18), 2.09 (±0.33), 2.38 (±0.31) and 2.31 (±0.09) for meadow, contorta, betula, larix, pinus and picea respectively. Only betula resulted in significantly higher Q10s as compared to the control plots, picea, contorta and larix treatments. These differences in tree species effects on SOM decomposition and its temperature sensitivity will be further discussed in relation to the organo-chemical composition of SOM as determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques. We conclude that the temperature response of SOM decomposition rates is likely coupled to tree species composition and may have important implications for soil C dynamics. This finding can have

  10. Changes in spring arrival dates and temperature sensitivity of migratory birds over two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolářová, Eva; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette; Nekovář, Jiří; Lumpe, Petr; Adamík, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Long-term phenological data have been crucial at documenting the effects of climate change in organisms. However, in most animal taxa, time series length seldom exceeds 35 years. Therefore, we have limited evidence on animal responses to climate prior to the recent warm period. To fill in this gap, we present time series of mean first arrival dates to Central Europe for 13 bird species spanning 183 years (1828-2010). We found a uniform trend of arrival dates advancing in the most recent decades (since the late 1970s). Interestingly, birds were arriving earlier during the cooler early part of the nineteenth century than in the recent warm period. Temperature sensitivity was slightly stronger in the warmest 30-year period (-1.70 ± SD 0.47 day °C-1) than in the coldest period (-1.42 ± SD 0.89 day °C-1); however, the difference was not statistically significant. In the most recent decades, the temperature sensitivity of both short- and long-distance migrants significantly increased. Our results demonstrate how centennial time series can provide a much more comprehensive perspective on avian responses to climate change.

  11. A temperature sensitive VSV identifies L protein residues that affect transcription but not replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Summer E; Wertz, Gail W

    2009-06-05

    To investigate the polymerase components selectively involved in transcription versus replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we sequenced the polymerase gene of a conditionally RNA defective, temperature sensitive VSV: ts(G)114, which has a phenotype upon shift from permissive to non-permissive temperature of shut-down of mRNA transcription and unaffected genome replication. Sequence analysis of the ts(G)114 L gene identified three altered amino acid residues in the L protein. These three changes were specifically engineered individually and in combinations into a functional cDNA clone encoding the VSV genome and tested for association with the temperature sensitive and RNA defective phenotypes in the background of recovered engineered viruses. The data presented in this study show a specific amino acid substitution in domain II of the VSV L protein that significantly affects total RNA synthesis, but when in combination with two additional amino acid substitutions identified in the ts(G)114 L protein, leads to a specific reduction in mRNA transcription, but not replication.

  12. Temperature-sensitive SV40-immortalized rat middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kim, Youngki; Paparella, Michael M; Lin, Jizhen

    2004-12-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of middle ear epithelial cells are essential in both normal and diseased middle ears. The normal situation involves physiologic growth and renewal of the epithelium, and the diseased situation involves pathological changes of the epithelium such as mucous cell metaplasia and ciliated cell proliferation in otitis media. In this study, we used a temperature-sensitive large T antigen (the SV40 mutant) to transduce and immortalize the primary culture of middle ear epithelial cells. SV40-immortalized middle ear epithelial cells have been cultured for more than 50 passages and are stable morphologically. Their nonimmortalized parent cells died at the second passage. Immortalized middle ear epithelial cells carrying the SV40 mutant show a monolayer, cobblestonelike morphology. The cell line expresses characteristic middle ear mucosal molecules such as mucins, keratins, and collagens. It also responds to temperature changes; namely, cells proliferate at 33 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is active, and differentiate at 39 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is inactive. Therefore, we conclude that a temperature-sensitive middle ear epithelial cell line has successfully been established.

  13. Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Charles D.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Lawrence, David M.; Wieder, William R.

    2017-11-01

    The projected loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere resulting from climate change is a potentially large but highly uncertain feedback to warming. The magnitude of this feedback is poorly constrained by observations and theory, and is disparately represented in Earth system models (ESMs). To assess the climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon, we calculate apparent soil carbon turnover times that reflect long-term and broad-scale rates of decomposition. Here, we show that the climatological temperature control on carbon turnover in the top metre of global soils is more sensitive in cold climates than in warm climates and argue that it is critical to capture this emergent ecosystem property in global-scale models. We present a simplified model that explains the observed high cold-climate sensitivity using only the physical scaling of soil freeze-thaw state across climate gradients. Current ESMs fail to capture this pattern, except in an ESM that explicitly resolves vertical gradients in soil climate and carbon turnover. An observed weak tropical temperature sensitivity emerges in a different model that explicitly resolves mineralogical control on decomposition. These results support projections of strong carbon-climate feedbacks from northern soils and demonstrate a method for ESMs to capture this emergent behaviour.

  14. Factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of PMMA based optical fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Webb, David J.

    2014-05-01

    The Bragg wavelength of a PMMA based fiber grating is determined by the effective core index and the grating pitch, which, in temperature sensing, depend on the thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients of PMMA. These two coefficients are a function of surrounding temperature and humidity. Amorphous polymers including PMMA exhibit a certain degree of anisotropic thermal expansion. The anisotropic nature of expansion mainly depends on the polymer processing history. The expansion coefficient is believed to be lower in the direction of the molecular orientation than in the direction perpendicular to the draw direction. Such anisotropic behavior of polymers can be expected in drawn PMMA based optical fiber, and will lead to a reduced thermal expansion coefficient and larger temperature sensitivity than would be the case were the fiber to be isotropic. Extensive work has been carried out to identify these factors. The temperature responses of gratings have been measured at different relative humidity. Gratings fabricated on annealed and non-annealed PMMA optical fibers are used to compare the sensitivity performance as annealing is considered to be able to mitigate the anisotropic effect in PMMA optical fiber. Furthermore an experiment has been designed to eliminate the thermal expansion contribution to the grating wavelength change, leading to increased temperature sensitivity and improved response linearity.

  15. Emergence of deterministic Green's functions from noise generated by finite random sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2009-12-01

    Two-point correlation functions of sufficiently diffuse wave fields generated by uncorrelated random sources are known to approximate deterministic Green's functions between the two points. This property is utilized increasingly for passive imaging and remote sensing of the environment. Here we show that the relation between the Green's functions and the noise cross-correlation function holds under much less restrictive conditions than previously thought. It can even hold when ambient noise sources have correlation ranges large compared to the wavelength. Admissible correlation ranges are limited from above by the size of the Fresnel zone at wave propagation between the points where noise cross correlation is evaluated.

  16. Random number generator based on an integrated laser with on-chip optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Khoder, Mulham; Van der Sande, Guy

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the design and testing of a laser integrated with a long on-chip optical feedback section. The device and feedback section have been fabricated on a generic photonic integration platform using only standard building blocks. We have been able to integrate a 10 cm feedback length on a footprint of 5.5 mm2. By controlling the amount of feedback, we achieve chaotic dynamics in the long-cavity regime and show that the resulting dynamics is sufficiently complex in order to generate random bits based on the chaotic intensity fluctuation at a rate of 500 Mbits/s.

  17. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlumecký, M.; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 553, October (2017), s. 350-355 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : genetic algorithm * optimisation * rainfall-runoff modeling * random generator Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022169417305516/1-s2.0-S0022169417305516-main.pdf?_tid=fa1bad8a-bd6a-11e7-8567-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1509365462_a1335d3d997e9eab19e23b1eee977705

  18. On Generating Optimal Signal Probabilities for Random Tests: A Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithms are robust search and optimization techniques. A Genetic Algorithm based approach for determining the optimal input distributions for generating random test vectors is proposed in the paper. A cost function based on the COP testability measure for determining the efficacy of the input distributions is discussed. A brief overview of Genetic Algorithms (GAs and the specific details of our implementation are described. Experimental results based on ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits are presented. The performance of our GAbased approach is compared with previous results. While the GA generates more efficient input distributions than the previous methods which are based on gradient descent search, the overheads of the GA in computing the input distributions are larger.

  19. A Chemical Reaction Network to Generate Random, Power-Law-Distributed Time Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Patrick; Schulze, Holger; Metzner, Claus

    2017-10-06

    In Lévy walks (LWs), particles move with a fixed speed along straight line segments and turn in new directions after random time intervals that are distributed according to a power law. Such LWs are thought to be an advantageous foraging and search strategy for organisms. While complex nervous systems are certainly capable of producing such behavior, it is not clear at present how single-cell organisms can generate the long-term correlated control signals required for a LW. Here, we construct a biochemical reaction system that generates long-time correlated concentration fluctuations of a signaling substance, with a tunable fractional exponent of the autocorrelation function. The network is based on well-known modules, and its basic function is highly robust with respect to the parameter settings.

  20. A Hardware Efficient Random Number Generator for Nonuniform Distributions with Arbitrary Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian de Schryver

    2012-01-01

    number generators is a very active research field. However, most state-of-the-art architectures are either tailored to specific distributions or use up a lot of hardware resources. At ReConFig 2010, we have presented a new design that saves up to 48% of area compared to state-of-the-art inversion-based implementation, usable for arbitrary distributions and precision. In this paper, we introduce a more flexible version together with a refined segmentation scheme that allows to further reduce the approximation error significantly. We provide a free software tool allowing users to implement their own distributions easily, and we have tested our random number generator thoroughly by statistic analysis and two application tests.

  1. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Global synthesis of the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter breakdown in streams and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstad Shah, Jennifer J; Kominoski, John S; Ardón, Marcelo; Dodds, Walter K; Gessner, Mark O; Griffiths, Natalie A; Hawkins, Charles P; Johnson, Sherri L; Lecerf, Antoine; LeRoy, Carri J; Manning, David W P; Rosemond, Amy D; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Swan, Christopher M; Webster, Jackson R; Zeglin, Lydia H

    2017-08-01

    Streams and rivers are important conduits of terrestrially derived carbon (C) to atmospheric and marine reservoirs. Leaf litter breakdown rates are expected to increase as water temperatures rise in response to climate change. The magnitude of increase in breakdown rates is uncertain, given differences in litter quality and microbial and detritivore community responses to temperature, factors that can influence the apparent temperature sensitivity of breakdown and the relative proportion of C lost to the atmosphere vs. stored or transported downstream. Here, we synthesized 1025 records of litter breakdown in streams and rivers to quantify its temperature sensitivity, as measured by the activation energy (Ea , in eV). Temperature sensitivity of litter breakdown varied among twelve plant genera for which Ea could be calculated. Higher values of Ea were correlated with lower-quality litter, but these correlations were influenced by a single, N-fixing genus (Alnus). Ea values converged when genera were classified into three breakdown rate categories, potentially due to continual water availability in streams and rivers modulating the influence of leaf chemistry on breakdown. Across all data representing 85 plant genera, the Ea was 0.34 ± 0.04 eV, or approximately half the value (0.65 eV) predicted by metabolic theory. Our results indicate that average breakdown rates may increase by 5-21% with a 1-4 °C rise in water temperature, rather than a 10-45% increase expected, according to metabolic theory. Differential warming of tropical and temperate biomes could result in a similar proportional increase in breakdown rates, despite variation in Ea values for these regions (0.75 ± 0.13 eV and 0.27 ± 0.05 eV, respectively). The relative proportions of gaseous C loss and organic matter transport downstream should not change with rising temperature given that Ea values for breakdown mediated by microbes alone and microbes plus detritivores were similar at the global

  3. 1.2 GBit/s Pseudo Random Pulse Generator Using Multiplexing with GaAs Mesfet Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Carsten

    1978-01-01

    A l.2 Gbit/s RZ pseudo random bit generator using multiplexing of six 200 Mbit/s channels, and a GaAs-MESFET gate circuit which exhibits both high speed and simplicity are presented. As a new contribution to the treatment of pseudo random sequences it is shown how the autocorrelation function and...

  4. Analysis of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive I7L mutants reveals two potential functional domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrd Chelsea M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of conditional-lethal mutants in which the mutation had been mapped to the I7L locus were subjected to genomic sequencing and phenotypic analyses. Mutations in six vaccinia virus I7L temperature sensitive mutants fall into two groups: changes at three positions at the N-terminal end between amino acids 29 and 37 and two different substitutions at amino acid 344, near the catalytic domain. Regardless of the position of the mutation, mutants at the non-permissive temperature failed to cleave core protein precursors and had their development arrested prior to core condensation. Thus it appears that the two clusters of mutations may affect two different functional domains required for proteinase activity.

  5. Numerical Investigation on Heat and Flow Characteristics of Temperature-Sensitive Ferrofluid in a Square Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is numerically to study the heat and flow characteristics of temperature-sensitive ferrofluid in the square cavity with and without the magnetic intensity. The numerical model was developed to predict the behavior of the ferrofluid using finite element method (FEM and showed good agreement with the existing data within 5% at all Rayleigh number ranges from 103 to 106. Natural convection and heat transfer characteristics of the ferrofluids within the tested cavity were found to depend on both magnetic intensity and magnetic volume fractions of magnetite. In addition, the mean Nusselt numbers and mean velocity of the ferrofluid in a square cavity were increased with the rise of the magnetic intensities and increased by 23.2% and 143.7%, respectively, at both magnetic intensity of H = 10000 A/m and the elapsed time of t = 30000 seconds.

  6. Highly sensitive fiber loop ringdown strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Maheshwar; Wang, Chuji

    2017-10-01

    We report a highly sensitive strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity based on the fiber loop ringdown technique. An innovative approach that employs a micro air-gap as the strain sensor head is described. The sensor has demonstrated the static strain sensitivity of 0.26 µs/µɛ, corresponding to the detection limit of 65 nɛ with the low temperature cross sensitivity of 37 nɛ/°C. This is the highest static strain sensitivity achieved without using a combination of fiber optic sensing components, such as fiber Bragg gratings or Fabry-Perot interferometers. Moreover, the sensor design allows the strain sensitivity and measuring range to be adjusted by changing the length of the sensor.

  7. THERMOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS OF TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE FLUORESCENCE OF SrS:Cu PHOSPHORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PUROHIT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at investigating the temperature sensitive fluoro-optic behaviour of Cu-activated strontium sulphide (SrS phosphors and its possible application in thermography. Accordingly, SrS (Cu phosphors have been synthesized and painted with the help of adhesive on silica substrate. The excitation and emission spectra of such phosphor coatings have been recorded at room temperature (25C. The temperature dependence of fluorescence intensity and the lifetime of phosphorescence have also been studied. From the systematic variation of these two parameters with temperature, it appears that these phosphors are good candidates for thermographic application, at least, in the temperature range of investigation (25-150C.

  8. Soil carbon storage and temperature sensitivity associated with shrub and graminoid vegetation in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Cook, J. I.; Petrenko, C. L.; Friedland, A. J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic tundra is experiencing rapid change, including warming temperatures, shrub expansion and shifts in precipitation patterns. Environmental conditions and vegetation cover are strong controls on soil carbon storage, respiration, and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. Temperature control of soil organic matter processing is particularly important in permafrost soils, which contain more than two times the carbon in the atmosphere and exist at the freeze-thaw threshold. To investigate sensitivity of decomposition to abiotic controls in a heterogeneous landscape, we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment on mineral soils collected in shrub and graminoid vegetation types near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. We crossed temperature and moisture treatments and measured soil respiration rates over a seven-week incubation period. We measured soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations through elemental analysis and conducted sequential chemical extractions to measure carbon fractions and quantify soil carbon quality. Results show soils overlain by graminoids have higher carbon concentrations at shallow depth and respiration rates than soils overlain by shrub (mean ± 1 s.e. organic carbon concentration, 0-10 cm: graminoid = 68.7 ± 8.1 mg C * g soil-1, shrub = 48.8 ± 2.9 mg C * g soil-1). Temperature sensitivity was higher in graminoid soils, with no effect from soil moisture level. Carbon fractions and quality varied by vegetation type and profile depth. This study informs our understanding of the relationship between carbon quality and the temperature and moisture sensitivity of decomposition in western Greenland and demonstrates the importance of landscape heterogeneity in understanding soil carbon response to environmental drivers.

  9. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  10. Regional variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in China's forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; He, Nianpeng

    2017-04-01

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10. The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10, were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  11. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established. Keywords: Particle physics, Computer science, Mathematics, Astrophysics

  12. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  13. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  14. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  15. Optical key distribution system using atmospheric turbulence as the randomness generating function: classical optical protocol for information assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marvin D.; Bas, Christophe F.; Gervais, David; Renda, Priscilla F.; Townsend, Daniel; Rushanan, Joseph J.; Francoeur, Joe; Donnangelo, Nick; Stenner, Michael D.

    2013-05-01

    We describe an experimental laboratory system that generates and distributes random binary sequence bit streams between two optical terminals (labeled Alice and Bob). The random binary sequence is generated through probing the optical channel of a turbulent atmosphere between the two terminals with coincident laser beams. The two laser beams experience differential phase delays while propagating through the atmospheric optical channel. The differential phase delays are detected and sampled at each terminal to yield raw random bit streams. The random bit streams are processed to remove bit errors and, through privacy amplification, to yield a bit stream known only to Alice and Bob. The same chaotic physical mechanism that provides randomness also provides confidentiality. The laboratory system yielded secret key bit rates of a few bits/second. For external optical channels over longer channel lengths with atmospheric turbulence levels, secret bit rates of 10 s of bits/second are predicted.

  16. An advanced monolithic digitalized random carrier frequency spread-spectrum clock generator for EMI suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Haiyan; Chen Zao; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji, E-mail: guohy5@sina.co [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A novel monolithic digitalized random carrier frequency modulation spread-spectrum clock generator (RCF-SSCG) is proposed. In this design, the output frequency of the proposed RCF-SSCG changes with the intensity of the capacitive charge and discharge current. Its analytical model is induced and the effect of the modulation parameters on the spread spectrum is numerically simulated and discussed. Compared with other works, this design has the advantages of small size, low power consumption and good robustness. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.5 {mu}m CMOS process and applied to a class D amplifier in which the proposed RCF-SSCG occupies an area of 0.112 mm{sup 2} and consumes 9 mW. The experimental results confirm the theoretical analyses. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Generation of Random Wind Speed Profiles for Evaluation of Stress in WT Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are subjected to wind speed variations that cause a power profile that will stress the overall system. This stress is tranfered to the power converter, resulting in temperature variations of the power devices and, hence, causing the reduction of the lifetime. The lifetime expectation...... changes depending on the real wind speed once the wind turbine is operating. Usually, the real wind speed profiles are employed to evaluate this stress but they do not consider all possible operation conditions and require intensive computations. To solve these issues, this paper proposes the generation...... of random wind speed profiles, based on the measured ones, in order to evaluate the thermal stress of the power devices based on a simplified statistical approach....

  18. Study of the nonuniform behavior of temperature sensitivity in bare and embedded fiber Bragg gratings: experimental results and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahakud, R; Kumar, J; Prakash, O; Dixit, S K

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an experiment and analysis on the factors affecting nonlinear evolution of Bragg wavelength with change in temperature in typical bare and embedded fiber Bragg grating-based (FBG) temperature sensors. The purpose of the study was to find the constants in the function required to evaluate temperature from Bragg wavelength shift. The temperature sensitivity of bare FBGs was found to increase with temperature elevation, and is different for FBGs written in different fiber types. The average temperature sensitivity increased by about 20% when the bare FBG temperature was elevated from 25°C to 525°C. The average temperature sensitivity of the embedded FBG sensor, investigated in the temperature range of 30°C-90°C, was a factor of 2-3 times larger than for bare FBG, depending on its fastened length with the substrate. Analytically, it is shown that the nonuniform behavior of temperature sensitivity in bare FBGs is the result of both the thermal expansion effect of the fiber and the temperature derivatives of the effective refractive index. The strain transfer and temperature coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate affect the nonuniform behavior of temperature sensitivity in embedded FBG sensors.

  19. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  20. A method to account for the temperature sensitivity of TCCON total column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebling, Sabrina G.; Wunch, Debra; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) consists of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems all around the world. It achieves better than 0.25% precision and accuracy for total column measurements of CO2 [Wunch et al. (2011)]. In recent years, the TCCON data processing and retrieval software (GGG) has been improved to achieve better and better results (e. g. ghost correction, improved a priori profiles, more accurate spectroscopy). However, a small error is also introduced by the insufficent knowledge of the true temperature profile in the atmosphere above the individual instruments. This knowledge is crucial to retrieve highly precise gas concentrations. In the current version of the retrieval software, we use six-hourly NCEP reanalysis data to produce one temperature profile at local noon for each measurement day. For sites in the mid latitudes which can have a large diurnal variation of the temperature in the lowermost kilometers of the atmosphere, this approach can lead to small errors in the final gas concentration of the total column. Here, we present and describe a method to account for the temperature sensitivity of the total column measurements. We exploit the fact that H2O is most abundant in the lowermost kilometers of the atmosphere where the largest diurnal temperature variations occur. We use single H2O absorption lines with different temperature sensitivities to gain information about the temperature variations over the course of the day. This information is used to apply a posteriori correction of the retrieved gas concentration of total column. In addition, we show that the a posteriori temperature correction is effective by applying it to data from Lamont, Oklahoma, USA (36,6°N and 97,5°W). We chose this site because regular radiosonde launches with a time resolution of six hours provide detailed information of the real temperature in the atmosphere and allow us to test the effectiveness of our correction. References

  1. A random generation approach to pattern library creation for full chip lithographic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Elain; Hong, Sid; Liu, Limei; Huang, Lucas; Yang, Legender; Kabeel, Aliaa; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe; Du, Chunshan; Hu, Xinyi; Wan, Qijian; Zhang, Recoo

    2017-04-01

    As technology advances, the need for running lithographic (litho) checking for early detection of hotspots before tapeout has become essential. This process is important at all levels—from designing standard cells and small blocks to large intellectual property (IP) and full chip layouts. Litho simulation provides high accuracy for detecting printability issues due to problematic geometries, but it has the disadvantage of slow performance on large designs and blocks [1]. Foundries have found a good compromise solution for running litho simulation on full chips by filtering out potential candidate hotspot patterns using pattern matching (PM), and then performing simulation on the matched locations. The challenge has always been how to easily create a PM library of candidate patterns that provides both comprehensive coverage for litho problems and fast runtime performance. This paper presents a new strategy for generating candidate real design patterns through a random generation approach using a layout schema generator (LSG) utility. The output patterns from the LSG are simulated, and then classified by a scoring mechanism that categorizes patterns according to the severity of the hotspots, probability of their presence in the design, and the likelihood of the pattern causing a hotspot. The scoring output helps to filter out the yield problematic patterns that should be removed from any standard cell design, and also to define potential problematic patterns that must be simulated within a bigger context to decide whether or not they represent an actual hotspot. This flow is demonstrated on SMIC 14nm technology, creating a candidate hotspot pattern library that can be used in full chip simulation with very high coverage and robust performance.

  2. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo Diaz, N.; Vergara Gil, A. [Centre for Radiological Protection and Higiene, P.O. Box 6195, Habana (Cuba); Jurado Vargas, M. [Physics Department, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: mjv@unex.es

    2010-03-15

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations.

  3. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  4. Targeting behavior of hepatic artery injected temperature sensitive liposomal adriamycin on tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y Y; Ueno, M; Yamagishi, M; Horikoshi, I; Yamashita, I; Tazawa, K; Gu, X Q

    1990-01-01

    Temperature sensitive liposomal Adriamycin (LADM) was injected into the hepatic artery of rats bearing implanted hepatic tumors. Two hours after the injection, the liver was heated at 42 degrees C and maintained for six minutes at that temperature using local hyperthermia. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals until 8 hours after injection, at which time the animals were sacrificed and the drug distribution in the tissues was examined. Results indicate that the Adriamycin was released from the liposome, with the drug concentration in circulation peaking at 30 minutes after heating. High drug levels (25.2 micrograms/g of wet tissue) in the tumor and high tumor/liver Adriamycin level ratios (TLAR; 4.1) were found. The drug levels and the TLAR of the liposomal Adriamycin injection combined with heating (LADM H) were significantly different from those of the same dose of aqueous Adriamycin with heating (ADM H) or aqueous Adriamycin (ADM) and LADM without heating. The experiment shows that the LADM is cleared from the liver slowly, and when hyperthermia treatment at phase-transition temperature of the liposome is performed, the drug level in an implanted hepatic tumor is increased, and in the parenchyma is decreased. The results imply that targeting the hepatic tumor in this way may be an effective therapeutic method, and the drug release from the liposome may be controlled externally. This method appears promising for clinical practice.

  5. The validity of temperature-sensitive ingestible capsules for measuring core body temperature in laboratory protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwent, David; Zhou, Xuan; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Greg D

    2011-10-01

    The human core body temperature (CBT) rhythm is tightly coupled to an endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. The standard method for assessing the status of this pacemaker is by continuous sampling of CBT using rectal thermometry. This research sought to validate the use of ingestible, temperature-sensitive capsules to measure CBT as an alternative to rectal thermometry. Participants were 11 young adult males who had volunteered to complete a laboratory protocol that extended across 12 consecutive days. A total of 87 functional capsules were ingested and eliminated by participants during the laboratory internment. Core body temperature samples were collected in 1-min epochs and compared to paired samples collected concurrently via rectal thermistors. Agreement between samples that were collected using ingestible sensors and rectal thermistors was assessed using the gold-standard limits of agreement method. Across all valid paired samples collected during the study (n = 120,126), the mean difference was 0.06°C, whereas the 95% CI (confidence interval) for differences was less than ±0.35°C. Despite the overall acceptable limits of agreement, systematic measurement bias was noted across the initial 5 h of sensor-transit periods and attributed to temperature gradations across the alimentary canal.

  6. Vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3)-based semiconducting temperature sensitive resistors for uncooled microbolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed; Alduraibi, Mohammad; Zia, Muhammad Fakhar; Bahidra, Esme; Alasaad, Amr

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on a semiconducting resistor material based on vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) with electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) appropriate for microbolometer applications. In this work, V2O3-based semiconducting resistor material was synthesized and electrically characterized. The developed material was prepared by annealing, in O2 and N2 atmospheres, a cascaded multilayer structure composed of V2O3 (10 nm) and V (5 nm) room temperature sputter coated thin films. The developed 55 nm thin film microbolometer resistor material possessed high temperature sensitivity from 20∘C to 45∘C with a TCR of -3.68%/∘C and room temperature resistivity of 0.57 Ω ṡcm for O2 annealed samples and a TCR of -3.72%/∘C and room temperature resistivity of 0.72 Ω ṡcm for N2 annealed samples. The surface morphologies of the synthesized thin films were studied using atomic force microscopy showing no significant post-growth annealing effect on the smoothness of the samples surfaces.

  7. Differential chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in temperature-sensitive mutants of Ustilago maydis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.

    1977-01-01

    The amount and type of residual DNA synthesis was determined in eight temperature-sensitive mutants of the smut fungus Ustilago maydis after incubation at the restrictive temperature (32/sup 0/C) for eight hours. Mutants ts-220, ts-207, ts-432 and ts-346 were found to have an overall reduction in the synthesis of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in comparison to the wild-type. In mutants ts-20, tsd 1-1, ts-84 and pol 1-1 nuclear DNA synthesis was depressed relative to mitochondrial synthesis. The DNA-polymerase mutant pol 1-1 had persistent nuclear synthesis at about 50% of the rate of synthesis of mitochondrial DNA and similar behavior was observed in a diploid homozygous strain. Mutant ts-84 had an initial burst of DNA synthesis which was reduced for nuclear but not mitochondrial synthesis after three hours preincubation at 32/sup 0/C. tsd 1-1 and ts-20 had nuclear residual synthesis amounting to about 25% of the relative rate of mitochondrial synthesis which correlates to increasing UV sensitivity of these strains on incubation at 32/sup 0/C. A pol 1-1 ts-84 double mutant had an additive loss of nuclear DNA synthesis which indicates that the steps of replication involved may be sequential.

  8. Herceptin-conjugated temperature-sensitive immunoliposomes encapsulating gemcitabine for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dae Hwan; Koo, Min-Ji; Kim, Jung Seok; Kim, Jin-Seok

    2016-03-01

    Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, GCT) is an analog of deoxycytidine with cytotoxicity for breast cancer cells. However, because of its hepatotoxicity and other side effects, an efficient drug delivery system is needed for better therapeutic outcomes. A temperature-sensitive PEGylated immunoliposome (TSL) with trastuzumab (or Herceptin) attached encapsulating GCT (Her-PEG-TSL-GCT) was prepared. The mean diameter of the liposome was about 200 nm and the prepared immunoliposome showed the capacity to deliver the payload to the hyperthermic environment. The actual number of antibody molecules attached to one single liposome is about 19, with the GCT encapsulation efficiency of 54.6 ± 3.50 %. This immunoliposome shows a temperature-dependent drug release at around 41-43 °C. Anticancer activity of Her-PEG-TSL-GCT was determined using HER-2 expressing breast cancer cells, SK-BR-3, in vitro and resulted in increased cytotoxicity compared to free GCT (IC20 11.7 nM) or conventional liposome lacking the targeting antibody. In conclusion, these data show that improved delivery of GCT to breast cancer cells can be achieved by Her-PEG-TSL-GCT in vitro, and this strategy could be used for breast cancer therapy with further studies.

  9. Temperature sensitivity of surface tension-driven flows: Application to time-temperature integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John; Hunter, Lawrence; Boyle, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The effects of time-dependent temperature fluctuations on surface-tension driven fluid flow inside a capillary are modeled using classical hydrodynamics. To begin, we use Newton's second law to derive a non-dimensional equation of motion that describes capillary flow as a function of system geometry, fluid properties, and fluid temperature. We use this model to examine how temperature excursions affect the instantaneous and long-term position and velocity of the fluid front inside the capillary. Next, we examine the combined effects of orientation change and temperature change on fluid movement through the capillary. Using this data, we show how to design a non-powered time-temperature integration device for recording the cumulative temperature exposure history of an asset or local environment. By selecting an appropriate fluid and capillary geometry, we show how such devices can be designed to exhibit arbitrary temperature sensitivities, operate over arbitrary monitoring periods (months to decades), and operate in a manner that does not depend on orientation.

  10. Control of bacteriophage-induced enzyme synthesis in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, C K; Kessin, R H

    1967-02-01

    The timing of "early" and "late" protein synthesis in Escherichia coli infected with T-even bacteriophage was studied with a temperature-sensitive phage mutant, T4 tsL13. This strain was completely unable to direct the synthesis of phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at 44 C because it makes a deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase which cannot act at that temperature. However, the mutant did multiply normally at 30 C. No detectable formation of the late protein, lysozyme, occurred at 44 C, in agreement with the idea, proposed by several workers, that DNA replication is necessary for activation of late genetic functions. However, the formation of an early enzyme, thymidylate synthetase, was shut off at about 10 min, as in normal infection. This implied that separate mechanisms were responsible for cessation of early functions and activation of late ones. That the infected cell at 44 C retained the capacity for synthesis of early enzymes was shown by the fact that DNA synthesis occurred after a culture was transferred from 44 to 30 C as late as 30 min after infection. This synthesis was inhibited by chloramphenicol, indicating that de novo synthesis of an early enzyme can take place at a late period in development. It is suggested that cells infected under normal conditions maintained an appreciable rate of early enzyme synthesis throughout the course of infection.

  11. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  12. Engineering Rubisco activase from thermophilic cyanobacteria into high-temperature sensitive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Athar, Habib-Ur-Rehman; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-09-22

    In the past decade, various strategies to improve photosynthesis and crop yield, such as leaf morphology, light interception and use efficiency, biochemistry of light reactions, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, and source to sink regulation, have been discussed at length. Leaf morphology and physiology are tightly coupled to light capturing efficiency, gas exchange capacity, and temperature regulation. However, apart from the photoprotective mechanism of photosystem-II (PSII), i.e. non-photochemical quenching, very low genetic variation in the components of light reactions has been observed in plants. In the last decade, biochemistry-based enhancement of carboxylation efficiency that improves photosynthesis in plants was one of the potential strategies for improving plant biomass production. Enhancement of activation of the ubiquitous enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) by Rubisco activase may be another potential strategy for improving a photosynthesis-driven increase in crop yield. Rubisco activase modifies the conformation of the active center in Rubisco by removing tightly bound inhibitors, thereby contributing to enzyme activation and rapid carboxylation. Thermophilic cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that thrive in high-temperature environments. This critical review discusses the prospects for and the potential of engineering Rubisco activase from thermophilic cyanobacteria into temperature-sensitive plants, to increase the threshold temperature and survival of these plants in arid regions.

  13. Temperature sensitivity of resistance to two pathotypes of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Gabrielson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods were evaluated in an attempt to develop a greenhouse screening procedure that would predict field resistance of brassica breeding lines to clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae. Several Brassica oleracea cultivars and breeding lines bred for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae and a susceptible Chinese cabbage cultivar were exposed to high levels of inoculum of both pathotypes PB 6, PB 7 at 12, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C. No infection occurred on any host at 12°C. Chinese cabbage was heavily diseased from 15-30°C. Bagder Shipper cabbage, a cauliflower deriving resistance from this variety, and Oregon CR-1 broccoli were resistant to pathotype PB 6 at 15 and 20°C and partially resistant at 25 and 30°C. They were resistant to pathotype PB 7 and 15°C and almost totally susceptible at 20, 25° and 30°C. Oregon cabbage line OR 123 was resistant to pathotype PB 6 at 15°C at almost completely susceptible at 20, 25 and 30°C. It was resistant to pathotype PB 7 at all temperatures. Temperature sensitivity of resistance can partially explain why breeding lines are resistant in field trials and susceptible in greenhouse tests.

  14. Mass Rearing of Temperature Sensitive Genetic Sexing Strains in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis Capitata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, C. [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Entomology Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: c.caceres@iaea.org

    2002-09-15

    Genetic sexing strains (GSS) based on the temperature sensitive lethal(tsl) mutation are being used to produce sterile male medflies for large scale sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes for this pest. The use of male-only strains increases the overall efficiency of the technique. Currently more than 1.4 billion sterile male-only pupae are produced per week in different facilities around the world. Due to the mutations used to construct these strains, that is, translocations and selectable markers, they require different and more careful mass rearing procedures than do bisexual strains (BSS). The basic rearing technology has been developed and can be used to produce only males on a predictable basis to a level of 99.9% accuracy. If specific rearing procedures are followed, then tsl-based GSS has a rearing efficiency that is equal to that of a BSS and it is already know that males produced by the tsl-based GSS are of equal quality to males produced by BSS. Based on current rearing technology the cost of production of male pupae is about the same for both types of strain. This is due to the large colony that is required for the tsl-based GSS. This paper discusses the considerations that need to be taken into account during mass rearing of GSS and identifies the most efficient production processes that are currently available. (author)

  15. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haiyan; Hu Yuzhu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Basic Science, 24 Shennong Road, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang Jian; Liu Fei; Chen Xinyang; Gu Yueqing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, 24 Shennong Road, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Qian Zhiyu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Automation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 21009 (China)], E-mail: njhuyuzu@126.com, E-mail: guyueqing@hotmail.com

    2008-05-07

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 deg. C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment.

  16. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  17. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  18. Effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics: A systematic review of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Hugo A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews based on efficacy trials are inconclusive about which second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA should be preferred in normal clinical practice, and studies with longer duration and more pragmatic designs are called for. Effectiveness studies, also known as naturalistic, pragmatic, practical or real life studies, adhere to these principles as they aim to mimic daily clinical practice and have longer follow-up. Objective To review the head-to-head effectiveness of SGAs in the domains of global outcomes, symptoms of disease, and tolerability. Methods Searches were made in Embase, PubMED, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials for effectiveness studies published from 1980 to 2008, week 1. Different combinations of the keywords antipsychotic*, neuroleptic* AND open, pragmatic, practical, naturalistic, real life, effectiveness, side effect*, unwanted effect*, tolera* AND compar* AND random* were used. Results Sixteen different reports of randomized head-to-head comparisons of SGA effectiveness were located. There were differences regarding sample sizes, inclusion criteria and follow-up periods, as well as sources of financial sponsorship. In acute-phase and first-episode patients no differences between the SGAs were disclosed regarding alleviating symptoms of disease. Olanzapine was associated with more weight gain and adverse effects on serum lipids. In the chronic phase patients olanzapine groups had longer time to discontinuation of treatment and better treatment adherence compared to other SGAs. The majority of studies found no differences between the SGAs in alleviating symptoms of psychosis in chronically ill patients. Olanzapine was associated with more metabolic adverse effects compared to the others SGAs. There were surprisingly few between-drug differences regarding side effects. First generation antipsychotics were associated with lower total mental health care costs in 2 of 3 studies

  19. NullSeq: A Tool for Generating Random Coding Sequences with Desired Amino Acid and GC Contents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia S Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. In order to accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. While many tools have been developed to create random nucleotide sequences, protein coding sequences are subject to a unique set of constraints that complicates the process of generating appropriate null models. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content for the purpose of hypothesis testing. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content, which we have developed into a python package. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. Furthermore, this approach can easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes as well as more effective engineering of biological systems.

  20. Goal-independent mechanisms for free response generation: creative and pseudo-random performance share neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-02

    To what extent free response generation in different tasks uses common and task-specific neurocognitive processes has remained unclear. Here, we investigated overlap and differences in neural activity during musical improvisation and pseudo-random response generation. Brain activity was measured using fMRI in a group of professional classical pianists, who performed musical improvisation of melodies, pseudo-random key-presses and a baseline condition (sight-reading), on either two, six or twelve keys on a piano keyboard. The results revealed an extensive overlap in neural activity between the two generative conditions. Active regions included the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and pre-SMA. No regions showed higher activity in improvisation than in pseudo-random generation. These findings suggest that the activated regions fulfill generic functions that are utilized in different types of free generation tasks, independent of overall goal. In contrast, pseudo-random generation was accompanied by higher activity than improvisation in several regions. This presumably reflects the participants' musical expertise as well as the pseudo-random generation task's high load on attention, working memory, and executive control. The results highlight the significance of using naturalistic tasks to study human behavior and cognition. No brain activity was related to the size of the response set. We discuss that this may reflect that the musicians were able to use specific strategies for improvisation, by which there was no simple relationship between response set size and neural activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging effect on Executive Control in the Random Number Generation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of abilities related to Executive Control –EC with aging has been related with the Pre-Frontal System neurobiological aging. This study compared the score obtained in the Random Number Generation Test (RNG by two groups: 30 college students (older than 18 and 36 elderly (older than 60. This last group was divided according to the criteria of schooling in up to 8 years of schooling and over 8 years of schooling. The results show that the younger participants scored 0,344 ± 0,04 in the RNG test; the elderly with up to 8 years of schooling punctuated 0,432 ± 0,10 and that those who studied for 9 years or more reached a mean of 0,393 ± 0,05. The statistical analysis of these data suggest that the elderly performance in the RNG test (0,420 ± 0,09 was significantly worse when compared to the performance of the younger participants (t (64 = -3,9927; p = 0,0001, which confirms that the manipulation and inhibitory control abilities of information are decreased in older people, probably due to the natural aging process of the Frontal Cortex. Keywords: neuropsychology; aging; executive functions.

  2. Shocking Behavior: Random Wealth in Antebellum Georgia and Human Capital Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Ferrie, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Does the lack of wealth constrain parents' investments in the human capital of their descendants? We conduct a nearly fifty-year followup of an episode in which such constraints would have been plausibly relaxed by a random allocation of substantial wealth to families. We track descendants of participants in Georgia's Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, in which nearly every adult white male in Georgia took part. Winners received close to the median level of wealth - a large financial windfall orthogonal to participants' underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children's human capital. Although winners had slightly more children than non-winners, they did not send them to school more. Sons of winners have no better adult outcomes (wealth, income, literacy) than the sons of non-winners, and winners' grandchildren do not have higher literacy or school attendance than non-winners' grandchildren. This suggests only a limited role for family financial resources in the formation of human capital in the next generations in this environment and a potentially more important role for other factors that persist through family lines.

  3. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.

    2010-12-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  4. Shocking Behavior: Random Wealth in Antebellum Georgia and Human Capital Across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Ferrie, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Does the lack of wealth constrain parents’ investments in the human capital of their descendants? We conduct a nearly fifty-year followup of an episode in which such constraints would have been plausibly relaxed by a random allocation of substantial wealth to families. We track descendants of participants in Georgia’s Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, in which nearly every adult white male in Georgia took part. Winners received close to the median level of wealth – a large financial windfall orthogonal to participants’ underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children’s human capital. Although winners had slightly more children than non-winners, they did not send them to school more. Sons of winners have no better adult outcomes (wealth, income, literacy) than the sons of non-winners, and winners’ grandchildren do not have higher literacy or school attendance than non-winners’ grandchildren. This suggests only a limited role for family financial resources in the formation of human capital in the next generations in this environment and a potentially more important role for other factors that persist through family lines. PMID:28529385

  5. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational unpre...

  6. Temperature sensitivity of organic substrate decay varies with pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K.; Lehmeier, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in soils and globally ubiquitous. It serves as a primary carbon source for myriad microbes able to release cellulases which cleave the cellulose into smaller molecules. For example, β-glucosidase, one type of cellulase, breaks down a terminal β-glycosidic bond of cellulose. The carbon of the liberated glucose becomes available for microbial uptake, after which it can then be mineralized and returned to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. Thus, exoenzymes play an important role in the global cycling of carbon. Numerous studies suggest that global warming potentially increases the rate at which β-glucosidase breaks down cellulose, but it is not known how pH of the soil solution influences the effect of temperature on cellulose decomposition rates; this is important given the globally wide range of soil pH. Using fluorescence enzyme assay techniques, we studied the effect of temperature and pH on the reaction rate at which purified β-Glucosidase decays β-D-cellobioside (a compound often employed to simulate cellulose). We evaluated the temperature sensitivity of this reaction at five temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) and six pH values (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5)encompassing the naturally occurring range in soils, in a full-factorial design. First, we determined Vmax at 25°C and pH 6.5, standard conditions for measuring enzyme activities in many studies. The Vmax was 858.65 μmol h-1mg-1and was achieved at substrate concentration of 270 μM. At all pH values, the reaction rate slowed down at lower temperatures; at a pH of 3.5, no enzymatic activity was detected. The enzyme activity was significantly different between pH 4.5 and higher pHs. For example, enzyme reactivity at pH 4.5 was significantly lower than that at 7.5 at 20 and 25°C (Bonferroni-corrected P =0.0006, 0.0004, respectively), but not at lower temperatures. Similarly, enzyme reactivity at pH 4.5 was lower than that at pH 8.5 at 10, 15

  7. Preparation of a Paeonol-Containing Temperature-Sensitive In Situ Gel and Its Preliminary Efficacy on Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zheng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal composition of a paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel composed of poloxamer 407 (P407 was determined, and a preliminary study of its effect on allergic rhinitis was performed. The optimal composition of the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel included 2% paeonol inclusion, 22% P407, 2% poloxamer 188 (P188 and 2% PEG6000, as assessed by thermodynamic and rheological studies. The toad palate model was employed to study the toxicity of the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel on the nasal mucosa. The result of this experiment showed low toxicity to cilia, which allows the gel to be used for nasal administration. The Franz diffusion cell method was used to study the in vitro release of paeonol and suggested that the in vitro release was in line with the Higuchi equation. This result suggests that the paeonol could be absorbed into the body through mucous membranes and had some characteristics of a sustained effect. Finally, the guinea pig model of ovalbumin sensitized allergic rhinitis was used to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of the gel, with the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel showing a significant effect on the guinea pig model of sensitized allergic rhinitis (AR.

  8. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

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    Weiping Zhou

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C. Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC than at higher moisture level (80% WHC during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration.

  9. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  10. Some Bounds on the Deviation Probability for Sums of Nonnegative Random Variables Using Upper Polynomials, Moment and Probability Generating Functions

    OpenAIRE

    From, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    We present several new bounds for certain sums of deviation probabilities involving sums of nonnegative random variables. These are based upon upper bounds for the moment generating functions of the sums. We compare these new bounds to those of Maurer [2], Bernstein [4], Pinelis [16], and Bentkus [3]. We also briefly discuss the infinitely divisible distributions case.

  11. Random walks with long-range steps generated by functions of Laplacian matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Riascos, A. P.; Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore different Markovian random walk strategies on networks with transition probabilities between nodes defined in terms of functions of the Laplacian matrix. We generalize random walk strategies with local information in the Laplacian matrix, that describes the connections of a network, to a dynamics determined by functions of this matrix. The resulting processes is non-local allowing transitions of the random walker from one node to nodes beyond its nearest neighbors. I...

  12. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  13. Comparison of conventional chemotherapy, stealth liposomes and temperature-sensitive liposomes in a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasselhuber, Astrid; Dreher, Matthew R; Rattay, Frank; Wood, Bradford J; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Various liposomal drug carriers have been developed to overcome short plasma half-life and toxicity related side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. We developed a mathematical model to compare different liposome formulations of doxorubicin (DOX): conventional chemotherapy (Free-DOX), Stealth liposomes (Stealth-DOX), temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL) with intra-vascular triggered release (TSL-i), and TSL with extra-vascular triggered release (TSL-e). All formulations were administered as bolus at a dose of 9 mg/kg. For TSL, we assumed locally triggered release due to hyperthermia for 30 min. Drug concentrations were determined in systemic plasma, aggregate body tissue, cardiac tissue, tumor plasma, tumor interstitial space, and tumor cells. All compartments were assumed perfectly mixed, and represented by ordinary differential equations. Contribution of liposomal extravasation was negligible in the case of TSL-i, but was the major delivery mechanism for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. The dominant delivery mechanism for TSL-i was release within the tumor plasma compartment with subsequent tissue- and cell uptake of released DOX. Maximum intracellular tumor drug concentrations for Free-DOX, Stealth-DOX, TSL-i, and TSL-e were 3.4, 0.4, 100.6, and 15.9 µg/g, respectively. TSL-i and TSL-e allowed for high local tumor drug concentrations with reduced systemic exposure compared to Free-DOX. While Stealth-DOX resulted in high tumor tissue concentrations compared to Free-DOX, only a small fraction was bioavailable, resulting in little cellular uptake. Consistent with clinical data, Stealth-DOX resulted in similar tumor intracellular concentrations as Free-DOX, but with reduced systemic exposure. Optimal release time constants for maximum cellular uptake for Stealth-DOX, TSL-e, and TSL-i were 45 min, 11 min, and constants were shorter for MDR cells, with ∼4 min for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. Tissue concentrations correlated well quantitatively with a prior in-vivo study

  14. Rate of warming affects temperature sensitivity of anaerobic peat decomposition and greenhouse gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Debjani; Inglett, Patrick W; Gerber, Stefan; Inglett, Kanika S

    2018-01-01

    Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage. The variable CUE implies that the rate of warming may impact microbial acclimation and the rate of carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) production. Here, we assessed the effects of warming rate on the decomposition of subtropical peats, by applying either a large single-step (10°C within a day) or a slow ramping (0.1°C/day for 100 days) temperature increase. The extent of thermal acclimation was tested by monitoring CO2 and CH4 production, CUE, and microbial biomass. Total gaseous C loss, CUE, and MBC were greater in the slow (ramp) warming treatment. However, greater values of CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios lead to a greater global warming potential in the fast (step) warming treatment. The effect of gradual warming on decomposition was more pronounced in recalcitrant and nutrient-limited soils. Stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2 further indicated the possibility of different carbon processing pathways under the contrasting warming rates. Different responses in fast vs. slow warming treatment combined with different endpoints may indicate alternate pathways with long-term consequences. Incorporations of experimental results into organic matter decomposition models suggest that parameter uncertainties in CUE and CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios have a larger impact on long-term soil organic carbon and global warming potential than uncertainty in model structure, and shows that particular rates of warming are central to understand the response of

  15. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  16. Thermo-optical characterization of fluorescent rhodamine B based temperature-sensitive nanosensors using a CMOS MEMS micro-hotplate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Veeren M.; Hopper, Richard H.; Ali, Syed Z.; King, Emma M.; Udrea, Florin; Oxley, Chris H.; Aylott, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    A custom designed microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micro-hotplate, capable of operating at high temperatures (up to 700 °C), was used to thermo-optically characterize fluorescent temperature-sensitive nanosensors. The nanosensors, 550 nm in diameter, are composed of temperature-sensitive rhodamine B (RhB) fluorophore which was conjugated to an inert silica sol–gel matrix. Temperature-sensitive nanosensors were dispersed and dried across the surface of the MEMS micro-hotplate, which was mounted in the slide holder of a fluorescence confocal microscope. Through electrical control of the MEMS micro-hotplate, temperature induced changes in fluorescence intensity of the nanosensors was measured over a wide temperature range. The fluorescence response of all nanosensors dispersed across the surface of the MEMS device was found to decrease in an exponential manner by 94%, when the temperature was increased from 25 °C to 145 °C. The fluorescence response of all dispersed nanosensors across the whole surface of the MEMS device and individual nanosensors, using line profile analysis, were not statistically different (p nanosensors could find potential application in the measurement of temperature in biological and micro-electrical systems. PMID:25844025

  17. Thermo-optical characterization of fluorescent rhodamine B based temperature-sensitive nanosensors using a CMOS MEMS micro-hotplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Veeren M; Hopper, Richard H; Ali, Syed Z; King, Emma M; Udrea, Florin; Oxley, Chris H; Aylott, Jonathan W

    2014-03-01

    A custom designed microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micro-hotplate, capable of operating at high temperatures (up to 700 °C), was used to thermo-optically characterize fluorescent temperature-sensitive nanosensors. The nanosensors, 550 nm in diameter, are composed of temperature-sensitive rhodamine B (RhB) fluorophore which was conjugated to an inert silica sol-gel matrix. Temperature-sensitive nanosensors were dispersed and dried across the surface of the MEMS micro-hotplate, which was mounted in the slide holder of a fluorescence confocal microscope. Through electrical control of the MEMS micro-hotplate, temperature induced changes in fluorescence intensity of the nanosensors was measured over a wide temperature range. The fluorescence response of all nanosensors dispersed across the surface of the MEMS device was found to decrease in an exponential manner by 94%, when the temperature was increased from 25 °C to 145 °C. The fluorescence response of all dispersed nanosensors across the whole surface of the MEMS device and individual nanosensors, using line profile analysis, were not statistically different (p nanosensors could find potential application in the measurement of temperature in biological and micro-electrical systems.

  18. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Switzer, Robert L.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open readi...

  19. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  20. Using histograms to introduce randomization in the generation of ensembles of decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick; Littau, David

    2005-02-22

    A system for decision tree ensembles that includes a module to read the data, a module to create a histogram, a module to evaluate a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, a module to select a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, a module to split the data, and a module to combine multiple decision trees in ensembles. The decision tree method includes the steps of reading the data; creating a histogram; evaluating a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, selecting a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, splitting the data, and combining multiple decision trees in ensembles.

  1. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  2. Imparting Temperature Sensitivity and Attenuation in Ferrets to A/Puerto Rico/8/34 Influenza Virus by Transferring the Genetic Signature for Temperature Sensitivity from Cold-Adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hong; Zhou, Helen; Lu, Bin; Kemble, George

    2004-01-01

    The four temperature-sensitive (ts) loci identified in the PB1 and PB2 gene segments of cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus, the master donor virus for influenza A virus (MDV-A) FluMist vaccines, were introduced into a divergent A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza virus strain. Recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus with these four introduced ts loci exhibited both ts and att phenotypes similar to those of MDV-A, which could be used as a donor virus for manufacturing large quantities of inac...

  3. A randomized controlled trial of an inference generation strategy intervention for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murza, Kimberly A; Nye, Chad; Schwartz, Jamie B; Ehren, Barbara J; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L

    2014-08-01

    The present intervention study investigated the efficacy of the ACT & Check Strategy intervention to improve inference generation when reading, metacognitive ability, general reading comprehension, and social inference ability in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD). Twenty-five adults with HF-ASD were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control group. Treatment sessions were conducted in 1-hr sessions, twice a week, for a total of 6 weeks. Treatment focused on explicit instruction of components of inference generation, categories of inferences, and increasingly independent strategy use. The treatment group demonstrated significantly superior performance on 1 of 2 measures of inference generation in reading and 1 measure of metacognitive ability compared with the control group. Significant differences between groups were not found on measures of reading comprehension or social inference ability. These findings suggest that the ACT & Check Strategy was effective in improving participants' ability to generate inferences in reading and certain metacognitive abilities, but the skills do not appear to generalize to other social communication contexts, such as social inference generation. This research provides a measure of support for explicitly teaching inference generation to address a reading inference deficit in adults with HF-ASD.

  4. Mersenne Twister: A 623-Dimensionally Equidistributed Uniform Pseudo-Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Nishimura, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    A new algorithm called Mersenne Twister (MT) is proposed for generating uniform pseudorandom numbers. For a particular choice of parameters, the algorithm provides a super astronomical period of 219937 - 1 and 623-dimensional equidistribution up to 32-bit accuracy, while using a working area of only 624 words. This is a new variant of the previously proposed generators, TGFSR, modified so as to admit a Mersenne-prime period. The characteristic polynomial has many terms. The distribution up to...

  5. Single site suppressors of a fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutant in cdc48 identified by whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Irina N; Engelbrecht, Jacob; Ewald, Adrian; Langholm, Lasse L; Holmberg, Christian; Kragelund, Birthe B; Gordon, Colin; Nielsen, Olaf; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The protein called p97 in mammals and Cdc48 in budding and fission yeast is a homo-hexameric, ring-shaped, ubiquitin-dependent ATPase complex involved in a range of cellular functions, including protein degradation, vesicle fusion, DNA repair, and cell division. The cdc48+ gene is essential for viability in fission yeast, and point mutations in the human orthologue have been linked to disease. To analyze the function of p97/Cdc48 further, we performed a screen for cold-sensitive suppressors of the temperature-sensitive cdc48-353 fission yeast strain. In total, 29 independent pseudo revertants that had lost the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the cdc48-353 strain were isolated. Of these, 28 had instead acquired a cold-sensitive phenotype. Since the suppressors were all spontaneous mutants, and not the result of mutagenesis induced by chemicals or UV irradiation, we reasoned that the genome sequences of the 29 independent cdc48-353 suppressors were most likely identical with the exception of the acquired suppressor mutations. This prompted us to test if a whole genome sequencing approach would allow us to map the mutations. Indeed genome sequencing unambiguously revealed that the cold-sensitive suppressors were all second site intragenic cdc48 mutants. Projecting these onto the Cdc48 structure revealed that while the original temperature-sensitive G338D mutation is positioned near the central pore in the hexameric ring, the suppressor mutations locate to subunit-subunit and inter-domain boundaries. This suggests that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but re-established in the suppressor mutants. The last suppressor was an extragenic frame shift mutation in the ufd1 gene, which encodes a known Cdc48 co-factor. In conclusion, we show, using a novel whole genome sequencing approach, that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but stabilized in the suppressors.

  6. Upconverting PAAm/PNIPAM/NaYF{sub 4}:Yb:Er hydrogel with enhanced luminescence temperature sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiachang; He, Benzhao; Cheng, Zehong; Zhou, Li, E-mail: zhouli@glut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    We present a one-step approach to combine the functional features of upconverting NaYF{sub 4}:Yb:Er nanoparticles and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) for luminescence thermometry. Dual-functional hydrogel that simultaneously possesses strong upconversion luminescence (UL) and temperature responsibility was fabricated based on the crosslinking of poly(acrylamide) in the presence of PNIPAM and NaYF{sub 4}:Yb:Er nanoparticles. The obtained hydrogel exhibited reversibly temperature-dependent UL and highly enhanced sensibility. The luminescence temperature sensitivity reached 1.9% per °C and 0.7% per °C in the range of 27–33 °C and 35–45 °C, respectively. The maximum sensitivity could even reach 26.5% per °C in the range of 33–35 °C. Considering the facile fabrication process and fine luminescence thermometry performance, this study thus opens up new opportunities for preparing highly sensitive temperature sensors. - Highlights: • One-step fabrication of upconverting and thermosensitve PAAm/PNIPAM/NaYF{sub 4}:Yb:Er hydrogel is reported. • The combination of functional features of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb:Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and thermosensitve PNIPAM can efficiently enhance the luminescence temperature sensitivity of UCNPs. • The luminescence temperature sensitivity of hydrogel can respectively reach 1.9% per °C and 0.7% per °C in the range of 27–33 °C and 35–45 °C. • The maximum sensitivity can even reach 26.5% per °C in range of 33–35 °C.

  7. Pseudorandom Number Generators for Mobile Devices: An Examination and Attempt to Improve Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    what if the tickets are not properly mixed and instead are just put in a jar as they are being sold? What if the lottery tickets have different sizes...winner of the raffle randomly, and the lottery would not be considered fair. In the situation described in the previous paragraph, the raffle...official drawing the winning ticket is clearly a great risk to biasing the outcome. Therefore, mechanical raffle and lottery machines are widely used in

  8. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  9. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  10. Experimental observation of second-harmonic generation and diffusion inside random media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Sanli; Johnson, P. M.; Mazurenko, D. A.; Lagendijk, Ad

    We have experimentally measured the distribution of the second-harmonic intensity that is generated inside a highly scattering slab of porous gallium phosphide. Two complementary techniques for determining the distribution are used. First, the spatial distribution of second-harmonic light intensity

  11. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  12. The isector: a simple and direct method for generating isotropic, uniform random sections from small specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    1992-01-01

    The very simple and strong principle of vertical sections devised by Baddeley et al. has been a major advance in stereology when any kind of anisotropy is present in the specimen under study. On the other hand, some important stereological estimators still require isotropic, uniform random sectio....... This paper deals with a simple technique for embedding specimens in rubber moulds with spherical cavities. After the embedding, any handling or the resulting sphere independent of the specimen will induce isotropy of the final histological sections....

  13. Reusable temperature-sensitive luminescent material based on vitrified film of europium(III) β-diketonate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, Dmitry V.; Nikiforov, Victor G.; Lobkov, Vladimir S.; Knyazev, Andrey A.; Galyametdinov, Yury G.

    2018-01-01

    We have proposed a novel temperature-sensitive luminescent material which is a 20 μm thick vitrified film (sandwiched between two quartz plates) fabricated from an amorphous powder of a mesogenic europium(III) β-diketonate complex through a melt-processing technique. The film photoexcited by a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser displays a typical Eu3+ ion luminescence bands with the strongest peak at 612 nm and with the decay time of 537 μs at 298 K. It is obtained that both the mean luminescence intensity and the luminescence decay time at 612 nm decrease significantly with temperature increasing from 298 to 348 K; the average values of the relative and absolute temperature sensitivities of the luminescence decay time in the range of 298-348 K are -1.2%·K-1 and -6.5 μs·K-1, respectively. The thermal quenching mechanism of the luminescent properties was analyzed and discussed. The experiments showed that, the luminescent properties of the film is insensitive to oxygen, the film is photostable under UV light, there is full reversibility of the temperature-dependent luminescence intensity and the decay time, and the high luminescence brightness of the film can be observed with violet light excitation. These factors indicated that the film is promising material for reusable luminescent thermometers, suitable for long-term monitoring in the range of 298-348 K.

  14. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  15. Internal wave generation by tidal flow over periodically and randomly distributed seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Comino, Eva; Swinney, Harry L.

    2017-06-01

    We examine numerically the conversion of barotropic tidal energy into internal waves by flow over an isolated seamount and over systems of periodically and randomly distributed 1100 m tall seamounts with Gaussian profiles. The simulations use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to calculate for an infinitely deep ocean the dependence of the energy conversion on seamount slope, seamount separation, tidal direction, and the size and aspect ratio of the simulation domain. For neighboring seamounts with a slope greater than the internal wave beam slope, wave interference reduces the conversion relative to that calculated for an isolated seamount, and relative to that predicted by linear theory for a seamount of slope less than the beam slope. The conversion by an individual seamount in a system of random seamounts separated by an average distance of 18 km is found to be suppressed by 16% relative to the conversion by an isolated seamount. This study provides insight into tidal conversion by ocean seamounts modeled as Gaussian mountains with slopes both smaller and larger than the beam slope. We conclude that the total energy conversion by all seamounts (peak height ≥1000 m) and knolls (peak height 500-1000 m), taking into account interference affects, is of the order of 1% of the total barotropic to baroclinic energy conversion in the oceans, which is about twice as large as previous estimates.

  16. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  18. ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION OF GRID DEM GENERATION BASED ON GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs are considered as one of the most relevant geospatial data to carry out land-cover and land-use classification. This work deals with the application of a mathematical framework based on a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF to interpolate grid DEMs from scattered elevation data. The performance of the GMRF interpolation model was tested on a set of LiDAR data (0.87 points/m2 provided by the Spanish Government (PNOA Programme over a complex working area mainly covered by greenhouses in Almería, Spain. The original LiDAR data was decimated by randomly removing different fractions of the original points (from 10% to up to 99% of points removed. In every case, the remaining points (scattered observed points were used to obtain a 1 m grid spacing GMRF-interpolated Digital Surface Model (DSM whose accuracy was assessed by means of the set of previously extracted checkpoints. The GMRF accuracy results were compared with those provided by the widely known Triangulation with Linear Interpolation (TLI. Finally, the GMRF method was applied to a real-world case consisting of filling the LiDAR-derived DSM gaps after manually filtering out non-ground points to obtain a Digital Terrain Model (DTM. Regarding accuracy, both GMRF and TLI produced visually pleasing and similar results in terms of vertical accuracy. As an added bonus, the GMRF mathematical framework makes possible to both retrieve the estimated uncertainty for every interpolated elevation point (the DEM uncertainty and include break lines or terrain discontinuities between adjacent cells to produce higher quality DTMs.

  19. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  20. Quantum random number generator based on ‘Fermi–Dirac’ statistics of photocounts of faint laser pulses with a 75 Mbit s‑1 rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balygin, K. A.; Zaitsev, V. I.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Popova, E.; Vinogradov, S.

    2017-12-01

    We implemented experimentally a quantum random number generator, based on the registration of quasi-single-photon light by a silicon photo-multiplier, which allows one to reliably achieve the Poisson statistics of photocounts. The use of the optimal grouping of photocounts and a polynomial-length sequence of the method for extracting the random sequence 0 and 1 made it possible to achieve the output rate of a provably random sequence up to 75 Mbit s-1 .

  1. Enlargement of speckles of SF2/ASF due to loss of function of Smu1 is characterized in the mammalian temperature-sensitive mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Ishihara, Yoshie; Sugaya, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive (ts) CHO-K1 mutant cell line, tsTM18, exhibits chromosomal instability with decreased DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature, 39 °C. An amino acid substitution in Smu1 underlying the ts phenotypes of tsTM18 cells was identified previously. We also found a ts defect in splicing of the unc52/perlecan gene. In the present study, we have generated cell lines expressing Smu1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to study the dynamics of Smu1 in living cells. The hybrids complement deficiencies in tsTM18 cells and allow them to grow normally at 39 °C. GFP-tagged Smu1 is found in speckles in many discrete nucleoplasmic sites, and most of these also contained SF2/ASF. SF2/ASF is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing group of factors that are necessary for spliceosome assembly and can influence alternative splicing. SF2/ASF is also involved in the integrity of genome maintenance. In tsTM18 cells cultured at 39 °C, the Smu1 ts defect appears to alter SF2/ASF localization, suggesting a physiological association of Smu1 with SF2/ASF. The significant decrease of Smu1 may lead the enlargement of speckles of SF2/ASF. These data show the importance of Smu1 as a regulator of splicing and genome maintenance. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  2. Analysis of the essentiality of ROM2 genes in the pathogenic yeasts Candida glabrata and Candida albicans using temperature-sensitive mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, T; Takekawa, D; Miyakawa, Y

    2015-04-01

    To analyse the essentiality of the ROM2 genes originating from the pathogenic yeasts Candida glabrata and Candida albicans by using temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. Based on the general concepts that ts mutations are generated by virtue of point mutation within essential genes, we have previously established a novel method (termed 'ETS system' for screening and identification of essential genes using ts mutants of C. glabrata). According to this ETS system, the present study successfully identified a putative C. glabrata ROM2 homologue as an essential gene that complements its point mutation (Cys-1275/Tyr substitution). The C. albicans ROM2 mutant (Cys-1281/Tyr), constructed patterned after this point mutation, also displayed ts phenotype. Both ts mutants recovered colony-forming ability, with concomitant suppression of lysis phenotype, at the elevated temperature in the presence of 1 mol l(-1) sorbitol as an osmotic stabilizer. Sequence alignment revealed that human genome possesses relatively low homology against Rom2 homologues, which are highly conserved among yeast species. ROM2 genes of C. glabrata and C. albicans are essential for viability, probably involved in cell wall integrity. ROM2 genes essential for both Candida species may be a potentially useful antifungal targets from chemotherapeutic viewpoint. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Single site suppressors of a fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutant in cdc48 identified by whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Marinova

    Full Text Available The protein called p97 in mammals and Cdc48 in budding and fission yeast is a homo-hexameric, ring-shaped, ubiquitin-dependent ATPase complex involved in a range of cellular functions, including protein degradation, vesicle fusion, DNA repair, and cell division. The cdc48+ gene is essential for viability in fission yeast, and point mutations in the human orthologue have been linked to disease. To analyze the function of p97/Cdc48 further, we performed a screen for cold-sensitive suppressors of the temperature-sensitive cdc48-353 fission yeast strain. In total, 29 independent pseudo revertants that had lost the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the cdc48-353 strain were isolated. Of these, 28 had instead acquired a cold-sensitive phenotype. Since the suppressors were all spontaneous mutants, and not the result of mutagenesis induced by chemicals or UV irradiation, we reasoned that the genome sequences of the 29 independent cdc48-353 suppressors were most likely identical with the exception of the acquired suppressor mutations. This prompted us to test if a whole genome sequencing approach would allow us to map the mutations. Indeed genome sequencing unambiguously revealed that the cold-sensitive suppressors were all second site intragenic cdc48 mutants. Projecting these onto the Cdc48 structure revealed that while the original temperature-sensitive G338D mutation is positioned near the central pore in the hexameric ring, the suppressor mutations locate to subunit-subunit and inter-domain boundaries. This suggests that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but re-established in the suppressor mutants. The last suppressor was an extragenic frame shift mutation in the ufd1 gene, which encodes a known Cdc48 co-factor. In conclusion, we show, using a novel whole genome sequencing approach, that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but stabilized in the suppressors.

  4. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

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    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  5. Temperature-sensitive polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a potential drug delivery system for targeted therapy of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Bhavsar, Zarna; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Rahimi, Maham; Nwariaku, Fiemu; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and investigate temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine)-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (TPMNPs) as possible targeted drug carriers for treatments of advanced thyroid cancer (ATC). These nanoparticles were prepared by free radical polymerization of monomers on the surface of silane-coupled iron oxide nanoparticles. In vitro studies demonstrated that TPMNPs were cytocompatible and effectively taken up by cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. An external magnetic field significantly increased nanoparticle uptake, especially when cells were exposed to physiological flow conditions. Drug loading and release studies using doxorubicin confirmed the temperature-responsive release of drugs from nanoparticles. In addition, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles significantly killed ATC cells when compared to free doxorubicin. The in vitro results indicate that TPMNPs have potential as targeted and controlled drug carriers for thyroid cancer treatment.

  6. Magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound mediated hyperthermia improves the intratumoral distribution of temperature-sensitive liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Mariska; Hijnen, Nicole M; Langereis, Sander; Elevelt, Aaldert; Heijman, Edwin; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe; Grüll, Holger

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intratumoral distribution of a temperature-sensitive liposomal carrier and its encapsulated compounds, doxorubicin, and a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-mediated hyperthermia-induced local drug release. (111)In-labeled temperature-sensitive liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin and [Gd(HPDO3A) (H(2)O)] were injected intravenously in the tail vein of rats (n = 12) bearing a subcutaneous rhabdomyosarcoma tumor on the hind leg. Immediately after the injection, local tumor hyperthermia (2 × 15 minutes) was applied using a clinical 3 T MR-HIFU system. Release of [Gd(HPDO3A)(H(2)O)] was studied in vivo by measuring the longitudinal relaxation rate R(1) with MR imaging. The presence of the liposomal carriers and the intratumoral distribution of doxorubicin were imaged ex vivo with autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy, respectively, for 2 different time points after injection (90 minutes and 48 hours). In hyperthermia-treated tumors, radiolabeled liposomes were distributed more homogeneously across the tumor than in the control tumors (coefficient of variation(hyp, 90 min) = 0.7 ± 0.2; coefficient of variation(cntrl, 90 min) = 1.1 ± 0.2). At 48 hours after injection, the liposomal accumulation in the tumor was enhanced in the hyperthermia group in comparison with the controls. A change in R(1) was observed in the HIFU-treated tumors, suggesting release of the contrast agent. Fluorescence images showed perivascular doxorubicin in control tumors, whereas in the HIFU-treated tumors, the delivered drug was spread over a much larger area and also taken up by tumor cells at a larger distance from blood vessels. Treatment with HIFU hyperthermia not only improved the immediate drug delivery, bioavailability, and intratumoral distribution but also enhanced liposomal accumulation over time. The sum of these effects may have a significant contribution to the therapeutic

  7. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

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    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  8. Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies modeled ecosystem responses to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wythers, Kirk R.; Reich, Peter B.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-03-01

    Evidence suggests that respiration acclimation (RA) to temperature in plants can have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon balance. To assess the influence of RA on ecosystem response variables in the presence of global change drivers, we incorporated a temperature-sensitive Q10 of respiration and foliar basal RA into the ecosystem model PnET-CN. We examined the new algorithms' effects on modeled net primary production (NPP), total canopy foliage mass, foliar nitrogen concentration, net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and ecosystem respiration/gross primary production ratios. This latter ratio more closely matched eddy covariance long-term data when RA was incorporated in the model than when not. Averaged across four boreal ecotone sites and three forest types at year 2100, the enhancement of NPP in response to the combination of rising [CO2] and warming was 9% greater when RA algorithms were used, relative to responses using fixed respiration parameters. The enhancement of NPP response to global change was associated with concomitant changes in foliar nitrogen and foliage mass. In addition, impacts of RA algorithms on modeled responses of NEE closely paralleled impacts on NPP. These results underscore the importance of incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and basal RA algorithms into ecosystem models. Given the current evidence that atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature will continue to rise, and that ecosystem responses to those changes appear to be modified by RA, which is a common phenotypic adjustment, the potential for misleading results increases if models fail to incorporate RA into their carbon balance calculations.

  9. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

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    Guangxuan Han

    Full Text Available Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland.

  10. Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melvin L; Beem, Lance W

    2011-12-01

    Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the effectiveness of energetic therapy.

  11. A time-series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

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    Wouter eOomens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and working memory. Data from the RNG task are best seen as a series of successive events. However, traditional RNG measures that are used to quantify executive functioning are mostly summary statistics referring to deviations from mathematical randomness. In the current study, we explore the utility of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA, a nonlinear method that keeps the entire sequence intact, as a better way to describe executive functioning compared to traditional measures. To this aim, 242 first- and second-year students completed a non-paced RNG task. Principal component analysis of their data showed that traditional and RQA measures convey more or less the same information. However, RQA measures do so more parsimoniously and have a better interpretation.

  12. Effect of Temperature-Sensitive Poloxamer Solution/Gel Material on Pericardial Adhesion Prevention: Supine Rabbit Model Study Mimicking Cardiac Surgery.

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    Hyun Kang

    Full Text Available We investigated the mobility of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer/Alginate/CaCl2 mixture (PACM in relation to gravity and cardiac motion and the efficacy of PACM on the prevention of pericardial adhesion in a supine rabbit model.A total of 50 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to materials applied after epicardial abrasion: PACM and dye mixture (group PD; n = 25 and saline as the control group (group CO; n = 25. In group PD, rabbits were maintained in a supine position with appropriate sedation, and location of mixture of PACM and dye was assessed by CT scan at the immediate postoperative period and 12 hours after surgery. The grade of adhesions was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically two weeks after surgery.In group PD, enhancement was localized in the anterior pericardial space, where PACM and dye mixture was applied, on immediate post-surgical CT scans. However, the volume of the enhancement was significantly decreased at the anterior pericardial space 12 hours later (P < .001. Two weeks after surgery, group PD had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion score (P = .002 and fibrosis score (P = .018 than did group CO. Inflammation score and expression of anti-macrophage antibody in group PD were lower than those in group CO, although the differences were not significant.In a supine rabbit model study, the anti-adhesion effect was maintained at the area of PACM application, although PACM shifted with gravity and heart motion. For more potent pericardial adhesion prevention, further research and development on the maintenance of anti-adhesion material position are required.

  13. The effect of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer-alginate-CaCl2 mixture after strabismus surgery in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Yeol; Jung, Hye Mi; Roh, Mee Sook; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Jeung, Woo Jin; Park, Woo Chan; Rho, Sae Heun; Ahn, Hee Bae

    2013-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer-alginate mixture in reducing adhesions after strabismus surgery in a rabbit model. The superior rectus muscle was recessed in each of 36 eyes from 18 rabbits. One randomly assigned eye in each rabbit was treated with a poloxamer-alginate mixture (PA group); the other eye was treated with a subconjunctival injection of saline (control group). The adhesions between the superior rectus muscle, sclera, and conjunctiva were clinically evaluated by a masked observer at 1 day, 1 week, and 4 weeks after surgery. Inflammation was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and anti-CD11b staining. Late fibrosis was assessed by the Masson trichrome and α-smooth muscle actin staining. Adhesion, inflammation, and fibrosis were graded on a scale of 0-4. There was no significant between-group difference in the degree of adhesion at 1 day and 4 weeks after surgery. However, the degree of adhesion in the PA group was lower than that in the control group at postoperative week 1 (P 0.05). At postoperative week 4, inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced in the PA group (P = 0.046). A significant between-group difference in late fibrosis at postoperative week 4 was observed through the Masson trichrome (P = 0.024) and α-smooth muscle actin staining (P = 0.025). The poloxamer-alginate mixture significantly decreased adhesion after strabismus surgery in a rabbit model. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the use of this mixture in preventing postoperative adhesions. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of traditional Chinese medicines with different properties on thermoregulation and temperature-sensitive transient receptor potentialion channel protein of rats with yeast-induced fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hong-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Ying; Li, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Su, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-10-01

    To compare the intervention effects of four traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) with typical cold or hot property on body temperature and temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential ion channel proteins (TRPs) of rats with yeast-induced fever. The pyrexia model was induced by injecting yeast suspension subcutaneously. Totally 108 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal group, the model group, the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma treated group, the Coptidis Rhizoma treated group, the Euodiae Fructus treated group, and the Alpiniae Officinarum Rhizoma treated group, with 18 rats in each group. At the 4 h, 8 h and 12 h after injection of yeast, the rats were sacrificed to collect their hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion. The expressions of TRPV1 and TRPM8 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot method. Compared with the normal group, after injection of yeast, the temperature of rats in the model group notably increased, and reached the peak at 8 h (P < 0.01). The TRPV1 level in hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the model group significantly increased, whereas the TRPM8 level significantly reduced. Compared with the model group, the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma group and the Coptidis Rhizoma group showed significant decrease in the high body temperature of rats caused by yeast, down-regulation in the expression of TRPV1, and up-regulation in the expression of TRPM8 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Euodiae Fructus and Alpiniae Officinarum Rhizoma had no significant effect on either temperature or TRPs of fever rats. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Coptidis Rhizoma, both are TCMs with cold property, can reduce the temperature of fever rats induced by yeast, which may be related to their effective regulation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in hypothalamus and DRG, while Euodiae Fructus and Alpiniae Officinarum Rhizoma had no relevant effect.

  15. Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide microdisks on silicon: from strict \\bar{4} to random quasi-phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemé, P.; Dumeige, Y.; Stodolna, J.; Vallet, M.; Rohel, T.; Létoublon, A.; Cornet, C.; Ponchet, A.; Durand, O.; Léger, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of nonlinear optical devices and silicon photonics is a key milestone for the practical development of photonic integrated circuits. The associated technological issues often stem from material incompatibility. This is the case of second order nonlinear processes in monolithically integrated III-V semiconductor devices on silicon, where structural defects called antiphase domains strongly impact the optical properties of the material. We theoretically investigate the influence of antiphase domains on second harmonic generation in III-V whispering gallery mode microresonators on silicon and focus on the effects of the antiphase domains’ mean size (i.e. the correlation length of the distribution). We demonstrate that the domain distributions can have opposite effects depending on the nonlinear process under consideration: while antiphase domains negatively impact second harmonic generation under \\bar{4} quasi-phase matching conditions (independent of the correlation length), large conversion efficiencies can arise far from \\bar{4}-quasi-phase matching provided that the APD correlation length remains within an appropriate range, and is still compatible with the spontaneous emergence of such defects in the usual III-V on Si epilayers. Such a build-up can be explained by the occurrence of random quasi-phase matching in the system.

  16. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process; Una prueba empirica de generadores de numeros pseudoaleatorios mediante un proceso de decaimiento exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P. 475, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Mora F, L.E. [CIMAT, A.P. 402, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcoronel@uv.mx

    2007-07-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  17. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  18. O-fucose monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch has a temperature-sensitive function and cooperates with O-glucose glycan in Notch transport and Notch signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-02

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1(R245A knock-in)), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1(R245A knock-in) and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Characterization of temperature-sensitive HVJ (Sendai virus) infection in Vero cells: inhibitory mechanism of viral production at 41 degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Etsuko; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sugimoto, Masao; Hiraki, Akihiro; Kim, Jeman

    2003-01-01

    In a previous study, it was found that the synthesis of hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus)-specific proteins was inhibited at the transcriptional level at 41 degrees in LLC-MK2 cells. During an investigation of the temperature sensitivity of HVJ production in other host cells, the synthesis of HVJ-specific proteins was recognized even at 41 degrees in Vero cells. Viral production, however, was not detected, indicating the inhibition of steps after the synthesis of viral proteins. Hemadsorption activity was not detected at 41 degrees, suggesting problems with the envelope proteins, especially hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, at the cell membrane. Immunofluorescent staining and surface immunoprecipitation showed that HN protein was not present on the surface in spite of its localization in the cytoplasm. Further, analysis of the cell membrane fraction suggested that fusion (F) protein was integrated into the cell membrane but HN protein was not at 41 degrees. Electron microscopic observation showed that budding sites with spike structures formed and nucleocapsids assembled under the sites at 41 degrees without HN protein, although budded HVJ virions were not detected. At this time, F protein was exposed to the cell membrane and interacted with matrix and nucleocapsid proteins. The results suggested that the suppression of HVJ production at 41 degrees was due to the absence of HN protein in the membrane of Vero cells. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Langevin, Stanley A; Huang, Claire Y-H; Maharaj, Payal D; Delorey, Mark J; Bowen, Richard A; Kinney, Richard M; Brault, Aaron C

    2016-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. WNV strains isolated in North America, such as the prototype strain NY99, elicit a highly pathogenic response in certain avian species, notably American crows (AMCRs; Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a closely related strain, KN3829, isolated in Kenya, exhibits a low viremic response with limited mortality in AMCRs. Previous work has associated the difference in pathogenicity primarily with a single amino acid mutation at position 249 in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein. The NY99 strain encodes a proline residue at this position, while KN3829 encodes a threonine. Introduction of an NS3-T249P mutation in the KN3829 genetic background significantly increased virulence and mortality; however, peak viremia and mortality were lower than those of NY99. In order to elucidate the viral genetic basis for phenotype variations exclusive of the NS3-249 polymorphism, chimeric NY99/KN3829 viruses were created. We show herein that differences in the NS1-2B region contribute to avian pathogenicity in a manner that is independent of and additive with the NS3-249 mutation. Additionally, NS1-2B residues were found to alter temperature sensitivity when grown in avian cells.

  1. Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815.

  2. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: Implications from other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko eNishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.

  3. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  4. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-29

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers ((14)C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  5. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam; Steffensen, John F.; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-12-01

    As global temperatures increase, fish populations at low latitudes are thought to be at risk as they are adapted to narrow temperature ranges and live at temperatures close to their thermal tolerance limits. Behavioural movements, based on a preference for a specific temperature ( T pref), may provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. T pref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish to behaviourally manipulate their thermal environment. Regardless of treatment temperature, fish preferred 29.5 ± 0.25 °C, approximating summer average temperatures in the wild. However, 32 °C fish moved more frequently to correct their thermal environment than 28 °C fish, and daytime movements were more frequent than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns.

  6. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  7. Critical side channel effects in random bit generation with multiple semiconductor lasers in a polarization-based quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju

    2017-08-21

    Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.

  8. Generation of transgenic mouse line expressing Kusabira Orange throughout body, including erythrocytes, by random segregation of provirus method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Sanae; Ooehara, Jun; Morita, Yohei; Ema, Hideo; Takahashi, Satoru; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Otsu, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Onodera, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-14

    Fluorescent-protein transgenic mice are useful for obtaining marked somatic cells to study kinetics of development or differentiation. Fluorescence-marked hematopoietic stem cells in particular are commonly used for studying hematopoiesis. However, as far as we know, no transgenic mouse line is described in which a fluorescent protein is stably and constitutively expressed in all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes and platelets. Using the random segregation of provirus (RSP) method, we generated from retrovirally transduced mouse embryonic stem cells a transgenic mouse line expressing a red/orange fluorescent protein, Kusabira Orange (KuO). KuO transgenic mouse line cells carry only one proviral integration site and stably express KuO in all hematopoietic-lineage elements, including erythrocytes and platelets. Moreover, bone-marrow transplantation in KuO transgenic mice demonstrated normal hematopoieisis. KuO transgenic mice likely will prove useful for study of hematopoiesis that includes erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Hot Rolling for Generating Low Deviation Twins and a Disconnected Random Boundary Network in Inconel 600 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sandeep; Yadav, Prabhat Chand; Shekhar, Shashank

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, Inconel 600 alloy was thermomechanically processed to different strains via hot rolling followed by a short-time annealing treatment to determine an appropriate thermomechanical process to achieve a high fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries. Experimental results demonstrate that a certain level of deformation is necessary to obtain effective "grain boundary engineering"; i.e., the deformation must be sufficiently high to provide the required driving force for postdeformation static recrystallization, yet it should be low enough to retain a large fraction of original twin boundaries. Samples processed in such a fashion exhibited 77 pct length fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, a dominant fraction of which was from Σ3 ( 64 pct), the latter with very low deviation from its theoretical misorientation. The application of hot rolling also resulted in a very low fraction of Σ1 ( 1 pct) boundaries, as desired. The process also leads to so-called "triple junction engineering" with the generation of special triple junctions, which are very effective in disrupting the connectivity of the random grain boundary network.

  10. Use of Hot Rolling for Generating Low Deviation Twins and a Disconnected Random Boundary Network in Inconel 600 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sandeep; Yadav, Prabhat Chand; Shekhar, Shashank

    2017-12-01

    In this investigation, Inconel 600 alloy was thermomechanically processed to different strains via hot rolling followed by a short-time annealing treatment to determine an appropriate thermomechanical process to achieve a high fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries. Experimental results demonstrate that a certain level of deformation is necessary to obtain effective "grain boundary engineering"; i.e., the deformation must be sufficiently high to provide the required driving force for postdeformation static recrystallization, yet it should be low enough to retain a large fraction of original twin boundaries. Samples processed in such a fashion exhibited 77 pct length fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, a dominant fraction of which was from Σ3 ( 64 pct), the latter with very low deviation from its theoretical misorientation. The application of hot rolling also resulted in a very low fraction of Σ1 ( 1 pct) boundaries, as desired. The process also leads to so-called "triple junction engineering" with the generation of special triple junctions, which are very effective in disrupting the connectivity of the random grain boundary network.

  11. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  12. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Gennaretti, Fabio; Risi, Camille; Daux, Valérie; Boucher, Etienne; Savard, Martine M.; Naulier, Maud; Villalba, Ricardo; Bégin, Christian; Guiot, Joël

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR) are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio) and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N) and western Argentina (41.10° S), we specifically aim at (1) evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2) identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3) defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP) may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations) and simulated (by global circulation model) δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  13. Determination of heat transfer into a wedge model in a hypersonic flow using temperature-sensitive paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Steffen; Beck, Walter H.; Klein, Christian; Henne, Ulrich; Wagner, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Heat loads on spacecraft traveling at hypersonic speed are of major interest for their designers. Several tests using temperature-sensitive paints (TSP) have been carried out in long duration shock tunnels to determine these heat loads; generally paint layers were thin, so that certain assumptions could be invoked to enable a good estimate of the thermal parameter ρck (a material property) to be obtained—the value of this parameter is needed to determine heat loads from the TSP. Very few measurements have been carried out in impulse facilities [viz. shock tunnels such as the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG)], where test times are much shorter. Presented here are TSP temperature measurements and subsequently derived heat loads on a ramp model placed in a hypersonic flow in HEG (specific enthalpy h 0 = 3.3 MJ kg-1, Mach number M = 7.4, temperature T ∞ = 277 K, density ρ ∞ = 11 g m-3). A number of fluorescence intensity images were acquired, from which, with the help of calibration data, temperature field data on the model surface were determined. From these the heat load into the surface was calculated, using an assumption of a 1D, semi-infinite heat transfer model. ρck for the paint was determined using an insitu calibration with a Medtherm coaxial thermocouple mounted on the model; Medtherm ρck is known. Finally presented are sources of various measurement uncertainties, arising from: (1) estimation of ρck; (2) intensity measurement in the chosen interrogation area; (3) paint time response.

  14. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Collins, C. W.; Johnston, S. D.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT ( r > 0.94, P 0.80, P surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  15. Characterization of the rate and temperature sensitivities of bacterial remineralization of dissolved organic phosphorus by natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelicque E. White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production, transformation, and degradation are the principal components of the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM in marine systems. Heterotrophic Bacteria (and Archaea play a large part in this cycling via enzymatic decomposition and intracellular transformations of organic material to inorganic carbon (C, nitrogen (N , and phosphorus (P. The rate and magnitude of inorganic nutrient regeneration from DOM is related to the elemental composition and lability of DOM substrates as well as the nutritional needs of the mediating organisms. While many previous efforts have focused on C and N cycling of DOM, less is known in regards to the controls of organic P utilization and remineralization by natural populations of bacteria. In order to constrain the relative time scales and degradation of select dissolved organic P (DOP compounds we have conducted a series of experiments focused on (1 assessment of the short-term lability of a range of DOP compounds, (2 characterization of labile DOP remineralization rates and (3 examination of temperature sensitivities of labile DOP remineralization for varying bacterial populations. Results reinforce previous findings of monoester and polyphosphate lability and the relative recalcitrance of a model phosphonate: 2-aminoethylphosphonate. High resolution time-series of P monoester remineralization indicates decay constants on the order of 0.67-7.04 d-1 for bacterial populations isolated from coastal and open ocean surface waters. The variability of these rates is predictably related to incubation temperature and initial concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria. Additional controls on DOP hydrolysis included seasonal shifts in bacterial populations and the physiological state of bacteria at the initiation of DOP addition experiments. Composite results indicate that bacterial hydrolysis of P-monoesters exceeds bacterial P demand and thus DOP remineralization efficiency may control P availability to autotrophs.

  16. The Impact of the Temperature Sensitivity of Ecosystem Respiration on the Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedback Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are altering the Earth's climate. The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle is expected to induce feedbacks on future CO2 concentrations and on the climate system. These feedbacks are highly uncertain and potentially large. Prediction of these feedbacks using Earth System Models (ESMs) requires knowledge of mechanisms connecting carbon and nutrients in the biosphere with the climate system. In order to reduce the range of uncertainty in climate predictions, model representation of feedbacks must be improved through comparisons with contemporary observations. The climate sensitivity of land carbon storage (γ L) varied by a factor of almost nine in the 11 C4MIP models (Friedlingstein et al., 2006), suggesting large uncertainties in ecosystem responses to climate change. The temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (Q10), a significant component of γ L, was recently reported to be independent of mean annual temperature, constant across biomes, and confined to values around 1.4 ± 0.1 based on observations from 60 FLUXNET sites, suggesting a weaker climate-carbon cycle than projected by most models (Mahecha et al., 2010}. Presented will be the results from a sensitivity analysis across time scales ranging from seasonal to interannual to decadal using a range of Q10 values for heterotrophic respiration (Rh) in the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). The sensitivity of the annual cycle of CO2 will be evaluated and compared with measurements from Globalview-CO2 sites. In addition, the effect of different Q10 values on the modeled ecosystem response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and on the long term trend in CO2 will be discussed.

  17. Shifts in microbial trophic strategy explain different temperature sensitivity of CO2 flux under constant and diurnally varying temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Xie, Hongtu; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Chen, Baodong; Shao, Pengshuai; Liang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Understanding soil CO2 flux temperature sensitivity (Q10) is critical for predicting ecosystem-level responses to climate change. Yet, the effects of warming on microbial CO2 respiration still remain poorly understood under current Earth system models, partly as a result of thermal acclimation of organic matter decomposition. We conducted a 117-day incubation experiment under constant and diurnally varying temperature treatments based on four forest soils varying in vegetation stand and soil horizon. Our results showed that Q10 was greater under varying than constant temperature regimes. This distinction was most likely attributed to differences in the depletion of available carbon between constant high and varying high-temperature treatments, resulting in significantly higher rates of heterotrophic respiration in the varying high-temperature regime. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using Illumina, the varying high-temperature regime harbored higher prokaryotic alpha-diversity, was more dominated by the copiotrophic strategists and sustained a distinct community composition, in comparison to the constant-high treatment. We found a tightly coupled relationship between Q10 and microbial trophic guilds: the copiotrophic prokaryotes responded positively with high Q10 values, while the oligotrophs showed a negative response. Effects of vegetation stand and soil horizon consistently supported that the copiotrophic vs oligotrophic strategists determine the thermal sensitivity of CO2 flux. Our observations suggest that incorporating prokaryotic functional traits, such as shifts between copiotrophy and oligotrophy, is fundamental to our understanding of thermal acclimation of microbially mediated soil organic carbon cycling. Inclusion of microbial functional shifts may provide the potential to improve our projections of responses in microbial community and CO2 efflux to a changing environment in forest ecosystems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions

  18. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  19. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well

  20. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Casting epPCR (cepPCR): A simple random mutagenesis method to generate high quality mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Ruff, Anna J; Arlt, Marcus; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    During the last decade, directed evolution has become a standard protein engineering strategy to reengineer proteins for industrial applications under high stress conditions (e.g., high temperature, extreme pH, ionic liquids, or organic solvents). The most commonly employed method for diversity generation to improve biocatalysts for these properties is random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR). However, recent reports show that epPCR often fails to produce >70% of beneficial positions/amino acid exchanges which improve enzyme properties such as organic solvent or ionic liquid resistance. In this report, bsla (543 bp, small lipase gene from Bacillus subtilis) was divided into three fragments (147, 192, 204 bp). Each fragment was subjected to an epPCR with a high mutation load (22, 31, and 33 mutations per kb) in order to increase the number of identified beneficial positions while maintaining a fraction of active population which can efficiently be screened in agar plate or microtiter plate format. The use of this "casting epPCR" process termed as (cepPCR), doubles the number of identified beneficial positions (from 14% to 29%), when compared to standard epPCR for the BSLA enzyme model. A further increase to 39% of beneficial positions is obtainable through combination of cepPCR with the transversion biased sequence saturation mutagenesis (SeSaM) method. Furthermore, sequencing of up to 600 mutations per fragment provided valuable insights into the correlation of total throughput and number of identified beneficial positions as well as how an efficient balance of screening efforts to obtainable results can be achieved in directed evolution campaigns. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1921-1927. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Alginate Microspheres Containing Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSL for MR-Guided Embolization and Triggered Release of Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel van Elk

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and characterize alginate microspheres suitable for embolization with on-demand triggered doxorubicin (DOX release and whereby the microspheres as well as the drug releasing process can be visualized in vivo using MRI.For this purpose, barium crosslinked alginate microspheres were loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL/TSL-Ba-ms, which release their payload upon mild hyperthermia. These TSL contained DOX and [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O], a T1 MRI contrast agent, for real time visualization of the release. Empty alginate microspheres crosslinked with holmium ions (T2* MRI contrast agent, Ho-ms were mixed with TSL-Ba-ms to allow microsphere visualization. TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms were prepared with a homemade spray device and sized by sieving. Encapsulation of TSL in barium crosslinked microspheres changed the triggered release properties only slightly: 95% of the loaded DOX was released from free TSL vs. 86% release for TSL-Ba-ms within 30 seconds in 50% FBS at 42°C. TSL-Ba-ms (76 ± 41 μm and Ho-ms (64 ± 29 μm had a comparable size, which most likely will result in a similar in vivo tissue distribution after an i.v. co-injection and therefore Ho-ms can be used as tracer for the TSL-Ba-ms. MR imaging of a TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms mixture (ratio 95:5 before and after hyperthermia allowed in vitro and in vivo visualization of microsphere deposition (T2*-weighted images as well as temperature-triggered release (T1-weighted images. The [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O] release and clusters of microspheres containing holmium ions were visualized in a VX2 tumor model in a rabbit using MRI.In conclusion, these TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms are promising systems for real-time, MR-guided embolization and triggered release of drugs in vivo.

  3. Temperature sensitivity and basal rate of soil respiration and their determinants in temperate forests of North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Zhou

    Full Text Available The basal respiration rate at 10°C (R10 and the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10 are two premier parameters in predicting the instantaneous rate of soil respiration at a given temperature. However, the mechanisms underlying the spatial variations in R10 and Q10 are not quite clear. R10 and Q10 were calculated using an exponential function with measured soil respiration and soil temperature for 11 mixed conifer-broadleaved forest stands and nine broadleaved forest stands at a catchment scale. The mean values of R10 were 1.83 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and 2.01 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, the mean values of Q10 were 3.40 and 3.79, respectively, for mixed and broadleaved forest types. Forest type did not influence the two model parameters, but determinants of R10 and Q10 varied between the two forest types. In mixed forest stands, R10 decreased greatly with the ratio of coniferous to broadleaved tree species; whereas it sharply increased with the soil temperature range and the variations in soil organic carbon (SOC, and soil total nitrogen (TN. Q10 was positively correlated with the spatial variances of herb-layer carbon stock and soil bulk density, and negatively with soil C/N ratio. In broadleaved forest stands, R10 was markedly affected by basal area and the variations in shrub carbon stock and soil phosphorus (P content; the value of Q10 largely depended on soil pH and the variations of SOC and TN. 51% of variations in both R10 and Q10 can be accounted for jointly by five biophysical variables, of which the variation in soil bulk density played an overwhelming role in determining the amplitude of variations in soil basal respiration rates in temperate forests. Overall, it was concluded that soil respiration of temperate forests was largely dependent on soil physical properties when temperature kept quite low.

  4. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    of complex or 'recalcitrant' compounds will erroneously attribute a greater temperature sensitivity to those materials than they may actually possess.

  5. Temperature sensitive liposomes combined with thermal ablation: Effects of duration and timing of heating in mathematical models and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Christian; McCrackin, M A; Armeson, Kent E; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL) are nanoparticles that rapidly release the contained drug at hyperthermic temperatures, typically above ~40°C. TSL have been combined with various heating modalities, but there is no consensus on required hyperthermia duration or ideal timing of heating relative to TSL administration. The goal of this study was to determine changes in drug uptake when heating duration and timing are varied when combining TSL with radiofrequency ablation (RF) heating. We used computer models to simulate both RF tissue heating and TSL drug delivery, to calculate spatial drug concentration maps. We simulated heating for 5, 12 and 30 min for a single RF electrode, as well as three sequential 12 min ablations for 3 electrodes placed in a triangular array. To support simulation results, we performed porcine in vivo studies in normal liver, where TSL filled with doxorubicin (TSL-Dox) at a dose of 30 mg was infused over 30 min. Following infusion, RF heating was performed in separate liver locations for either 5 min (n = 2) or 12 min (n = 2). After ablation, the animal was euthanized, and liver extracted and frozen. Liver samples were cut orthogonal to the electrode axis, and fluorescence imaging was used to visualize tissue doxorubicin distribution. Both in vivo studies and computer models demonstrate a ring-shaped drug deposition within ~1 cm of the visibly coagulated tissue. Drug uptake directly correlated with heating duration. In computer simulations, drug concentration increased by a factor of 2.2x and 4.3x when heating duration was extended from 5 to either 12, or 30 minutes, respectively. In vivo, drug concentration was by a factor of 2.4x higher at 12 vs 5 min heating duration (7.1 μg/g to 3.0 μg/g). The computer models suggest that heating should be timed to maximize area under the curve of systemic plasma concentration of encapsulated drug. Both computer models and in vivo study demonstrate that tissue drug uptake directly correlates with

  6. Predicting the velocity and azimuth of fragments generated by the range destruction or random failure of rocket casings and tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    The proliferation of space vehicle launch sites and the projected utilization of these facilities portends an increase in the number of on-pad, ascent, and on-orbit solid-rocket motor (SRM) casings and liquid-rocket tanks which will randomly fail or will fail from range destruct actions. Beyond the obvious safety implications, these failures may have serious resource implications for mission system and facility planners. SRM-casing failures and liquid-rocket tankage failures result in the generation of large, high velocity fragments which may be serious threats to the safety of launch support personnel if proper bunkers and exclusion areas are not provided. In addition, these fragments may be indirect threats to the general public's safety if they encounter hazardous spacecraft payloads which have not been designed to withstand shrapnel of this caliber. They may also become threats to other spacecraft if, by failing on-orbit, they add to the ever increasing space-junk collision cross-section. Most prior attempts to assess the velocity of fragments from failed SRM casings have simply assigned the available chamber impulse to available casing and fuel mass and solved the resulting momentum balance for velocity. This method may predict a fragment velocity which is high or low by a factor of two depending on the ratio of fuel to casing mass extant at the time of failure. Recognizing the limitations of existing methods, the authors devised an analytical approach which properly partitions the available impulse to each major system-mass component. This approach uses the Physics International developed PISCES code to couple the forces generated by an Eulerian modeled gas flow field to a Lagrangian modeled fuel and casing system. The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling

  7. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  8. Monitoring temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition under maize-wheat cropping systems in semi-arid India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Mayadevi, M R; Singh, A K

    2016-08-01

    Long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) is essential for sustainability of agricultural ecosystems and maintaining overall environment quality as soils contain a significant part of global carbon stocks. In this study, we attempted to explain the carbon mineralization and temperature sensitivity of SOC in maize-wheat systems, a common cropping system in the semi-arid regions of India. Soil samples(0-0.15 m) from long-term experimental plots laid in split plot design with two tillage systems (conventional tillage and bed planting) and six nutrient management treatments (T 1 = control, T 2 = 120 kg urea-N/ha, T 3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by farmyard manure (FYM)), T 4 = T 2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T 5 = T 2 + crop residue, T 6 = 100 % recommended doses of N through organic source - 50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were incubated at different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 °C) to determine the thermal sensitivity parameters associated with carbon mineralization. Earlier reports suggest a selective preservation of C3-derived carbon fractions over C4 in the SOC pool, and this is the first instance where δ (13)C signatures (C4-derived carbon) were used as a qualitative measure to assess thermal sensitivity of SOC pools in the maize-wheat crop rotation systems of semi-arid India. Among the nutrient management treatments, mineral fertilizers were found to add more C4-derived carbon to the SOC pool in both the tillage systems but shows less promise in SOC stability as indicated by their lower activation energies (Ea) (14.25 kJ mol(-1)). Conventional tillage was found to mineralize 18.80 % (T 1-control at 25 °C) to 29.93 % carbon (T 3-mineral fertilizer + FYM at 40 °C) during the 150 days of incubation which was significantly higher than bed planting system (14.90 % in T 1-control at 25 °C and 21.99 % in T 6-100% organic sources at 40 °C). Organic manures, especially FYM (19

  9. Doxorubicin-induced co-assembling nanomedicines with temperature-sensitive acidic polymer and their in-situ-forming hydrogels for intratumoral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangshan; Geng, Shinan; Zhao, Hao; Peng, Xiaole; Zhou, Qing; Li, Han; He, Ming; Zhao, Yanbing; Yang, Xiangliang; Xu, Huibi

    2016-08-10

    Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced co-assembling nanomedicines (D-PNAx) with temperature-sensitive PNAx triblock polymers have been developed for regional chemotherapy against liver cancer via intratumoral administration in the present work. Owing to the formation of insoluble DOX carboxylate, D-PNAx nanomedicines showed high drug-loading and entrapment efficacy via a simple mixing of doxorubicin hydrochloride and PNAx polymers. The sustained releasing profile of D-PNA100 nanomedicines indicated that only 9.4% of DOX was released within 1day, and 60% was released during 10days. Based on DOX-induced co-assembling behavior and their temperature sensitive in-situ-forming hydrogels, D-PNA100 nanomedicines showed excellent antitumor activity against H22 tumor using intratumoral administration. In contrast to that by free DOX solution (1.13±0.04 times at 9days) and blank PNA100 (2.11±0.34 times), the tumor volume treated by D-PNA100 had been falling to only 0.77±0.13 times of original tumor volume throughout the experimental period. In vivo biodistribution of DOX indicated that D-PNA100 nanomedicines exhibited much stronger DOX retention in tumor tissues than free DOX solution via intratumoral injection. D-PNA100 nanomedicines were hopeful to be developed as new temperature sensitive in-situ-forming hydrogels via i.t. injection for regional chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rapid, Simple and Cost-Effective Molecular Method to Differentiate the Temperature Sensitive (ts+) MS-H Vaccine Strain and Wild-Type Mycoplasma synoviae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Pásztor, Alexandra; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Povazsán, János; Kőrösi, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens and turkeys can cause respiratory disease, infectious synovitis and eggshell apex abnormality; thus it is an economically important pathogen. Control of M. synoviae infection comprises eradication, medication or vaccination. The differentiation of the temperature sensitive (ts+) MS-H vaccine strain from field isolates is crucial during vaccination programs. Melt-curve and agarose gel based mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) are provided in the present study to distinguish between the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain, its non-temperature sensitive re-isolates and wild-type M. synoviae isolates based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms at nt367 and nt629 of the obg gene. The two melt-MAMAs and the two agarose-MAMAs clearly distinguish the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain genotype from its non-temperature sensitive re-isolate genotype and wild-type M. synoviae isolate genotype, and no cross-reactions with other Mycoplasma species infecting birds occur. The sensitivity of the melt-MAMAs and agarose-MAMAs was 103 and 104 copy numbers, respectively. The assays can be performed directly on clinical samples and they can be run simultaneously at the same annealing temperature. The assays can be performed in laboratories with limited facilities, using basic real-time PCR machine or conventional thermocycler coupled with agarose gel electrophoresis. The advantages of the described assays compared with previously used methods are simplicity, sufficient sensitivity, time and cost effectiveness and specificity. PMID:26207635

  11. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochul Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps by implementing a 64×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  12. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochul; Ebrahimi, Farbod; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-05-01

    A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG) is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps) by implementing a 64 ×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit) due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  13. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  14. Long-term effectiveness of computer-generated tailored patient education on benzodiazepines : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Wolde, Geeske Brecht; Dijkstra, Arie; Van Empelen, Pepijn; van den Hout, Wilbert; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Zitman, Frans

    Aims Chronic benzodiazepine use is highly prevalent and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences. The present study examined the long-term effectiveness of a tailored patient education intervention on benzodiazepine use. Participants A randomized controlled trial was conducted

  15. Moderate consumption of wine, through both its phenolic compounds and alcohol content, promotes hydroxytyrosol endogenous generation in humans. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Papaseit, Esther; Pujadas, Mitona; Fitó, Montserrat; Robledo, Patricia; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Cheynier, Véronique; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Escudier, Jean-Louis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    In humans, urinary hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) concentrations have been associated to alcohol and wine consumption. To explore the role of wine components on promoting an endogenous OHTyr generation we performed a cross-over, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 28 healthy volunteers). Ethanol (wine and vodka), dealcoholized wine, and placebo were administered. Alcohol, dealcoholized wine, and particularly wine promoted a de novo OHTyr generation in vivo in humans. Potential OHTyr precursors (tyrosine, tyrosol, tyramine) were investigated in rats. Tyrosol was metabolized to OHTyr. Collating both studies, it is postulated that an increased Tyr bioavailability, a shift to a reductive pathway in dopamine and tyramine oxidative metabolism, and the biotransformation of Tyr to OHTyr were mechanisms involved in the OHTyr endogenous generation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  17. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, R.; Bossmann, H.P.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, whose main part is a sodium concentration cell. In conventional thermo-electric generators of this kind, the sodium moving from a hot space to a colder space must be transported back to the hot space via a circulation pipe and a pump. The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of this return transport. According to the invention, the thermo-electric generator is supported so that it can rotate, so that the position of each space relative to its propinquity to the heat source can be changed at any time.

  18. DNA-Mediated Transfer of an RNA Polymerase II Gene: Reversion of the Temperature-Sensitive Hamster Cell Cycle Mutant TsAF8 by Mammalian DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingles, C. James; Shales, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of the TsAF8 temperature-sensitive (TS) mutant of Syrian hamster BHK-21 cells, with calcium phosphate precipitates of genomic TS+ DNAs from a variety of mammalian cell lines permitted the selection of TS+ colonies at 40°C. TS+ transformation events were distinguished from spontaneous TS+ reversions in experiments in which α-amanitin-sensitive (AmaS) TS+ DNA was used to transform an AmaR derivative of TsAF8 cells and AmaR TS+ DNA was used to transform AmaS TsAF8 cells. In each case i...

  19. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, H.P.; Knoedler, R.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, which contains sodium as the means of heat transport. The sodium moves from the space of higher temperature through a space into the space of lower temperature. One can do without a pump for transporting the sodium back from the space of lower temperature to the space of higher temperature, as the thermo-electric generator can rotate around an axis. It is therefore possible to interchange the position of the two spaces relative to the heat source.

  20. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns.

  1. Facile induction of apoptosis into plant cells associated with temperature-sensitive lethality shown on interspecific hybrid from the cross Nicotiana suaveolens x N. tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Marubashi, W; Niwa, M

    2001-02-01

    Two lines of suspension culture cells were obtained from a hybrid seedling of Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. x N. tabacum L. cv. Hicks-2 expressing temperature-sensitive lethality. One of them (LH line) was inducible cell death in accordance with the lethality at 28 degrees C but not under high-temperature conditions (36 degrees C). Another one (SH line) lost the lethality and survived at 28 degrees C. The cells of LH line showed apoptotic changes when they were cultured at 28 degrees C. Fragmentation of nuclei was correlated with the lethality in the cells, as confirmed by fluorimetry of the nuclear DNA using laser scanning cytometry. Agarose gel analysis of DNA extracted from the cells expressing the lethality revealed a specific ladder pattern suggesting nucleosomal fragmentation that is one of the biochemical characteristics of apoptosis. From these facts, we confirmed that the process of cell death leading to hybrid lethality in the cells is certainly apoptosis. Hybrid cells were used in the experiments to estimate the point of no return in temperature-sensitive lethality and to examine the influence of cation in DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. The utility of hybrid cells as an experimental system for studies of hybrid lethality and apoptosis in plants was confirmed.

  2. Fully digital jerk-based chaotic oscillators for high throughput pseudo-random number generators up to 8.77Gbits/s

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2014-06-18

    This paper introduces fully digital implementations of four di erent systems in the 3rd order jerk-equation based chaotic family using the Euler approximation. The digitization approach enables controllable chaotic systems that reliably provide sinusoidal or chaotic output based on a selection input. New systems are introduced, derived using logical and arithmetic operations between two system implementations of different bus widths, with up to 100x higher maximum Lyapunov exponent than the original jerkequation based chaotic systems. The resulting chaotic output is shown to pass the NIST sp. 800-22 statistical test suite for pseudorandom number generators without post-processing by only eliminating the statistically defective bits. The systems are designed in Verilog HDL and experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA for a maximum throughput of 15.59 Gbits/s for the native chaotic output and 8.77 Gbits/s for the resulting pseudo-random number generators.

  3. Antisepsis regimen in the surgical treatment of HPV generated cervical lesions: polyhexamethylene biguanide vs chlorhexidine. A randomized, double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, S; Bavetta, F; Di Renzo, G C

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the risk of local infections after surgical treatments for HPV infected cervical lesions, the post-operative regimen is generally based on the use of vaginal antimicrobial agents. The efficacy and safety of polyhexamethylene biguanide-based vaginal suppositories was compared to a similar chlorhexidine-based treatment, in the post recovery regimen after surgical treatment of cervical lesions. 50 women who underwent to CO2 laser therapy for cervical lesions were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of antiseptic treatment with chlorhexidine digluconate vaginal suppositories, or polyhexamethylene biguanide vaginal suppositories (Monogin®/Biguanelle® ovuli, Lo.Li. Pharma, Italy). A weekly follow-up check was performed for 6 weeks. Polyhexamethylene biguanide-based treatment showed improved efficacy compared to chlorhexidine, in terms of healing process and prevention of bacterial infections. Due to its safety and effectiveness, the vaginal treatment with polyhexamethylene biguanide is preferred to chlorexidine, in accordance with previously reported in vitro evidences.

  4. SPARSE: Seed Point Auto-Generation for Random Walks Segmentation Enhancement in medical inhomogeneous targets delineation of morphological MR and CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Linghong

    2015-03-08

    In medical image processing, robust segmentation of inhomogeneous targets is a challenging problem. Because of the complexity and diversity in medical images, the commonly used semiautomatic segmentation algorithms usually fail in the segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm imbedded with a seed point autogeneration for random walks segmentation enhancement, namely SPARSE, for better segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. With a few user-labeled points, SPARSE is able to generate extended seed points by estimating the probability of each voxel with respect to the labels. The random walks algorithm is then applied upon the extended seed points to achieve improved segmentation result. SPARSE is implemented under the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming environment on graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware platform. Quantitative evaluations are performed using clinical homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. It is found that the SPARSE can greatly decrease the sensitiveness to initial seed points in terms of location and quantity, as well as the freedom of selecting parameters in edge weighting function. The evaluation results of SPARSE also demonstrate substantial improvements in accuracy and robustness to inhomogeneous target segmentation over the original random walks algorithm.

  5. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-18

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  6. Development and comparison of algorithms for generating a scan sequence for a random access scanner. [ZAP (and flow charts for ZIP and SCAN), in FORTRAN for DEC-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eason, R. O.

    1980-09-01

    Many data acquisition systems incorporate high-speed scanners to convert analog signals into digital format for further processing. Some systems multiplex many channels into a single scanner. A random access scanner whose scan sequence is specified by a table in random access memory will permit different scan rates on different channels. Generation of this scan table can be a tedious manual task when there are many channels (e.g. 50), when there are more than a few scan rates (e.g. 5), and/or when the ratio of the highest scan rate to the lowest scan rate becomes large (e.g. 100:1). An algorithm is developed which will generate these scan sequences for the random access scanner and implements the algorithm on a digital computer. Application of number theory to the mathematical statement of the problem led to development of several algorithms which were implemented in FORTRAN. The most efficient of these algorithms operates by partitioning the problem into a set of subproblems. Through recursion they solve each subproblem by partitioning it repeatedly into even smaller parts, continuing until a set of simple problems is created. From this process, a pictorial representation or wheel diagram of the problem can be constructed. From the wheel diagram and a description of the original problem, a scan table can be constructed. In addition, the wheel diagram can be used as a method of storing the scan sequence in a smaller amount of memory. The most efficient partitioning algorithm solved most scan table problems in less than a second of CPU time. Some types of problems, however, required as much as a few minutes of CPU time. 26 figures, 2 tables.

  7. SARAPAN—A Simulated-Annealing-Based Tool to Generate Random Patterned-Channel-Age in CANDU Fuel Management Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kastanya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In any reactor physics analysis, the instantaneous power distribution in the core can be calculated when the actual bundle-wise burnup distribution is known. Considering the fact that CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium utilizes on-power refueling to compensate for the reduction of reactivity due to fuel burnup, in the CANDU fuel management analysis, snapshots of power and burnup distributions can be obtained by simulating and tracking the reactor operation over an extended period using various tools such as the *SIMULATE module of the Reactor Fueling Simulation Program (RFSP code. However, for some studies, such as an evaluation of a conceptual design of a next-generation CANDU reactor, the preferred approach to obtain a snapshot of the power distribution in the core is based on the patterned-channel-age model implemented in the *INSTANTAN module of the RFSP code. The objective of this approach is to obtain a representative snapshot of core conditions quickly. At present, such patterns could be generated by using a program called RANDIS, which is implemented within the *INSTANTAN module. In this work, we present an alternative approach to derive the patterned-channel-age model where a simulated-annealing-based algorithm is used to find such patterns, which produce reasonable power distributions.

  8. Generation of random mutants to improve light-use efficiency of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultures for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Giorgio; Bellan, Alessandra; Segalla, Anna; Meneghesso, Andrea; Alboresi, Alessandro; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of an algal culture depends on how efficiently it converts sunlight into biomass and lipids. Wild-type algae in their natural environment evolved to compete for light energy and maximize individual cell growth; however, in a photobioreactor, global productivity should be maximized. Improving light use efficiency is one of the primary aims of algae biotechnological research, and genetic engineering can play a major role in attaining this goal. In this work, we generated a collection of Nannochloropsis gaditana mutant strains and screened them for alterations in the photosynthetic apparatus. The selected mutant strains exhibited diverse phenotypes, some of which are potentially beneficial under the specific artificial conditions of a photobioreactor. Particular attention was given to strains showing reduced cellular pigment contents, and further characterization revealed that some of the selected strains exhibited improved photosynthetic activity; in at least one case, this trait corresponded to improved biomass productivity in lab-scale cultures. This work demonstrates that genetic modification of N. gaditana has the potential to generate strains with improved biomass productivity when cultivated under the artificial conditions of a photobioreactor.

  9. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryusuke; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Ohno, Ryoko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  10. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMohr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn sceptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgements of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious and non-traditional (e.g. paranormal beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g. repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group or a psychic (psychic group. The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events.

  11. Using Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint for Global Surface Pressure and Temperature Measurements on the Aft-Body of a Capsule Reentry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Buck, Gregory M.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) and Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) were used to visualize and quantify the surface interactions of reaction control system (RCS) jets on the aft body of capsule reentry vehicle shapes. The first model tested was an Apollo-like configuration and was used to focus primarily on the effects of the forward facing roll and yaw jets. The second model tested was an early Orion Crew Module configuration blowing only out of its forward-most yaw jet, which was expected to have the most intense aerodynamic heating augmentation on the model surface. This paper will present the results from the experiments, which show that with proper system design, both PSP and TSP are effective tools for studying these types of interaction in hypersonic testing environments.

  12. Higher temperature sensitivity for stable than for labile soil organic carbon - Evidence from incubations of long-term bare fallow soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Romain; Barré, Pierre; Moyano, Fernando E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC)remains a major source of uncertainty in predicting future changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. One unsettled issue is whether the mineralization response to temperature depends on SOC mineralization rate. Long-term (>25 years......) bare fallow experiments (LTBF) in which the soil is kept free of any vegetation and organic inputs, and their associated archives of soil samples represent a unique research platform to examine this issue as with increasing duration of fallow, the lability of remaining total SOC decreases. We retrieved....... The apparent activation energy (Ea) of SOC was then calculated for similar loss of CO2 at the different temperatures. The Ea was always higher for samples taken at the end of the bare-fallow period, implying a higher temperature sensitivity of stable C than of labile C. Our results provide strong evidence...

  13. High affinity and temperature sensitivity of blood oxygen binding in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus due to lack of chloride-hemoglobin allosteric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh

    2015-01-01

    , such as high temperature, affect O2 transport in air-breathing fishes, this study assessed the effects of temperature on O2 binding of blood and Hb in the economically important air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. To determine blood O2 binding properties, blood was drawn from resting cannulated...... saturation P50 = 4.6 mmHg at extracellular pH 7.6 and 25°C), a high temperature sensitivity of O2 binding (apparent heat of oxygenation ΔHapp = -28.3 kcal/mol), and lacked a Root effect. Further, the data on Hb revealed weak ATP binding and a complete lack of Cl- binding to Hb, which, in part, explains...

  14. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D A; Switzer, R L; Hove-Jensen, B

    1996-02-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open reading frame specifying the PRPP synthase polypeptide. Cloning and sequencing of the mutant allele revealed two mutations. One, a G --> A transition, located in the ninth codon, was responsible for the temperature-conditional phenotype and resulted in a serine residue at this position. The wild-type codon at this position specified a glycine residue that is conserved among PRPP synthases across a broad phylogenetic range. Cells harbouring the glycine-to-serine alteration specified by a plasmid contained approximately 50% of the PRPP synthase activity of cells harbouring a plasmid-borne wild-type allele, both grown at 25 degrees C. The mutant enzyme had nearly normal heat stability, as long as it was synthesized at 25 degrees C. In contrast, there was hardly any PRPP synthase activity or anti-PRPP synthase antibody cross-reactive material present in cells harbouring the glycine to serine alteration following temperature shift to 42 degrees C. The other mutation was a C --> T transition located 39 bp upstream of the G --> A mutation, i.e. outside the coding sequence and close to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Cells harbouring only the C --> T mutation in a plasmid contained approximately three times as much PRPP synthase activity as a strain harbouring a plasmid-borne wild-type prs allele. In cells harbouring both mutations, the C --> T mutation appeared to compensate for the G --> A mutation by increasing the amount of a partially defective enzyme at the permissive temperature.

  15. Screening mutations of OTOF gene in Chinese patients with auditory neuropathy, including a familial case of temperature-sensitive auditory neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict-Alderfer Cindy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in OTOF gene, encoding otoferlin, cause DFNB9 deafness and non-syndromic auditory neuropathy (AN. The aim of this study is to identify OTOF mutations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic auditory neuropathy. Methods 73 unrelated Chinese Han patients with AN, including one case of temperature sensitive non-syndromic auditory neuropathy (TS-NSRAN and 92 ethnicity-matched controls with normal hearing were screened. Forty-five pairs of PCR primers were designed to amplify all of the exons and their flanking regions of the OTOF gene. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed for mutation identification. Results Five novel possibly pathogenic variants (c.1740delC, c.2975_2978delAG, c.1194T>A, c.1780G>A, c.4819C > T were identified in the group of 73 AN patients, in which two novel mutant alleles (c.2975_2978delAG + c.4819C > T were identified in one Chinese TS-NSRAN case. Besides, 10 non-pathogenic variants of the OTOF gene were found in AN patients and controls. Conclusions Screening revealed that mutations in the OTOF gene account for AN in 4 of 73(5.5% sporadic AN patients, which shows a lower genetic load of that gene in contrast to the previous studies based on other populations. Notably, we found two novel mutant alleles related to temperature sensitive non-syndromic auditory neuropathy. This mutation screening study further confirms that the OTOF gene contributes to ANs and to TS-NSRAN.

  16. Melting in temperature sensitive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    We describe two experimental studies about melting in colloidal systems. In particular we studied melting of 1-dimensional lamellar phases and 3-dimensional colloidal crystals. In the first set of experiments we prepared suspensions composed of rodlike fd virus and the thermosensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). The phase diagram of this systems is temperature and concentration dependent. Using video microscopy, we directly observed melting of lamellar phases and single lamellae into nematic phase. We found that lamellar phases swell with increasing temperature before melting into the nematic phase. The highly swollen lamellae can be superheated as a result of topological nucleation barriers that slow the formation of the nematic phase. In another set of experiments we prepared colloidal crystals from thermally responsive microgel spheres. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed three-dimensional structures. Upon increasing the temperature slightly above room temperature, particle volume fraction decreased from 0.74 to less than 0.5. Using video microscopy, we observed premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals. Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at sample volume fractions above the bulk melting transition. Particle tracking revealed increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. In total these observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and in atomic scale crystals.

  17. Generation of multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers originated from two chaotic signals of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.

  18. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  19. Sustained large stimulation of soil heterotrophic respiration rate and its temperature sensitivity by soil warming in a cool-temperate forested peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricar Aguilos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a soil warming experiment in a cool-temperate forested peatland in northern Japan during the snow-free seasons of 2007–2011, to determine whether the soil warming would change the heterotrophic respiration rate and its temperature sensitivity. We elevated the soil temperature by 3°C at 5-cm depth by using overhead infrared heaters and continuously measured hourly soil CO2 fluxes with a 15-channel automated chamber system. The 15 chambers were divided into three groups each with five replications for the control, unwarmed-trenched and warmed-trenched treatments. Soil warming enhanced heterotrophic respiration by 82% (mean of four seasons (2008–2011 observation±SD, 6.84±2.22 µmol C m−2 s−1 as compared to the unwarmed-trenched treatment (3.76±0.98 µmol C m−2 s−1. The sustained enhancement of heterotrophic respiration with soil warming suggests that global warming will accelerate the loss of carbon substantially more from forested peatlands than from other upland forest soils. Soil warming likewise enhanced temperature sensitivity slightly (Q 10, 3.1±0.08 and 3.3±0.06 in the four-season average in unwarmed- and warmed-trenched treatments, respectively, and significant effect was observed in 2009 (p<0.001 and 2010 (p<0.01. However, there was no significant difference in the basal respiration rate at 10°C (R 10, 2.2±0.52 and 2.8±1.2 µmol C m−2 s−1 between treatments, although the values tended to be high by warming throughout the study period. These results suggest that global warming will enhance not only the heterotrophic respiration rate itself but also its Q 10 in forests with high substrate availability and without severe water stress, and predictions for such ecosystems obtained by using models assuming no change in Q 10 are likely to underestimate the carbon release from the soil to the atmosphere in a future warmer environment.

  20. Suppression of temperature-sensitive chromosome replication of an Escherichia coli dnaX(Ts) mutant by reduction of initiation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Hermandson, Mary Jo; Walker, James R

    2003-06-01

    Temperature sensitivity of DNA polymerization and growth of a dnaX(Ts) mutant is suppressible at 39 to 40 degrees C by mutations in the initiator gene, dnaA. These suppressor mutations concomitantly cause initiation inhibition at 20 degrees C and have been designated Cs,Sx to indicate both phenotypic characteristics of cold-sensitive initiation and suppression of dnaX(Ts). One dnaA(Cs,Sx) mutant, A213D, has reduced affinity for ATP, and two mutants, R432L and T435K, have eliminated detectable DnaA box binding in vitro. Two models have explained dnaA(Cs,Sx) suppression of dnaX, which codes for both the tau and gamma subunits of DNA polymerase III. The initiation deficiency model assumes that reducing initiation efficiency allows survival of the dnaX(Ts) mutant at the somewhat intermediate temperature of 39 to 40 degrees C by reducing chromosome content per cell, thus allowing partially active DNA polymerase III to complete replication of enough chromosomes for the organism to survive. The stabilization model is based on the idea that DnaA interacts, directly or indirectly, with polymerization factors during replication. We present five lines of evidence consistent with the initiation deficiency model. First, a dnaA(Cs,Sx) mutation reduced initiation frequency and chromosome content (measured by flow cytometry) and origin/terminus ratios (measured by real-time PCR) in both wild-type and dnaX(Ts) strains growing at 39 and 34 degrees C. These effects were shown to result specifically from the Cs,Sx mutations, because the dnaX(Ts) mutant is not defective in initiation. Second, reduction of the number of origins and chromosome content per cell was common to all three known suppressor mutations. Third, growing the dnaA(Cs,Sx) dnaX(Ts) strain on glycerol-containing medium reduced its chromosome content to one per cell and eliminated suppression at 39 degrees C, as would be expected if the combination of poor carbon source, the Cs,Sx mutation, the Ts mutation, and the 39

  1. Development and evaluation of a non-ribosomal random PCR and next-generation sequencing based assay for detection and sequencing of hand, foot and mouth disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh To; Tran, Thanh Tan; Hoang, Van Minh Tu; Nghiem, Ngoc My; Le, Nhu Nguyen Truc; Le, Thanh Thi My; Phan, Qui Tu; Truong, Khanh Huu; Le, Nhan Nguyen Thanh; Ho, Viet Lu; Do, Viet Chau; Ha, Tuan Manh; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier; Le, Tan Van

    2016-07-07

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region, and is commonly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), CV-A10 and CV-A16. Generating pathogen whole-genome sequences is essential for understanding their evolutionary biology. The frequent replacements among EV serotypes and a limited numbers of available whole-genome sequences hinder the development of overlapping PCRs for whole-genome sequencing. We developed and evaluated a non-ribosomal random PCR (rPCR) and next-generation sequencing based assay for sequence-independent whole-genome amplification and sequencing of HFMD pathogens. A total of 16 EV-A71/CV-A6/CV-A10/CV-A16 PCR positive rectal/throat swabs (Cp values: 20.9-33.3) were used for assay evaluation. Our assay evidently outperformed the conventional rPCR in terms of the total number of EV-A71 reads and the percentage of EV-A71 reads: 2.6 % (1275/50,000 reads) vs. 0.1 % (31/50,000) and 6 % (3008/50,000) vs. 0.9 % (433/50,000) for two samples with Cp values of 30 and 26, respectively. Additionally the assay could generate genome sequences with the percentages of coverage of 94-100 % of 4 different enterovirus serotypes in 73 % of the tested samples, representing the first whole-genome sequences of CV-A6/10/16 from Vietnam, and could assign correctly serotyping results in 100 % of 24 tested specimens. In all but three the obtained consensuses of two replicates from the same sample were 100 % identical, suggesting that our assay is highly reproducible. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a non-ribosomal rPCR and next-generation sequencing based assay for sensitive detection and direct whole-genome sequencing of HFMD pathogens from clinical samples.

  2. Testing the Metabolic Theory of Ecology with marine bacteria: Different temperature sensitivity of major phylogenetic groups during the spring phytoplankton bloom

    KAUST Repository

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor

    2017-08-24

    Although temperature is a key driver of bacterioplankton metabolism, the effect of ocean warming on different bacterial phylogenetic groups remains unclear. Here, we conducted monthly short-term incubations with natural coastal bacterial communities over an annual cycle to test the effect of experimental temperature on the growth rates and carrying capacities of four phylogenetic groups: SAR11, Rhodobacteraceae, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. SAR11 was the most abundant group year-round as analysed by CARD-FISH, with maximum abundances in summer, while the other taxa peaked in spring. All groups, including SAR11, showed high temperature-sensitivity of growth rates and/or carrying capacities in spring, under phytoplankton bloom or post-bloom conditions. In that season, Rhodobacteraceae showed the strongest temperature response in growth rates, estimated here as activation energy (E, 1.43 eV), suggesting an advantage to outcompete other groups under warmer conditions. In summer E values were in general lower than 0.65 eV, the value predicted by the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE). Contrary to MTE predictions, carrying capacity tended to increase with warming for all bacterial groups. Our analysis confirms that resource availability is key when addressing the temperature response of heterotrophic bacterioplankton. We further show that even under nutrient-sufficient conditions, warming differentially affected distinct bacterioplankton taxa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Rescue at nonpermissive temperature of complementation group II temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus by uv-irradiated VSV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, V.; Brun, G.

    1978-06-01

    Rescue is group-characteristic. The helper virus can be either the wt strain or a mutant belonging to any group of ts mutants except group II. With regard to genotype, the rescue progeny virus is temperature-sensitive and belongs to group II, and its ts II parent (ts O52(II)) can be characterized. As for phenotype, the in vitro thermal stability of rescue virions is intermediate between that of parental ts O52(II) and uv-irradiated wt virus, suggesting incorporation of some wt protein II molecules in the rescue virions. Different slopes (zero or different from zero) were seen in dose-effect curves representing rescue obtained by structural protein molecules, suggesting that protein II structural role could be distinguished from its functional role(s) by uv sensitivity. Differences in efficiency of the rescue of ts O52(II) by ts I mutants irradiated with low uv fluence may reflect their different transcribing capabilities at 39.6/sup 0/. The results are discussed taking into account the fact that the phenotype of group II mutants is characterized by an unstable nucleocapsid.

  4. Uniformity Study of Two-Functional Luminescent Dyes Adsorbed over an Anodized Aluminum Coating for Motion-Capturing Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masato; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2017-12-23

    The pressure- and temperature-sensitive paint (PSP/TSP) technique, for steady-state and unsteady-state measurements, is becoming widespread. However, unsteady quantitative measurement is still difficult because non-uniform distribution of the probes over a test model may cause errors in the results. We focus on the dipping method that applies two luminophores into a binding material to improve sensitivity uniformity over a model surface. A bullet-shaped axisymmetric test model with motion-capturing TSP was used to evaluate the sensitivity uniformity, and three dipping methods (static, convectional, and rotational) were examined. The average peak ratios in the longitudinal direction were 1.17-1.46 for static, 1.38-1.51 for convectional, and 1.42-1.45 for rotational dipping. The standard deviations in the transverse direction were the smallest for rotational (0.022-0.033), relative to static (0.086-0.104), and convectional (0.044-0.065) dipping.

  5. Establishment and functional characterization of a tracheal epithelial cell line RTEC11 from transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Doi, Takeshi; Takasaki, Ichiro; Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Obinata, Masuo

    2008-11-01

    A tracheal epithelial cell line RTEC11 was established from transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen. The cells grew continuously at a permissive temperature of 33 degrees C but not at a non-permissive temperature of 39 degrees C. Morphological and functional investigations demonstrated that the cells were polarized epithelial cells maintaining a regulated permeability barrier function. Interestingly, the expression levels of Muc1 (mucin 1) and Scgb1a1 (uteroglobin), non-ciliated secretory cell markers, and Tubb4 (tubulin beta 4), a ciliated cell marker, were significantly increased under the cell growth-restricted condition. Global gene expression and computational network analyses demonstrated a significant genetic network associated with cellular development and differentiation in cells cultured at the non-permissive temperature. The tracheal epithelial cell line RTEC11 with unique characteristics should be useful as an in vitro model for studies of the physiological functions and gene expression of tracheal epithelial cells.

  6. Investigating the Effect of Line Dipole Magnetic Field on Hydrothermal Characteristics of a Temperature-Sensitive Magnetic Nanofluid Using Two-Phase Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahiraei, Mehdi; Hangi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal characteristics of a temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluid between two parallel plates are investigated in the presence of magnetic field produced by one or multiple line dipole(s) using the two-phase mixture model. As the nanofluid reaches the region where the magnetic field is applied, a rotation is developed due to the dependency of magnetization on temperature. This can lead to mixing in the flow and more uniform distribution of temperature due to the disturbance caused in the boundary layer, and consequently, enhancement in convective heat transfer. The results indicate that the disturbance in boundary layer adjacent to the lower wall is more significant than the upper wall. By application of the magnetic field, the convective heat transfer increases locally for both walls. Due to the intensified mixing, a sudden pressure drop occurs when the fluid reaches the region where the magnetic field is applied. For greater magnetic field strengths and lower Reynolds numbers, the improvement in convective heat transfer is more significant. For small magnetic field strengths, the effect of applying magnetic field on the upper wall is much smaller than that on the lower wall; however, this effect becomes almost the same for both walls at great magnetic field strengths.

  7. Preparation of dual-stimuli-responsive liposomes using methacrylate-based copolymers with pH and temperature sensitivities for precisely controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takumi; Yamazaki, Naoko; Hayashi, Takaaki; Yuba, Eiji; Harada, Atsushi; Kotaka, Aki; Shinde, Chiharu; Kumei, Takayuki; Sumida, Yasushi; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Munekata, Yuki; Maruyama, Keiichi; Kono, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Dual-signal-sensitive copolymers were synthesized by copolymerization of methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and lauroxy tetraethylene glycol methacrylate, which respectively provide temperature sensitivity, pH sensitivity, and anchoring to liposome surfaces. These novel copolymers, with water solubility that differs depending on temperature and pH, are soluble in water under neutral pH and low-temperature conditions, but they become water-insoluble and form aggregates under acidic pH and high-temperature conditions. Liposomes modified with these copolymers exhibited enhanced content release at weakly acidic pH with increasing temperature, although no temperature-dependent content release was observed in neutral conditions. Interaction between the copolymers and the lipid monolayer at the air-water interface revealed that the copolymer chains penetrate more deeply into the monolayer with increasing temperature at acidic pH than at neutral pH, where the penetration of copolymer chains was moderate and temperature-independent at neutral pH. Interaction of the copolymer-modified liposomes with HeLa cells demonstrated that the copolymer-modified liposomes were adsorbed quickly and efficiently onto the cell surface and that they were internalized more gradually than the unmodified liposomes through endocytosis. Furthermore, the copolymer-modified liposomes enhanced the content release in endosomes with increasing temperature, but no such temperature-dependent enhancement of content release was observed for unmodified liposomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Overproduced ethylene causes programmed cell death leading to temperature-sensitive lethality in hybrid seedlings from the cross Nicotiana suaveolens x N. tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Marubashi, Wataru

    2003-09-01

    Reproductive isolation mechanisms (RIMs) often become obstacles in crossbreeding. Hybrid lethality is a subtype of RIM but its physiological mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Interspecific hybrids of Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. x N. tabacum L. cv. Hicks-2 expressed temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality was induced by programmed cell death (PCD) that was accompanied by the characteristic changes of animal apoptosis in hybrid seedlings at 28 degrees C but not at 36 degrees C. When hybrid seedlings were cultured at 28 degrees C, DNA fragmentation started in the cotyledon, and nuclear fragmentation subsequently progressed with lethal symptoms spreading throughout the seedlings. At 28 degrees C, ethylene production in hybrid seedlings was detectable at a high level compared with the level in parental seedlings. In contrast, the ethylene production rate in hybrid seedlings cultured at 36 degrees C was equal to that in parental seedlings. Treatment with ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors, amino-oxyacetic acid and amino-ethoxyvinyl glycine, suppressed lethal symptoms and apoptotic changes, and also prolonged survival of hybrid seedlings. Thus, the increase in the ethylene production rate correlated closely with expression of lethal symptoms and apoptotic changes in hybrid seedlings. From these observations, we conclude that overproduced ethylene acts as an essential factor mediating PCD and subsequent lethality in hybrid seedlings. Furthermore, the present study has provided the first evidence that ethylene is involved in the phenomenon of hybrid lethality.

  9. Apoptotic cell death induces temperature-sensitive lethality in hybrid seedlings and calli derived from the cross of Nicotiana suaveolens x N. tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Marubashi, W; Niwa, M

    2000-10-01

    Hybrid lethality expressed in the interspecific hybrid of Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. x N. tabacum L. cv. Hicks-2 is one of the mechanisms for reproductive isolation and it is temperature-sensitive. Apoptotic changes were detected in the cells of hybrid seedlings and calli expressing lethality at 28 degrees C but not under high-temperature conditions (36 degrees C), when the lethality is suppressed. Condensation of chromatin, fragmentation of nuclei and cytoplasmic reduction are the cytological changes associated with apoptosis leading to hybrid lethality. Fragmentation of nuclei was correlated with the lethal symptoms in both hybrid seedlings and calli, as confirmed by fluorimetry of the nuclear DNA using laser scanning cytometry. Agarose gel analysis of DNA extracted from hybrid seedlings and calli showing lethal symptoms revealed a specific ladder pattern suggesting nucleosomal fragmentation which is one of the biochemical changes of apoptosis. In-situ detection using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling (TUNEL) showed that this process occurred in distinct stages on each organ of hybrid seedlings and centripetally in hybrid calli. From these results, we confirmed that cell death inducing hybrid lethality was indeed apoptosis.

  10. Randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones with the combination of fortified antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinit Mahendra; Tandon, Radhika; Satpathy, Gita; Nayak, Niranjan; Chawla, Bhavna; Agarwal, Tushar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2010-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of efficacy of monotherapy with moxifloxacin (0.5%) or gatifloxacin (0.3%) with combination therapy of cefazolin (5%) and tobramycin (1.3%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients diagnosed with bacterial keratitis (ulcer diameter 2-8 mm) were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment groups (tobramycin 1.3% and cefazolin 5%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, or moxifloxacin 0.5%). After obtaining corneal scrapings, assigned study medication was instilled hourly for 48 hours and tapered as per clinical response. Healing of ulcer, duration to cure, adverse reactions, antibiogram profile, treatment failures, final visual acuity, and corneal opacity size were evaluated. A total of 61 patients were enrolled [cefazolin and tobramycin (n = 20), gatifloxacin (n = 21), and moxifloxacin (n = 20)]. Overall, 57 patients (93%) healed on treatment. On comparison of the mean time taken to heal, no statistically significant difference was found among all the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.98). Positive bacterial culture was obtained in only 38 patients (62%). There was no significant difference in the bacterial isolates in each treatment group. There were 4 (7%) treatment failures (perforation or nonhealing ulcer): 1 (5%) each in moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin group and 2 (10%) in fortified antibiotics group. All regimens were well tolerated. The study failed to find a difference in the efficacy of monotherapy with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of 2-8 mm size when compared with combination therapy of fortified antibiotics.

  11. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  12. Composite hydrogels with temperature sensitive heterogeneities: influence of gel matrix on the volume phase transition of embedded poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meid, Judith; Friedrich, Tatjana; Tieke, Bernd; Lindner, Peter; Richtering, Walter

    2011-02-28

    The thermo-responsive behaviour of poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgels embedded in covalently cross-linked non-temperature-sensitive polyacrylamide (PAam) hydrogel matrixes with different compositions was investigated by using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The composition of the composite hydrogel was varied by (a) increasing the cross-linker and acrylamide concentration leading to strong hydrogel matrixes and (b) by increasing the microgel concentration to obtain composite gels with an internal structure. Additionally we synthesized composite hydrogels by using γ-irradiation as initiation for the polymerisation. This leads to the formation of chemical bonds between the PNiPAM microgels and the surrounding polyacrylamide matrix. Thus it is possible to synthesize hydrogels without an additional cross-linker, as well as pure particle networks. Some samples were prepared at two different temperatures, below and above the volume phase transition temperature of PNiPAM, resulting in highly swollen or totally collapsed microgels during the incorporation step. The volume phase transition of microgels is not influenced by a hydrogel matrix with high acrylamide concentration independent of the preparation temperature. However, an increased cross-linker concentration leads to a corset like constraint on microgel swelling. Microgels, which are embedded in the collapsed state (at 50 °C), are not able to swell upon cooling, whereas microgels embedded in the swollen state can collapse upon heating. For samples with an increased microgel concentration, the close microgel packing was disturbed by the formation of the polyacrylamide matrix. The hydrogel matrix squeezes the microgels together and leads to partial aggregation. The experiments demonstrate how composite hydrogels with stimuli-sensitive heterogeneities can be prepared such that the full responsiveness of the embedded microgels is retained while the macroscopic dimensions of the gel are not affected

  13. Complications of intravascular catheters in ICU: definitions, incidence and severity. A randomized controlled trial comparing usual transparent dressings versus new-generation dressings (the ADVANCED study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Silvia Calviño; Schwebel, Carole; Hamidfar-Roy, Rebecca; Bonadona, Agnès; Lugosi, Maxime; Ara-Somohano, Claire; Minet, Clémence; Potton, Leïla; Cartier, Jean-Charles; Vésin, Aurelien; Chautemps, Magalie; Styfalova, Lenka; Ruckly, Stephane; Timsit, Jean-François

    2016-11-01

    To describe all post-insertion complications involving most used intravascular access, and to determine whether the use of a new-generation transparent dressing (3M™ IV Advanced) might reduce their number and impact on ICU patient outcomes. Patients older than 18, with an expected length of stay ≥48 h and requiring at least one central venous catheter (CVC), arterial catheter (AC), haemodialysis catheter (HDC), pulmonary arterial catheters (PAC) or peripheral venous catheter (PVC) were randomized into two groups: a new-generation transparent dressing, or the hospital's classical transparent dressing, and were followed daily for any infectious and non-infectious complications. Complications were graduated for severity by an independent international multicentre multidisciplinary panel of practitioners using a Delphi process. We included 628 patients, 2214 catheters (873 PVCs, 630 CVCs, 512 ACs and 199 HDCs and PACs) and 4836 dressings. Overall incidence rate was of 60.9/1000 catheter-days. The most common complication was dysfunction (34.6/1000 catheter-days), mainly for PVCs (16/1000 catheter-days) and ACs (12.9/1000 catheter-days). Infectious complications incidence rate in CVCs and ACs was of 14.5/1000, mostly due to colonization (14.2/1000 catheter-days). Thrombosis incidence was of 3.8/1000 catheter-days with severe and very severe complications in 16 cases (1.8/1000 catheter-days) and one thrombosis-related death. 3M™ IV Advanced dressing did not decrease the rate of catheters with at least a minor complication [57.37/1000 vs. 57.52/1000 catheter-days, HR 1.03, CI (0.84-1.27), p = 0.81]. Incidence rates for each single complication remained equivalent: infectious [HR 0.93 (0.62-1.40), p = 0.72], deep thrombosis [HR 0.90 (0.39-2.06), p = 0.80], extravasation and phlebitis [HR 1.40 (0.69-2.82), p = 0.35], accidental removal [1.07 (0.56-2.04), p = 0.84] and dysfunction [HR 1.04 (0.80-1.35), p = 0.79]. The ADVANCED study showed the overall risk

  14. Add-on mirtazapine enhances antipsychotic effect of first generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Grigori; Terevnikov, Viatcheslav; Joffe, Marina; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Burkin, Mark; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-03-01

    Mirtazapine, an antidepressant with a broad spectrum of receptor affinity may, if combined with first generation antipsyhotics (FGAs), improve clinical profile of the FGAs. However, potentiation of the antipsychotic effect by mirtazapine has not been reported thus far. We explored the efficacy of adjunctive mirtazapine on symptoms of schizophrenia in patients having an insufficient response to different FGAs. Schizophrenia-diagnosed patients with a prolonged disease and a history of a poor response to numerous antipsychotics, who were at least moderately ill despite their FGAs treatment, received add-on mirtazapine (n=20) or placebo (n=19) in a 6-week double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). The analysis was made on a Modified Intent-to-Treat (MITT) basis with Last Observations Carried Forward (LOCF). Mirtazapine outranged placebo on almost all measures. The clear-cut clinical relevance of this finding was demonstrated by a large effect size of 1.00 (95% CI 0.23-1.67, p=0.003) on the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores (the primary outcome). The PANSS positive subscale scores decreased by 17.2% with mirtazapine vs. 1.6% with placebo (p<0.001), and the PANSS negative subscale scores by 12% and 3% (p<0.001), correspondingly. This is the first RCT reporting a robust additive antipsychotic effect of an adjunctive antidepressant. Mirtazapine-FGAs combination appears to be a safe, well-tolerated and efficacious treatment option in this challenging population. These findings are important due to the current re-emerging attention to FGAs. The focus of further studies should be expanded to include combinations with or switching to novel antipsychotics, different subpopulations of patients with schizophrenia, finding of optimal doses, and comparison with clozapine.

  15. Self-generation and positivity effects following transcranial random noise stimulation in medial prefrontal cortex: A reality monitoring task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Palumbo, Rocco; Fairfield, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better. In addition, given that older adults are more sensitive to positively-charged information compared to younger adults and that mPFC is typically recruited during encoding of positive stimuli with reference to themselves, activation of mPFC should further sustain source retrieval in older adults. In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether tRNS over the mPFC of healthy younger and older adults during encoding enhances subsequent reality monitoring for seen versus imagined emotionally-charged words. Our findings show that tRNS enhances reality monitoring for positively-charged imagined words in the older adult group alone, highlighting the role that mPFC plays in their memory for positive information. In line with the control-based account of positivity effects, our results add evidence about the neurocognitive processes involved in reality monitoring when older adults face emotionally-charged events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recurrence of random walks with long-range steps generated by fractional Laplacian matrices on regular networks and simple cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze a Markovian random walk strategy on undirected regular networks involving power matrix functions of the type L\\frac{α{2}} where L indicates a ‘simple’ Laplacian matrix. We refer to such walks as ‘fractional random walks’ with admissible interval 0 α (recurrent for d≤slantα ) of the lattice. As a consequence, for 0global mean first passage times (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. For an infinite 1D lattice (infinite ring) we obtain for the transient regime 0world properties with the emergence of Lévy flights on large (infinite) lattices.

  17. Random number generators and the Metropolis algorithm: application to various problems in physics and mechanics as an introduction to computational physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvayrac, Florent [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087 and FR 2575, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-09-01

    We present known and new applications of pseudo random numbers and of the Metropolis algorithm to phenomena of physical and mechanical interest, such as the search of simple clusters isomers with interactive visualization, or vehicle motion planning. The progression towards complicated problems was used with first-year graduate students who wrote most of the programs presented here. We argue that the use of pseudo random numbers in simulation and extrema research programs in teaching numerical methods in physics allows one to get quick programs and physically meaningful and demonstrative results without recurring to the advanced numerical analysis methods.

  18. Certified randomness in quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  19. Certified randomness in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  20. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  1. Age-Related Corresponding Relationships of Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-group corresponding relationships of the controlled force exertion based on sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 175 right-handed male adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on age-level: 53 young (mean age 24.6, SD = 3.3 years), 71 middle aged (mean age 44.3, SD = 8.7 years), and 51…

  2. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  3. Metabolic and endocrine adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents : A systematic review of randomized, placebo controlled trials and guidelines for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, M.; Dobbelaere, M.; Sheridan, E. M.; Cohen, D.; Correll, C. U.

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are being used more often than ever before in children and adolescents with psychotic and a wide range of non-psychotic disorders. Several SGA have received regulatory approval for some paediatric indications in various countries, but off-label use is still

  4. A randomized trial found online questionnaires supplemented by postal reminders generated a cost-effective and generalizable sample but don't forget the reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loban, Amanda; Mandefield, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the response rates, data completeness, and representativeness of survey data produced by online and postal surveys. A randomized trial nested within a cohort study in Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Participants were randomized to receive either an electronic (online) survey questionnaire with paper reminder (N = 2,982) or paper questionnaire with electronic reminder (N = 2,855). Response rates were similar for electronic contact and postal contacts (50.9% vs. 49.7%, difference = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval: -1.3% to 3.8%). The characteristics of those responding to the two groups were similar. Participants nevertheless demonstrated an overwhelming preference for postal questionnaires, with the majority responding by post in both groups. Online survey questionnaire systems need to be supplemented with a postal reminder to achieve acceptable uptake, but doing so provides a similar response rate and case mix when compared to postal questionnaires alone. For large surveys, online survey systems may be cost saving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. a randomized controlled trial.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milk, only an estimated one -fourth of neonates in India were breastfed within ... standard of care in India and mothers are informed about. 6 months of ... weeks postpartum. A random number sequence was generated using a com- puter program. Block randomization was used with a fixed block size of four. Concealment of ...

  6. Fast and cost-effective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the absence of a reference genome using semideep next-generation Random Amplicon Sequencing (RAMseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerl, Helmut; Kraus, Robert H S; Nowak, Carsten; Foerster, Daniel W; Fickel, Joerns; Kuehn, Ralph

    2017-09-15

    Biodiversity has suffered a dramatic global decline during the past decades, and monitoring tools are urgently needed providing data for the development and evaluation of conservation efforts both on a species and on a genetic level. However, in wild species, the assessment of genetic diversity is often hampered by the lack of suitable genetic markers. In this article, we present Random Amplicon Sequencing (RAMseq), a novel approach for fast and cost-effective detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nonmodel species by semideep sequencing of random amplicons. By applying RAMseq to the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), we identified 238 putative SNPs after quality filtering of all candidate loci and were able to validate 32 of 77 loci tested. In a second step, we evaluated the genotyping performance of these SNP loci in noninvasive samples, one of the most challenging genotyping applications, by comparing it with genotyping results of the same faecal samples at microsatellite markers. We compared (i) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rate, (ii) genotyping errors and (iii) Mendelian inheritance (population parameters). SNPs produced a significantly higher PCR success rate (75.5% vs. 65.1%) and lower mean allelic error rate (8.8% vs. 13.3%) than microsatellites, but showed a higher allelic dropout rate (29.7% vs. 19.8%). Genotyping results showed no deviations from Mendelian inheritance in any of the SNP loci. Hence, RAMseq appears to be a valuable tool for the detection of genetic markers in nonmodel species, which is a common challenge in conservation genetic studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  8. Neurological adverse events of new generation sodium blocker antiepileptic drugs. Meta-analysis of randomized, double-blinded studies with eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide and oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccara, Gaetano; Giovannelli, Fabio; Maratea, Dario; Fadda, Valeria; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of overall tolerability and neurological adverse effects (AEs) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), lacosamide (LCM) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Indirect comparisons of patients withdrawing because of AEs, and the incidence of some vestibulocerebellar AEs between these three antiepileptic dugs (AEDs). We searched MEDLINE for all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating therapeutic effects of fixed oral doses of ESL, LCM and OXC in patients with drug resistant epilepsy. Withdrawal rate due to AEs, percentages of patients with serious AEs, and the proportion of patients experiencing any neurological AE, nausea and vomiting were assessed for their association with the experimental drug. Analyses were performed between recommended daily doses of each AED according to the approved summary of product characteristics (SPC). Risk differences were used to evaluate the association of any AE [99% confidence intervals (CIs)] or study withdrawals because of AEs (95% CIs) with the experimental drug. Indirect comparisons between withdrawal rate and AEs dizziness, coordination abnormal/ataxia and diplopia were estimated according to network meta-analysis (Net-MA). Eight randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials (4 with ESL, 3 with LCM, and 1 with OXC) were included in our analysis. At high doses (OXC 1200mg, ESL 1200mg and LCM 400mg) there was an increased risk of AE-related study withdrawals compared to placebo for all drugs. Several AEs were associated with the experimental drug. Both number and frequency of AEs were dose-related. At high recommended doses, patients treated with OXC withdrew from the experimental treatment significantly more frequently than patients treated with ESL and LCM. Furthermore, the AEs coordination abnormal/ataxia and diplopia were significantly more frequently observed in patients treated with OXC compared to patients treated with LCM and ESL. The overall tolerability

  9. Efficacy of an intranasal modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus and temperature-sensitive parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine in 3-week-old calves experimentally challenged with PI3V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Ilse; Ioannou, Faye; Riegler, Lutz; Salt, Jeremy S; Harmeyer, Silke S

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3V) challenge studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an attenuated live vaccine containing modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and temperature-sensitive PI3V in 3-week-old calves. In the first study, vaccine efficacy was evaluated in colostrum deprived calves. Nasal shedding of PI3V was highly significantly reduced in vaccinated calves challenged 10 days or 21 days after vaccination. In the second study, vaccine efficacy was assessed in calves with maternal antibodies against PI3V by challenge 66 days post-vaccination. Vaccination also significantly reduced PI3V excretion after challenge in this study. In both studies, clinical signs after challenge were very mild and were not different between vaccinated and control calves.

  10. Random Numbers from Astronomical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Bulmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a method to turn astronomical imaging into a random number generator by using the positions of incident cosmic rays and hot pixels to generate bit streams. We subject the resultant bit streams to a battery of standard benchmark statistical tests for randomness and show that these bit streams are statistically the same as a perfect random bit stream. Strategies for improving and building upon this method are outlined.

  11. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of silica micro-resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Qiulin; Rossmann, Tobias; Guo Zhixiong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: guo@jove.rutgers.edu

    2008-12-21

    Optical resonance shifts are measured against temperature changes for different silica beads ranging from 80 to 450 {mu}m in diameter. A micro-bead is fabricated by hydrogen flame fusing the tip of a single mode silica fibre/taper, and coupled to a fibre taper of submicrometre diameter. The coupling system in whispering-gallery modes is placed in an insulated cell. The air in the cell is slowly heated up from room temperature to about 10 K higher, and red shifts of a resonance wavelength during the heating process are recorded. Linear dependence of the wavelength shift versus the temperature rise is observed for all the tested micro-resonators. The measured sensitivity for beads greater than 200 {mu}m in size closely matches the analytical value based on bulk material properties of silica thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect. For smaller micro-beads, however, the measured sensitivity increases with shrinking bead size. The ultra-high resolution of such a kind of temperature micro-sensor and its potential applications are addressed.

  13. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants in the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase: Alterations in the PA Linker Reduce Nuclear Targeting of the PB1-PA Dimer and Result in Viral Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Bruno; Sausset, Alix; Munier, Sandie; Ghounaris, Alexandre; Naffakh, Nadia; Le Goffic, Ronan; Delmas, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    The influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes genome replication and transcription within the cell nucleus. Efficient nuclear import and assembly of the polymerase subunits PB1, PB2, and PA are critical steps in the virus life cycle. We investigated the structure and function of the PA linker (residues 197 to 256), located between its N-terminal endonuclease domain and its C-terminal structured domain that binds PB1, the polymerase core. Circular dichroism experiments revealed that the PA linker by itself is structurally disordered. A large series of PA linker mutants exhibited a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype (reduced viral growth at 39.5°C versus 37°C/33°C), suggesting an alteration of folding kinetic parameters. The ts phenotype was associated with a reduced efficiency of replication/transcription of a pseudoviral reporter RNA in a minireplicon assay. Using a fluorescent-tagged PB1, we observed that ts and lethal PA mutants did not efficiently recruit PB1 to reach the nucleus at 39.5°C. A protein complementation assay using PA mutants, PB1, and β-importin IPO5 tagged with fragments of the Gaussia princeps luciferase showed that increasing the temperature negatively modulated the PA-PB1 and the PA-PB1-IPO5 interactions or complex stability. The selection of revertant viruses allowed the identification of different types of compensatory mutations located in one or the other of the three polymerase subunits. Two ts mutants were shown to be attenuated and able to induce antibodies in mice. Taken together, our results identify a PA domain critical for PB1-PA nuclear import and that is a "hot spot" to engineer ts mutants that could be used to design novel attenuated vaccines. By targeting a discrete domain of the PA polymerase subunit of influenza virus, we were able to identify a series of 9 amino acid positions that are appropriate to engineer temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. This is the first time that a large number of ts mutations were

  14. Random Number Generation: A Practitioner's Overview

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    About the speaker Dr. Mascagni is full professor at Florida State University, where he runs a research group consisting of post-doctoral associates, graduate students, and undergraduate workers. The areas they work on are p...

  15. Random Number Generation for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    issued patent and patent application are included as appendices in the pdf file accompanying this final report. Received Book TOTAL: Received Book Chapter...plan, the product of research undertaken by Silicon Informatics, KEYW Corporation and the UTSA Center for Innovation and Technology Entrepreneurship

  16. Generation and Analysis of Random Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considered in the design of coastal and offshore structures. It should be stressed that, even though all contents in the book are related to sea waves, they have a broader application in practice. For example, the extreme theory has also been......-requirement for the book is the knowledge of linear wave theory....

  17. A Random Word Generator for Pronounceable Passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    gipromso gip-rom-so fitwif fi-twif gadmajbu gad-maj-bu girtwu gir -twu fiufrase fi-u-frase gaibci gaib-ci giwarnn gi-warnn fleac fleac gairgy gairg-y...mu ryu-a-jir ryu-wa ry-wict-fi sad -jip sa-dol sa-hoarv-y sa-huv sal-no-du san-fo sa-nomt sat-nan sav-ki saw-to-yad says-bu sceelt-fu

  18. Short Duration vs Standard Duration of Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents - A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Anthony W A; Khafaji, Hadi; Syed, Ishba; Yan, Andrew T; Udell, Jacob A; Goodman, Shaun G; Cheema, Asim N; Bagai, Akshay

    2016-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend 12 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Whether the duration of DAPT can be safely shortened with use of second-generation DESs is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing short duration (SD) (3-6 months) with standard longer duration (LD) (≥12 months) DAPT in patients treated with primarily second-generation DES implantation. Meta-regression was performed to explore the relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the effect of DAPT duration. Six studies were included, with 12,752/13,928 (91.5%) patients receiving second-generation DESs. A total of 5367 patients (39%) had PCI in the setting of ACS. There was no difference in all-cause mortality (1.1% vs 1.2%; odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.18; P=.36) or cardiac mortality (0.9% vs 1.0%; OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.61-1.39; P=.69) with SD-DAPT vs LD-DAPT, respectively. Definite/probable stent thrombosis (0.5% vs 0.3%; OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.75-2.34; P=.51), myocardial infarction (1.5% vs 1.3%; OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.88-1.56; P=.29), and stroke (0.4% vs 0.4%; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.81; P=.88) were similar between the groups. Compared with LD-DAPT, SD-DAPT was associated with lower clinically significant bleeding (0.9% vs 1.4%; OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.89; P=.01). Meta-regression analysis showed no significant association between the proportion of ACS patients in trials and duration of DAPT for the outcomes of mortality (P=.95), myocardial infarction (P=.98), or stent thrombosis (P=.89). In low-risk patients treated with contemporary second-generation DES implantation, SD-DAPT has similar rates of mortality, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis, with lower rates of bleeding compared with LD-DAPT.

  19. Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process.

  20. The use of NO2 absorption cross section temperature sensitivity to derive NO2 profile temperature and stratospheric–tropospheric column partitioning from visible direct-sun DOAS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Spinei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a temperature sensitivity method (TESEM to accurately calculate total vertical NO2 column, atmospheric slant NO2 profile-weighted temperature (T, and to separate stratospheric and tropospheric columns from direct-sun (DS, ground-based measurements using the retrieved T. TESEM is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS fitting of the linear temperature-dependent NO2 absorption cross section, σ (T, regression model (Vandaele et al., 2003. Separation between stratospheric and tropospheric columns is based on the primarily bimodal vertical distribution of NO2 and an assumption that stratospheric effective temperature can be represented by temperature at 27 km ± 3 K, and tropospheric effective temperature is equal to surface temperature within 3–5 K. These assumptions were derived from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry-transport model (CTM simulations over two northern midlatitude sites in 2011. TESEM was applied to the Washington State University Multi-Function DOAS instrument (MFDOAS measurements at four midlatitude locations with low and moderate NO2 anthropogenic emissions: (1 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (JPL-TMF, CA, USA (34.38° N/117.68° W; (2 Pullman, WA, USA (46.73° N/117.17° W; (3 Greenbelt, MD, USA (38.99° N/76.84° W; and (4 Cabauw, the Netherlands (51.97° N/4.93° E during July 2007, June–July 2009, July–August and October 2011, November 2012–May 2013, respectively. NO2 T and total, stratospheric, and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns were determined over each site.

  1. Synthesis, Characteristics and Potential Application of Poly(β-Amino Ester Urethane)-Based Multiblock Co-Polymers as an Injectable, Biodegradable and pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Cong Truc; Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Jeong, In Ki; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Physical polymeric hydrogels have significant potential for use as injectable depot drug/protein-delivery systems. In this study, a series of novel injectable, biodegradable and pH/temperature-sensitive multiblock co-polymer physical hydrogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(β-amino ester urethane) (PEU) was synthesized by the polyaddition between the isocyanate groups of 1,6-diisocyanato hexamethylene and the hydroxyl groups of PEG and a synthesized monomer BTB (or ETE) in chloroform in the presence of dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. The synthesized co-polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography. Aqueous solutions of the co-polymers showed a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing pH and a gel-to-sol phase transition with increasing temperature. The gel regions covered the physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4) and could be controlled by changing the molecular weight of PEG, PEG/PEU ratio and co-polymer solution concentration. A gel formed rapidly in situ after injecting the co-polymer solution subcutaneously into SD rats and remained for more than 2 weeks in the body. The cytotoxicity tests confirmed the non-cytotoxicity of this co-polymer hydrogel. The controlled in vitro release of the model anticancer drug, doxorubicin, from this hydrogel occurred over a 7-day period. This hydrogel is a potential candidate for biomedical applications and drug/protein-delivery systems.

  2. Measuring signal generators theory & design

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yuriy K

    2014-01-01

    The book brings together the following issues: Theory of deterministic, random and discrete signals reproducible in oscillatory systems of generators; Generation of periodic signals with a specified spectrum, harmonic distortion factor and random signals with specified probability density function and spectral density; Synthesis of oscillatory system structures; Analysis of oscillatory systems with non-linear elements and oscillation amplitude stabilization systems; It considers the conditions and criteria of steady-state modes in signal generators on active four-pole elements with unidirectional and bidirectional transmission of signals and on two-pole elements; analogues of Barkhausen criteria; Optimization of oscillatory system structures by harmonic distortion level, minimization of a frequency error and set-up time of the steady state mode; Theory of construction of random signal generators; Construction of discrete and digital signal generators; Practical design of main units of generators; Practical bl...

  3. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  4. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  5. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  7. True Randomness from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  8. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  9. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  10. The Use of Continuous Treatment Versus Placebo or Intermittent Treatment Strategies in Stabilized Patients with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials with First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; Sermon, Jan; Geerts, Paul; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Peuskens, Joseph; Detraux, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Although continuous treatment with antipsychotics is still recommended as the gold standard treatment paradigm for all patients with schizophrenia, some clinicians question whether continuous antipsychotic treatment is necessary, or even justified, for every patient with schizophrenia who has been stabilized on antipsychotics. The primary objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare relapse/hospitalization risks of stabilized patients with schizophrenia under active versus intermittent or placebo treatment conditions; (ii) to examine the role of several study characteristics, possibly intervening in the relationship between relapse risk and treatment condition; and (iii) to examine whether time to relapse is associated with antipsychotic treatment duration. A systematic literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1950 until November 2014), was conducted for English-language published randomized controlled trials, covering a follow-up time period of at least 6 months, and investigating relapse/rehospitalization and/or time-to-relapse rates with placebo or intermittent treatment strategies versus continuous treatment with oral and long-acting injectable first- or second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs/SGAs) in stabilized patients with schizophrenia. Additional studies were identified through searches of reference lists of other identified systematic reviews and Cochrane reports. Two meta-analyses (placebo versus continuous and intermittent versus continuous treatment) were performed to obtain an optimal estimation of the relapse/hospitalization risks of stabilized patients with schizophrenia under these treatment conditions and to assess the role of study characteristics. For time-to-relapse data, a descriptive analysis was performed. Forty-eight reports were selected as potentially eligible for our meta-analysis. Of these, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-five records, identified through Cochrane and other systematic reviews and

  11. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  12. Distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, E.

    1999-09-02

    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  13. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  14. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  15. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  16. Hydrogen Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  17. Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C

    2010-04-15

    Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory.

  18. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. S.; Annibale, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.

    2013-02-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  19. Autocorrelation peaks in congruential pseudorandom number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, F.; Merrick, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The complete correlation structure of several congruential pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) of the same type and small cycle length was studied to deal with the problem of congruential PRNG almost repeating themselves at intervals smaller than their cycle lengths, during simulation of bandpass filtered normal random noise. Maximum period multiplicative and mixed congruential generators were studied, with inferences drawn from examination of several tractable members of a class of random number generators, and moduli from 2 to the 5th power to 2 to the 9th power. High correlation is shown to exist in mixed and multiplicative congruential random number generators and prime moduli Lehmer generators for shifts a fraction of their cycle length. The random noise sequences in question are required when simulating electrical noise, air turbulence, or time variation of wind parameters.

  20. Idea generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian H. T.; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2015-01-01

    as having new sociocultural meaning in line with Vergantis definition of radical innovation. This paper discusses the results of an experiment with 32 students on idea generation and product concept development. The experiment was setup as and A-B comparison between two set of students with the same...... of an idea generation whether the outset is ill defined and questioned as opposed to straightforward ideation on a proposal for a solution? The hypothesis is that an approach to ideation where ambiguity and discrepancy deliberately is sought creates more radical innovation that an approach without this...

  1. Solar Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  2. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  3. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  4. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  5. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  6. Heat Generation During Bony Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Using a High-Speed Diamond Drill with or without Automated Irrigation and an Ultrasonic Bone-Cutting Knife: A Single-Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Marc; Pillich, Dirk Thomas; El Refaee, Ehab; Schroeder, Henry W S; Müller, Jan-Uwe

    2017-12-08

    The main objective of the present prospective, randomized, single-blinded controlled study was to measure heat during bony decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis with high-speed drills and an ultrasonic bone-cutting knife. Ninety patients diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this study and randomized for lumbar spinal canal decompression using either a high-speed drill with automatic irrigation, high-speed drill with manual irrigation, or an ultrasonic bone-cutting knife with automatic irrigation (USBCD). For evaluation of group homogeneity, a visual analog scale pain score and neurologic findings were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Temperatures during bony decompression were measured using a forward-looking infrared camera system. Clinical results among the 3 groups did not differ in pain reduction, improvement of neurologic findings, or the rate of complications. However, significantly lower values were found for absolute and mean maximal temperatures during bony decompression in the USBCD group compared with the groups of patients who received the high-speed drill with automatic irrigation and the high-speed drill with manual irrigation, indicating this technique to be less aggressive in terms of thermal induction of bone necrosis. USBCD allows more precise bone removal compared with high-speed drills, and despite increased device time, no significant difference in the overall decompression time was observed. All methods examined produced short temperature peaks with possible, at least temporary, damage to bone and neural tissue. Automatic irrigation was associated with lower heat development compared with manual irrigation. Despite evidence of critical temperatures, no clinical correlation (e.g., neurologic deficits) was encountered in this study. Clinically, all 3 methods presented equally good results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  8. Entropy Characterization of Random Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Zufiria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the Random Network Model (RNM as a mathematical framework for modelling and analyzing the generation of complex networks. Such framework allows the analysis of the relationship between several network characterizing features (link density, clustering coefficient, degree distribution, connectivity, etc. and entropy-based complexity measures, providing new insight on the generation and characterization of random networks. Some theoretical and computational results illustrate the utility of the proposed framework.

  9. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  10. Composite continuous time random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Random walks in composite continuous time are introduced. Composite time flow is the product of translational time flow and fractional time flow [see Chem. Phys. 84, 399 (2002)]. The continuum limit of composite continuous time random walks gives a diffusion equation where the infinitesimal generator of time flow is the sum of a first order and a fractional time derivative. The latter is specified as a generalized Riemann-Liouville derivative. Generalized and binomial Mittag-Leffler functions are found as the exact results for waiting time density and mean square displacement.

  11. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  12. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAndrea, David Christopher; Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-07-19

    More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization's Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate -0.45, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate -0.44, 95% CI -0.68 to -0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate -0.35, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate -0.37, 95% CI -0.64 to -0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate -0.81, 95% CI -1.04 to -0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate -0.68, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.49), the likelihood of participants recommending the drug (point estimate -0.61, 95% CI -0

  13. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comp....... A comparison of the rare earth usage in different topologies of permanent magnet generators and superconducting generators is also presented....

  14. Long term outcomes of new generation drug eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel and/or left main coronary artery disease. A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, George S; Watti, Hussam; Soliman, Demiana; Shewale, Anand; Atkins, Jessica; Reddy, Pratap; Dominic, Paari

    2018-01-05

    Most data guiding revascularization of multivessel disease (MVD) and/or left main disease (LMD) favor coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, those data are based on trials comparing CABG to bare metal stents (BMS) or old generation drug eluting stents (OG-DES). Hence, it is essential to outcomes of CABG to those of new generation drug eluting stents (NG-DES). We searched PUBMED and Cochrane database for trials evaluating revascularization of MVD and/or LMD with CABG and/or PCI. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible intervals (CrI). Primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 3-5 years. Secondary outcomes were mortality, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), myocardial infarction (MI) and repeat revascularization. We included 10 trials with a total of 9287 patients. CABG was associated with lower MACE when compared to BMS or OG-DES. However, MACE was not significantly different between CABG and NG-DES (OR 0.79, CrI 0.45-1.40). Moreover, there were no significant differences between CABG and NG-DES in mortality (OR 0.78, CrI 0.45-1.37), CVA (OR 0.93 CrI 0.35-2.2) or MI (OR 0.6, CrI 0.17-2.0). On the other hand, CABG was associated with lower repeat revascularization (OR 0.55, CrI 0.36-0.84). Our study suggests that NG-DES is an acceptable alternative to CABG in patients with MVD and/or LMD. However, repeat revascularization remains to be lower with CABG than with PCI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Keystream Generator Based On Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad A. Abdulsalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the design of keystream generator using heuristic techniques are reported. A simulated annealing algorithm for generating random keystream with large complexity is presented. Simulated annealing technique is adapted to locate these requirements. The definitions for some cryptographic properties are generalized, providing a measure suitable for use as an objective function in a simulated annealing algorithm, seeking randomness that satisfy both correlation immunity and the large linear complexity. Results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  16. Solar generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkats, G.; Chenin, C.; Foucras, J.; Marnay, L.

    1978-07-18

    The present invention relates to a solar generator for producing electrical energy from solar energy, mounted in particular on board an artificial satellite and constituted by a plurality of pivoted panels, stacked but unfoldable, each of which comprises a thick frame inside which is disposed a thin flexible support carrying solar cells, said frame comprising intermediate stiffeners connecting two opposite sides of the frame, wherein each panel comprises, between two intermediate stiffeners and between the end intermediate stiffeners and the sides of the frame there-opposite, a plurality of wide, flat auxiliary stiffeners, transverse with respect to the intermediate stiffeners and on which said flexible support is fixed at least partially.

  17. True randomness from an incoherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) harness the intrinsic randomness in measurement processes: the measurement outputs are truly random, given the input state is a superposition of the eigenstates of the measurement operators. In the case of trusted devices, true randomness could be generated from a mixed state ρ so long as the system entangled with ρ is well protected. We propose a random number generation scheme based on measuring the quadrature fluctuations of a single mode thermal state using an optical homodyne detector. By mixing the output of a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with a single mode local oscillator (LO) at a beam splitter and performing differential photo-detection, we can selectively detect the quadrature fluctuation of a single mode output of the ASE source, thanks to the filtering function of the LO. Experimentally, a quadrature variance about three orders of magnitude larger than the vacuum noise has been observed, suggesting this scheme can tolerate much higher detector noise in comparison with QRNGs based on measuring the vacuum noise. The high quality of this entropy source is evidenced by the small correlation coefficients of the acquired data. A Toeplitz-hashing extractor is applied to generate unbiased random bits from the Gaussian distributed raw data, achieving an efficiency of 5.12 bits per sample. The output of the Toeplitz extractor successfully passes all the NIST statistical tests for random numbers.

  18. Optimal codon randomization via mathematical programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nov, Yuval; Segev, Danny

    2013-10-21

    Codon randomization via degenerate oligonucleotides is a widely used approach for generating protein libraries. We use integer programming methodology to model and solve the problem of computing the minimal mixture of oligonucleotides required to induce an arbitrary target probability over the 20 standard amino acids. We consider both randomization via conventional degenerate oligonucleotides, which incorporate at each position of the randomized codon certain nucleotides in equal probabilities, and randomization via spiked oligonucleotides, which admit arbitrary nucleotide distribution at each of the codon's positions. Existing methods for computing such mixtures rely on various heuristics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QUASI-RANDOM TESTING OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yarmolik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modified random testing approaches have been proposed for computer system testing in the black box environment. Their effectiveness has been evaluated on the typical failure patterns by employing three measures, namely, P-measure, E-measure and F-measure. A quasi-random testing, being a modified version of the random testing, has been proposed and analyzed. The quasi-random Sobol sequences and modified Sobol sequences are used as the test patterns. Some new methods for Sobol sequence generation have been proposed and analyzed.

  20. Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Shinde, Anant; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination in wide-field fluorescence microscope. In the state of art SIM systems, grating patterns are generally generated by physical gratings or by spatial light modulators such as digital micro mirrors (DMD), liquid crystal displays (LCD). In this study, using a combination of LCD and ground glasses, size controlled randomized speckle patterns are generated as an illumination source for the microscope. Proof of concept of using speckle illumination in SIM configuration is tested by imaging fixed BPAE cells.

  1. Round-Robin Streaming with Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    We consider three types of application layer coding for streaming over lossy links: random linear coding, systematic random linear coding, and structured coding. The file being streamed is divided into sub-blocks (generations). Code symbols are formed by combining data belonging to the same...... coding operations cause packet drops in higher layers and negatively affect the net throughput. We find from our experimental results that low-rate MDS codes are best for small generation sizes, whereas systematic random linear coding has the best net throughput and lowest energy consumption for larger...

  2. Plasma biomarker analysis in pediatric ARDS: generating future framework from a pilot randomized control trial of methylprednisoloneA framework for identifying plasma biomarkers related to clinical outcomes in pediatric ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai eKimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lung injury activates multiple pro-inflammatory pathways, including neutrophils, epithelial and endothelial injury, and coagulation factors leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Low-dose methylprednisolone therapy (MPT improved oxygenation and ventilation in early pediatric ARDS without altering duration of mechanical ventilation or mortality. We evaluated the effects of MPT on biomarkers of endothelial (Ang-2, sICAM-1 or epithelial (sRAGE injury, neutrophil activation (MMP-8, and coagulation (PAI-1. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trialSetting: Tertiary-care Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients: Mechanically ventilated children (0-18 years with early ARDS.Interventions: Blood samples were collected on Days 0 (before MPT, 7, and 14 during low-dose MPT (n=17 vs. placebo (n=18 therapy. The MPT group received a 2mg/kg loading dose followed by 1mg/kg/day continuous infusions from days 1-7, tapered off over 7 days; placebo group received equivalent amounts of 0.9% saline. We analyzed plasma samples using a multiplex assay for 5 biomarkers of ARDS. Multiple regression models were constructed to predict associations between changes in biomarkers and the clinical outcomes reported earlier including: P/F ratio on days 8&9, plateau pressure on days 1&2, PaCO2 on days 2&3, racemic epinephrine following extubation, and supplemental oxygen at ICU discharge.Results: No differences occurred in biomarker concentrations between the groups on Day 0. On Day 7, reduction in MMP-8 levels (p=0.0016 occurred in the MPT group, whereas increases in sICAM-1 levels (p=0.0005 occurred in the placebo group (no increases in sICAM-1 in the MPT group. sRAGE levels decreased in both MPT and placebo groups (p<0.0001 from Day 0 to Day 7. On Day 7, sRAGE levels were positively correlated with MPT group PaO2/FiO2 ratios on Day 8 (r=0.93, p=0.024. O2 requirements at ICU transfer positively correlated with Day 7 MMP-8 (r=0.85, p=0

  3. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  4. A Multi-Threaded Cryptographic Pseudorandom Number Generator Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Cloud GSL GNU scientific library KSTEST Kolmogorov-Smirnov test NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology OpenMP Open Multi-Processing OTP...one-time pad POSIX Portable Operating System Interface PRNG pseudorandom number generator RA resolve ambiguity RNG random number generator SSH secure...chats of Cryptocat due to a programming flaw [1]. A bug in the BigInt library caused the random number generator to have a slight bias when generating

  5. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian, E-mail: rcolbeck@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: a.p.a.kent@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  6. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  7. Applying Randomness Effectively Based on Random Forests for Classification Task of Datasets of Insufficient Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyontai Sug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Random forests are known to be good for data mining of classification tasks, because random forests are robust for datasets having insufficient information possibly with some errors. But applying random forests blindly may not produce good results, and a dataset in the domain of rotogravure printing is one of such datasets. Hence, in this paper, some best classification accuracy based on clever application of random forests to predict the occurrence of cylinder bands in rotogravure printing is investigated. Since random forests could generate good results with an appropriate combination of parameters like the number of randomly selected attributes for each split and the number of trees in the forests, an effective data mining procedure considering the property of the target dataset by way of trial random forests is investigated. The effectiveness of the suggested procedure is shown by experiments with very good results.

  8. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  9. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  10. Temperature Sensitive Nanocapsule of Complex Structural Form for Methane Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyetin MV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The processes of methane adsorption, storage and desorption by the nanocapsule are investigated with molecular-dynamic modeling method. The specific nanocapsule shape defines its functioning uniqueness: methane is adsorbed under 40 MPa and at normal temperature with further blocking of methane molecules the K@C601+ endohedral complex in the nanocapsule by external electric field, the storage is performed under normal external conditions, and methane desorption is performed at 350 K. The methane content in the nanocapsule during storage reaches 11.09 mass%. The nanocapsule consists of tree parts: storage chamber, junction and blocking chamber. The storage chamber comprises the nanotube (20,20. The blocking chamber is a short nanotube (20,20 with three holes. The junction consists of the nanotube (10,10 and nanotube (8,8; moreover, the nanotube (8,8 is connected with the storage chamber and nanotube (10,10 with the blocking chamber. The blocking chamber is opened and closed by the transfer of the K@C60 1+ endohedral complex under electrostatic field action.

  11. Temperature Sensitivity of Neural Tube Defects in Zoep Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Phyo; Swartz, Morgan R; Kindt, Lexy M; Kangas, Ashley M; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2015-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) occur when the flat neural plate epithelium fails to fold into the neural tube, the precursor to the brain and spinal cord. Squint (Sqt/Ndr1), a Nodal ligand, and One-eyed pinhead (Oep), a component of the Nodal receptor, are required for anterior neural tube closure in zebrafish. The NTD in sqt and Zoep mutants are incompletely penetrant. The penetrance of several defects in sqt mutants increases upon heat or cold shock. In this project, undergraduate students tested whether temperature influences the Zoep open neural tube phenotype. Single pairs of adults were spawned at 28.5°C, the normal temperature for zebrafish, and one half of the resulting embryos were moved to 34°C at different developmental time points. Analysis of variance indicated temperature and clutch/genetic background significantly contributed to the penetrance of the open neural tube phenotype. Heat shock affected the embryos only at or before the midblastula stage. Many factors, including temperature changes in the mother, nutrition, and genetic background, contribute to NTD in humans. Thus, sqt and Zoep mutants may serve as valuable models for studying the interactions between genetics and the environment during neurulation.

  12. Identification of a novel temperature sensitive promoter in cho cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Friedemann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO expression system is the leading production platform for manufacturing biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of numerous human diseases. Efforts to optimize the production process also include the genetic construct encoding the therapeutic gene. Here we report about the successful identification of an endogenous highly active gene promoter obtained from CHO cells which shows conditionally inducible gene expression at reduced temperature. Results Based on CHO microarray expression data abundantly transcribed genes were selected as potential promoter candidates. The S100a6 (calcyclin and its flanking regions were identified from a genomic CHO-K1 lambda-phage library. Computational analyses showed a predicted TSS, a TATA-box and several TFBSs within the 1.5 kb region upstream the ATG start signal. Various constructs were investigated for promoter activity at 37°C and 33°C in transient luciferase reporter gene assays. Most constructs showed expression levels even higher than the SV40 control and on average a more than two-fold increase at lower temperature. We identified the core promoter sequence (222 bp comprising two SP1 sites and could show a further increase in activity by duplication of this minimal sequence. Conclusions This novel CHO promoter permits conditionally high-level gene expression. Upon a shift to 33°C, a two to three-fold increase of basal productivity (already higher than SV40 promoter is achieved. This property is of particular advantage for a process with reduced expression during initial cell growth followed by the production phase at low temperature with a boost in expression. Additionally, production of toxic proteins becomes feasible, since cell metabolism and gene expression do not directly interfere. The CHO S100a6 promoter can be characterized as cold-shock responsive with the potential for improving process performance of mammalian expression systems.

  13. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "'mne hody of water. This study exumines the oxygen affinities of haemoglobin solutions. stripped hy gel flitruton chromatography, of two. Orange River fishes. L C(f/Jell ds and C. gariepifHH,

  14. Temperature Sensitive Optical Phenomena in Heavy Metal Halide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-08

    at 25°C. - 152 - -.5 .5 p____•__s_ —a~~~~ -- - -- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -.5— - - - -——-- .5--- -.5- - -.5 -.5, ~~~~ ‘4- P~11_~PM1 ~ SOIl ...detector ( narcissus effect). Figure 2.6-4. Thermographic image of Pb12-on-glass sample taken using 8 to l4ii wavelength radiation, 199 - - L

  15. Magnetocaloric effect in temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The pyromagnetic coefficient for all the materials were obtained and it was found that this property depends on physical and magnetic ... Magnetic fluid; pyromagnetic coefficient; Curie temperature. 1. Introduction. A magnetic fluid .... fluid, the distribution of particle size generally follows the log-normal distribution function ...

  16. Temperature-sensitive photoreactivation of cyclobutane thymine dimer in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayumi; Tanbir, Najrana; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Teranishi, Mika; Hidema, Jun; Morioka, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    UV radiation induces the formation of two classes of photoproducts in DNA, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone photoproduct. CPDs in plants are repaired by class II CPD photolyase via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism. The genes for the class II CPD photolyase have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Oryza sativa (rice) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach). Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) has been identified as a cofactor. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the CPD photolyase cDNA from soybean (Glycin max). The sequence of amino acids predicted from the cDNA sequence was highly homologous to sequences of higher plant class II CPD photolyases. When the cDNA was expressed in a photolyase-deficient Escherichia coli, photoreactivation activity was partially restored by illumination with a fluorescent light. The purified enzyme showed CPD binding and light-dependent photoreactivation activities in vitro. When soybean CPD photolyase was heat-treated in vitro from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C for 3 min, thymine dimer-binding activity and photoreactivation activity were decreased, and FAD was released from the enzyme. On the other hand, when the enzyme-CPD complex was heat-treated, photoreactivation activity was stable. We argue that FAD in the soybean CPD photolyase is labile for temperature, but once the enzyme-CPD complex has formed, FAD becomes tightly bound to the enzyme or complex.

  17. Random scalar fields and hyperuniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng; Torquato, Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystals and liquids. Hyperuniform systems have attracted recent attention because they are endowed with novel transport and optical properties. Recently, the hyperuniformity concept has been generalized to characterize two-phase media, scalar fields, and random vector fields. In this paper, we devise methods to explicitly construct hyperuniform scalar fields. Specifically, we analyze spatial patterns generated from Gaussian random fields, which have been used to model the microwave background radiation and heterogeneous materials, the Cahn-Hilliard equation for spinodal decomposition, and Swift-Hohenberg equations that have been used to model emergent pattern formation, including Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We show that the Gaussian random scalar fields can be constructed to be hyperuniform. We also numerically study the time evolution of spinodal decomposition patterns and demonstrate that they are hyperuniform in the scaling regime. Moreover, we find that labyrinth-like patterns generated by the Swift-Hohenberg equation are effectively hyperuniform. We show that thresholding (level-cutting) a hyperuniform Gaussian random field to produce a two-phase random medium tends to destroy the hyperuniformity of the progenitor scalar field. We then propose guidelines to achieve effectively hyperuniform two-phase media derived from thresholded non-Gaussian fields. Our investigation paves the way for new research directions to characterize the large-structure spatial patterns that arise in physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology. Moreover, our theoretical results are expected to guide experimentalists to synthesize new classes of hyperuniform materials with novel physical properties via coarsening processes and using state-of-the-art techniques, such as stereolithography and 3D printing.

  18. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  19. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Random Walks in a Random Environment. S R S Varadhan. Invited Articles Volume 114 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S R S Varadhan1. Department of Mathematics, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012, USA ...

  20. Mathematical Problems in Imaging in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    random media but flat boundaries. 2 distribution to a random Markov diffusion P whose generator can be computed explicitly in terms of the...Note how the numerically computed weights (blue line) match those computed analytically (red). Note also that the algorithm estimates that only the first...source electromagnetic inversion. We analyzed theoretically the algorithm and assesed its performance using numerical simulations. • The solicited article

  1. Random walks on random Koch curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, S; Hoffmann, K H [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Essex, C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2009-06-05

    Diffusion processes in porous materials are often modeled as random walks on fractals. In order to capture the randomness of the materials random fractals are employed, which no longer show the deterministic self-similarity of regular fractals. Finding a continuum differential equation describing the diffusion on such fractals has been a long-standing goal, and we address the question of whether the concepts developed for regular fractals are still applicable. We use the random Koch curve as a convenient example as it provides certain technical advantages by its separation of time and space features. While some of the concepts developed for regular fractals can be used unaltered, others have to be modified. Based on the concept of fibers, we introduce ensemble-averaged density functions which produce a differentiable estimate of probability explicitly and compare it to random walk data.

  2. Generating k-independent variables in constant time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, Tobias Lybecker; Pagh, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The generation of pseudorandom elements over finite fields is fundamental to the time, space and randomness complexity of randomized algorithms and data structures. We consider the problem of generating k-independent random values over a finite field F in a word RAM model equipped with constant...... time addition and multiplication in F, and present the first nontrivial construction of a generator that outputs each value in constant time, not dependent on k. Our generator has period length |F| poly log k and uses k poly (log k) log |F| bits of space, which is optimal up to a poly log k factor. We...

  3. Manyfield inflation in random potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkmo, Theodor; Marsh, M. C. David

    2018-02-01

    We construct models of inflation with many randomly interacting fields and use these to study the generation of cosmological observables. We model the potentials as multi-dimensional Gaussian random fields (GRFs) and identify powerful algebraic simplifications that, for the first time, make it possible to access the manyfield limit of inflation in GRF potentials. Focussing on small-field, slow-roll, approximate saddle-point inflation in potentials with structure on sub-Planckian scales, we construct explicit examples involving up to 100 fields and generate statistical ensembles comprising of 164,000 models involving 5 to 50 fields. For the subset of these that support at least sixty e-folds of inflation, we use the 'transport method' and δ N formalism to determine the predictions for cosmological observables at the end of inflation, including the power spectrum and the local non-Gaussianities of the primordial perturbations. We find three key results: i) Planck compatibility is not rare, but future experiments may rule out this class of models; ii) In the manyfield limit, the predictions from these models agree well with, but are sharper than, previous results derived using potentials constructed through non-equilibrium Random Matrix Theory; iii) Despite substantial multifield effects, non-Gaussianities are typically very small: fNLloc ll 1. We conclude that many of the 'generic predictions' of single-field inflation can be emergent features of complex inflation models.

  4. Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    according to the Cayley -Hamilton theorem (any linear transformation is a zero of its own CP). Therefore Bk can be expressed as a combination of lower...Canada, February 2007. To appear with minor revisions in Advancing the Frontiers of Simulation: A Festschrift in Honor of George S. Fishman. 16

  5. On a numerical solving of random generated hexamatrix games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Andrei; Strekalovskiy, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a global search method for finding a Nash equilibrium in a hexamatrix game (polymatrix game of three players). The method, on the one hand, is based on the equivalence theorem of the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium in the game and a special mathematical optimization problem, and, on the other hand, on the usage of Global Search Theory for solving the latter problem. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by the results of computational testing.

  6. Analisis SIM Card Cloning Terhadap Algoritma Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Nuril; Riadi, Imam; Luthfi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    . Crime in telecommunication sector has increased prevalently, especially with the use of mobile phone which is detrimental both for customers and the providers. In the GSM security system, several weaknesses are found concerning data security outside the network. SIM card clone is part of the security problem in which the data can be transferred to SIM card cloning media. SIM card cloning research can be presented in the form of SRES analysis algorithms A3 and A8 RAND to get Ki Auc for furth...

  7. Non-diffractive beam in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-09-01

    Beam propagation has been given important attention in a variety of applications in medicine, remote sensing and information science. Especially, the beam propagation in highly scattering media, which is called random media, is important. In general, the multiple scattering gets rid of beam characteristics, e.g., intensity distribution, phase front, and polarization. In this study, self-converging effect of annular beam was applied in random media. Diluted milk was used as random media, and the transmitted light was detected with a narrow view angle of 5.5mrad. The collimated annular beam of a few tens millimeters takes a few hundred meters to transform its beam shape into the non-diffractive beam in free space, while this transformation was shorten only to 20 cm in random media, that is, the collimated annular beam caused its transformation at only 20 cm in random media. The transformed beam kept its optical characteristics of ;non-diffractive beam;. Such transformation of the annular beam needs the appropriate condition of random media. Media concentration and propagation distance control the generation of the center peak intensity of the transformed beam. This study indicates the generation of the non-diffractive beam in random media and reveals its appropriate condition.

  8. Provably Secure Experimental Quantum Bit-String Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Brainis, Edouard; Amans, David; Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge

    2004-01-01

    Coin tossing is a cryptographic task in which two parties who do not trust each other aim to generate a common random bit. Using classical communication this is impossible, but non trivial coin tossing is possible using quantum communication. Here we consider the case when the parties do not want to toss a single coin, but many. This is called bit string generation. We report the experimental generation of strings of coins which are provably more random than achievable using classical communi...

  9. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    of quantity in the face of a downward sloping demand curve and recognition of their impact on the market price. If firms are subject to random firm-specific shocks, then in this equilibrium setting a population of such firms would generate a pattern of growth consistent with Gibrat’s law. However, if broader......A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences...... component, but for much of an industry’s and firm’s history should have a random pattern consistent with the Gibrat property. The intuition is as follows. In a Cournot equilibrium, firms of better “type” (i.e., lower cost) realize a larger market share, but act with some restraint on their choice...

  10. Cryptography, statistics and pseudo-randomness (Part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.; Gill, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    In the classical approach to pseudo-random number generators, a generator is considered to perform well if its output sequences pass a battery of statistical tests that has become standard. In recent years, it has turned out that this approach is not satisfactory. Many generators have turned out to

  11. Random matrices, random processes and integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the remarkable connections between two domains that, a priori, seem unrelated: Random matrices (together with associated random processes) and integrable systems. The relations between random matrix models and the theory of classical integrable systems have long been studied. These appear mainly in the deformation theory, when parameters characterizing the measures or the domain of localization of the eigenvalues are varied. The resulting differential equations determining the partition function and correlation functions are, remarkably, of the same type as certain equations appearing in the theory of integrable systems. They may be analyzed effectively through methods based upon the Riemann-Hilbert problem of analytic function theory and by related approaches to the study of nonlinear asymptotics in the large N limit. Associated with studies of matrix models are certain stochastic processes, the "Dyson processes", and their continuum diffusion limits, which govern the spectrum in random ma...

  12. Leading Generation Y

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Jill M

    2008-01-01

    .... Whether referred to as the Millennial Generation, Generation Y or the Next Generation, the Army needs to consider the gap between Boomers, Generation X and the Soldiers that fill our junior ranks...

  13. Misuse of randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The quality of randomization of Chinese randomized trials on herbal medicines for hepatitis B was assessed. Search strategy and inclusion criteria were based on the published protocol. One hundred and seventy-six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 20,452 patients with chronic hepatitis B....../150) of the studies were imbalanced at the 0.05 level of probability for the two treatments and 13.3% (20/150) imbalanced at the 0.01 level in the randomization. It is suggested that there may exist misunderstanding of the concept and the misuse of randomization based on the review....

  14. Intracellular bottom-up generation of targeted nanosensors for single-molecule imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-02-01

    Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local temperature changes in response to external heat pulses. Our approach is potentially a suitable tool for visualizing localized cellular activities with single probe sensitivity in living cells.Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local

  15. Nonquadratic Variation of the Blum Blum Shub Pseudorandom Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    the use of random numbers. For this rea- son, cryptographers design pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) as a method of generating random numbers...fails the block frequency test, as it is clearly not random . 3.3.3 Runs Test A run is defined as a series of either 1’s or 0’s in a row. The purpose of...that would be expected of a random sequence. The NIST standard uses three common block sizes for this test, M = 8, 128, and 10, 000. The test divides

  16. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  17. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  18. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  19. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...

  20. Random Oracles in a Quantum World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Boneh; O. Dagdelen; M. Fischlin; D. Lehmann; C. Schaffner (Christian); M. Zhandry

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractThe interest in post-quantum cryptography - classical systems that remain secure in the presence of a quantum adversary - has generated elegant proposals for new cryptosystems. Some of these systems are set in the random oracle model and are proven secure relative to adversaries that