Entanglement dynamics in random media
Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.; Zarro, C. A. D.
2017-12-01
We study how the entanglement dynamics between two-level atoms is impacted by random fluctuations of the light cone. In our model the two-atom system is envisaged as an open system coupled with an electromagnetic field in the vacuum state. We employ the quantum master equation in the Born-Markov approximation in order to describe the completely positive time evolution of the atomic system. We restrict our investigations to the situation in which the atoms are coupled individually to two spatially separated cavities, one of which displays the emergence of light-cone fluctuations. In such a disordered cavity, we assume that the coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are random functions of the spatial coordinates. The disordered medium is modeled by a centered, stationary, and Gaussian process. We demonstrate that disorder has the effect of slowing down the entanglement decay. We conjecture that in a strong-disorder environment the mean life of entangled states can be enhanced in such a way as to almost completely suppress quantum nonlocal decoherence.
Entanglement spectrum and entangled modes of random XX spin chains
Pouranvari, Mohammad; Yang, Kun
2013-08-01
In this paper, we study the ground-state entanglement properties of finite XX spin-1/2 chains with random couplings using the Jordan-Wigner transformation. We divide the system into two parts and study the reduced density matrices (RDMs) of its subsystems. Due to the free-fermion nature of the problem, the RDMs take the form of that of a free-fermion thermal ensemble. Finding the spectrum of the corresponding entanglement Hamiltonian and corresponding eigenvectors and comparing them with the real-space renormalization-group (RSRG) treatment, we establish the validity of the RSRG approach for entanglement in the limit of strong disorder but also find its limitations when disorder is weak. In the latter case, our paper provides a way to visualize the ``effective spins'' that form long-distance singlet pairs.
Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Nahum
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.
Quantum Entanglement in Random Physical States
Hamma, Alioscia; Santra, Siddhartha; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-07-01
Most states in the Hilbert space are maximally entangled. This fact has proven useful to investigate—among other things—the foundations of statistical mechanics. Unfortunately, most states in the Hilbert space of a quantum many-body system are not physically accessible. We define physical ensembles of states acting on random factorized states by a circuit of length k of random and independent unitaries with local support. We study the typicality of entanglement by means of the purity of the reduced state. We find that for a time k=O(1), the typical purity obeys the area law. Thus, the upper bounds for area law are actually saturated, on average, with a variance that goes to zero for large systems. Similarly, we prove that by means of local evolution a subsystem of linear dimensions L is typically entangled with a volume law when the time scales with the size of the subsystem. Moreover, we show that for large values of k the reduced state becomes very close to the completely mixed state.
Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations
Huang, Yichen
2017-05-01
We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique.
Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Yichen, E-mail: ychuang@caltech.edu
2017-05-15
We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique. - Highlights: • We study the dynamical quantum phase transition between many-body localized phases. • We simulate the dynamics of a very long random spin chain with matrix product states. • We observe numerically super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time.
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)
2017-02-15
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
Excited-state entanglement and thermal mutual information in random spin chains
Huang, Yichen; Moore, Joel E.
2014-12-01
Entanglement properties of excited eigenstates (or of thermal mixed states) are difficult to study with conventional analytical methods. We approach this problem for random spin chains using a recently developed real-space renormalization group technique for excited states ("RSRG-X"). For the random XX and quantum Ising chains, which have logarithmic divergences in the entanglement entropy of their (infinite-randomness) critical ground states, we show that the entanglement entropy of excited eigenstates retains a logarithmic divergence while the mutual information of thermal mixed states does not. However, in the XX case the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence extends from the universal ground-state value to a universal interval due to the degeneracy of excited eigenstates. These models are noninteracting in the sense of having free-fermion representations, allowing strong numerical checks of our analytical predictions.
Máttar, A.; Skrzypczyk, P.; Aguilar, G. H.; Nery, R. V.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Cavalcanti, D.
2017-03-01
Recently, Cavalcanti et al (2015) proposed a method to certify the presence of entanglement in asymmetric networks, where some users do not have control over the measurements they are performing. Such asymmetry naturally emerges in realistic situations, such as in cryptographic protocols over quantum networks. Here we implement such ‘semi-device-independent’ techniques to experimentally witness all types of entanglement on a three-qubit photonic W state. Furthermore, we analyse the amount of genuine randomness that can be certified in this scenario from any bipartition of the three-qubit W state.
Compressively Characterizing High-Dimensional Entangled States with Complementary, Random Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory A. Howland
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The resources needed to conventionally characterize a quantum system are overwhelmingly large for high-dimensional systems. This obstacle may be overcome by abandoning traditional cornerstones of quantum measurement, such as general quantum states, strong projective measurement, and assumption-free characterization. Following this reasoning, we demonstrate an efficient technique for characterizing high-dimensional, spatial entanglement with one set of measurements. We recover sharp distributions with local, random filtering of the same ensemble in momentum followed by position—something the uncertainty principle forbids for projective measurements. Exploiting the expectation that entangled signals are highly correlated, we use fewer than 5000 measurements to characterize a 65,536-dimensional state. Finally, we use entropic inequalities to witness entanglement without a density matrix. Our method represents the sea change unfolding in quantum measurement, where methods influenced by the information theory and signal-processing communities replace unscalable, brute-force techniques—a progression previously followed by classical sensing.
Complementarity between entanglement-assisted and quantum distributed random access code
Hameedi, Alley; Saha, Debashis; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed
2017-05-01
Collaborative communication tasks such as random access codes (RACs) employing quantum resources have manifested great potential in enhancing information processing capabilities beyond the classical limitations. The two quantum variants of RACs, namely, quantum random access code (QRAC) and the entanglement-assisted random access code (EARAC), have demonstrated equal prowess for a number of tasks. However, there do exist specific cases where one outperforms the other. In this article, we study a family of 3 →1 distributed RACs [J. Bowles, N. Brunner, and M. Pawłowski, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022351 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022351] and present its general construction of both the QRAC and the EARAC. We demonstrate that, depending on the function of inputs that is sought, if QRAC achieves the maximal success probability then EARAC fails to do so and vice versa. Moreover, a tripartite Bell-type inequality associated with the EARAC variants reveals the genuine multipartite nonlocality exhibited by our protocol. We conclude with an experimental realization of the 3 →1 distributed QRAC that achieves higher success probabilities than the maximum possible with EARACs for a number of tasks.
Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2011-02-04
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Comparing Quantum Entanglement and Topological Entanglement
Kauffman, Louis H.; Lomonaco, Samuel J.
2002-01-01
This paper discusses relationships between topological entanglement and quantum entanglement. Specifically, we propose that for this comparison it is fundamental to view topological entanglements such as braids as "entanglement operators" and to associate to them unitary operators that are capable of creating quantum entanglement.
Detecting Quantum Entanglement
Terhal, Barbara M
2001-01-01
We review the criteria for separability and quantum entanglement, both in a bipartite as well as a multipartite setting. We discuss Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, entropic inequalities, bound entanglement and several features of multipartite entanglement. We indicate how these criteria bear on the experimental detection of quantum entanglement.
Entanglement distribution in quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perseguers, Sebastien
2010-04-15
This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a
Entanglement probabilities of polymers: a white noise functional approach
Bernido, C C
2003-01-01
The entanglement probabilities for a highly flexible polymer to wind n times around a straight polymer are evaluated using white noise analysis. To introduce the white noise functional approach, the one-dimensional random walk problem is taken as an example. The polymer entanglement scenario, viewed as a random walk on a plane, is then treated and the entanglement probabilities are obtained for a magnetic flux confined along the straight polymer, and a case where an entangled polymer is subjected to the potential V = f-dot(s)theta. In the absence of the magnetic flux and the potential V, the entanglement probabilities reduce to a result obtained by Wiegel.
Quantifying entanglement of overlapping indistinguishable particles
Gittings, Joseph R.
This thesis develops the quantitative study of quantum entanglement in systems of identical particles. Understanding this topic is essential for the construction of quantum information processing devices involving identical particles. A brief overview of necessary concepts and methods, such as the density matrix, the entanglement in pure and mixed states of distinguishable particles, and some common applications of entanglement is given in the introduction. Some competing methods of calculating the entanglement in bipartite pure states of indistinguishable particles are examined. It is shown that only the 'site entropy' measure introduced by Zanardi satisfies all the criteria for a correct entanglement measure. A teleportation protocol which utilizes all the entanglement carried (in both the spin and space degrees of freedom) in a doubly- occupied molecular bonding orbital is presented. The output from an interferometer in a thought experiment described by Omar et al. is studied as an example to see whether entanglement can be separated into space-only, spin-only, and space-spin components. A similar exercise is performed for a doubly-occupied molecular bonding orbital. The relationship between these results and the application of superselection rules (SSRs) to the quantification of useful entanglement is discussed. A numerical method for estimating the entanglement of formation of a mixed state of arbitrary dimension by a conjugate gradient algorithm is described. The results of applying an implementation of the algorithm to both random and isotropic states of 2 qutrits (i.e. two three-dimensional systems) is described. Existing work on calculating entanglement between two sites in various spin systems is outlined. New methods for calculating the entanglement between two sites in various types of degenerate quantum gas - a Fermi gas, a Bose condensate, and a BCS superconductor - are described. The results of numerical studies of the entanglement in a normal metal
Anyonic entanglement and topological entanglement entropy
Bonderson, Parsa; Knapp, Christina; Patel, Kaushal
2017-10-01
We study the properties of entanglement in two-dimensional topologically ordered phases of matter. Such phases support anyons, quasiparticles with exotic exchange statistics. The emergent nonlocal state spaces of anyonic systems admit a particular form of entanglement that does not exist in conventional quantum mechanical systems. We study this entanglement by adapting standard notions of entropy to anyonic systems. We use the algebraic theory of anyon models (modular tensor categories) to illustrate the nonlocal entanglement structure of anyonic systems. Using this formalism, we present a general method of deriving the universal topological contributions to the entanglement entropy for general system configurations of a topological phase, including surfaces of arbitrary genus, punctures, and quasiparticle content. We analyze a number of examples in detail. Our results recover and extend prior results for anyonic entanglement and the topological entanglement entropy.
Nonequilibrium thermal entanglement
Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Ramirez, Maria E.; Paris, Roberto
2006-01-01
Results on heat current, entropy production rate and entanglement are reported for a quantum system coupled to two different temperature heat reservoirs. By applying a temperature gradient, different quantum states can be found with exactly the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents. Furthermore, a nonequilibrium enhancement-suppression transition behavior of the entanglement is identified.
Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States.
Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-12-09
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.
Thermalization of entanglement
Zhang, Liangsheng; Kim, Hyungwon; Huse, David A.
2015-06-01
We explore the dynamics of the entanglement entropy near equilibrium in highly entangled pure states of two quantum-chaotic spin chains undergoing unitary time evolution. We examine the relaxation to equilibrium from initial states with either less or more entanglement entropy than the equilibrium value, as well as the dynamics of the spontaneous fluctuations of the entanglement that occur in equilibrium. For the spin chain with a time-independent Hamiltonian and thus an extensive conserved energy, we find slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy near equilibration. Such slow relaxation is absent in a Floquet spin chain with a Hamiltonian that is periodic in time and thus has no local conservation law. Therefore, we argue that slow diffusive energy transport is responsible for the slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy in the Hamiltonian system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Chen-Te [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)
2016-01-13
Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2p+2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU(N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N>1.
Ma, Chen-Te
2016-01-01
Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2 p + 2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU( N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N > 1.
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.
2017-04-01
Machine learning, one of today's most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM) architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement) of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our results uncover the
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-Ling Deng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Machine learning, one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our
Quantum Entanglement and Teleportation
Yates, Brent R.
2011-01-01
Even Einstein has to be wrong sometimes. However, when Einstein was wrong he created a 70 year debate about the strange behavior of quantum mechanics. His debate helped prove topics such as the indeterminacy of particle states, quantum entanglement, and a rather clever use of quantum entanglement known as quantum teleportation.
Facets of tripartite entanglement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving nonorthogonal states are used to reveal two hitherto unexplored quantum effects. The ﬁrst shows that kinematic entanglement between the states of 1 and 2 can affect the result of dynamical interaction between 2 and 3, though 1 and 2 may be spatially separated so ...
Facets of tripartite entanglement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving nonorthogonal states are used to reveal two hitherto unexplored quantum effects. The first shows that kinematic entanglement between the states of 1 and 2 can affect the result of dynamical interaction between 2 and 3, though. 1 and 2 may be spatially ...
Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-02-01
Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces—starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.
Causality & holographic entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Headrick, Matthew [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Hubeny, Veronika E. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Albion [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-12-29
We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.
An Introduction to Entanglement Theory
Markham, Damian J. H.
2008-04-01
We introduce the theory of entanglement intended for an audience of physicists, computer scientists and mathematicians not necessarily having a background in quantum mechanics. We cover the main concepts of entanglement theory such as separability, entanglement witnesses, LOCC and entanglement measures. Along the way we will see many interesting questions arise spanning mathematics, physics and information science amongst other disciplines.
Quantifying and exploiting entanglement
Ali Khan, Irfan
The aim of this work is to explore the characterization of various entangled parameters of the two-photon state that is created in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, as well as to investigate the potential application of these two-photon states to quantum communication and quantum information processing. The parameters fall into two natural divisions, the discrete-variable and continuous-variable regimes. Polarization-correlated photon pairs are used to explore the discrete-variable regime. Using these polarization-correlated photon pairs we investigate phase-covariant quantum cloning, sum-variance entanglement measures, and unambiguous state-discrimination. Phase-covariant quantum cloning is experimentally demonstrated to provide higher cloning fidelity than a universal quantum cloner. The simplicity of the practical implementation of this cloning method makes this cloner a useful addition to the quantum information and communication toolbox. Next, it is experimentally demonstrated that three, concatenating, sum-variance entanglement measures possess higher sensitivities than the popular Bell entanglement measure, while each requires fewer measurements than a Bell measurement to obtain. Finally, it is demonstrated that unambiguous state-discrimination of nonorthogonal, bipartite entangled-states involves an analogous physical mechanism to that of entanglement distillation of bipartite entangled states. This physical mechanism is the basis of a two-qudit, three-party secret sharing protocol. In the continuous variable regime, two-photon position-momentum entanglement and two-photon time-energy entanglement is explored. Entanglement between discrete regions of space (pixels) is demonstrated using transverse momentum and position entanglement. Each photon is mapped onto as many as six pixels, where each pixel represents one level of a qudit state. Next, the number of information eigenmodes K of time-energy entanglement is investigated. Explicit
Hierarchies of geometric entanglement
Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; de Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.
2008-06-01
We introduce a class of generalized geometric measures of entanglement. For pure quantum states of N elementary subsystems, they are defined as the distances from the sets of K -separable states (K=2,…,N) . The entire set of generalized geometric measures provides a quantification and hierarchical ordering of the different bipartite and multipartite components of the global geometric entanglement, and allows discrimination among the different contributions. The extended measures are applied to the study of entanglement in different classes of N -qubit pure states. These classes include W and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and their symmetric superpositions; symmetric multimagnon states; cluster states; and, finally, asymmetric generalized W -like superposition states. We discuss in detail a general method for the explicit evaluation of the multipartite components of geometric entanglement, and we show that the entire set of geometric measures establishes an ordering among the different types of bipartite and multipartite entanglement. In particular, it determines a consistent hierarchy between GHZ and W states, clarifying the original result of Wei and Goldbart that W states possess a larger global entanglement than GHZ states. Furthermore, we show that all multipartite components of geometric entanglement in symmetric states obey a property of self-similarity and scale invariance with the total number of qubits and the number of qubits per party.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%.
Entanglement distribution and quantum discord
Streltsov, Alexander; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2016-01-01
Establishing entanglement between distant parties is one of the most important problems of quantum technology, since long-distance entanglement is an essential part of such fundamental tasks as quantum cryptography or quantum teleportation. In this lecture we review basic properties of entanglement and quantum discord, and discuss recent results on entanglement distribution and the role of quantum discord therein. We also review entanglement distribution with separable states, and discuss imp...
Quantifying entanglement resources
Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens
2014-10-01
We present an overview of the quantitative theory of single-copy entanglement in finite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular we emphasize the point of view that different entanglement measures quantify different types of resources, which leads to a natural interdependence of entanglement classification and quantification. Apart from the theoretical basis, we outline various methods for obtaining quantitative results on arbitrary mixed states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Characterizing Genuine Multilevel Entanglement
Kraft, Tristan; Ritz, Christina; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Gühne, Otfried
2018-02-01
Entanglement of high-dimensional quantum systems has become increasingly important for quantum communication and experimental tests of nonlocality. However, many effects of high-dimensional entanglement can be simulated by using multiple copies of low-dimensional systems. We present a general theory to characterize those high-dimensional quantum states for which the correlations cannot simply be simulated by low-dimensional systems. Our approach leads to general criteria for detecting multilevel entanglement in multiparticle quantum states, which can be used to verify these phenomena experimentally.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
2012-01-01
Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...
Multipartite Entanglement and Firewalls
Luo, Shengqiao; Albrecht, Andreas
2016-01-01
Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entan...
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)
2009-03-15
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Holographic entanglement entropy
Rangamani, Mukund
2017-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the field of holographic entanglement entropy. Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, it is shown how quantum entanglement is computed by the area of certain extremal surfaces. The general lessons one can learn from this connection are drawn out for quantum field theories, many-body physics, and quantum gravity. An overview of the necessary background material is provided together with a flavor of the exciting open questions that are currently being discussed. The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part f...
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... and to be favoured by strong interactions. Conversely, long-range entanglement is favoured by relatively weak interactions. No examples of bound entanglement are found....
Size-Dependent Particle Dynamics in Entangled Polymer Nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.
2016-01-19
Polymer-grafted nanoparticles with diameter d homogeneously dispersed in entangled polymer melts with varying random coil radius R0, but fixed entanglement mesh size ae, are used to study particle motions in entangled polymers. We focus on materials in the transition region between the continuum regime (d > R0), where the classical Stokes-Einstein (S-E) equation is known to describe polymer drag on particles, and the non-continuum regime (d < ae), in which several recent studies report faster diffusion of particles than expected from continuum S-E analysis, based on the bulk polymer viscosity. Specifically, we consider dynamics of particles with sizes d ≥ ae in entangled polymers with varying molecular weight Mw in order to investigate how the transition from non-continuum to continuum dynamics occur. We take advantage of favorable enthalpic interactions between SiO2 nanoparticles tethered with PEO molecules and entangled PMMA host polymers to create model nanoparticle-polymer composites, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in entangled polymers. Investigation of the particle dynamics via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements reveal a transition from fast to slow particle motion as the PMMA molecular weight is increased beyond the entanglement threshold, with a much weaker Mw dependence for Mw>Me than expected from S-E analysis based on bulk viscosity of entangled PMMA melts. We rationalize these observations using a simple force balance analysis around particles and find that nanoparticle motion in entangled melts can be described using a variant of the S-E analysis in which motion of particles is assumed to only disturb sub-chain entangled host segments with sizes comparable to the particle diameter.
Entanglement versus disentanglement: Quantum Cryptography
Mitra, Arindam
2000-01-01
In quantum information, the role of entanglement and disentanglement is itself a subject of research and debate. Earlier works on quantum cryptography have almost established that entanglement has no special advantage in quantum cryptography. In this paper we reveal that entanglement is better ingredient than disentanglement for our alternative quantum cryptography.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Fermionic entanglement in itinerant systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanardi, Paolo [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Torino (Italy); Wang Xiaoguang [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Computing-Algorithms and Cryptography, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
2002-09-20
We study pairwise quantum entanglement in systems of fermions itinerant in a lattice from a second-quantized perspective. Entanglement in the grand-canonical ensemble is studied, both for energy eigenstates and for the thermal state. Relations between entanglement and superconducting correlations are discussed in a BCS-like model and for {eta}-pair superconductivity. (author)
Deriving covariant holographic entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2016-11-07
We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.
Verifying bound entanglement of dephased Werner states
Thomas, P.; Bohmann, M.; Vogel, W.
2017-10-01
The verification of quantum entanglement under the influence of realistic noise and decoherence is crucial for the development of quantum technologies. Unfortunately, a full entanglement characterization is generally not possible with most entanglement criteria such as entanglement witnesses or the partial transposition criterion. In particular, so-called bound entanglement cannot be certified via the partial transposition criterion. Here we present the full entanglement verification of dephased qubit and qutrit Werner states via entanglement quasiprobabilities. Remarkably, we are able to reveal bound entanglement for noisy mixed states in the qutrit case. This example demonstrates the strength of the entanglement quasiprobabilities for verifying the full entanglement of quantum states suffering from noise.
Calibrated entanglement entropy
Bakhmatov, I.; Deger, N. S.; Gutowski, J.; Colgáin, E. Ó.; Yavartanoo, H.
2017-07-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi prescription reduces the problem of calculating entanglement entropy in CFTs to the determination of minimal surfaces in a dual anti-de Sitter geometry. For 3D gravity theories and BTZ black holes, we identify the minimal surfaces as special Lagrangian cycles calibrated by the real part of the holomorphic one-form of a spacelike hypersurface. We show that (generalised) calibrations provide a unified way to determine holographic entanglement entropy from minimal surfaces, which is applicable to warped AdS3 geometries. We briefly discuss generalisations to higher dimensions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2013-04-15
Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.
Postcolonial Entanglements: Unruling Stories
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica
2012-01-01
In this article, I use Donna Haraway's philosophy to think about postcolonial encounters between different species. I follow entangled stories of the deer/settler-child figure to trouble colonialisms and untangle the histories and trajectories that we inhabit with other species through colonial histories. I shy away from generalizations and…
Maximal entanglement entanglement-assisted quantum codes of distance three
Guo, Luobin; Fu, Qiang; Li, Ruihu; Lu, Liangdong
2015-02-01
Entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting code (EAQECC) is a generalization of standard stabilizer quantum code. Maximal entanglement EAQECCs can achieve the EA-hashing bound asymptotically. In this work, we give elementary recursive constructions of quaternary zero radical codes with dual distance three for all n ≥ 4. Consequently, good maximal entanglement EAQECCs of minimum distance three for such length n are obtained. Almost all of these EAQECCs are optimal or near optimal according to the EA-quantum Hamming bound.
Entanglement-assisted state discrimination and entanglement preservation
Güngör, Özenç; Turgut, Sadi
In this study, the following scenario is considered: there are two qubits possessed by two parties at different locations. Qubits have been prepared in one of a maximum of four, mutually-orthogonal, entangled states and the parties wish to distinguish between the states by using local operations and classical communication. Although in general it is not possible to distinguish between four arbitrary states, the parties can spend some pre-shared entanglement to achieve perfect discrimination between four qubit states and can also preserve the entanglement of the states after discrimination. This is shown by employing the theory of majorization and the connections between entanglement transformations and state discrimination protocols.
Canonical distillation of entanglement
Das, Tamoghna; Kumar, Asutosh; Kumar Pal, Amit; Shukla, Namrata; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2017-11-01
Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.
Entanglement and topological interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)
2016-06-15
In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Influence of a superconducting lead on orbital entanglement production in chaotic cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez-Perez, Sergio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Novaes, Marcel, E-mail: sergio.rodriguez@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica
2015-10-15
We study orbital entanglement production in a chaotic cavity connected to four single-channel normal metal leads and one superconducting lead, assuming the presence of time-reversal symmetry and within a random matrix theory approach. The scattered state of two incident electrons is written as the superposition of several two-outgoing quasi-particle components, four of which are orbitally entangled in a left-right bipartition. We calculate numerically the mean value of the squared norm of each entangled component, as functions of the number of channels in the superconducting lead. Its behavior is explained as resulting from the proximity effect. We also study statistically the amount of entanglement carried by each pair of outgoing quasi-particles. When the influence of the superconductor is more intense, the device works as an entangler of electron-hole pairs, and the average entanglement is found to be considerably larger than that obtained without the superconducting lead. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.
2007-01-01
We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control...... of the diode bias and local gating allow for the generation of single photons that are entangled with a robust quantum memory based on the electron spins. Practical performance of this approach to controlled spin-photon entanglement is analyzed....
Higher-order quantum entanglement
Zeilinger, Anton; Horne, Michael A.; Greenberger, Daniel M.
1992-01-01
In quantum mechanics, the general state describing two or more particles is a linear superposition of product states. Such a superposition is called entangled if it cannot be factored into just one product. When only two particles are entangled, the stage is set for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) discussions and Bell's proof that the EPR viewpoint contradicts quantum mechanics. If more than two particles are involved, new possibilities and phenomena arise. For example, the Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (GHZ) disproof of EPR applies. Furthermore, as we point out, with three or more particles even entanglement itself can be an entangled property.
Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP),Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)
2016-10-06
The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.
Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quantum Chaotic Hamiltonians.
Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos
2017-12-01
In quantum statistical mechanics, it is of fundamental interest to understand how close the bipartite entanglement entropy of eigenstates of quantum chaotic Hamiltonians is to maximal. For random pure states in the Hilbert space, the average entanglement entropy is known to be nearly maximal, with a deviation that is, at most, a constant. Here we prove that, in a system that is away from half filling and divided in two equal halves, an upper bound for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states with a fixed particle number and normally distributed real coefficients exhibits a deviation from the maximal value that grows with the square root of the volume of the system. Exact numerical results for highly excited eigenstates of a particle number conserving quantum chaotic model indicate that the bound is saturated with increasing system size.
Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow
Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.
2016-03-01
We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.
Entanglement for All Quantum States
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
it exploits quantum indistinguishability as an important entangling mechanism, rather than using explicit interactions. The basic idea is as follows: Two identical particles in orthogonal states of the degree of freedom to be entangled (for example, opposite orientations in the case of spin) are mixed at a beamsplitter. Then the ...
Purified discord and multipartite entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Eric G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Webster, Eric J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emmfis@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kempf, Achim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Centre for Quantum Computing Technology, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)
2013-10-15
We study bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of a multipartite entanglement structure in the tripartite purified system. In particular, we find that bipartite quantum discord requires the presence of both bipartite and tripartite entanglement in the purification. This allows one to understand the asymmetry of quantum discord, D(A,B)≠D(B,A) in terms of entanglement monogamy. As instructive special cases, we study discord for qubits and Gaussian states in detail. As a result of this we shed new light on a counterintuitive property of Gaussian states: the presence of classical correlations necessarily requires the presence of quantum correlations. Finally, our results also shed new light on a protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party. -- Highlights: •Bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of multipartite entanglement. •Relevance of quantum discord as a utilizable resource for quantum info. tasks. •Quantum discord manifests itself in entanglement in the purified state. •Relation between asymmetry of discord and entanglement monogamy. •Protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party.
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, Yasunori [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Salzetta, Nico, E-mail: nsalzetta@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-12-10
We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.
Entanglement entropy and duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2016-11-22
Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mc
2012-07-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2190 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name McLaren_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 High dimensional... entanglement M. McLAREN1,2, F.S. ROUX1 & A. FORBES1,2,3 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of the Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland 3. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...
Experimental entanglement of four particles
Sackett; Kielpinski; King; Langer; Meyer; Myatt; Rowe; Turchette; Itano; Wineland; Monroe
2000-03-16
Quantum mechanics allows for many-particle wavefunctions that cannot be factorized into a product of single-particle wavefunctions, even when the constituent particles are entirely distinct. Such 'entangled' states explicitly demonstrate the non-local character of quantum theory, having potential applications in high-precision spectroscopy, quantum communication, cryptography and computation. In general, the more particles that can be entangled, the more clearly nonclassical effects are exhibited--and the more useful the states are for quantum applications. Here we implement a recently proposed entanglement technique to generate entangled states of two and four trapped ions. Coupling between the ions is provided through their collective motional degrees of freedom, but actual motional excitation is minimized. Entanglement is achieved using a single laser pulse, and the method can in principle be applied to any number of ions.
Erol, Volkan; Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali
2014-06-24
Entanglement has been studied extensively for unveiling the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known measures for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. It was found that for sets of non-maximally entangled states of two qubits, comparing these entanglement measures may lead to different entanglement orderings of the states. On the other hand, although it is not an entanglement measure and not monotonic under local operations, due to its ability of detecting multipartite entanglement, quantum Fisher information (QFI) has recently received an intense attraction generally with entanglement in the focus. In this work, we revisit the state ordering problem of general two qubit states. Generating a thousand random quantum states and performing an optimization based on local general rotations of each qubit, we calculate the maximal QFI for each state. We analyze the maximized QFI in comparison with concurrence, REE and negativity and obtain new state orderings. We show that there are pairs of states having equal maximized QFI but different values for concurrence, REE and negativity and vice versa.
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G
2015-12-01
Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10(-2)). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.
The entangled accelerating universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Robles-Perez, Salvador [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)
2009-08-31
Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this Letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two-dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.
Classical Maxwellian polarization entanglement
Carroll, John E
2015-01-01
An explanation of polarization entanglement is presented using Maxwells classical electromagnetic theory.Two key features are required to understand these classical origins.The first is that all waves diffract and weakly diffracting waves,with a principal direction of propagation in the laboratory frame, travel along that direction at speeds ever so slightly less than c.This allows nontrivial Lorentz transformations that can act on selected forward F waves or selected waves R traveling in the opposite direction to show that both can arise from a single zero momentum frame where all the waves are transverse to the original principal direction.Such F and R waves then both belong to a single relativistic entity where correlations between the two are unremarkable.The second feature requires the avoidance of using the Coulomb gauge.Waves, tending to plane waves in the limit of zero diffraction,can then be shown to be composed of two coupled sets of E and B fields that demonstrate the classical entanglement of F an...
On holographic entanglement density
Gushterov, Nikola I.; O'Bannon, Andy; Rodgers, Ronnie
2017-10-01
We use holographic duality to study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) in various spacetime dimensions d, in the presence of various deformations: a relevant Lorentz scalar operator with constant source, a temperature T , a chemical potential μ, a marginal Lorentz scalar operator with source linear in a spatial coordinate, and a circle-compactified spatial direction. We consider EE between a strip or sphere sub-region and the rest of the system, and define the "entanglement density" (ED) as the change in EE due to the deformation, divided by the sub-region's volume. Using the deformed CFTs above, we show how the ED's dependence on the strip width or sphere radius, L, is useful for characterizing states of matter. For example, the ED's small- L behavior is determined either by the dimension of the perturbing operator or by the first law of EE. For Lorentz-invariant renormalization group (RG) flows between CFTs, the "area theorem" states that the coefficient of the EE's area law term must be larger in the UV than in the IR. In these cases the ED must therefore approach zero from below as L→∞. However, when Lorentz symmetry is broken and the IR fixed point has different scaling from the UV, we find that the ED often approaches the thermal entropy density from above, indicating area theorem violation.
Schlawin, Frank
2017-10-01
This tutorial outlines the theory of nonlinear spectroscopy with quantum light, and in particular with entangled photons. To this end, we briefly review molecular quantum electrodynamics, and discuss the approximations involved. Then we outline the perturbation theory underlying nonlinear spectroscopy. In contrast to the conventional semiclassical theory, our derivation starts from Glauber's photon counting formalism, and naturally includes the semiclassical theory as a special case. Finally, we review previous work, which we sort into work depending on the unusual features of quantum noise, and work relying upon quantum correlations in entangled photons. This work naturally draws from both quantum optics and chemical physics. Even though it is impossible to provide a comprehensive overview of both fields in one tutorial, this text aims to be self-contained. We refer to specialised reviews, where we cannot provide details. We do not attempt to provide an exhaustive review of all the literature, but rather focus on specific examples intended to elucidate the underlying physics, and merely cite the remaining publications.
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...
Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.
Van den Nest, Maarten
2013-02-08
We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers.
Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Honda
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.
Accessible quantification of multiparticle entanglement
Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-10-01
Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, entanglement quantification typically involves nontrivial optimisation problems, and it may require demanding tomographical techniques. Here, we develop an experimentally feasible approach to the evaluation of geometric measures of multiparticle entanglement. Our framework provides analytical results for particular classes of mixed states of N qubits, and computable lower bounds to global, partial, or genuine multiparticle entanglement of any general state. For global and partial entanglement, useful bounds are obtained with minimum effort, requiring local measurements in just three settings for any N. For genuine entanglement, a number of measurements scaling linearly with N are required. We demonstrate the power of our approach to estimate and quantify different types of multiparticle entanglement in a variety of N-qubit states useful for quantum information processing and recently engineered in laboratories with quantum optics and trapped ion setups.
Entanglement entropy: a perturbative calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-12-31
We provide a framework for a perturbative evaluation of the reduced density matrix. The method is based on a path integral in the analytically continued spacetime. It suggests an alternative to the holographic and ‘standard’ replica trick calculations of entanglement entropy. We implement this method within solvable field theory examples to evaluate leading order corrections induced by small perturbations in the geometry of the background and entangling surface. Our findings are in accord with Solodukhin’s formula for the universal term of entanglement entropy for four dimensional CFTs.
Entangled light from white noise.
Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F
2002-05-13
An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonancelike behavior. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.
Anomalies and entanglement renormalization
Bridgeman, Jacob C.; Williamson, Dominic J.
2017-09-01
We study 't Hooft anomalies of discrete groups in the framework of (1+1)-dimensional multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz states on the lattice. Using matrix product operators, general topological restrictions on conformal data are derived. An ansatz class allowing for optimization of MERA with an anomalous symmetry is introduced. We utilize this class to numerically study a family of Hamiltonians with a symmetric critical line. Conformal data is obtained for all irreducible projective representations of each anomalous symmetry twist, corresponding to definite topological sectors. It is numerically demonstrated that this line is a protected gapless phase. Finally, we implement a duality transformation between a pair of critical lines using our subclass of MERA.
Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.
Mangal, Rahul
2015-06-05
Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.
Unravelling Popular Myths in the Rheology of Entangled Polymer Melts
Wool, Richard P.
2014-03-01
Myth No 1: Constraint release and Chain End Fluctuation coupled with Reptation dominate stress relaxation of highly entangled chains. Fact: Experiments show that Percolation processes account for about 50% of the relaxation, coupled with deGennes Reptation dynamics. In fact, the random coils are not relaxed (via Neutrons) when the stress (Birefringence) goes to zero, a critical prediction of the percolation mechanism, which is not in violation of the stress-optical law.. Myth No 2: The Packing Length Entanglement Modelfor the critical entanglement molecular weight, Me = 354 p3, provides a fundamental description of entanglements at the molecular level. Fact: Experiments show that the Packing Length model is fundamentally incorrect in all its predictions of rheological properties via Me ~ [ Mo/C∞]3, especially at the nanoscale, as well as the bulk. This is due to an incidental relationship between the monomer molecular weight Mo and the characteristic ratio C∞ for vinyl type polymers. The correct entanglement model is given by Me ~ C ∞Mo. Myth No 3: The Glass Transition Tgis dominated by Segmental Dynamics and Free Volume: Fact: Experiments show that Tg is dominated by the cluster dynamics of anharmonically interacting fractal aggregates which range from 1-100 nm in size (ave ~ 5 nm), as described by the TFT. In nanoconfined thin films, the segmental dynamics does not change much while huge decreases in Tg can be observed due to cluster size effects.
Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Swingle, Brian
2017-01-01
We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula...
Measuring higher-dimensional entanglement
Datta, Chandan; Agrawal, Pankaj; Choudhary, Sujit K.
2017-04-01
We study local-realistic inequalities, Bell-type inequalities, for bipartite pure states of finite dimensional quantum systems—qudits. There are a number of proposed Bell-type inequalities for such systems. Our interest is in relating the value of the Bell-type inequality function with a measure of entanglement. Interestingly, we find that one of these inequalities, the Son-Lee-Kim inequality, can be used to measure entanglement of a pure bipartite qudit state and a class of mixed two-qudit states. Unlike the majority of earlier schemes in this direction, where the number of observables needed to characterize the entanglement increases with the dimension of the subsystems, this method needs only four observables. We also discuss the experimental feasibility of this scheme. It turns out that current experimental setups can be used to measure the entanglement using our scheme.
Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Marshall
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.
Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2012-10-01
Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....
Holographic avatars of entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)
2009-07-15
This is a rendering of the blackboard lectures at the 2008 Cargese summer school, discussing some elementary facts regarding the application of AdS/CFT techniques to the computation of entanglement entropy in strongly coupled systems. We emphasize the situations where extensivity of the entanglement entropy can be used as a crucial criterion to characterize either nontrivial dynamical phenomena at large length scales, or nonlocality in the short-distance realm.
On entanglement spreading from holography
Mezei, Márk
2017-05-01
A global quench is an interesting setting where we can study thermalization of subsystems in a pure state. We investigate entanglement entropy (EE) growth in global quenches in holographic field theories and relate some of its aspects to quantities characterizing chaos. More specifically we obtain four key results: 1. We prove holographic bounds on the entanglement velocity v E and the butterfly effect speed v B that arises in the study of chaos.
Corrections to holographic entanglement plateau
Chen, Bin; Li, Zhibin; Zhang, Jia-ju
2017-09-01
We investigate the robustness of the Araki-Lieb inequality in a two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT) on torus. The inequality requires that Δ S = S( L) - | S( L - ℓ) - S( ℓ)| is nonnegative, where S( L) is the thermal entropy and S( L - ℓ), S( ℓ) are the entanglement entropies. Holographically there is an entanglement plateau in the BTZ black hole background, which means that there exists a critical length such that when ℓ ≤ ℓ c the inequality saturates Δ S =0. In thermal AdS background, the holographic entanglement entropy leads to Δ S = 0 for arbitrary ℓ. We compute the next-to-leading order contributions to Δ S in the large central charge CFT at both high and low temperatures. In both cases we show that Δ S is strictly positive except for ℓ = 0 or ℓ = L. This turns out to be true for any 2D CFT. In calculating the single interval entanglement entropy in a thermal state, we develop new techniques to simplify the computation. At a high temperature, we ignore the finite size correction such that the problem is related to the entanglement entropy of double intervals on a complex plane. As a result, we show that the leading contribution from a primary module takes a universal form. At a low temperature, we show that the leading thermal correction to the entanglement entropy from a primary module does not take a universal form, depending on the details of the theory.
Quantum Entanglement and Chemical Reactivity.
Molina-Espíritu, M; Esquivel, R O; López-Rosa, S; Dehesa, J S
2015-11-10
The water molecule and a hydrogenic abstraction reaction are used to explore in detail some quantum entanglement features of chemical interest. We illustrate that the energetic and quantum-information approaches are necessary for a full understanding of both the geometry of the quantum probability density of molecular systems and the evolution of a chemical reaction. The energy and entanglement hypersurfaces and contour maps of these two models show different phenomena. The energy ones reveal the well-known stable geometry of the models, whereas the entanglement ones grasp the chemical capability to transform from one state system to a new one. In the water molecule the chemical reactivity is witnessed through quantum entanglement as a local minimum indicating the bond cleavage in the dissociation process of the molecule. Finally, quantum entanglement is also useful as a chemical reactivity descriptor by detecting the transition state along the intrinsic reaction path in the hypersurface of the hydrogenic abstraction reaction corresponding to a maximally entangled state.
Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.
Antibunching dynamics of plasmonically mediated entanglement generation
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Lawrie, Benjamin
2017-11-01
Dissipative entanglement-generation protocols embrace environmental interactions to generate long-lived entangled states. In this paper, we report on the antibunching dynamics for a pair of actively driven quantum emitters coupled to a shared dissipative plasmonic reservoir. We find that antibunching is a universal signature for entangled states generated by dissipative means and examine its use as an entanglement diagnostic. We discuss the experimental validation of plasmonically mediated entanglement generation by Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry with picosecond timing resolution determined by an effective two-qubit Rabi frequency, and we analyze the robustness of entanglement generation with respect to perturbations in local detunings, couplings, and driving fields.
Entanglement entropy for nonzero genus topologies
Kumar, S. Santhosh; Ghosh, Suman; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2014-03-01
Over the last three decades, entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in Genus-0 topologies (spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years, nontrivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it is then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the Genus-1 geometry.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
General polygamy inequality of multi-party quantum entanglement
Kim, Jeong San
2012-01-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multi-party entanglement in arbitrary dimensional quantum systems. For multi-party closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement to show that the entropy of entanglement is an universal entanglement measure that bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multi-party quantum entanglement.
Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source
Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.
Multi-partite entanglement can speed up quantum key distribution in networks
Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar
2017-09-01
The laws of quantum mechanics allow for the distribution of a secret random key between two parties. Here we analyse the security of a protocol for establishing a common secret key between N parties (i.e. a conference key), using resource states with genuine N-partite entanglement. We compare this protocol to conference key distribution via bipartite entanglement, regarding the required resources, achievable secret key rates and threshold qubit error rates. Furthermore we discuss quantum networks with bottlenecks for which our multipartite entanglement-based protocol can benefit from network coding, while the bipartite protocol cannot. It is shown how this advantage leads to a higher secret key rate.
Robust entangled qutrit states in atmospheric turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Brunner, T
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The entangled quantum state of a photon pair propagating through atmospheric turbulence suffers decay of entanglement due to the scintillation it experiences. Here we investigate the robustness against this decay for different qutrit states. We use...
Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology
Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.
2013-01-01
Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.
HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...
Evolution and Survival of Quantum Entanglement
2015-05-06
independently for tasks of quantum information. These include quantum computing, quantum cryptography , quantum teleportation and other forms of entanglement...Evolution and Survival of Quantum Entanglement Theoretical foundations for methods to preserve quantum entanglement are explored and explained...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 quantum entanglement, decoherence, qubit, revival, survival, Jaynes-Cummings, Rabi, rotating wave approximation
Entanglement in non-Hermitian quantum theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quantum theory. Furthermore, we will show how to create entanglement between two. PT qubits using non-Hermitian Hamiltonians and discuss the entangling capability of such interaction Hamiltonians that are non-Hermitian in nature. Keywords. Entanglement; non-Hermitian Hamiltonians; PT symmetry. PACS Nos 03.65.
Use of entanglement in quantum optics
Horne, Michael A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Greenberger, Daniel M.; Zeilinger, Anton
1992-01-01
Several recent demonstrations of two-particle interferometry are reviewed and shown to be examples of either color entanglement or beam entanglement. A device, called a number filter, is described and shown to be of value in preparing beam entanglements. Finally, we note that all three concepts (color and beam entaglement, and number filtering) may be extended to three or more particles.
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Polygamy of Entanglement in Multipartite Quantum Systems
Kim, Jeong San
2009-01-01
We show that bipartite entanglement distribution (or entanglement of assistance) in multipartite quantum systems is by nature polygamous. We first provide an analytic upper bound for the concurrence of assistance in bipartite quantum systems, and derive a polygamy inequality of multipartite entanglement in arbitrary dimensional quantum systems.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
Universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Keun-Young, E-mail: fortoe@gist.ac.kr [School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Niu, Chao, E-mail: chaoniu09@gmail.com [School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Da-Wei, E-mail: d.pang@soton.ac.uk [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-09-15
It has been realised that corners in entangling surfaces can induce new universal contributions to the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy. In this paper we study universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity in three- and four-dimensional CFTs using both field theory and holographic techniques. We focus on the quantity χ defined by the ratio of the universal part of the entanglement negativity over that of the entanglement entropy, which may characterise the amount of distillable entanglement. We find that for most of the examples χ takes bigger values for singular entangling regions, which may suggest increase in distillable entanglement. However, there also exist counterexamples where distillable entanglement decreases for singular surfaces. We also explore the behaviour of χ as the coupling varies and observe that for singular entangling surfaces, the amount of distillable entanglement is mostly largest for free theories, while counterexample exists for free Dirac fermion in three dimensions. For holographic CFTs described by higher derivative gravity, χ may increase or decrease, depending on the sign of the relevant parameters. Our results may reveal a more profound connection between geometry and distillable entanglement.
Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence
Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli
2017-07-01
Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.
Modular invariance and entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lokhande, Sagar Fakirchand; Mukhi, Sunil [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Homi Bhabha Rd, Pashan, Pune 411 008 (India)
2015-06-17
We study the Rényi and entanglement entropies for free 2d CFT’s at finite temperature and finite size, with emphasis on their properties under modular transformations of the torus. We address the issue of summing over fermion spin structures in the replica trick, and show that the relation between entanglement and thermal entropy determines two different ways to perform this sum in the limits of small and large interval. Both answers are modular covariant, rather than invariant. Our results are compared with those for a free boson at unit radius in the two limits and complete agreement is found, supporting the view that entanglement respects Bose-Fermi duality. We extend our computations to multiple free Dirac fermions having correlated spin structures, dual to free bosons on the Spin(2d) weight lattice.
Quantum entanglement and temperature fluctuations.
Ourabah, Kamel; Tribeche, Mouloud
2017-04-01
In this paper, we consider entanglement in a system out of equilibrium, adopting the viewpoint given by the formalism of superstatistics. Such an approach yields a good effective description for a system in a slowly fluctuating environment within a weak interaction between the system and the environment. For this purpose, we introduce an alternative version of the formalism within a quantum mechanical picture and use it to study entanglement in the Heisenberg XY model, subject to temperature fluctuations. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic cases and explore the effect of different temperature fluctuations (χ^{2}, log-normal, and F distributions). Our results suggest that particular fluctuations may enhance entanglement and prevent it from vanishing at higher temperatures than those predicted for the same system at thermal equilibrium.
Entanglement renormalization for disordered systems
Goldsborough, Andrew M.; Evenbly, Glen
2017-10-01
We propose a tensor network method for investigating strongly disordered systems that is based on an adaptation of entanglement renormalization [G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220405 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.220405]. This method makes use of the strong disorder renormalization group to determine the order in which lattice sites are coarse-grained, which sets the overall structure of the corresponding tensor network ansatz, before optimization using variational energy minimization. Benchmark results from the disordered X X Z model demonstrates that this approach accurately captures ground-state entanglement in disordered systems, even at long distances. This approach leads to a new class of efficiently contractible tensor network ansatz for one-dimensional systems, which may be understood as a generalization of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz for disordered systems.
Entanglement entropy in flat holography
Jiang, Hongliang; Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang
2017-07-01
BMS symmetry, which is the asymptotic symmetry at null infinity of flat spacetime, is an important input for flat holography. In this paper, we give a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in three dimensional Einstein gravity and Topologically Massive Gravity. The geometric picture for the entanglement entropy is the length of a spacelike geodesic which is connected to the interval at null infinity by two null geodesics. The spacelike geodesic is the fixed points of replica symmetry, and the null geodesics are along the modular flow. Our strategy is to first reformulate the Rindler method for calculating entanglement entropy in a general setup, and apply it for BMS invariant field theories, and finally extend the calculation to the bulk.
Structural entanglements in protein complexes
Zhao, Yani; Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek
2017-06-01
We consider multi-chain protein native structures and propose a criterion that determines whether two chains in the system are entangled or not. The criterion is based on the behavior observed by pulling at both termini of each chain simultaneously in the two chains. We have identified about 900 entangled systems in the Protein Data Bank and provided a more detailed analysis for several of them. We argue that entanglement enhances the thermodynamic stability of the system but it may have other functions: burying the hydrophobic residues at the interface and increasing the DNA or RNA binding area. We also study the folding and stretching properties of the knotted dimeric proteins MJ0366, YibK, and bacteriophytochrome. These proteins have been studied theoretically in their monomeric versions so far. The dimers are seen to separate on stretching through the tensile mechanism and the characteristic unraveling force depends on the pulling direction.
Multipartite entanglement verification resistant against dishonest parties.
Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Wehner, Stephanie; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis
2012-06-29
Future quantum information networks will consist of quantum and classical agents, who have the ability to communicate in a variety of ways with trusted and untrusted parties and securely delegate computational tasks to untrusted large-scale quantum computing servers. Multipartite quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for such a network and, hence, it is imperative to study the possibility of verifying a multipartite entanglement source in a way that is efficient and provides strong guarantees even in the presence of multiple dishonest parties. In this Letter, we show how an agent of a quantum network can perform a distributed verification of a source creating multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with minimal resources, which is, nevertheless, resistant against any number of dishonest parties. Moreover, we provide a tight tradeoff between the level of security and the distance between the state produced by the source and the ideal GHZ state. Last, by adding the resource of a trusted common random source, we can further provide security guarantees for all honest parties in the quantum network simultaneously.
Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuch, N.
2007-10-10
This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum
Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiersch, Markus
2009-09-04
In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)
Entanglement Thermalization and Local Conservation Laws
Zhang, Liangsheng; Kim, Hyungwon; Huse, David
2015-03-01
We study the thermalization of entanglement entropy in one-dimensional spin chains under the unitary dynamics of a nonintegrable Hamiltonian or periodic driving by Floquet operators. Using full diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix and the Floquet operators, we analyze the time evolution of entanglement entropy starting from various initial conditions, including initial states with entanglement in excess of the thermal equilibrium value. It is found that the thermalization of entanglement entropy is coupled to local conservation laws when approaching equilibrium, and the absence of conservation laws in the Floquet system allows the entanglement entropy to thermalize more rapidly than it does in the corresponding Hamiltonian.
Entanglement enhances cooling in microscopic quantum refrigerators.
Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2014-03-01
Small self-contained quantum thermal machines function without external source of work or control but using only incoherent interactions with thermal baths. Here we investigate the role of entanglement in a small self-contained quantum refrigerator. We first show that entanglement is detrimental as far as efficiency is concerned-fridges operating at efficiencies close to the Carnot limit do not feature any entanglement. Moving away from the Carnot regime, we show that entanglement can enhance cooling and energy transport. Hence, a truly quantum refrigerator can outperform a classical one. Furthermore, the amount of entanglement alone quantifies the enhancement in cooling.
Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quadratic Fermionic Hamiltonians.
Vidmar, Lev; Hackl, Lucas; Bianchi, Eugenio; Rigol, Marcos
2017-07-14
In a seminal paper [D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1291 (1993)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1291], Page proved that the average entanglement entropy of subsystems of random pure states is S_{ave}≃lnD_{A}-(1/2)D_{A}^{2}/D for 1≪D_{A}≤sqrt[D], where D_{A} and D are the Hilbert space dimensions of the subsystem and the system, respectively. Hence, typical pure states are (nearly) maximally entangled. We develop tools to compute the average entanglement entropy ⟨S⟩ of all eigenstates of quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. In particular, we derive exact bounds for the most general translationally invariant models lnD_{A}-(lnD_{A})^{2}/lnD≤⟨S⟩≤lnD_{A}-[1/(2ln2)](lnD_{A})^{2}/lnD. Consequently, we prove that (i) if the subsystem size is a finite fraction of the system size, then ⟨S⟩
Supercritical entanglement in local systems: Counterexample to the area law for quantum matter.
Movassagh, Ramis; Shor, Peter W
2016-11-22
Quantum entanglement is the most surprising feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is simultaneously responsible for the difficulty of simulating quantum matter on a classical computer and the exponential speedups afforded by quantum computers. Ground states of quantum many-body systems typically satisfy an "area law": The amount of entanglement between a subsystem and the rest of the system is proportional to the area of the boundary. A system that obeys an area law has less entanglement and can be simulated more efficiently than a generic quantum state whose entanglement could be proportional to the total system's size. Moreover, an area law provides useful information about the low-energy physics of the system. It is widely believed that for physically reasonable quantum systems, the area law cannot be violated by more than a logarithmic factor in the system's size. We introduce a class of exactly solvable one-dimensional physical models which we can prove have exponentially more entanglement than suggested by the area law, and violate the area law by a square-root factor. This work suggests that simple quantum matter is richer and can provide much more quantum resources (i.e., entanglement) than expected. In addition to using recent advances in quantum information and condensed matter theory, we have drawn upon various branches of mathematics such as combinatorics of random walks, Brownian excursions, and fractional matching theory. We hope that the techniques developed herein may be useful for other problems in physics as well.
Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)
2017-04-15
We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.
Multipartite quantum entanglement evolution in photosynthetic complexes.
Zhu, Jing; Kais, Sabre; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rodriques, Sam; Brock, Ben; Love, Peter J
2012-08-21
We investigate the evolution of entanglement in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson (FMO) complex based on simulations using the scaled hierarchical equations of motion approach. We examine the role of entanglement in the FMO complex by direct computation of the convex roof. We use monogamy to give a lower bound for entanglement and obtain an upper bound from the evaluation of the convex roof. Examination of bipartite measures for all possible bipartitions provides a complete picture of the multipartite entanglement. Our results support the hypothesis that entanglement is maximum primary along the two distinct electronic energy transfer pathways. In addition, we note that the structure of multipartite entanglement is quite simple, suggesting that there are constraints on the mixed state entanglement beyond those due to monogamy.
Temporal Multimode Storage of Entangled Photon Pairs.
Tiranov, Alexey; Strassmann, Peter C; Lavoie, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Verma, Varun B; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Lita, Adriana E; Marsili, Francesco; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas
2016-12-09
Multiplexed quantum memories capable of storing and processing entangled photons are essential for the development of quantum networks. In this context, we demonstrate and certify the simultaneous storage and retrieval of two entangled photons inside a solid-state quantum memory and measure a temporal multimode capacity of ten modes. This is achieved by producing two polarization-entangled pairs from parametric down-conversion and mapping one photon of each pair onto a rare-earth-ion-doped (REID) crystal using the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol. We develop a concept of indirect entanglement witnesses, which can be used as Schmidt number witnesses, and we use it to experimentally certify the presence of more than one entangled pair retrieved from the quantum memory. Our work puts forward REID-AFC as a platform compatible with temporal multiplexing of several entangled photon pairs along with a new entanglement certification method, useful for the characterization of multiplexed quantum memories.
Evolution and symmetry of multipartite entanglement.
Gour, Gilad
2010-11-05
We discover a simple factorization law describing how multipartite entanglement of a composite quantum system evolves when one of the subsystems undergoes an arbitrary physical process. This multipartite entanglement decay is determined uniquely by a single factor we call the entanglement resilience factor. Since the entanglement resilience factor is a function of the quantum channel alone, we find that multipartite entanglement evolves in exactly the same way as bipartite (two qudits) entanglement. For the two qubits case, our factorization law reduces to the main result of [T. Konrad, Nature Phys. 4, 99 (2008)10.1038/nphys885]. In addition, for a permutation P, we provide an operational definition of P asymmetry of entanglement, and find the conditions when a permuted version of a state can be achieved by local means.
Entangling light in high dimensions
Pors, Jan Bardeus
2011-01-01
Quantum entanglement is a fundamental trait of quantum mechanics that causes the information about the properties of two (or more) objects to be inextricably linked. When a measurement on one of the objects is performed, the state of the other object is immediately altered, even when these objects
Entanglement Entropy of Black Shells
Arenas, J Robel; 10.1393/ncb/i2010-10922-3
2011-01-01
We present a coherent account of how the entanglement interpretation, thermofield dynamical description and the brick wall formulations (with the ground state correctly identified) fit into a connected and self-consistent explanation of what Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is, and where it is located.
Bessel-Gaussian entanglement; presentation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mclaren, M
2013-07-01
Full Text Available mode Hologram Page 9 Violation of Bell’s inequality demonstrates entanglement © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.za P ro b ab il it y Classical Quantum mechanical M. McLaren et al.,2012, Opt. Express, 20, 23589 Page 10 Comparison...
Genetic algorithm optimization of entanglement
Navarro-Munoz, Jorge C.; Rosu, H. C.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.
2006-01-01
We present an application of a genetic algorithmic computational method to the optimization of the concurrence measure of entanglement for the cases of one dimensional chains, as well as square and triangular lattices in a simple tight-binding approach in which the hopping of electrons is much stronger than the phonon dissipation
Remote entanglement of transmon qubits
Hatridge, M.; Sliwa, K.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mirrahimi, M.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.
2014-03-01
An open challenge in quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is to entangle distant (non-nearest neighbor) qubits. This can be accomplished by entangling the qubits with flying microwave oscillators (traveling pulses), and then performing joint operations on a pair of these oscillators. Remarkably, such a process is embedded in the act of phase-preserving amplification, which transforms two input modes (termed signal and idler) into a two-mode squeezed output state. For an ideal system, this process generates heralded, perfectly entangled states between remote qubits with a fifty percent success rate. For an imperfect system, the loss of information from the flying states degrades the purity of the entanglement. We show data on such a protocol involving two transmon qubits imbedded in superconducting cavities connected to the signal and idler inputs of a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC) operated as a nearly-quantum limited phase-preserving amplifier. Strategies for optimizing performance will also be discussed. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.
Entanglement enhanced multiplayer quantum games
Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian
2002-09-01
We investigate the 3-player quantum Prisoner's Dilemma with a certain strategic space, a particular Nash equilibrium that can remove the original dilemma is found. Based on this equilibrium, we show that the game is enhanced by the entanglement of its initial state.
Senegalese Immigrant Entrepreneurial Entanglements and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Senegalese entrepreneurship in South Africa is a typical example of how entrepreneurial entanglements are beginning to pose huge challenges to the theorization and understanding of modern African forms of business. This group of immigrant entrepreneurs finds it difficult to separate the use of charms and magic in the ...
Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...
Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cubitt, T.S.
2007-03-29
This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more
Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.
Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G
2008-11-14
Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.
Quantum steganography using prior entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp
2015-06-05
Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.
Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dibakar Roychowdhury
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering
Yan, Xiao-Bo
2017-11-01
We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become strong if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, from which we give the optimal center frequency at which the entanglement takes the maximum. Furthermore, we study the effects of time delay between the two output fields on the output entanglement, and obtain the optimal time delay for the case of large filter bandwidth.
Displaced photon-number entanglement tests
Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Sperling, J.
2017-09-01
Based on correlations of coherently displaced photon numbers, we derive entanglement criteria for the purpose of verifying non-Gaussian entanglement. Our construction method enables us to verify bipartite and multipartite entanglement of complex states of light. An important advantage of our technique is that the certified entanglement persists even in the presence of arbitrarily high, constant losses. We exploit experimental correlation schemes for the two-mode and multimode scenarios, which allow us to directly measure the desired observables. To detect entanglement of a given state, a genetic algorithm is applied to optimize over the infinite set of our constructed witnesses. In particular, we provide suitable witnesses for several distinct two-mode states. Moreover, a mixed non-Gaussian four-mode state is shown to be entangled in all possible nontrivial partitions.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-31
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories.
Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B; Verstraete, Frank
2016-09-23
We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws-including a topological correction-emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.
Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond
Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo
2013-04-01
Generic quantum states in the Hilbert space of a many-body system are nearly maximally entangled whereas low-energy physical states are not; the so-called area laws for quantum entanglement are widespread. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of entanglement susceptibility by expanding the 2-Rényi entropy in the boundary couplings. We show how this concept leads to the emergence of area laws for bi-partite quantum entanglement in systems ruled by local gapped Hamiltonians. Entanglement susceptibility also captures quantitatively which violations one should expect when the system becomes gapless. We also discuss an exact series expansion of the 2-Rényi entanglement entropy in terms of connected correlation functions of a boundary term. This is obtained by identifying Rényi entropy with ground state fidelity in a doubled and twisted theory.
Entanglement Spectrum Classification of Disordered Class AII Symplectic Systems
Gilbert, Matthew; Hughes, Taylor; Bernevig, Andrei
2012-02-01
Of the available classes of random matrices which have been shown to contain topologically non-trivial propertiesootnotetextA. P. Schnyder, S. Ryu, A. Furusaki, and A .W. W. Ludwig, Phys. Rev. B 55, 195125 (2008)., one of the most intriguing is class AII, which is characterizes a system that possesses time-reversal symmetry. This class of random matrices has been the subject of significant attention as it encompasses Z2 topological systems of which the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a member ootnotetextC. L. Kane and E. J. Mele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 146802 (2005).. We calculate the entanglement spectrum for disordered class AII symplectic systems in two-dimensions as a function of disorder strength, chemical potential, and bulk inversion asymmetry. We show that there is a one to one correspondence between the full system Hamiltonian and that of the entanglement spectrum not only in terms of level statistics but also in terms of the scaling of the inverse participation ratios. We also use the properties of the entanglement spectrum to illustrate the nature of the symplectic metal phase which appears when inversion symmetry is broken.
Locality of entangled polymer dynamics
Tsang, Chi Hang Boyce; Jiang, Lingxiang; Granick, Steve
2014-03-01
A combination of sparse and full fluorescence labeling of entangled actin solutions (filaments about 15 μm long at 1 mg/ml concentration) allowed us to probe both filament-scale polymer dynamics and effectively monomer dynamics. On the filament scale, the reptation tube idea of classical polymer physics works well. However, on a local scale comparable to mesh size, local tube width fluctuation becomes important. For the first time, the dependence of longitudinal diffusion on local tube width was quantified.
Quantum Entanglement in Fermionic Lattices
Zanardi, P.
2001-01-01
The Fock space of a system of indistinguishable particles is isomorphic (in a non-unique way) to the state-space of a composite i.e., many-modes, quantum system. One can then discuss quantum entanglement for fermionic as well as bosonic systems. We exemplify the use of this notion -central in quantum information - by studying some e.g., Hubbard,lattice fermionic models relevant to condensed matter physics.
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2016-08-29
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa
2007-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states...
Entanglement Teleportation Through 1D Heisenberg Chain
Hao, X; Zhu, S
2005-01-01
Information transmission of two qubits through two independent 1D Heisenberg chains as a quantum channel is analyzed. It is found that the entanglement of two spin-$\\frac 12$ quantum systems is decreased during teleportation via the thermal mixed state in 1D Heisenberg chain. The entanglement teleportation will be realized if the minimal entanglement of the thermal mixed state is provided in such quantum channel. High average fidelity of teleportation with values larger than 2/3 is obtained w...
Cool horizons for entangled black holes
Maldacena, Juan; Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
General relativity contains solutions in which two distant black holes are connected through the interior via a wormhole, or Einstein-Rosen bridge. These solutions can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex EPR pair. We suggest that similar bridges might be present for more general entangled states. In the case of entangled black holes one can formulate versions of the AMPS(S) paradoxes and resolve them. This suggests possible resolutions of the fi...
Cosmological dark energy effects from entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Napoli, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Luongo, Orlando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Napoli, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM) (Mexico); Mancini, Stefano [Scuola di Scienze and Tecnologie, Università di Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)
2013-06-03
The thorny issue of relating information theory to cosmology is here addressed by assuming a possible connection between quantum entanglement measures and observable universe. In particular, we propose a cosmological toy model, where the equation of state of the cosmological fluid, which drives the today observed cosmic acceleration, can be inferred from quantum entanglement between different cosmological epochs. In such a way the dynamical dark energy results as byproduct of quantum entanglement.
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement.
Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-10
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.
Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement
Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew
2017-05-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
...) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps...
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-20
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.
Resource Efficient Source of Multiphoton Polarization Entanglement
Megidish, E.; Shacham, T.; Halevy, A.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.
2012-08-01
Current photon entangling schemes require resources that grow with the photon number. We present a new approach that generates quantum entanglement between many photons, using only a single source of entangled photon pairs. The different spatial modes, one for each photon as required by other schemes, are replaced by different time slots of only two spatial modes. States of any number of photons are generated with the same setup, solving the scalability problem caused by the previous need for extra resources. Consequently, entangled photon states of larger numbers than before are practically realizable.
Quantifying Photonic High-Dimensional Entanglement
Martin, Anthony; Guerreiro, Thiago; Tiranov, Alexey; Designolle, Sébastien; Fröwis, Florian; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Gisin, Nicolas
2017-03-01
High-dimensional entanglement offers promising perspectives in quantum information science. In practice, however, the main challenge is to devise efficient methods to characterize high-dimensional entanglement, based on the available experimental data which is usually rather limited. Here we report the characterization and certification of high-dimensional entanglement in photon pairs, encoded in temporal modes. Building upon recently developed theoretical methods, we certify an entanglement of formation of 2.09(7) ebits in a time-bin implementation, and 4.1(1) ebits in an energy-time implementation. These results are based on very limited sets of local measurements, which illustrates the practical relevance of these methods.
Quantum entanglement in helium-like ions
Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.
2012-06-01
Recently, there have been considerable interests to investigate quantum entanglement in two-electron atoms [1-3]. Here we investigate quantum entanglement for the ground and excited states of helium-like ions using correlated wave functions, concentrating on the particle-particle entanglement coming from the continuous spatial degrees of freedom. We use the two-electron wave functions constructed by employing B-spline basis to calculate the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix L=1-TrA(ρA^2 ) as a measure of the spatial entanglement. HereρA=TrB(| >AB ABDehesa et. al., J. Phys. B 45, 015504 (2012)
Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghose, Shohini, E-mail: sghose@wlu.ca [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hamel, Angele [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
2015-12-31
We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.
Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H
2016-01-01
.... This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs...
Robust quantum entanglement generation and generation-plus-storage protocols with spin chains
Estarellas, Marta P.; D'Amico, Irene; Spiller, Timothy P.
2017-04-01
Reliable quantum communication and/or processing links between modules are a necessary building block for various quantum processing architectures. Here we consider a spin-chain system with alternating strength couplings and containing three defects, which impose three domain walls between topologically distinct regions of the chain. We show that—in addition to its useful, high-fidelity, quantum state transfer properties—an entangling protocol can be implemented in this system, with optional localization and storage of the entangled states. We demonstrate both numerically and analytically that, given a suitable initial product-state injection, the natural dynamics of the system produces a maximally entangled state at a given time. We present detailed investigations of the effects of fabrication errors, analyzing random static disorder both in the diagonal and off-diagonal terms of the system Hamiltonian. Our results show that the entangled state formation is very robust against perturbations of up to ˜10 % the weaker chain coupling, and also robust against timing injection errors. We propose a further protocol, which manipulates the chain in order to localize and store each of the entangled qubits. The engineering of a system with such characteristics would thus provide a useful device for quantum information processing tasks involving the creation and storage of entangled resources.
Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-01-01
Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.
Entanglement in non-Hermitian quantum theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. Entanglement in non-Hermitian quantum theory. Arun K Pati. Volume 73 Issue 3 ... Entanglement is one of the key features of quantum world that has no classical counterpart. This arises due to the linear superposition principle and the tensor product ...
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 56; Issue 2-3. Quantum entanglement ... Arvind. Quantum information processing Volume 56 Issue 2-3 February-March 2001 pp 357-365 ... The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum ...
On-chip entangled photon source
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.
2016-11-22
Various technologies pertaining to an on-chip entangled photon source are described herein. A light source is used to pump two resonator cavities that are resonant at two different respective wavelengths and two different respective polarizations. The resonator cavities are coupled to a four-wave mixing cavity that receives the light at the two wavelengths and outputs polarization-entangled photons.
On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2010-06-01
We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.
Quantum entanglement and teleportation using statistical correlations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Entanglement; quantum correlation; teleportation; density matrix; quantum information. ... A criterion based on standard quantum statistical correlations employed in the many-body virial expansion is used to determine the extent of entanglement for a 2-particle system. A relation between the probability and ...
Multiparticle entanglement under the influence of decoherence
Gühne, O.; Bodoky, F.; Blaauboer, M.
2008-01-01
We present a method to determine the decay of multiparticle quantum correlations as quantified by the geometric measure of entanglement under the influence of decoherence. With this, we compare the robustness of entanglement in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), cluster, W, and Dicke states of four
Quantum entanglement in polarization and space
Lee, Peter Sing Kin
2006-01-01
One of the most intriguing concepts of quantum mechanics is quantum entanglement. Two physical systems are said to be entangled with respect to a certain variable, if their individual outcomes of the variable are undetermined before measurement, but strictly correlated. Measurement of the variable
Entanglement Rate for Gaussian Continuous Variable Beams
2016-08-24
for Gaussian continuous variable beams Zhi JiaoDeng1,2, Steven JMHabraken1 and FlorianMarquardt1,3 1 Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Friedrich...91058 Erlangen, Germany E-mail: Florian.Marquardt@physik.uni-erlangen.de Keywords: entanglement rate, entangledGaussian beams , optomechanics Abstract
Entanglement Entropy in Warped Conformal Field Theories
Castro, A.; Hofman, D.M.; Iqbal, N.
We present a detailed discussion of entanglement entropy in (1+1)-dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs). We implement the Rindler method to evaluate entanglement and Renyi entropies for a single interval and along the way we interpret our results in terms of twist field correlation
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Center for Philosophy and Foundation of Science, New Delhi, India ... Introduction. Quantum entanglement is generally regarded as a very useful resource for quantum infor- mation processing [1]. It can be used for teleportation [2], ... To achieve this, we introduce a class of entangled states calledzero sum amplitude(ZSA).
Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near...
On entanglement-assisted classical capacity
Holevo, A. S.
2002-09-01
We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.
Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics
Cervera-Lierta, Alba; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca
2017-01-01
We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i) $s$-channel processes
Quantum entanglement and Kaniadakis entropy
Ourabah, Kamel; Hiba Hamici-Bendimerad, Amel; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-04-01
A first use of Kaniadakis entropy in the context of quantum information is presented. First we show that (as all smooth and concave trace-form entropies) it exhibits some properties allowing it to be a possible candidate for a generalized quantum information theory. We then use it to determine the degree of entanglement. The influence of the parameter κ, that underpins Kaniadakis entropy, on the mutual information measure is then highlighted. It is shown that Kaniadakis entropy reduces the mutual information, which is always smaller than its usual von Neumann counterpart. Our results may contribute to the ongoing investigation involving generalized entropies in the context of quantum information.
Entanglement creation in low-energy scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weder, Ricardo [Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique Paris-Rocquencourt, Projet POEMS, Domaine de Voluceau-Rocquencourt, BP 105, F-78153, Le Chesnay Cedex (France)
2011-12-15
We study the entanglement creation in the low-energy scattering of two particles in three dimensions, for a general class of interaction potentials that are not required to be spherically symmetric. The incoming asymptotic state, before the collision, is a product of two normalized Gaussian states. After the scattering, the particles are entangled. We take as a measure of the entanglement the purity of one of them. We provide a rigorous explicit computation, with error bound, of the leading order of the purity at low energy. The entanglement depends strongly on the difference of the masses. It takes its minimum when the masses are equal, and it increases rapidly with the difference of the masses. It is quite remarkable that the anisotropy of the potential gives no contribution to the leading order of the purity, in spite of the fact that entanglement is a second-order effect.
Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2017-10-27
We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.
Entanglement temperature with Gauss–Bonnet term
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shesansu Sekhar Pal
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We compute the entanglement temperature using the first law-like of thermodynamics, ΔE=TentΔSEE, up to Gauss–Bonnet term in the Jacobson–Myers entropy functional in any arbitrary spacetime dimension. The computation is done when the entangling region is the geometry of a slab. We also show that such a Gauss–Bonnet term, which becomes a total derivative, when the co-dimension two hypersurface is four dimensional, does not contribute to the finite term in the entanglement entropy. We observe that the Weyl-squared term does not contribute to the entanglement entropy. It is important to note that the calculations are performed when the entangling region is very small and the energy is calculated using the normal Hamiltonian.
Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.
Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-11-02
Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.
Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen
2017-01-01
We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...
Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.
Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2013-01-01
Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.
Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.
Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He
Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Maestro, A. Del
2017-06-01
Area laws were first discovered by Bekenstein and Hawking, who found that the entropy of a black hole grows proportional to its surface area, and not its volume. Entropy area laws have since become a fundamental part of modern physics, from the holographic principle in quantum gravity to ground-state wavefunctions of quantum matter, where entanglement entropy is generically found to obey area law scaling. As no experiments are currently capable of directly probing the entanglement area law in naturally occurring many-body systems, evidence of its existence is based on studies of simplified qualitative theories. Using new exact microscopic numerical simulations of superfluid 4He, we demonstrate for the first time an area law scaling of entanglement entropy in a real quantum liquid in three dimensions. We validate the fundamental principle that the area law originates from correlations local to the entangling boundary, and present an entanglement equation of state showing how it depends on the density of the superfluid.
Entangled Polymer-Nanocomposites: Dynamics and phase stability
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden
2015-03-01
Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) prepared by incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer hosts, have been reported to exhibit unusual mechanical, dynamical, and glassy features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer, even at low NP content. By taking advantage of favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and high-molecular weight host polymer molecules, we show by means of small-angle X-ray scattering that it is possible to create model PNCs in which spherical NPs are uniformly dispersed in polymeric hosts. Using these materials as model systems for studying polymer dynamics, we find that even at low concentrations, NPs profoundly alter a host polymer's dynamics on all timescales. On short timescales, NPs slow-down fast segmental motions and lowers the glass transition temperature of the host. On intermediate timescales where entanglement and tube dynamics are typically observed in entangled melts, NPs hasten the onset of these effects, leading to an early transition to reptation behavior. On long timescales, NPs lead to an earlier than expected onset of tube escape. This latter behavior appears correlated with previous reports of viscosity reductions in entangled PNCs, but in reality would only be experimentally observable in systems where nanoparticles do not also slow-down segmental scale motions of their polymer host.
Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2011-07-15
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.
Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.
Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi
2014-09-05
It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos √b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree γ is less than the threshold arccos √b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree γ, and that if γ is less than arccos √b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.
Disentangling entanglements in biopolymer solutions.
Lang, Philipp; Frey, Erwin
2018-02-05
Reptation theory has been highly successful in explaining the unusual material properties of entangled polymer solutions. It reduces the complex many-body dynamics to a single-polymer description, where each polymer is envisaged to be confined to a tube through which it moves in a snake-like fashion. For flexible polymers, reptation theory has been amply confirmed by both experiments and simulations. In contrast, for semiflexible polymers, experimental and numerical tests are either limited to the onset of reptation, or were performed for tracer polymers in a fixed, static matrix. Here, we report Brownian dynamics simulations of entangled solutions of semiflexible polymers, which show that curvilinear motion along a tube (reptation) is no longer the dominant mode of dynamics. Instead, we find that polymers disentangle due to correlated constraint release, which leads to equilibration of internal bending modes before polymers diffuse the full tube length. The physical mechanism underlying terminal stress relaxation is rotational diffusion mediated by disentanglement rather than curvilinear motion along a tube.
Entanglement classification with algebraic geometry
Sanz, M.; Braak, D.; Solano, E.; Egusquiza, I. L.
2017-05-01
We approach multipartite entanglement classification in the symmetric subspace in terms of algebraic geometry, its natural language. We show that the class of symmetric separable states has the structure of a Veronese variety and that its k-secant varieties are SLOCC invariants. Thus SLOCC classes gather naturally into families. This classification presents useful properties such as a linear growth of the number of families with the number of particles, and nesting, i.e. upward consistency of the classification. We attach physical meaning to this classification through the required interaction length of parent Hamiltonians. We show that the states W N and GHZ N are in the same secant family and that, effectively, the former can be obtained in a limit from the latter. This limit is understood in terms of tangents, leading to a refinement of the previous families. We compute explicitly the classification of symmetric states with N≤slant4 qubits in terms of both secant families and its refinement using tangents. This paves the way to further use of projective varieties in algebraic geometry to solve open problems in entanglement theory.
PhD thesis: Multipartite entanglement and quantum algorithms
Alsina, Daniel
2017-01-01
PhD thesis dealing with various aspects of multipartite entanglement, such as entanglement measures, absolutely maximally entangled states, bell inequalities, entanglement spectrum and quantum frustration. Also some quantum algorithms run with the IBM quantum computer are covered, together with others applied to adiabatic quantum computation and quantum thermodynamics.
Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island | Hofmeyr | African ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
During the period April 1991–March 1996, 10 entangled Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella, 28 entangled Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis and one entangled southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina were observed at Marion Island, Southern Ocean. Entanglement of fur seals was estimated at between 0.01 and ...
Optimal verification of entanglement in a photonic cluster state experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wunderlich, H; Plenio, M B [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert Einstein-Allee 11, 89068 Ulm (Germany); Vallone, G [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Via Panisperna 89/A, Compendio del Viminale, Roma 00184 (Italy); Mataloni, P, E-mail: harald.wunderlich@uni-ulm.de [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma, Roma 00185 (Italy)
2011-03-15
We report on the quantification of entanglement by means of entanglement measures on a four- and a six-qubit cluster state realized by using photons entangled both in polarization and linear momentum. This paper also addresses the question of the scaling of entanglement bounds from incomplete tomographic information on the density matrix under realistic experimental conditions.
Entanglement irreversibility from quantum discord and quantum deficit.
Cornelio, Marcio F; de Oliveira, Marcos C; Fanchini, Felipe F
2011-07-08
We relate the problem of irreversibility of entanglement with the recently defined measures of quantum correlation--quantum discord and one-way quantum deficit. We show that the entanglement of formation is always strictly larger than the coherent information and the entanglement cost is also larger in most cases. We prove irreversibility of entanglement under local operations and classical communication for a family of entangled states. This family is a generalization of the maximally correlated states for which we also give an analytic expression for the distillable entanglement, the relative entropy of entanglement, the distillable secret key, and the quantum discord.
Entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories
Buividovich, . P. V.
We report on the recent progress in theoretical and numerical studies of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories. It is shown that the concept of quantum entanglement between gauge fields in two complementary regions of space can only be introduced if the Hilbert space of physical states is extended in a certain way. In the extended Hilbert space, the entanglement entropy can be partially interpreted as the classical Shannon entropy of the flux of the gauge fields through the boundary between the two regions. Such an extension leads to a reduction procedure which can be easily implemented in lattice simulations by constructing lattices with special topology. This enables us to measure the entanglement entropy in lattice Monte-Carlo simulations. On the simplest example of Z2 lattice gauge theory in (2 + 1) dimensions we demonstrate the relation between entanglement entropy and the classical entropy of the field flux. For SU (2) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, we find a signature of non-analytic dependence of the entanglement entropy on the size of the region. We also comment on the holographic interpretation of the entanglement entropy.
Monogamy Relations for Squared Entanglement Negativity
Liu, Feng
2016-10-01
This paper contains two main contents. In the first part, we provide two counterexamples of monogamy inequalities for the squared entanglement negativity: one three-qutrit pure state which violates of the He—Vidal monogamy conjecture, and one four-qubit pure state which disproves the squared-negativity-based Regula—Martino—Lee—Adesso-class strong monogamy conjecture. In the second part, we investigate the sharing of the entanglement negativity in a composite cavity-reservoir system using the corresponding multipartite entanglement scores, and then we find that there is no simple dominating relation between multipartite entanglement scores and the entanglement negativity in composite cavity-reservoir systems. As a by-product, we further validate that the entanglement of two cavity photons is a decreasing function of the evolution time, and the entanglement will suddenly disappear interacting with independent reservoirs. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 60973135 and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. ZR2015FQ006
Gauge field entanglement in Kitaev's honeycomb model
Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich
2018-01-01
A spin fractionalizes into matter and gauge fermions in Kitaev's spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. This follows from a Jordan-Wigner mapping to fermions, allowing for the construction of a minimal entropy ground-state wave function on the cylinder. We use this to calculate the entanglement entropy by choosing several distinct partitionings. First, by partitioning an infinite cylinder into two, the -ln2 topological entanglement entropy is reconfirmed. Second, the reduced density matrix of the gauge sector on the full cylinder is obtained after tracing out the matter degrees of freedom. This allows for evaluating the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian, which contains infinitely long-range correlations along the symmetry axis of the cylinder. The matter-gauge entanglement entropy is (Ny-1 )ln2 , with Ny the circumference of the cylinder. Third, the rules for calculating the gauge sector entanglement of any partition are determined. Rather small correctly chosen gauge partitions can still account for the topological entanglement entropy in spite of long-range correlations in the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian.
Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations
Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.
2011-07-01
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.
Entangling mobility and interactions in social media.
Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Ramasco, José J; Gonçalves, Bruno; Eguíluz, Víctor M
2014-01-01
Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships. As a result, it is possible to predict not only someone's location from their friends' locations but also friendship from spatial and temporal co-occurrence. While several models have been developed to separately describe mobility and the evolution of social networks, there is a lack of studies coupling social interactions and mobility. In this work, we introduce a model that bridges this gap by explicitly considering the feedback of mobility on the formation of social ties. Data coming from three online social networks (Twitter, Gowalla and Brightkite) is used for validation. Our model reproduces various topological and physical properties of the networks not captured by models uncoupling mobility and social interactions such as: i) the total size of the connected components, ii) the distance distribution between connected users, iii) the dependence of the reciprocity on the distance, iv) the variation of the social overlap and the clustering with the distance. Besides numerical simulations, a mean-field approach is also used to study analytically the main statistical features of the networks generated by a simplified version of our model. The robustness of the results to changes in the model parameters is explored, finding that a balance between friend visits and long-range random connections is essential to reproduce the geographical features of the empirical networks.
Entangling mobility and interactions in social media.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Przemyslaw A Grabowicz
Full Text Available Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships. As a result, it is possible to predict not only someone's location from their friends' locations but also friendship from spatial and temporal co-occurrence. While several models have been developed to separately describe mobility and the evolution of social networks, there is a lack of studies coupling social interactions and mobility. In this work, we introduce a model that bridges this gap by explicitly considering the feedback of mobility on the formation of social ties. Data coming from three online social networks (Twitter, Gowalla and Brightkite is used for validation. Our model reproduces various topological and physical properties of the networks not captured by models uncoupling mobility and social interactions such as: i the total size of the connected components, ii the distance distribution between connected users, iii the dependence of the reciprocity on the distance, iv the variation of the social overlap and the clustering with the distance. Besides numerical simulations, a mean-field approach is also used to study analytically the main statistical features of the networks generated by a simplified version of our model. The robustness of the results to changes in the model parameters is explored, finding that a balance between friend visits and long-range random connections is essential to reproduce the geographical features of the empirical networks.
Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.
Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2013-01-25
We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks.
Multicolor quantum metrology with entangled photons.
Bell, Bryn; Kannan, Srikanth; McMillan, Alex; Clark, Alex S; Wadsworth, William J; Rarity, John G
2013-08-30
Entangled photons can be used to make measurements with an accuracy beyond that possible with classical light. While most implementations of quantum metrology have used states made up of a single color of photons, we show that entangled states of two colors can show supersensitivity to optical phase and path length by using a photonic crystal fiber source of photon pairs inside an interferometer. This setup is relatively simple and robust to experimental imperfections. We demonstrate sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit and show superresolved interference fringes using entangled states of two, four, and six photons.
Ubiquitous Nonlocal Entanglement with Majorana Zero Modes
Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval
2017-10-01
Entanglement in quantum mechanics contradicts local realism and is a manifestation of quantum nonlocality. Its presence can be detected through the violation of Bell, or Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities. Paradigmatic quantum systems provide examples of both, nonentangled and entangled states. Here, we consider a minimal complexity setup consisting of six Majorana zero modes. We find that any allowed state in the degenerate Majorana space is nonlocally entangled. We show how to measure (with available techniques) the CHSH-violating correlations using either intermediate strength or weak measurement protocols.
Quantum cryptography with perfect multiphoton entanglement.
Luo, Yuhui; Chan, Kam Tai
2005-05-01
Multiphoton entanglement in the same polarization has been shown theoretically to be obtainable by type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), which can generate bright pulses more easily than type-II SPDC. A new quantum cryptographic protocol utilizing polarization pairs with the detected type-I entangled multiphotons is proposed as quantum key distribution. We calculate the information capacity versus photon number corresponding to polarization after considering the transmission loss inside the optical fiber, the detector efficiency, and intercept-resend attacks at the level of channel error. The result compares favorably with all other schemes employing entanglement.
Non-Markovianity-assisted steady state entanglement.
Huelga, Susana F; Rivas, Ángel; Plenio, Martin B
2012-04-20
We analyze the steady state entanglement generated in a coherently coupled dimer system subject to dephasing noise as a function of the degree of Markovianity of the evolution. By keeping fixed the effective noise strength while varying the memory time of the environment, we demonstrate that non-Markovianity is an essential, quantifiable resource that may support the formation of steady state entanglement whereas purely Markovian dynamics governed by Lindblad master equations lead to separable steady states. This result illustrates possible mechanisms leading to long-lived entanglement in purely decohering, possibly local, environments. We present a feasible experimental demonstration of this noise assisted phenomenon using a system of trapped ions.
Using entanglement against noise in quantum metrology.
Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafal; Maccone, Lorenzo
2014-12-19
We analyze the role of entanglement among probes and with external ancillas in quantum metrology. In the absence of noise, it is known that unentangled sequential strategies can achieve the same Heisenberg scaling of entangled strategies and that external ancillas are useless. This changes in the presence of noise; here we prove that entangled strategies can have higher precision than unentangled ones and that the addition of passive external ancillas can also increase the precision. We analyze some specific noise models and use the results to conjecture a general hierarchy for quantum metrology strategies in the presence of noise.
Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.
2012-10-01
Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.
Richter, Benedikt; Lorek, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej; Omar, Yasser
2017-04-01
We study the effects of acceleration on fermionic Gaussian states of localized modes of a Dirac field. We consider two wave packets in a Gaussian state and transform these to an accelerated frame of reference. In particular, we formulate the action of this transformation as a fermionic quantum channel. Having developed the general framework for fermions, we then investigate the entanglement of the vacuum, as well as the entanglement in Bell states. We find that with increasing acceleration vacuum entanglement increases, while the entanglement of Bell states decreases. Notably, our results have an immediate operational meaning given the localization of the modes.
Quantifying entanglement with scattering experiments
Marty, O.; Epping, M.; Kampermann, H.; Bruß, D.; Plenio, M. B.; Cramer, M.
2014-03-01
We show how the entanglement contained in states of spins arranged on a lattice may be lower bounded with observables arising in scattering experiments. We focus on the partial differential cross section obtained in neutron scattering from magnetic materials but our results are sufficiently general such that they may also be applied to, e.g., optical Bragg scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices or from ion chains. We discuss resonating valence bond states and ground and thermal states of experimentally relevant models—such as the Heisenberg, Majumdar-Ghosh, and XY models—in different geometries and with different spin numbers. As a by-product, we find that for the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse field such measurements reveal factorization and the quantum phase transition at zero temperature.
Entropic Entanglement: Information Prison Break
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Y. Yosifov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We argue that certain nonviolent local quantum field theory (LQFT modification considered at the global horizon (r=2M of a static spherically symmetric black hole can lead to adiabatic leakage of quantum information in the form of Hawking particles. The source of the modification is (i smooth at r=2M and (ii rapidly vanishing at r≫2M. Furthermore, we restore the unitary evolution by introducing extra quanta which departs slightly from the generic Hawking emission without changing the experience of an infalling observer (no drama. Also, we suggest that a possible interpretation of the Bekenstein-Hawking bound as entanglement entropy may yield a nonsingular dynamical horizon behavior described by black hole thermodynamics. Hence, by treating gravity as a field theory and considering its coupling to the matter fields in the Minkowski vacuum, we derive the conjectured fluctuations of the background geometry of a black hole.
Multipoint entanglement in disordered systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magán, Javier M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Paganelli, Simone, E-mail: pascualox@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università dell' Aquila, via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59012-970 Natal (Brazil); Oganesyan, Vadim [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, CUNY, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Physics program and Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY 10016 (United States)
2017-02-05
We develop an approach to characterize excited states of disordered many-body systems using spatially resolved structures of entanglement. We show that the behavior of the mutual information (MI) between two parties of a many-body system can signal a qualitative difference between thermal and localized phases – MI is finite in insulators while it approaches zero in the thermodynamic limit in the ergodic phase. Related quantities, such as the recently introduced Codification Volume (CV), are shown to be suitable to quantify the correlation length of the system. These ideas are illustrated using prototypical non-interacting wavefunctions of localized and extended particles and then applied to characterize states of strongly excited interacting spin chains. We especially focus on evolution of spatial structure of quantum information between high temperature diffusive and many-body localized (MBL) phases believed to exist in these models. We study MI as a function of disorder strength both averaged over the eigenstates and in time-evolved product states drawn from continuously deformed family of initial states realizable experimentally. As expected, spectral and time-evolved averages coincide inside the ergodic phase and differ significantly outside. We also highlight dispersion among the initial states within the localized phase – some of these show considerable generation and delocalization of quantum information. - Highlights: • A method to characterize the MBL based on the Mutual Information on the is proposed. • The method is tested for the single particle case. • The method ha been used in a thermalized to MBL transition for a disordered interacting system. • Excited states properties are characterized by spatially resolved structures of entanglement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza, E-mail: kenfacklionel300@gmail.com [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Fouokeng, Georges Collince [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Génie des Matériaux, Pôle Recherche-Innovation-Entrepreneuriat (PRIE), Institut Universitaire de la Côte, BP 3001 Douala (Cameroon)
2017-04-15
We address the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical fluctuating environment described either by a Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise in three different configurations namely: common, independent and mixed environments. Specifically, we focus on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise and the random telegraph noise (RTN). The qubits are prepared in a state composed of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and a W state. With the help of the tripartite negativity, we show that the entanglement evolution is not only affected by the type of system-environment coupling but also by the kind and the memory properties of the considered noise. We also compared the dynamics induced by the two kinds of noise and we find that even if both noises have a Lorentzian spectrum, the effects of the OU noise cannot be in a simple way deduced from those of the RTN and vice-versa. In addition, we show that the entanglement can be indefinitely preserved when the qubits are coupled to the environmental noise in a common environment (CE). Finally, the presence or absence of peculiar phenomena such as entanglement revivals (ER) and entanglement sudden death (ESD) is observed.
Philosophy of quantum information and entanglement
Jaeger, Gregg
2010-01-01
Recent work in quantum information science has produced a revolution in our understanding of quantum entanglement. Scientists now view entanglement as a physical resource with many important applications. These range from quantum computers, which would be able to compute exponentially faster than classical computers, to quantum cryptographic techniques, which could provide unbreakable codes for the transfer of secret information over public channels. These important advances in the study of quantum entanglement and information touch on deep foundational issues in both physics and philosophy. This interdisciplinary volume brings together fourteen of the world's leading physicists and philosophers of physics to address the most important developments and debates in this exciting area of research. It offers a broad spectrum of approaches to resolving deep foundational challenges - philosophical, mathematical, and physical - raised by quantum information, quantum processing, and entanglement. This book is ideal f...
Entangling mobility and interactions in social media
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Ramasco, José J; Gonçalves, Bruno; Eguíluz, Víctor M
2014-01-01
Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships...
Entanglement isn't just for spin
Schroeder, Daniel V.
2017-11-01
Quantum entanglement occurs not just in discrete systems such as spins, but also in the spatial wave functions of systems with more than one degree of freedom. It is easy to introduce students to entangled wave functions at an early stage, in any course that discusses wave functions. Doing so not only prepares students to learn about Bell's theorem and quantum information science, but can also provide a deeper understanding of the principles of quantum mechanics and help fight against some common misconceptions. Here I introduce several pictorial examples of entangled wave functions that depend on just two spatial variables. I also show how such wave functions can arise dynamically, and describe how to quantify their entanglement.
Geometric entanglement in the Laughlin wave function
Zhang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Yu
2017-08-01
We study numerically the geometric entanglement in the Laughlin wave function, which is of great importance in condensed matter physics. The Slater determinant having the largest overlap with the Laughlin wave function is constructed by an iterative algorithm. The logarithm of the overlap, which is a geometric quantity, is then taken as a geometric measure of entanglement. It is found that the geometric entanglement is a linear function of the number of electrons to a good extent. This is especially the case for the lowest Laughlin wave function, namely the one with filling factor of 1/3. Surprisingly, the linear behavior extends well down to the smallest possible value of the electron number, namely, N = 2. The constant term does not agree with the expected topological entropy. In view of previous works, our result indicates that the relation between geometric entanglement and topological entropy is very subtle.
Entanglement-assisted quantum feedback control
Yamamoto, Naoki; Mikami, Tomoaki
2017-07-01
The main advantage of quantum metrology relies on the effective use of entanglement, which indeed allows us to achieve strictly better estimation performance over the standard quantum limit. In this paper, we propose an analogous method utilizing entanglement for the purpose of feedback control. The system considered is a general linear dynamical quantum system, where the control goal can be systematically formulated as a linear quadratic Gaussian control problem based on the quantum Kalman filtering method; in this setting, an entangled input probe field is effectively used to reduce the estimation error and accordingly the control cost function. In particular, we show that, in the problem of cooling an opto-mechanical oscillator, the entanglement-assisted feedback control can lower the stationary occupation number of the oscillator below the limit attainable by the controller with a coherent probe field and furthermore beats the controller with an optimized squeezed probe field.
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ZSA) multipartite, pure entangled states for qubits and study their salient features. ... Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India; Center for Philosophy and Foundation of Science, New Delhi, India; School of Informatics, University of Wales, ...
Concurrent remote entanglement with continuous variables
Zalys-Geller, E.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Silveri, M.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mundhada, S. O.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.
A necessary ingredient for large scale quantum information processing is the ability to entangle distant qubits on demand. In the field of superconducting quantum information, this process can be achieved by entangling stationary superconducting qubits with flying coherent states of microwave light, which are then co-amplified by a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). The JPC also serves as a which-path information eraser, causing the probabilistic continuous measurement process to concurrently entangle the qubits. We discuss the sensitivity of the experiment to the loss of quantum information during the flight of the coherent states, as well as strategies to improve which-path information erasure and reduce information loss to the degree required for entanglement generation. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR, NSF, and YINQE.
Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)
2014-12-04
The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.
Entanglement concentration of continuous variable quantum states
Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista, Jr., Ladislav; Filip, Radim
2002-01-01
We propose two probabilistic entanglement concentration schemes for a single copy of two-mode squeezed vacuum state. The first scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a Rydberg atom with the cavity field while the second setup involves the cross Kerr interaction, auxiliary mode prepared in a strong coherent state and a homodyne detection. We show that the continuous-variable entanglement concentration allows us to improve the fidelity of teleportation of coherent states.
Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.
Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-02-02
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.
Multiphoton entanglement concentration and quantum cryptography.
Durkin, Gabriel A; Simon, Christoph; Bouwmeester, Dik
2002-05-06
Multiphoton states from parametric down-conversion can be entangled both in polarization and photon number. Maximal high-dimensional entanglement can be concentrated postselectively from these states via photon counting. This makes them natural candidates for quantum key distribution, where the presence of more than one photon per detection interval has up to now been considered undesirable. We propose a simple multiphoton cryptography protocol for the case of low losses.
On entanglement-assisted classical capacity
Holevo, A. S.
2001-01-01
This paper is essentially a lecture from the author's course on quantum information theory, which is devoted to the result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin and A. V. Thapliyal (quant-ph/0106052) concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel. A modified proof of this result is given and relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities is discussed.
Entangled-photon coincidence fluorescence imaging.
Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok H
2008-09-29
We describe fluorescence imaging using the second-order correlation of entangled photon pairs. The proposed method is based on the principle that one photon of the pair carries information on where the other photon has been absorbed and has produced fluorescence in a sample. Because fluorescent molecules serve as "detectors" breaking the entanglement, multiply-scattered fluorescence photons within the sample do not cause image blur. We discuss experimental implementations.
Light for the quantum. Entangled photons and their applications: a very personal perspective
Zeilinger, Anton
2017-07-01
local realistic explanations of the quantum phenomenon of entanglement in a significant way. These experiments may go down in the history books of science. Future experiments will address particularly the freedom-of-choice loophole using cosmic sources of randomness. Such experiments confirm that unconditionally secure quantum cryptography is possible, since quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem can provide unconditional security. The fact that the experiments were loophole-free proves that an eavesdropper cannot avoid detection in an experiment that correctly follows the protocol. I finally discuss some recent experiments with single- and entangled-photon states in higher dimensions. Such experiments realized quantum entanglement between two photons, each with quantum numbers beyond 10 000 and also simultaneous entanglement of two photons where each carries more than 100 dimensions. Thus they offer the possibility of quantum communication with more than one bit or qubit per photon. The paper concludes discussing Einstein’s contributions and viewpoints of quantum mechanics. Even if some of his positions are not supported by recent experiments, he has to be given credit for the fact that his analysis of fundamental issues gave rise to developments which led to a new information technology. Finally, I reflect on some of the lessons learned by the fact that nature cannot be local, that objective randomness exists and about the emergence of a classical world. It is suggestive that information plays a fundamental role also in the foundations of quantum physics.
Interuniversal entanglement in a cyclic multiverse
Robles-Pérez, Salvador; Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Krämer, Manuel
2017-04-01
We study scenarios of parallel cyclic multiverses which allow for a different evolution of the physical constants, while having the same geometry. These universes are classically disconnected, but quantum-mechanically entangled. Applying the thermodynamics of entanglement, we calculate the temperature and the entropy of entanglement. It emerges that the entropy of entanglement is large at big bang and big crunch singularities of the parallel universes as well as at the maxima of the expansion of these universes. The latter seems to confirm earlier studies that quantum effects are strong at turning points of the evolution of the universe performed in the context of the timeless nature of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and decoherence. On the other hand, the entropy of entanglement at big rip singularities is going to zero despite its presumably quantum nature. This may be an effect of total dissociation of the universe structures into infinitely separated patches violating the null energy condition. However, the temperature of entanglement is large/infinite at every classically singular point and at maximum expansion and seems to be a better measure of quantumness.
Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes
Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing
2017-12-01
Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.
Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states
Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sanders, Barry C.; Pan, Shao-Hua
2000-01-01
Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states are developed as superpositions of multiparticle SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states. In certain cases, these are coherent states with respect to generalized su(2) and su(1,1) generators, and multiparticle parity states arise as a special case. As a special example of entangled SU(2) coherent states, entangled binomial states are introduced and these entangled binomial states enable the contraction from entangled SU(2) coherent states to entangled har...
Thermal entanglement in two-atom cavity QED and the entangled quantum Otto engine
Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; He, Jizhou
2009-04-01
The simple system of two two-level identical atoms couple to single-mode optical cavity in the resonance case is studied for investigating the thermal entanglement. It is interesting to see that the critical temperature is only dependent on the coefficient of atom-atom dipole-dipole interaction. Based on the mode, we construct and investigate a entangled quantum Otto engine (QOE). Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the heat transferred, the work done in a cycle, and the efficiency of the entangled QOE in zero G are derived in terms of thermal concurrence. Some intriguing features and their qualitative explanations are given. Furthermore, the validity of the second law of thermodynamics is confirmed in the entangled QOE. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of an entangled QOE.
Multipoint entanglement in disordered systems
Magán, Javier M.; Paganelli, Simone; Oganesyan, Vadim
2017-02-01
We develop an approach to characterize excited states of disordered many-body systems using spatially resolved structures of entanglement. We show that the behavior of the mutual information (MI) between two parties of a many-body system can signal a qualitative difference between thermal and localized phases - MI is finite in insulators while it approaches zero in the thermodynamic limit in the ergodic phase. Related quantities, such as the recently introduced Codification Volume (CV), are shown to be suitable to quantify the correlation length of the system. These ideas are illustrated using prototypical non-interacting wavefunctions of localized and extended particles and then applied to characterize states of strongly excited interacting spin chains. We especially focus on evolution of spatial structure of quantum information between high temperature diffusive and many-body localized (MBL) phases believed to exist in these models. We study MI as a function of disorder strength both averaged over the eigenstates and in time-evolved product states drawn from continuously deformed family of initial states realizable experimentally. As expected, spectral and time-evolved averages coincide inside the ergodic phase and differ significantly outside. We also highlight dispersion among the initial states within the localized phase - some of these show considerable generation and delocalization of quantum information.
Becomings: Narrative Entanglements and Microsociology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Tamboukou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, I look back in an art/research experiment of convening an exhibition of women artists and inviting them to a round-table discussion in the context of a sociological conference. The artists who took part in this event had been previously interviewed for a feminist research project, entitled "In the Fold Between Life and Art, a Genealogy of Women Artists". The conference exhibition gave the artists the opportunity to appear to an academic audience and present their work while the round-table discussion created a forum for a narrative event where all women were invited to recount stories of becoming an artist. In looking at this event I want to explore questions around the possibilities and limitations of narratives in microsociological inquiries. In following trails of ARENDT's theorisation of stories, I explore connections and tensions between social, political and cultural entanglements in narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501193
Superadditivity of the Classical Capacity with Limited Entanglement Assistance
Zhu, Elton Yechao; Zhuang, Quntao; Shor, Peter W.
2017-07-01
Finding the optimal encoding strategies can be challenging for communication using quantum channels, as classical and quantum capacities may be superadditive. Entanglement assistance can often simplify this task, as the entanglement-assisted classical capacity for any channel is additive, making entanglement across channel uses unnecessary. If the entanglement assistance is limited, the picture is much more unclear. Suppose the classical capacity is superadditive, then the classical capacity with limited entanglement assistance could retain superadditivity by continuity arguments. If the classical capacity is additive, it is unknown if superadditivity can still be developed with limited entanglement assistance. We show this is possible, by providing an example. We construct a channel for which the classical capacity is additive, but that with limited entanglement assistance can be superadditive. This shows entanglement plays a weird role in communication, and we still understand very little about it.
Entanglement distillation between solid-state quantum network nodes.
Kalb, N; Reiserer, A A; Humphreys, P C; Bakermans, J J W; Kamerling, S J; Nickerson, N H; Benjamin, S C; Twitchen, D J; Markham, M; Hanson, R
2017-06-02
The impact of future quantum networks hinges on high-quality quantum entanglement shared between network nodes. Unavoidable imperfections necessitate a means to improve remote entanglement by local quantum operations. We realize entanglement distillation on a quantum network primitive of distant electron-nuclear two-qubit nodes. The heralded generation of two copies of a remote entangled state is demonstrated through single-photon-mediated entangling of the electrons and robust storage in the nuclear spins. After applying local two-qubit gates, single-shot measurements herald the distillation of an entangled state with increased fidelity that is available for further use. The key combination of generating, storing, and processing entangled states should enable the exploration of multiparticle entanglement on an extended quantum network. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Entanglement distillation between solid-state quantum network nodes
Kalb, N.; Reiserer, A. A.; Humphreys, P. C.; Bakermans, J. J. W.; Kamerling, S. J.; Nickerson, N. H.; Benjamin, S. C.; Twitchen, D. J.; Markham, M.; Hanson, R.
2017-06-01
The impact of future quantum networks hinges on high-quality quantum entanglement shared between network nodes. Unavoidable imperfections necessitate a means to improve remote entanglement by local quantum operations. We realize entanglement distillation on a quantum network primitive of distant electron-nuclear two-qubit nodes. The heralded generation of two copies of a remote entangled state is demonstrated through single-photon-mediated entangling of the electrons and robust storage in the nuclear spins. After applying local two-qubit gates, single-shot measurements herald the distillation of an entangled state with increased fidelity that is available for further use. The key combination of generating, storing, and processing entangled states should enable the exploration of multiparticle entanglement on an extended quantum network.
Entanglement dynamics of a bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia); Hindi, Awatif, E-mail: sbougouffa@taibahu.edu.sa, E-mail: sbougouffa@hotmail.com [Physics Department, College of Science, PO Box 22452, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)
2011-02-15
Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols; thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of great importance. In this paper, we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized through cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as flying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions that ensure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death in a bipartite system subjected to a squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.
Linear response of entanglement entropy from holography
Lokhande, Sagar F.; Oling, Gerben W. J.; Pedraza, Juan F.
2017-10-01
For time-independent excited states in conformal field theories, the entanglement entropy of small subsystems satisfies a `first law'-like relation, in which the change in entanglement is proportional to the energy within the entangling region. Such a law holds for time-dependent scenarios as long as the state is perturbatively close to the vacuum, but is not expected otherwise. In this paper we use holography to investigate the spread of entanglement entropy for unitary evolutions of special physical interest, the so-called global quenches. We model these using AdS-Vaidya geometries. We find that the first law of entanglement is replaced by a linear response relation, in which the energy density takes the role of the source and is integrated against a time-dependent kernel with compact support. For adiabatic quenches the standard first law is recovered, while for rapid quenches the linear response includes an extra term that encodes the process of thermalization. This extra term has properties that resemble a time-dependent `relative entropy'. We propose that this quantity serves as a useful order parameter to characterize far-from-equilibrium excited states. We illustrate our findings with concrete examples, including generic power-law and periodically driven quenches.
[Discussion on quantum entanglement theory and acupuncture].
Wang, Jun; Wu, Bin; Chen, Sheng
2017-11-12
The quantum entanglement is a new discovery of modern physics and has drawn a widely attention in the world. After learning the quantum entanglement, the authors have found that many characteristics of quantum are reflected in TCM, acupuncture theory and clinical practice. For example, the quantum entanglement phenomenon is mutually verified with the holism, yinyang doctrine, the theory of primary, secondary, root and knot in TCM, etc. It can be applied to interpret the clinical situations which is difficult to be explained in clinical practice, such as the instant effect of acupuncture, multi-point stimulation in one disorder and the points with specific effects. On the basis of the discovery above, the quantum entanglement theory achieved the mutual treatment among the relatives in acupuncture clinical practice and the therapeutic effects were significant. The results suggest that the coupling relationship in quantum entanglement presents between the diseases and the acupoints in the direct relative. The authors believe that the discovery in this study contributes to the exploration on the approaches to the acupuncture treatment in clinical practice and enrich the ideas on the disease prevention.
Deformed Fredkin Spin Chain with Extensive Entanglement
Salberger, Olof; Zhang, Zhao; Katsura, Hosho; Klich, Israel; Korepin, Vladimir
2016-01-01
We introduce a new spin chain which is a deformation of the Fredkin spin chain and has a phase transition between bounded and extensive entanglement entropy scaling. In this chain, spins have a local interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian is frustration-free and its ground state can be described analytically as a weighted superposition of Dyck paths. In the purely spin $1/2$ case, the entanglement entropy obeys an area law: it is bounded from above by a constant, when the size of the block $n$ increases (and $t>1$). When a local color degree of freedom is introduced the entanglement entropy increases linearly with the size of the block (and $t>1$). The entanglement entropy of half of the chain is tightly bounded by ${ n}\\log s$ where $n$ is the size of the block, and $s$ is the number of colors. Our chain fosters a new example for a significant boost to entropy and for the existence of the associated critical rainbow phase where the entanglement entropy scales with volume that has recently be...
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Asymmetrical two-atom entanglement in a coated microsphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burlak, G.N. [Center for Research on Engineering and Applied Sciences, Autonomous State University of Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gburlak@uaem.mx; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44420 (Mexico)]. E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx
2006-12-25
We study evolution of entanglement of two two-level atoms placed inside a multilayered microsphere. We show that due to inhomogeneity of the optical field modes this entanglement essentially depends on the atomic positions (asymmetrical entanglement) and also on the detuning between the atomic transitions and field frequencies. The robust and complete entanglement can be achieved even in the resonant case when the atoms have different effective coupling constants, and it can be extended in time if the detuning is large enough.
Stability of global entanglement in thermal states of spin chains
Gavin K. Brennen; Bullock, Stephen S
2004-01-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of a one dimensional chain of spin qubits coupled via nearest neighbor interactions. The entanglement measure used is the n-concurrence, which is distinct from other measures on spin chains such as bipartite entanglement in that it can quantify "global" entanglement across the spin chain. Specifically, it computes the overlap of a quantum state with its time-reversed state. As such this measure is well suited to study ground states of spin chain Hami...
Entanglement in a Spin-$s$ Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain
Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun
2006-01-01
The entanglement in a general Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain of arbitrary spin-$s$ is investigated. The entanglement is witnessed by the thermal energy which equals to the minimum energy of any separable state. There is a characteristic temperature below that an entangled thermal state exists. The characteristic temperature for thermal entanglement is increased with spin $s$. When the total number of lattice is increased, the characteristic temperature decreases and then approaches a cons...
Entanglement classification of four-partite states under the SLOCC
Zangi, S. M.; Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2017-08-01
We present a practical classification scheme for the four-partite entangled states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). By transforming a four-partite state into a triple-state set composed of two tripartite states and a bipartite state, the entanglement classification is reduced to the classification of tripartite and bipartite entanglements. This reduction method has the merit of involving only the linear constrains, and meanwhile provides an insight into the entanglement character of the subsystems.
Nodal-line entanglement entropy: Generalized Widom formula from entanglement Hamiltonians
Pretko, Michael
2017-06-01
A system of fermions forming a Fermi surface exhibits a large degree of quantum entanglement, even in the absence of interactions. In particular, the usual case of a codimension one Fermi surface leads to a logarithmic violation of the area law for entanglement entropy as dictated by the Widom formula. We here generalize this formula to the case of arbitrary codimension, which is of particular interest for nodal lines in three dimensions. We first re-derive the standard Widom formula by calculating an entanglement Hamiltonian for Fermi-surface systems, obtained by repurposing a trick commonly applied to relativistic theories. The entanglement Hamiltonian will take a local form in terms of a low-energy patch theory for the Fermi surface, although it is nonlocal with respect to the microscopic fermions. This entanglement Hamiltonian can then be used to derive the entanglement entropy, yielding a result in agreement with the Widom formula. The method is then generalized to arbitrary codimension. For nodal lines, the area law is obeyed, and the magnitude of the coefficient for a particular partition is nonuniversal. However, the coefficient has a universal dependence on the shape and orientation of the nodal line relative to the partitioning surface. By comparing the relative magnitude of the area law for different partitioning cuts, entanglement entropy can be used as a tool for diagnosing the presence and shape of a nodal line in a ground-state wave function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrizio E Tressoldi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we applied for the first time the no-signaling in time (NSIT formalism discussed by Kofler and Brukner to investigate temporal entanglement between binary human behavioral unconscious choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. NSIT consists of a set of inequalities and represents mathematical conditions for macro-realism which require only two measurements in time. The analyses of three independent experiments show a strong violation of NSIT in two out of three of them, suggesting the hypothesis of a quantum-like temporal entanglement between human choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. We discuss the potentialities of using NSIT to test temporal entanglement with behavioral measures.
Complementarity reveals bound entanglement of two twisted photons
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang
2013-08-01
We demonstrate the detection of bipartite bound entanglement as predicted by the Horodecki's in 1998. Bound entangled states, being heavily mixed entangled quantum states, can be produced by incoherent addition of pure entangled states. Until 1998 it was thought that such mixing could always be reversed by entanglement distillation; however, this turned out to be impossible for bound entangled states. The purest form of bound entanglement is that of only two particles, which requires higher-dimensional (d > 2) quantum systems. We realize this using photon qutrit (d = 3) pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion, that are entangled in the orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, which is scalable to high dimensions. Entanglement of the photons is confirmed via a ‘maximum complementarity protocol’. This conceptually simple protocol requires only maximized complementary of measurement bases; we show that it can also detect bound entanglement. We explore the bipartite qutrit space and find that, also experimentally, a significant portion of the entangled states are actually bound entangled.
Operational measure of entanglement based on experimental consequences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grondalski, J. P. (John P.); James, D. F. (Daniel F.)
2002-01-01
The maximum eigenvalue of the real part of the density matrix expressed in a maximally entangled basis with a particular phase relationship can be used as an operational measure of entanglement. This measure is related to the fidelity, maximized with a local unitary operating on either subsystem, of a standard dense coding, teleportation, or entanglement swapping protocol.
Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-02-27
We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.
Entanglement between particle partitions in itinerant many-particle states
Haque, M.; Zozulya, O.S.; Schoutens, K.
2009-01-01
We review 'particle-partitioning entanglement' for itinerant many-particle systems. This is defined as the entanglement between two subsets of particles making up the system. We identify generic features and mechanisms of particle entanglement that are valid over whole classes of itinerant quantum
Compact and reconfigurable silicon nitride time-bin entanglement circuit
Xiong, C.; Zhang, X.; Mahendra, A.; He, J.; Choi, D.Y.; Chae, C.J.; Marpaung, D.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene; Hoekman, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Oldenbeuving, Ruud; van Dijk, P.W.L.; Taddei, Caterina; Leong, P.H.W.; Eggleton, B.J.
2015-01-01
Photonic-chip-based time-bin entanglement has attracted significant attention because of its potential for quantum communication and computation. Useful time-bin entanglement systems must be able to generate, manipulate, and analyze entangled photons on a photonic chip for stable, scalable, and
Entanglement network in nanoparticle reinforced polymers.
Riggleman, Robert A; Toepperwein, Gregory; Papakonstantopoulos, George J; Barrat, Jean-Louis; de Pablo, Juan J
2009-06-28
Polymer nanocomposites have been widely studied in efforts to engineer materials with mechanical properties superior to those of the pure polymer, but the molecular origins of the sought-after improved properties have remained elusive. An ideal polymer nanocomposite model has been conceived in which the nanoparticles are dispersed throughout the polymeric matrix. A detailed examination of topological constraints (or entanglements) in a nanocomposite glass provides new insights into the molecular origin of the improved properties in polymer nanocomposites by revealing that the nanoparticles impart significant enhancements to the entanglement network. Nanoparticles are found to serve as entanglement attractors, particularly at large deformations, altering the topological constraint network that arises in the composite material.
Entangled scalar and tensor fluctuations during inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, Hael; Vardanyan, Tereza [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University,5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)
2016-11-29
We show how the choice of an inflationary state that entangles scalar and tensor fluctuations affects the angular two-point correlation functions of the T, E, and B modes of the cosmic microwave background. The propagators for a state starting with some general quadratic entanglement are solved exactly, leading to predictions for the primordial scalar-scalar, tensor-tensor, and scalar-tensor power spectra. These power spectra are expressed in terms of general functions that describe the entangling structure of the initial state relative to the standard Bunch-Davies vacuum. We illustrate how such a state would modify the angular correlations in the CMB with a simple example where the initial state is a small perturbation away from the Bunch-Davies state. Because the state breaks some of the rotational symmetries, the angular power spectra no longer need be strictly diagonal.
Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states
Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.
2017-06-01
Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.
A new approach to entangling neutral atoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jongmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deutsch, Ivan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Grant W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-11-01
Our team has developed a new approach to entangling neutral atoms with a Rydberg-dressed interaction. Entangling neutral atoms is an essential key of quantum technologies such as quantum computation, many-body quantum simulation, and high-precision atomic sensors . The demonstrated Rydberg-dressed protocol involves adiabatically imposing a light shift on the ground state by coupling an excited Rydberg state with a tuned laser field. Using this technique, we have demonstrated a strong and tunable dipole - dipole interaction between two individually trapped atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz, which has been challenging to achieve in other protocols . During this program, we experimentally demonstrated Bell-state entanglement and the isomorphism to the Jaynes - Cumming model of a Rydberg-dressed two-atom system. Our theoretical calculations of a CPHASE quantum logic gate and arbitrary Dicke state quantum control in this system encourage further work.
Efficient Multiparticle Entanglement via Asymmetric Rydberg Blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles. On t....... On the basis of quantitative calculations, we predict that an entangled quantum superposition state of eight atoms can be produced with a fidelity of 84% in cold Rb atoms.......We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles...
Tripartite information of highly entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rota, Massimiliano [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2016-04-13
Holographic systems require monogamous mutual information for validity of semiclassical geometry. This is encoded by the sign of the tripartite information (I3). We investigate the behaviour of I3 for all partitionings of systems in states which are highly entangled in a multipartite or bipartite sense. In the case of multipartite entanglement we propose an algorithmic construction that we conjecture can be used to build local maxima of I3 for any partitioning. In case of bipartite entanglement we classify the possible values of I3 for perfect states and investigate, in some examples, the effect on its sign definiteness due to deformations of the states. Finally we comment on the proposal of using I3 as a parameter of scrambling, arguing that in general its average over qubits permutations could be a more sensible measure.
Entanglement in a Quantum Annealing Processor
Lanting, T.; Przybysz, A. J.; Smirnov, A. Yu.; Spedalieri, F. M.; Amin, M. H.; Berkley, A. J.; Harris, R.; Altomare, F.; Boixo, S.; Bunyk, P.; Dickson, N.; Enderud, C.; Hilton, J. P.; Hoskinson, E.; Johnson, M. W.; Ladizinsky, E.; Ladizinsky, N.; Neufeld, R.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Rich, C.; Thom, M. C.; Tolkacheva, E.; Uchaikin, S.; Wilson, A. B.; Rose, G.
2014-04-01
Entanglement lies at the core of quantum algorithms designed to solve problems that are intractable by classical approaches. One such algorithm, quantum annealing (QA), provides a promising path to a practical quantum processor. We have built a series of architecturally scalable QA processors consisting of networks of manufactured interacting spins (qubits). Here, we use qubit tunneling spectroscopy to measure the energy eigenspectrum of two- and eight-qubit systems within one such processor, demonstrating quantum coherence in these systems. We present experimental evidence that, during a critical portion of QA, the qubits become entangled and entanglement persists even as these systems reach equilibrium with a thermal environment. Our results provide an encouraging sign that QA is a viable technology for large-scale quantum computing.
Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity
Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard
2017-12-01
Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.
Cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin pregnancies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyndrup, J; Schouenborg, Lars Øland
1987-01-01
Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during an ultraso......Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during...... an ultrasound examination, and cord entanglement was suspected in the 35th week on the basis of a non-stress test (NST) with variable decelerations. Cesarean section was performed and two healthy children were delivered....
Secure entanglement distillation for double-server blind quantum computation.
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2013-07-12
Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client's input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duc Manh Nguyen
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of the entanglement subgroup based on standard forms of binary matrices to satisfy the constraint conditions of EAQECC. With isotropic and entanglement subgroups, we determine all the parameters and the minimum distance of the EAQECC. The proposed EAQECC with small lengths are presented to explain the practicality of this construction of EAQECC. Comparison with some earlier constructions of EAQECC shows that the proposed EAQECC is better.
Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory
Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion
2016-01-01
The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.
Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, Benoît, E-mail: collins@math.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Département de Mathématique et Statistique, Université d’Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5 (Canada); CNRS, Lyon (France); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2016-01-15
The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.
Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator
Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun
2006-01-01
Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.
Quantum entanglement in photoactive prebiotic systems.
Tamulis, Arvydas; Grigalavicius, Mantas
2014-06-01
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modelled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. We define our modelled self-assembled supramolecular photoactive centres, composed of one or more sensitizer molecules, precursors of fatty acids and a number of water molecules, as a photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. We propose that life first emerged in the form of such minimal photoactive prebiotic kernel systems and later in the process of evolution these photoactive prebiotic kernel systems would have produced fatty acids and covered themselves with fatty acid envelopes to become the minimal cells of the Fatty Acid World. Specifically, we model self-assembling of photoactive prebiotic systems with observed quantum entanglement phenomena. We address the idea that quantum entanglement was important in the first stages of origins of life and evolution of the biospheres because simultaneously excite two prebiotic kernels in the system by appearance of two additional quantum entangled excited states, leading to faster growth and self-replication of minimal living cells. The quantum mechanically modelled possibility of synthesizing artificial self-reproducing quantum entangled prebiotic kernel systems and minimal cells also impacts the possibility of the most probable path of emergence of protocells on the Earth or elsewhere. We also examine the quantum entangled logic gates discovered in the modelled systems composed of two prebiotic kernels. Such logic gates may have application in the destruction of cancer cells or becoming building blocks of new forms of artificial cells including magnetically active ones.
Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Girolami
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.
Optimal generation of pulsed entangled photon pairs
Hodelin, Juan F.; Khoury, George; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2006-07-01
We experimentally investigate a double-pass parametric down-conversion scheme for producing pulsed, polarization-entangled photon pairs with high visibility. The amplitudes for creating photon pairs on each pass interfere to compensate for distinguishing characteristics that normally degrade two-photon visibility. The result is a high-flux source of polarization-entangled photon pulses that does not require spectral filtering. We observe quantum interference visibility of over 95% without the use of spectral filters for 200fs pulses, and up to 98.1% with 5nm bandwidth filters.
Holographic entanglement entropy on generic time slices
Kusuki, Yuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Umemoto, Koji
2017-06-01
We study the holographic entanglement entropy and mutual information for Lorentz boosted subsystems. In holographic CFTs at zero and finite temperature, we find that the mutual information gets divergent in a universal way when the end points of two subsystems are light-like separated. In Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating geometries dual to non-relativistic theories, we show that the holographic entanglement entropy is not well-defined for Lorentz boosted subsystems in general. This strongly suggests that in non-relativistic theories, we cannot make a real space factorization of the Hilbert space on a generic time slice except the constant time slice, as opposed to relativistic field theories.
Multipartite monogamous relations for entanglement and discord
Ferreira, Jonhy S. S.; Filenga, Daví; Cornelio, Marcio F.; Fanchini, Felipe F.
2018-01-01
The distribution of quantum correlations in multipartite systems plays a significant role in several aspects of quantum information theory. While it is well known that these quantum correlations cannot be freely distributed, the way that they are shared in a multipartite system is an open problem even for a small set of qubits. Based on monogamylike relations between entanglement and discord for n -partite systems, we show how these correlations are distributed in general, determining distinct equalities and inequalities to the quantum discord and the entanglement of formation for arbitrary multipartite pure states.
Quantum entanglement: facts and fiction - how wrong was Einstein after all?
Nordén, Bengt
2016-01-01
Einstein was wrong with his 1927 Solvay Conference claim that quantum mechanics is incomplete and incapable of describing diffraction of single particles. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox of entangled pairs of particles remains lurking with its 'spooky action at a distance'. In molecules quantum entanglement can be viewed as basis of both chemical bonding and excitonic states. The latter are important in many biophysical contexts and involve coupling between subsystems in which virtual excitations lead to eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian, but not for the separate subsystems. The author questions whether atomic or photonic systems may be probed to prove that particles or photons may stay entangled over large distances and display the immediate communication with each other that so concerned Einstein. A dissociating hydrogen molecule is taken as a model of a zero-spin entangled system whose angular momenta are in principle possible to probe for this purpose. In practice, however, spins randomize as a result of interactions with surrounding fields and matter. Similarly, no experiment seems yet to provide unambiguous evidence of remaining entanglement between single photons at large separations in absence of mutual interaction, or about immediate (superluminal) communication. This forces us to reflect again on what Einstein really had in mind with the paradox, viz. a probabilistic interpretation of a wave function for an ensemble of identically prepared states, rather than as a statement about single particles. Such a prepared state of many particles would lack properties of quantum entanglement that make it so special, including the uncertainty upon which safe quantum communication is assumed to rest. An example is Zewail's experiment showing visible resonance in the dissociation of a coherently vibrating ensemble of NaI molecules apparently violating the uncertainty principle. Einstein was wrong about diffracting single photons where space-like anti
Entanglement and Nonlocality are Inequivalent for Any Number of Parties.
Augusiak, R; Demianowicz, M; Tura, J; Acín, A
2015-07-17
Understanding the relation between nonlocality and entanglement is one of the fundamental problems in quantum physics. In the bipartite case, it is known that these two phenomena are inequivalent, as there exist entangled states of two parties that do not violate any Bell inequality. However, except for a single example of an entangled three-qubit state that has a local model, almost nothing is known about such a relation in multipartite systems. We provide a general construction of genuinely multipartite entangled states that do not display genuinely multipartite nonlocality, thus proving that entanglement and nonlocality are inequivalent for any number of parties.
Experimental detection of thermal entanglement in a molecular chain
Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Sen, Tamal K.; Singh, Harkirat; Das, Diptaranjan; Mandal, Swadhin K.; Mitra, Chiranjib
2013-10-01
Detection of entangled states from experimental magnetic susceptibility is reported for an organic radical. The present system exemplifies an ideal spin 1/2 chain with full isotropy. Experimental susceptibility data are modelled by the formulation described by Bonner and Fisher. An explicit correlation is established between the molecular structure and the spin chain interaction. Using experimental magnetic susceptibility as entanglement witness, entanglement is observed to exist up to 28 K in the present system. Evolution of entanglement with magnetic field is also studied and a surface plot is generated, which clearly exhibits the variation of entanglement with magnetic field and temperature.
Entanglement in stationary nonequilibrium states at high energies
Žnidarič, Marko
2012-01-01
In recent years it has been found that quantum systems can posses entanglement in equilibrium thermal states provided temperature is low enough. In the present work we explore a possibility of having entanglement in nonequilibrium stationary states. We show analytically that, in a simple one-dimensional spin chain, there is entanglement even at the highest attainable energies; that is, starting from an equilibrium state at infinite temperature, a sufficiently strong driving can induce entanglement, even in the thermodynamic limit. We also show that dissipative dephasing, on the other hand, destroys entanglement.
Monogamy Inequality for Any Local Quantum Resource and Entanglement.
Camalet, S
2017-09-15
We derive a monogamy inequality for any local quantum resource and entanglement. It results from the fact that there is always a convex measure for a quantum resource, as shown here, and from the relation between entanglement and local entropy. One of its consequences is an entanglement monogamy different from that usually discussed. If the local resource is nonuniformity or coherence, it is satisfied by familiar resource and entanglement measures. The ensuing upper bound for the local coherence, determined by the entanglement, is independent of the basis used to define the coherence.
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions.
Demonstration of Two-Atom Entanglement with Ultrafast Optical Pulses
Wong-Campos, J. D.; Moses, S. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Monroe, C.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate quantum entanglement of two trapped atomic ion qubits using a sequence of ultrafast laser pulses. Unlike previous demonstrations of entanglement mediated by the Coulomb interaction, this scheme does not require confinement to the Lamb-Dicke regime and can be less sensitive to ambient noise due to its speed. To elucidate the physics of an ultrafast phase gate, we generate a high entanglement rate using just ten pulses, each of ˜20 ps duration, and demonstrate an entangled Bell state with (76 ±1 )% fidelity. These results pave the way for entanglement operations within a large collection of qubits by exciting only local modes of motion.
Explicit Lower and Upper Bounds on the Entangled Value of Multiplayer XOR Games
Briët, Jop; Vidick, Thomas
2013-07-01
The study of quantum-mechanical violations of Bell inequalities is motivated by the investigation, and the eventual demonstration, of the nonlocal properties of entanglement. In recent years, Bell inequalities have found a fruitful re-formulation using the language of multiplayer games originating from Computer Science. This paper studies the nonlocal properties of entanglement in the context of the simplest such games, called XOR games. When there are two players, it is well known that the maximum bias—the advantage over random play—of players using entanglement can be at most a constant times greater than that of classical players. Recently, Pérez-García et al. (Commun. Mathe. Phys. 279:455, 2008) showed that no such bound holds when there are three or more players: the use of entanglement can provide an unbounded advantage, and scale with the number of questions in the game. Their proof relies on non-trivial results from operator space theory, and gives a non-explicit existence proof, leading to a game with a very large number of questions and only a loose control over the local dimension of the players' shared entanglement. We give a new, simple and explicit (though still probabilistic) construction of a family of three-player XOR games which achieve a large quantum-classical gap (QC-gap). This QC-gap is exponentially larger than the one given by Pérez-García et. al. in terms of the size of the game, achieving a QC-gap of order {√{N}} with N 2 questions per player. In terms of the dimension of the entangled state required, we achieve the same (optimal) QC-gap of {√{N}} for a state of local dimension N per player. Moreover, the optimal entangled strategy is very simple, involving observables defined by tensor products of the Pauli matrices. Additionally, we give the first upper bound on the maximal QC-gap in terms of the number of questions per player, showing that our construction is only quadratically off in that respect. Our results rely on
Atom-field entanglement in cavity QED: Nonlinearity and saturation
Rogers, Robert; Cummings, Nick; Pedrotti, Leno M.; Rice, Perry
2017-11-01
We investigate the degree of entanglement between an atom and a driven cavity mode in the presence of dissipation. Previous work has shown that in the limit of weak driving fields, the steady-state entanglement is proportional to the square of the driving intensity. This quadratic dependence is due to the generation of entanglement by the creation of pairs of photons or excitations. In this work we investigate the entanglement between an atom and a cavity in the presence of multiple photons. Nonlinearity of the atomic response is needed to generate entanglement, but as that nonlinearity saturates the entanglement vanishes. We posit that this is due to spontaneous emission, which puts the atom in the ground state and the atom-field state into a direct product state. An intermediate value of the driving field, near the field that saturates the atomic response, optimizes the atom-field entanglement. In a parameter regime for which multiphoton resonances occur, we find that entanglement recurs at those resonances. In this regime, we find that the entanglement decreases with increasing photon number. We also investigate, in the bimodal regime, the entanglement as a function of atom and/or cavity detuning. Here we find that there is evidence of a phase transition in the entanglement, which occurs at 2 ɛ /g ≥1 .
Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange.
Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Foss-Feig, M; Wall, M L; Rey, A M; Regal, C A
2015-11-12
To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.
Deterministic entanglement generation from driving through quantum phase transitions
Luo, Xin-Yu; Zou, Yi-Quan; Wu, Ling-Na; Liu, Qi; Han, Ming-Fei; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li
2017-02-01
Many-body entanglement is often created through the system evolution, aided by nonlinear interactions between the constituting particles. These very dynamics, however, can also lead to fluctuations and degradation of the entanglement if the interactions cannot be controlled. Here, we demonstrate near-deterministic generation of an entangled twin-Fock condensate of ~11,000 atoms by driving a rubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensate undergoing spin mixing through two consecutive quantum phase transitions (QPTs). We directly observe number squeezing of 10.7 ± 0.6 decibels and normalized collective spin length of 0.99 ± 0.01. Together, these observations allow us to infer an entanglement-enhanced phase sensitivity of ~6 decibels beyond the standard quantum limit and an entanglement breadth of ~910 atoms. Our work highlights the power of generating large-scale useful entanglement by taking advantage of the different entanglement landscapes separated by QPTs.
Entanglement asymmetry for boosted black branes and the bound
Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra
2017-06-01
We study the effects of asymmetry in the entanglement thermodynamics of CFT subsystems. It is found that “boosted” Dp-brane backgrounds give rise to the first law of the entanglement thermodynamics where the CFT pressure asymmetry plays a decisive role in the entanglement. Two different strip like subsystems, one parallel to the boost and the other perpendicular, are studied in the perturbative regime Tthermal ≪ TE. We mainly seek to quantify this entanglement asymmetry as a ratio of the first-order entanglement entropies of the excitations. We discuss the AdS-wave backgrounds at zero temperature having maximum asymmetry from where a bound on entanglement asymmetry is obtained. The entanglement asymmetry reduces as we switch on finite temperature in the CFT while it is maximum at zero temperature.
Quantum discord bounds the amount of distributed entanglement.
Chuan, T K; Maillard, J; Modi, K; Paterek, T; Paternostro, M; Piani, M
2012-08-17
The ability to distribute quantum entanglement is a prerequisite for many fundamental tests of quantum theory and numerous quantum information protocols. Two distant parties can increase the amount of entanglement between them by means of quantum communication encoded in a carrier that is sent from one party to the other. Intriguingly, entanglement can be increased even when the exchanged carrier is not entangled with the parties. However, in light of the defining property of entanglement stating that it cannot increase under classical communication, the carrier must be quantum. Here we show that, in general, the increase of relative entropy of entanglement between two remote parties is bounded by the amount of nonclassical correlations of the carrier with the parties as quantified by the relative entropy of discord. We study implications of this bound, provide new examples of entanglement distribution via unentangled states, and put further limits on this phenomenon.
Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.
Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre
2013-06-01
The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-03
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
Interplay between entanglement and entropy in two-qubit systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazzola, L; Maniscalco, S; Piilo, J; Suominen, K-A, E-mail: laumaz@utu.f [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland)
2010-04-28
We study the exact entanglement and entropy dynamics of two qubits interacting with a common zero-temperature non-Markovian reservoir. It is a commonly held view that entanglement loss due to environmental decoherence is accompanied by loss of purity of the state of the system. We demonstrate that such an intuitive picture does not always apply: the deterioration of entanglement and purity does not necessarily come together; i.e. revivals of entanglement can be accompanied by deterioration of purity. To complete our investigation on entanglement-mixedness interplay we consider the case of initial mixed states and study how the entanglement dynamics and its revivals are related to both the initial purity and the initial entanglement.
Quantum entanglement in two-electron atomic models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzano, D; Plastino, A R; Dehesa, J S [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada E-18071 (Spain); Koga, T, E-mail: arplastino@ugr.e [Applied Chemistry Research Unit, Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan)
2010-07-09
We explore the main entanglement properties exhibited by the eigenfunctions of two exactly soluble two-electron models, the Crandall atom and the Hooke atom, and compare them with the entanglement features of helium-like systems. We compute the amount of entanglement associated with the wavefunctions corresponding to the fundamental and first few excited states of these models. We investigate the dependence of the entanglement on the parameters of the models and on the quantum numbers of the eigenstates. It is found that the amount of entanglement of the system tends to increase with energy in both models. In addition, we study the entanglement of a few states of helium-like systems, which we compute using high-quality Kinoshita-like eigenfunctions. The dependence of the entanglement of helium-like atoms on the nuclear charge and on energy is found to be consistent with the trends observed in the previous two model systems.
Holographic entanglement entropy of N =2* renormalization group flow
Pang, Da-Wei
2015-10-01
The N =2* theory is obtained by deforming N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with two relevant operators of dimensions 2 and 3. We study the holographic entanglement entropy of the N =2* theory along the whole renormalization group flow. We find that in the UV the holographic entanglement entropy for an arbitrary entangling region receives a universal logarithmic correction, which is related to the relevant operator of dimension 3. This universal behavior can be interpreted on the field theory side by perturbatively evaluating the entanglement entropy of a conformal field theory (CFT) under relevant deformations. In the IR regime, we obtain the large R behavior of the renormalized entanglement entropy for both a strip and a sphere entangling region, where R denotes the size of the entangling region. A term proportional to 1 /R is found for both cases, which can be attributed to the emergent CFT5 in the IR.
Silicon photonic processor of two-qubit entangling quantum logic
Santagati, R.; Silverstone, J. W.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; Miki, S.; Yamashita, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Sasaki, M.; Terai, H.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Hadfield, R. H.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.
2017-11-01
Entanglement is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics, and is a primary resource in quantum information systems. Its manipulation remains a central challenge in the development of quantum technology. In this work, we demonstrate a device which can generate, manipulate, and analyse two-qubit entangled states, using miniature and mass-manufacturable silicon photonics. By combining four photon-pair sources with a reconfigurable six-mode interferometer, embedding a switchable entangling gate, we generate two-qubit entangled states, manipulate their entanglement, and analyse them, all in the same silicon chip. Using quantum state tomography, we show how our source can produce a range of entangled and separable states, and how our switchable controlled-Z gate operates on them, entangling them or making them separable depending on its configuration.
Microscopic wormholes and the geometry of entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2014-06-15
It has recently been suggested that Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. This relationship has been dubbed as the ER = EPR correlation. In this work, we consider the latter conjecture in the context of quadratic Palatini theory. An important result, which stems from the underlying assumptions as regards the geometry on which the theory is constructed, is the fact that all the charged solutions of the quadratic Palatini theory possess a wormhole structure. Our results show that spacetime may have a foam like microstructure with wormholes generated by fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. This involves the spontaneous creation/annihilation of entangled particle-antiparticle pairs, existing in a maximally entangled state connected by a nontraversable wormhole. Since the particles are produced from the vacuum and therefore exist in a singlet state, they are necessarily entangled with one another. This gives further support to the ER = EPR claim. (orig.)
Black Hole Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction
Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.
2013-01-01
It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic
Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked ... Entanglement is a unique quantum phenomenon which can be observed in a system consisting of at least two ...... break permutation symmetry by taking two non-identical tops with k = 6.0 for the first top and k = 6.1 for ...
Quantum entanglement in strong-field ionization
Majorosi, Szilárd; Benedict, Mihály G.; Czirják, Attila
2017-10-01
We investigate the time evolution of quantum entanglement between an electron, liberated by a strong few-cycle laser pulse, and its parent ion core. Since the standard procedure is numerically prohibitive in this case, we propose a method to quantify the quantum correlation in such a system: we use the reduced density matrices of the directional subspaces along the polarization of the laser pulse and along the transverse directions as building blocks for an approximate entanglement entropy. We present our results, based on accurate numerical simulations, in terms of several of these entropies, for selected values of the peak electric-field strength and the carrier-envelope phase difference of the laser pulse. The time evolution of the mutual entropy of the electron and the ion-core motion along the direction of the laser polarization is similar to our earlier results based on a simple one-dimensional model. However, taking into account also the dynamics perpendicular to the laser polarization reveals a surprisingly different entanglement dynamics above the laser intensity range corresponding to pure tunneling: the quantum entanglement decreases with time in the over-the-barrier ionization regime.
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2011-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...
Entanglement in Quantum-Classical Hybrid
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, non-classical systems such as quantum-classical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantum-inspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Non-locality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of non-locality in physics.
Quantum entanglement and teleportation using statistical correlations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Abstract. A study of quantum teleportation using two and three-particle correlated density matrix is presented. A criterion based on standard quantum statistical correlations employed in the many-body virial expansion is used to determine the extent of entanglement for a 2N-particle system. A relation between the probability ...
Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical studies.
Nonclassicality versus entanglement in a noncommutative space
Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Hussin, Véronique
2017-01-01
Nonclassicality is an interesting property of light having applications in many different contexts of quantum optics, quantum information and computation. Nonclassical states produce substantial amount of reduced noise in optical communications. Furthermore, they often behave as sources of entangled quantum states, which are the most elementary requirement for quantum teleportation. We study various nonclassical properties of coherent states and Schrödinger cat states in a setting of noncommutative space resulting from the generalized uncertainty relation, first, in a complete analytical fashion and, later, by computing their entanglement entropies, which in turn provide supporting arguments behind our analytical results. By using standard theoretical frameworks, they are shown to produce considerably improved squeezing and nonclassicality and, hence, significantly higher amount of entanglement in comparison to the usual quantum mechanical models. Both the nonclassicality and the entanglement can be enhanced further by increasing the noncommutativity of the underlying space. In addition, we find as a by-product some rare explicit minimum uncertainty quadrature and number squeezed states, i.e., ideal squeezed states.
Entanglement versus negative domains of Wigner functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Mack, H.; Wolf, A.
2006-01-01
We show that s waves, that is wave functions that only depend on a hyperradius, are entangled if and only if the corresponding Wigner functions exhibit negative domains. We illustrate this feature using a special class of s waves which allows us to perform the calculations analytically. This class...
Entanglement spectroscopy on a quantum computer
Johri, Sonika; Steiger, Damian S.; Troyer, Matthias
2017-11-01
We present a quantum algorithm to compute the entanglement spectrum of arbitrary quantum states. The interesting universal part of the entanglement spectrum is typically contained in the largest eigenvalues of the density matrix which can be obtained from the lower Renyi entropies through the Newton-Girard method. Obtaining the p largest eigenvalues (λ1>λ2⋯>λp ) requires a parallel circuit depth of O [p (λ1/λp) p] and O [p log(N )] qubits where up to p copies of the quantum state defined on a Hilbert space of size N are needed as the input. We validate this procedure for the entanglement spectrum of the topologically ordered Laughlin wave function corresponding to the quantum Hall state at filling factor ν =1 /3 . Our scaling analysis exposes the tradeoffs between time and number of qubits for obtaining the entanglement spectrum in the thermodynamic limit using finite-size digital quantum computers. We also illustrate the utility of the second Renyi entropy in predicting a topological phase transition and in extracting the localization length in a many-body localized system.
Entanglement-assisted capacity of constrained channels
Holevo, A. S.
2003-07-01
In this paper we fil a gap in previous work by proving the conjectured formula for the antanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channel with additive input constraint (such as Bosonic Gaussian channel). The main tools are the coding theorem for classical-quantum constrained channels and a finite dimensional approximation of the input density operators for the entanglement-assisted capacity.
Dalton, B. J.; Goold, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Reid, M. D.
2017-02-01
These two accompanying papers are concerned with entanglement for systems of identical massive bosons and the relationship to spin squeezing and other quantum correlation effects. The main focus is on two mode entanglement, but multi-mode entanglement is also considered. The bosons may be atoms or molecules as in cold quantum gases. The previous paper I dealt with the general features of quantum entanglement and its specific definition in the case of systems of identical bosons. Entanglement is a property shared between two (or more) quantum sub-systems. In defining entanglement for systems of identical massive particles, it was concluded that the single particle states or modes are the most appropriate choice for sub-systems that are distinguishable, that the general quantum states must comply both with the symmetrization principle and the super-selection rules (SSR) that forbid quantum superpositions of states with differing total particle number (global SSR compliance). Further, it was concluded that (in the separable states) quantum superpositions of sub-system states with differing sub-system particle number (local SSR compliance) also do not occur. The present paper II determines possible tests for entanglement based on the treatment of entanglement set out in paper I. Several inequalities involving variances and mean values of operators have been previously proposed as tests for entanglement between two sub-systems. These inequalities generally involve mode annihilation and creation operators and include the inequalities that define spin squeezing. In this paper, spin squeezing criteria for two mode systems are examined, and spin squeezing is also considered for principle spin operator components where the covariance matrix is diagonal. The proof, which is based on our SSR compliant approach shows that the presence of spin squeezing in any one of the spin components requires entanglement of the relevant pair of modes. A simple Bloch vector test for
Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength.
Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide
2015-03-20
Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.
Entanglement of spin waves among four quantum memories.
Choi, K S; Goban, A; Papp, S B; van Enk, S J; Kimble, H J
2010-11-18
Quantum networks are composed of quantum nodes that interact coherently through quantum channels, and open a broad frontier of scientific opportunities. For example, a quantum network can serve as a 'web' for connecting quantum processors for computation and communication, or as a 'simulator' allowing investigations of quantum critical phenomena arising from interactions among the nodes mediated by the channels. The physical realization of quantum networks generically requires dynamical systems capable of generating and storing entangled states among multiple quantum memories, and efficiently transferring stored entanglement into quantum channels for distribution across the network. Although such capabilities have been demonstrated for diverse bipartite systems, entangled states have not been achieved for interconnects capable of 'mapping' multipartite entanglement stored in quantum memories to quantum channels. Here we demonstrate measurement-induced entanglement stored in four atomic memories; user-controlled, coherent transfer of the atomic entanglement to four photonic channels; and characterization of the full quadripartite entanglement using quantum uncertainty relations. Our work therefore constitutes an advance in the distribution of multipartite entanglement across quantum networks. We also show that our entanglement verification method is suitable for studying the entanglement order of condensed-matter systems in thermal equilibrium.
Decentralized Routing and Diameter Bounds in Entangled Quantum Networks
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2017-04-01
Entangled quantum networks are a necessity for any future quantum internet, long-distance quantum key distribution, and quantum repeater networks. The entangled quantum nodes can communicate through several different levels of entanglement, leading to a heterogeneous, multi-level entangled network structure. The level of entanglement between the quantum nodes determines the hop distance, the number of spanned nodes, and the probability of the existence of an entangled link in the network. In this work we define a decentralized routing for entangled quantum networks. We show that the probability distribution of the entangled links can be modeled by a specific distribution in a base-graph. The results allow us to perform efficient routing to find the shortest paths in entangled quantum networks by using only local knowledge of the quantum nodes. We give bounds on the maximum value of the total number of entangled links of a path. The proposed scheme can be directly applied in practical quantum communications and quantum networking scenarios. This work was partially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125.
Quantum Phase Imaging using Spatial Entanglement
Lu, Chien-Hung; Sun, Xiaohang; Fleischer, Jason W
2015-01-01
Entangled photons have the remarkable ability to be more sensitive to signal and less sensitive to noise than classical light. Joint photons can sample an object collectively, resulting in faster phase accumulation and higher spatial resolution, while common components of noise can be subtracted. Even more, they can accomplish this while physically separate, due to the nonlocal properties of quantum mechanics. Indeed, nearly all quantum optics experiments rely on this separation, using individual point detectors that are scanned to measure coincidence counts and correlations. Scanning, however, is tedious, time consuming, and ill-suited for imaging. Moreover, the separation of beam paths adds complexity to the system while reducing the number of photons available for sampling, and the multiplicity of detectors does not scale well for greater numbers of photons and higher orders of entanglement. We bypass all of these problems here by directly imaging collinear photon pairs with an electron-multiplying CCD cam...
Continuous variable entanglement between frequency modes
Glöckl, O.; Andersen, U. L.; Leuchs, G.
2006-08-01
The pairwise production of photons in nonlinear optical processes ensures entanglement to occur between two photons. E.g. when the Kerr effect is exploited, the photons are produced in different frequency modes, which are symmetric with respect to the pump frequency. Since these photons are produced into the same spatial mode, the quadrature entanglement can be witnessed only by the use of a frequency selective device which transforms the adjacent frequency modes into two different spatial modes. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a large path length difference to separate symmetric frequency modes located 10.25 MHz from the carrier. We measure correlations of the quadrature components of 1.6 +/- 0.1dB below the shot noise in the amplitude and 1.4 +/- 0.1dB in the phase.
Entanglement entropy in three dimensional gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxfield, Henry [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2015-04-07
The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) and covariant Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) proposals relate entanglement entropy in CFTs with holographic duals to the areas of minimal or extremal surfaces in the bulk geometry. We show how, in three dimensional pure gravity, the relevant regulated geodesic lengths can be obtained by writing a spacetime as a quotient of AdS{sub 3}, with the problem reduced to a simple purely algebraic calculation. We explain how this works in both Lorentzian and Euclidean formalisms, before illustrating its use to obtain novel results in a number of examples, including rotating BTZ, the ℝℙ{sup 2} geon, and several wormhole geometries. This includes spatial and temporal dependence of single-interval entanglement entropy, despite these symmetries being broken only behind an event horizon. We also discuss considerations allowing HRT to be derived from analytic continuation of Euclidean computations in certain contexts, and a related class of complexified extremal surfaces.
Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)
2014-04-01
The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... excellent agreement for the Likhtman-McLeish theory using the double reptation approximation for constraint release, if we remove the contribution of high-frequency modes to contour length fluctuations of the primitive chain....
Quantum entanglement and a metaphysics of relations
Esfeld, Michael
This paper argues for a metaphysics of relations based on a characterization of quantum entanglement in terms of non-separability, thereby regarding entanglement as a sort of holism. By contrast to a radical metaphysics of relations, the position set out in this paper recognizes things that stand in the relations, but claims that, as far as the relations are concerned, there is no need for these things to have qualitative intrinsic properties underlying the relations. This position thus opposes a metaphysics of individual things that are characterized by intrinsic properties. A principal problem of the latter position is that it seems that we cannot gain any knowledge of these properties insofar as they are intrinsic. Against this background, the rationale behind a metaphysics of relations is to avoid a gap between epistemology and metaphysics.
Entanglement entropy of critical spin liquids.
Zhang, Yi; Grover, Tarun; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2011-08-05
Quantum spin liquids are phases of matter whose internal structure is not captured by a local order parameter. Particularly intriguing are critical spin liquids, where strongly interacting excitations control low energy properties. Here we calculate their bipartite entanglement entropy that characterizes their quantum structure. In particular we calculate the Renyi entropy S(2) on model wave functions obtained by Gutzwiller projection of a Fermi sea. Although the wave functions are not sign positive, S(2) can be calculated on relatively large systems (>324 spins) using the variational Monte Carlo technique. On the triangular lattice we find that entanglement entropy of the projected Fermi sea state violates the boundary law, with S(2) enhanced by a logarithmic factor. This is an unusual result for a bosonic wave function reflecting the presence of emergent fermions. These techniques can be extended to study a wide class of other phases.
Quantum Nonadiabatic Cloning of Entangled Coherent States.
Izmaylov, Artur F; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc
2017-04-20
We propose a systematic approach to the basis set extension for nonadiabatic dynamics of entangled combination of nuclear coherent states (CSs) evolving according to the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). The TDVP provides a rigorous framework for fully quantum nonadiabatic dynamics of closed systems; however, the quality of results strongly depends on available basis functions. Starting with a single nuclear CS replicated vertically on all electronic states, our approach clones this function when replicas of the CS on different electronic states experience increasingly different forces. Created clones move away from each other (decohere), extending the basis set. To determine a moment for cloning, we introduce generalized forces based on derivatives that maximally contribute to a variation of the total quantum action and thus account for entanglement of all basis functions.
Entanglement branes in a two-dimensional string theory
Donnelly, William; Wong, Gabriel
2017-09-01
What is the meaning of entanglement in a theory of extended objects such as strings? To address this question we consider the spatial entanglement between two intervals in the Gross-Taylor model, the string theory dual to two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory at large N . The string diagrams that contribute to the entanglement entropy describe open strings with endpoints anchored to the entangling surface, as first argued by Susskind. We develop a canonical theory of these open strings, and describe how closed strings are divided into open strings at the level of the Hilbert space. We derive the modular Hamiltonian for the Hartle-Hawking state and show that the corresponding reduced density matrix describes a thermal ensemble of open strings ending on an object at the entangling surface that we call an entanglement brane, or E-brane.
Quantification of multidimensional entanglement stored in a crystal
Tiranov, Alexey; Designolle, Sébastien; Cruzeiro, Emmanuel Zambrini; Lavoie, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Huber, Marcus; Gisin, Nicolas
2017-10-01
The use of multidimensional entanglement opens new perspectives for quantum information processing. However, an important challenge in practice is to certify and characterize multidimensional entanglement from measurement data that are typically limited. Here, we report the certification and quantification of two-photon multidimensional energy-time entanglement between many temporal modes, after one photon has been stored in a crystal. We develop a method for entanglement quantification which makes use of only sparse data obtained with limited resources. This allows us to efficiently certify an entanglement of formation of 1.18 ebits after performing quantum storage. The theoretical methods we develop can be readily extended to a wide range of experimental platforms, while our experimental results demonstrate the suitability of energy-time multidimensional entanglement for a quantum repeater architecture.
Measurement-Device-Independent Approach to Entanglement Measures
Shahandeh, Farid; Hall, Michael J. W.; Ralph, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Within the context of semiquantum nonlocal games, the trust can be removed from the measurement devices in an entanglement-detection procedure. Here, we show that a similar approach can be taken to quantify the amount of entanglement. To be specific, first, we show that in this context, a small subset of semiquantum nonlocal games is necessary and sufficient for entanglement detection in the local operations and classical communication paradigm. Second, we prove that the maximum payoff for these games is a universal measure of entanglement which is convex and continuous. Third, we show that for the quantification of negative-partial-transpose entanglement, this subset can be further reduced down to a single arbitrary element. Importantly, our measure is measurement device independent by construction and operationally accessible. Finally, our approach straightforwardly extends to quantify the entanglement within any partitioning of multipartite quantum states.
Entanglement and thermodynamics after a quantum quench in integrable systems.
Alba, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale
2017-07-25
Entanglement and entropy are key concepts standing at the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics. Recently, the study of quantum quenches revealed that these concepts are intricately intertwined. Although the unitary time evolution ensuing from a pure state maintains the system at zero entropy, local properties at long times are captured by a statistical ensemble with nonzero thermodynamic entropy, which is the entanglement accumulated during the dynamics. Therefore, understanding the entanglement evolution unveils how thermodynamics emerges in isolated systems. Alas, an exact computation of the entanglement dynamics was available so far only for noninteracting systems, whereas it was deemed unfeasible for interacting ones. Here, we show that the standard quasiparticle picture of the entanglement evolution, complemented with integrability-based knowledge of the steady state and its excitations, leads to a complete understanding of the entanglement dynamics in the space-time scaling limit. We thoroughly check our result for the paradigmatic Heisenberg chain.
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-08
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.
Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.
Entanglement is Necessary for Emergent Classicality in All Physical Theories
Richens, Jonathan G.; Selby, John H.; Al-Safi, Sabri W.
2017-08-01
One of the most striking features of quantum theory is the existence of entangled states, responsible for Einstein's so called "spooky action at a distance." These states emerge from the mathematical formalism of quantum theory, but to date we do not have a clear idea of the physical principles that give rise to entanglement. Why does nature have entangled states? Would any theory superseding classical theory have entangled states, or is quantum theory special? One important feature of quantum theory is that it has a classical limit, recovering classical theory through the process of decoherence. We show that any theory with a classical limit must contain entangled states, thus establishing entanglement as an inevitable feature of any theory superseding classical theory.
Information geometric modeling of scattering induced quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, D.-H. [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); International Institute for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Einstein-Galilei, via Santa Gonda 14, 59100 Prato (Italy); Ali, S.A. [International Institute for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Einstein-Galilei, via Santa Gonda 14, 59100 Prato (Italy); Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Department of Arts and Sciences, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 106 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208 (United States); Cafaro, C., E-mail: carlo.cafaro@unicam.it [School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)
2011-07-18
We present an information geometric analysis of entanglement generated by an s-wave scattering between two Gaussian wave packets. We conjecture that the pre- and post-collisional quantum dynamical scenarios related to an elastic head-on collision are macroscopic manifestations emerging from microscopic statistical structures. We then describe them by uncorrelated and correlated Gaussian statistical models, respectively. This allows us to express the entanglement strength in terms of scattering potential and incident particle energies. Furthermore, we show how the entanglement duration can be related to the scattering potential and incident particle energies. Finally, we discuss the connection between entanglement and complexity of motion. -- Highlights: → Information geometric characterization of scattering induced entanglement. → Connection between purity, scattering potential and incident particle energies. → Connection between complexity of motion and entanglement.
Entanglement and Quantum Computation: An Overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, R.B.
2000-06-27
This report presents a selective compilation of basic facts from the fields of particle entanglement and quantum information processing prepared for those non-experts in these fields that may have interest in an area of physics showing counterintuitive, ''spooky'' (Einstein's words) behavior. In fact, quantum information processing could, in the near future, provide a new technology to sustain the benefits to the U.S. economy due to advanced computer technology.
Entanglement in a Quantum Annealing Processor
2016-09-07
Entanglement in a Quantum Annealing Processor T. Lanting,1,* A. J. Przybysz,1 A. Yu. Smirnov,1 F. M. Spedalieri,2,3 M. H. Amin,1,4 A. J. Berkley,1 R...promising path to a practical quantum processor . We have built a series of architecturally scalable QA processors consisting of networks of manufactured...such processor , demonstrating quantum coherence in these systems. We present experimental evidence that, during a critical portion of QA, the qubits
Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2011-11-04
Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)
Deformed Fredkin spin chain with extensive entanglement
Salberger, Olof; Udagawa, Takuma; Zhang, Zhao; Katsura, Hosho; Klich, Israel; Korepin, Vladimir
2017-06-01
We introduce a new spin chain which is a deformation of the Fredkin spin chain and has a phase transition between bounded and extensive entanglement entropy scaling. In this chain, spins have a local interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian is frustration-free and its ground state can be described analytically as a weighted superposition of Dyck paths that depends on a deformation parameter t. In the purely spin 1/2 case, whenever t\
Continuous frequency entanglement: effective finite hilbert space and entropy control
Law; Walmsley; Eberly
2000-06-05
We examine the quantum structure of continuum entanglement and in the context of short-pulse down-conversion we answer the open question of how many of the uncountably many frequency modes contribute effectively to the entanglement. We derive a set of two-photon mode functions that provide an exact, discrete, and effectively finite basis for characterizing pairwise entanglement. Our analysis provides a basis for entropy control in two-photon pulses generated from down-conversion.
Entanglement in stationary nonequilibrium states at high energies
Znidaric, Marko
2011-01-01
In recent years it has been found that quantum systems can posses entanglement in equilibrium thermal states provided temperature is low enough. In the present work we explore a possibility of having entanglement in nonequilibrium stationary states. We show analytically that, in a simple one-dimensional spin chain, there is entanglement even at highest attainable energies; that is, starting from an equilibrium state at infinite temperature, a sufficiently strong driving can induce entanglemen...
Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four Entangled Photons
Nagata, Tomohisa; Okamoto, Ryo; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Sasaki, Keiji; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2007-01-01
Precision measurements are important across all fields of science. In particular, optical phase measurements can be used to measure distance, position, displacement, acceleration and optical path length. Quantum entanglement enables higher precision than would otherwise be possible. We demonstrate an optical phase measurement with an entangled four photon interference visibility greater than the threshold to beat the standard quantum limit--the limit attainable without entanglement. These res...
Beating the standard quantum limit with four-entangled photons.
Nagata, Tomohisa; Okamoto, Ryo; O'brien, Jeremy L; Sasaki, Keiji; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2007-05-04
Precision measurements are important across all fields of science. In particular, optical phase measurements can be used to measure distance, position, displacement, acceleration, and optical path length. Quantum entanglement enables higher precision than would otherwise be possible. We demonstrated an optical phase measurement with an entangled four-photon interference visibility greater than the threshold to beat the standard quantum limit-the limit attainable without entanglement. These results open the way for new high-precision measurement applications.
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Sustainable Entangled State of Two Qutrits Under Laser Irradiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biryukov A.А.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the evolution of quantum entanglement in the model of two identical qubits interacting with a single-mode laser field. The density matrix and Peres-Horodecki parameter are calculated within the frameworks of path-integral formalism. The quantum entanglement measure is shown to be strongly dependent upon the phase difference between the laser radiation acting on each cubit. This observation may offer the possibility of quantum entanglement stationary control by varying the distance between the qubits.
Entanglement and optimal strings of qubits for memory channels
Karimipour, V.; Memarzadeh, L.
2006-12-01
We investigate the problem of enhancement of mutual information by encoding classical data into entangled input states of arbitrary length and show that while there is a threshold memory or correlation parameter beyond which entangled states outperform the separable states, resulting in a higher mutual information, this memory threshold increases toward unity as the length of the string increases. These observations imply that encoding classical data into entangled states may not enhance the classical capacity of quantum channels.
Generalised squeezing and information theory approach to quantum entanglement
Vourdas, A.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the usual one- and two-mode squeezing are based on reducible representations of the SU(1,1) group. Generalized squeezing is introduced with the use of different SU(1,1) rotations on each irreducible sector. Two-mode squeezing entangles the modes and information theory methods are used to study this entanglement. The entanglement of three modes is also studied with the use of the strong subadditivity property of the entropy.
Dynamics of entanglement of bosonic modes on symmetric graphs
Ghahari, F.; Karimipour, V.; Shahrokhshahi, R.
2007-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of an initially disentangled Gaussian state on a general finite symmetric graph. As concrete examples we obtain properties of this dynamics on mean field graphs (also called fully connected or complete graphs) of arbitrary sizes. In the same way that chains can be used for transmitting entanglement by their natural dynamics, these graphs can be used to store entanglement. We also consider two kinds of regular polyhedron which show interesting features of entanglement sharing.
Dynamics of entanglement of bosonic modes on symmetric graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghahari, F. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ghaharikermani@mehr.sharif.edu; Karimipour, V. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: vahid@sharif.edu; Shahrokhshahi, R. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: shahrokhshahi@mehr.sharif.edu
2007-04-02
We investigate the dynamics of an initially disentangled Gaussian state on a general finite symmetric graph. As concrete examples we obtain properties of this dynamics on mean field graphs (also called fully connected or complete graphs) of arbitrary sizes. In the same way that chains can be used for transmitting entanglement by their natural dynamics, these graphs can be used to store entanglement. We also consider two kinds of regular polyhedron which show interesting features of entanglement sharing.
Experimental characterization of entanglement dynamics in noisy channels.
Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Shi, Cheng-Hao; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2009-12-11
We experimentally characterize the bipartite entanglement under one-sided open system dynamics and verify the recently formulated entanglement factorization law [Nature Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. The one-sided open system dynamics is realized by implementing a phase damping and an amplitude decay channel, respectively, acting on one of the qubits, by an all-optical setup. Our results greatly simplify the characterization of entanglement dynamics and will play an important role in the construction of complex quantum networks.
Teleportation of bipartite states using a single entangled pair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cola, Mary M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano (Italy)]. E-mail: mary.cola@mi.infn.it; Paris, Matteo G.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano (Italy)
2005-03-28
A class of quantum protocols to teleport bipartite (entangled) states of two qubits is suggested. Our schemes require a single entangled pair shared by the two parties and the transmission of three bits of classical information, as well as a two-qubit gate with an additional qubit at the receiver's location. Noisy quantum channels are considered and the effects on both the teleportation fidelity and the entanglement of the replica are evaluated.
Correlation properties of entangled multiphoton states and Bernstein's paradox
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chirkin, A. S., E-mail: aschirkin@rambler.ru; Belyaeva, O. V., E-mail: lisenok.msu@gmail.com; Belinsky, A. V., E-mail: belinsky@inbox.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2013-01-15
A normally ordered characteristic function (NOCF) of Bose operators is calculated for a number of discrete-variable entangled states (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Werner (W) qubit states and a cluster state). It is shown that such NOCFs contain visual information on two types of correlations: pseudoclassical and quantum correlations. The latter manifest themselves in the interference terms of the NOCFs and lead to quantum paradoxes, whereas the pseudoclassical correlations of photons and their cumulants satisfy the relations for classical random variables. Three- and four-qubit states are analyzed in detail. An implementation of an analog of Bernstein's paradox on discrete quantum variables is discussed. A measure of quantumness of an entangled state is introduced that is not related to the entropy approach. It is established that the maximum of the degree of quantumness substantiates the numerical values of the coefficients in multiqubit vector states derived from intuitive considerations.
Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis Bakas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.
Entanglement and quantum teleportation in a nonlinear spin channel
Cheng, W. W.; Zeng, X. H.; Chen, X. B.
2011-10-01
The ground state and thermal entanglement of a two-qubit spin system in the presence of the nonlinear coupling interaction is investigated. It is found that the nonlinear coupling interaction can excite and enhance the entanglement both for ferromagnetic chain and anti-ferromagnetic ones even at the higher temperature. The entanglement teleportation via the quantum channel constructed by this system is also discussed, and the influence of the nonlinear coupling interaction on the fidelity of the teleportation is studied. The results show that both the entanglement of the output state and the fidelity can be increased by inducing a proper nonlinear coupling interaction.
Cosmological implications of quantum entanglement in the multiverse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sugumi Kanno
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We explore the cosmological implications of quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected universes in the multiverse. We first consider two causally separated de Sitter spaces with a state which is initially entangled. We derive the reduced density matrix of our universe and compute the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We then consider the same system with an initially non-entangled state. We find that due to quantum interference scale dependent modulations may enter the spectrum for the case of initially non-entangled state. This gives rise to the possibility that the existence of causally disconnected universes may be experimentally tested by analyzing correlators in detail.
Cosmological implications of quantum entanglement in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)
2015-12-17
We explore the cosmological implications of quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected universes in the multiverse. We first consider two causally separated de Sitter spaces with a state which is initially entangled. We derive the reduced density matrix of our universe and compute the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We then consider the same system with an initially non-entangled state. We find that due to quantum interference scale dependent modulations may enter the spectrum for the case of initially non-entangled state. This gives rise to the possibility that the existence of causally disconnected universes may be experimentally tested by analyzing correlators in detail.
Scaling of Tripartite Entanglement at Impurity Quantum Phase Transitions.
Bayat, Abolfazl
2017-01-20
The emergence of a diverging length scale in many-body systems at a quantum phase transition implies that total entanglement has to reach its maximum there. In order to fully characterize this, one has to consider multipartite entanglement as, for instance, bipartite entanglement between individual particles fails to signal this effect. However, quantification of multipartite entanglement is very hard, and detecting it may not be possible due to the lack of accessibility to all individual particles. For these reasons it will be more sensible to partition the system into relevant subsystems, each containing a few to many spins, and study entanglement between those constituents as a coarse-grain picture of multipartite entanglement between individual particles. In impurity systems, famously exemplified by two-impurity and two-channel Kondo models, it is natural to divide the system into three parts, namely, impurities and the left and right bulks. By exploiting two tripartite entanglement measures, based on negativity, we show that at impurity quantum phase transitions the tripartite entanglement diverges and shows scaling behavior. While the critical exponents are different for each tripartite entanglement measure, they both provide very similar critical exponents for the two-impurity and the two-channel Kondo models, suggesting that they belong to the same universality class.
A note on entanglement entropy for topological interfaces in RCFTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutperle, Michael; Miller, John D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles,475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-04-28
In this paper we calculate the entanglement entropy for topological interfaces in rational conformal field theories for the case where the interface lies at the boundary of the entangling interval and for the case where it is located in the center of the entangling interval. We compare the results to each other and also to the recently calculated left/right entropy of a related BCFT. We also comment of the entanglement entropies for topological interfaces for a free compactified boson and Liouville theory.
$E_7$ and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits
Duff, Michael J
2007-01-01
In quantum information theory, it is well known that the tripartite entanglement of three qubits is described by the group [SL(2,C)]^3 and that the entanglement measure is given by Cayley's hyperdeterminant. This has provided an analogy with certain N=2 supersymmetric black holes in string theory, whose entropy is also given by the hyperdeterminant. In this paper, we extend the analogy to N=8. We propose that a particular tripartite entanglement of seven qubits is described by the exceptional group E_7(C) and that the entanglement measure is given by Cartan's quartic E_7 invariant.
Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement
Egg, Matthias
2013-09-01
Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.
Polarization-entanglement-conserving frequency conversion of photons
Ramelow, S.; Fedrizzi, A.; Poppe, A.; Langford, N. K.; Zeilinger, A.
2012-01-01
Entangled photons play a pivotal role in the distribution of quantum information in quantum networks. However, the frequency bands for optimal transmission and storage of photons are often not the same. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the coherent frequency conversion of photons entangled in their polarization, a widely used degree of freedom in photonic quantum information processing. We verify the successful entanglement conversion by violating a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality and fully characterize our near-perfect entanglement transfer using both state and process tomography. Our implementation is robust and flexible, making it a practical building block for future quantum networks.
Bright continuous-variable entanglement from the quantum optical dimer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallon, M J; Reid, M D; Olsen, M K [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)
2008-01-14
By calculating correlation spectra of the output fields, we show theoretically that two evanescently coupled {chi}{sup (2)} second harmonic generators inside a Fabry-Perot cavity provide a tunable source of quadrature squeezed light, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations and quantum entanglement. Unlike systems using coupled downconverters, second harmonic generation has no oscillation threshhold, so that the entangled fields become macroscopically occupied as soon as the pumping fields are turned on. This system also gives two frequencies at which the entangled fields can have macroscopic intensity. We show how the entanglement properties can be controlled by adjusting the pumping, the coupling strengths and the cavity detunings.
Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.
Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H
2016-03-03
Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.
Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel
2009-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...
Entanglement of two ground state neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Browaeys, Antoine; Evellin, Charles
2011-01-01
We report on our recent progress in trapping and manipulation of internal states of single neutral rubidium atoms in optical tweezers. We demonstrate the creation of an entangled state between two ground state atoms trapped in separate tweezers using the effect of Rydberg blockade. The quality...... of the entanglement is measured using global rotations of the internal states of both atoms....
Entangling the Whole by Beam Splitting a Part.
Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Chille, Vanessa; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Korolkova, Natalia; Mišta, Ladislav
2015-11-06
A beam splitter is a basic linear optical element appearing in many optics experiments and is frequently used as a continuous-variable entangler transforming a pair of input modes from a separable Gaussian state into an entangled state. However, a beam splitter is a passive operation that can create entanglement from Gaussian states only under certain conditions. One such condition is that the input light is suitably squeezed. We demonstrate, experimentally, that a beam splitter can create entanglement even from modes which do not possess such a squeezing provided that they are correlated to, but not entangled with, a third mode. Specifically, we show that a beam splitter can create three-mode entanglement by acting on two modes of a three-mode fully separable Gaussian state without entangling the two modes themselves. This beam splitter property is a key mechanism behind the performance of the protocol for entanglement distribution by separable states. Moreover, the property also finds application in collaborative quantum dense coding in which decoding of transmitted information is assisted by interference with a mode of the collaborating party.
Dynamical properties of moving atom–atom entanglement and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the atom ensembles [18]. In addition to those, the entanglement of two moving atoms interacting with a single-mode field via a three-photon process is also investigated [19]. The von Neumann entropy measurement is used to measure the amount of entanglement between two moving atoms and a strongly squeezed field ...
Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...
Verifying continuous-variable entanglement in finite spaces
Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.
2009-05-01
Starting from arbitrary Hilbert spaces, we reduce the problem to verify entanglement of any bipartite quantum state to finite-dimensional subspaces. Entanglement can be fully characterized as a finite-dimensional property, even though in general the truncation of the Hilbert space may cause fake nonclassicality. A generalization for multipartite quantum states is also given.
Four-qubit entanglement classification from string theory.
Borsten, L; Dahanayake, D; Duff, M J; Marrani, A; Rubens, W
2010-09-03
We invoke the black-hole-qubit correspondence to derive the classification of four-qubit entanglement. The U-duality orbits resulting from timelike reduction of string theory from D=4 to D=3 yield 31 entanglement families, which reduce to nine up to permutation of the four qubits.
Photonic and Phononic Entanglement with Hybrid Species Ion Chains
Crocker, Clayton; Lichtman, Martin; Sosnova, Ksenia; Nguyen, Tuan; Carter, Allison; Inlek, Volkan; Ruth, Hanna; Monroe, Christopher
2017-04-01
Trapped atomic ions represent a leading platform for quantum information networks due to their long coherence times and diverse set of entangling operations. External fields can drive strong local entangling interactions via phonons, and remote qubits can be entangled via emitted photons. Unfortunately, resonant light from the photonic entanglement process can disrupt nearby memory qubits. We resolve this crosstalk by introducing a separate atomic species to the trap for use as a photonic entanglement qubit. We report successful demonstration of both entangling gates between the mixed species qubit pair through their collective motion, and entanglement between our remote entanglement qubit and emitted visible photons. We additionally report our progress on a new trapping apparatus that was implemented to improve these operations to a level required for scaling up the system size. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA LogiQ program, the AFOSR, the ARO MURI on Modular Quantum Circuits, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the ARL Center for Distributed Quantum Information.
Self-healing of quantum entanglement after an obstruction
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement between photon pairs is fragile and can easily be masked by losses in transmission path and noise in the detection system. When observing the quantum entanglement between the spatial states of photon pairs produced by parametric...
Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
matrices constitute a 3 × 3 linearly independent, experimentally realizable [4] Cartesian tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- cessing tasks. As these two qubit symmetric gates are capable of producing entanglement of quantum states, quantifying their entangling capability ...
Entangled coherent states and squeezing in N trapped ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solano, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1 85748 Garching (Germany); Filho, R L de Matos [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zagury, N [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2002-08-01
We consider a resonant bichromatic excitation of N trapped ions that generates displacement and squeezing in their collective motion conditioned to their ionic internal state, producing eventually Schroedinger cat states and entangled squeezing. Furthermore, we study the case of tetrachromatic illumination for producing the so-called entangled coherent states in two motional normal modes.
Quantum entanglement with a hermite-gaussian pump; poster
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Typically, a Gaussian mode is used to pump a non-linear crystal to produce pairs of entangled photons. We demonstrate orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement when a non-fundamental mode is used to pump a non-linear crystal. An approximation...
Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou
2013-01-01
Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori in...
Trends and interventions in large whale entanglement along the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The prevalence of entanglements is seasonal with the peaks in activity coinciding with the breeding migrations of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae and southern right whales Eubalaena australis, the two large whale species that are the most prone to entanglement. Generalised linear models with a Poisson or ...
Quantum entanglement and coherence in molecular magnets
Shiddiq, Muhandis
Quantum computers are predicted to outperform classical computers in certain tasks, such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. The construction of a computer whose operation is based on the principles of quantum mechanics appears extremely challenging. Solid state approaches offer the potential to answer this challenge by tailor-making novel nanomaterials for quantum information processing (QIP). Molecular magnets, which are materials whose energy levels and magnetic quantum states are well defined at the molecular level, have been identified as a class of material with properties that make them attractive for quantum computing purpose. In this dissertation, I explore the possibilities and challenges for molecular magnets to be used in quantum computing architecture. The properties of molecular magnets that are critical for applications in quantum computing, i.e., quantum entanglement and coherence, are comprehensively investigated to probe the feasibility of molecular magnets to be used as quantum bits (qubits). Interactions of qubits with photons are at the core of QIP. Photons can be used to detect and manipulate qubits, after which information can then be transferred over long distances. As a potential candidate for qubits, the interactions between Fe8 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and cavity photons were studied. An earlier report described that a cavity mode splitting was observed in a spectrum of a cavity filled with a single-crystal of Fe8 SMMs. This splitting was interpreted as a vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), which is a signature of an entanglement between a large number of SMMs and a cavity photon. However, find that large absorption and dispersion of the magnetic susceptibility are the reasons for this splitting. This finding highlights the fact that an observation of a peak splitting in a cavity transmission spectrum neither represents an unambiguous indication of quantum coherence in a large number of spins, nor a signature of
Quantum entanglement for systems of identical bosons: I. General features
Dalton, B. J.; Goold, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Reid, M. D.
2017-02-01
These two accompanying papers are concerned with two mode entanglement for systems of identical massive bosons and the relationship to spin squeezing and other quantum correlation effects. Entanglement is a key quantum feature of composite systems in which the probabilities for joint measurements on the composite sub-systems are no longer determined from measurement probabilities on the separate sub-systems. There are many aspects of entanglement that can be studied. This two-part review focuses on the meaning of entanglement, the quantum paradoxes associated with entangled states, and the important tests that allow an experimentalist to determine whether a quantum state—in particular, one for massive bosons is entangled. An overall outcome of the review is to distinguish criteria (and hence experiments) for entanglement that fully utilize the symmetrization principle and the super-selection rules that can be applied to bosonic massive particles. In the first paper (I), the background is given for the meaning of entanglement in the context of systems of identical particles. For such systems, the requirement is that the relevant quantum density operators must satisfy the symmetrization principle and that global and local super-selection rules prohibit states in which there are coherences between differing particle numbers. The justification for these requirements is fully discussed. In the second quantization approach that is used, both the system and the sub-systems are modes (or sets of modes) rather than particles, particles being associated with different occupancies of the modes. The definition of entangled states is based on first defining the non-entangled states—after specifying which modes constitute the sub-systems. This work mainly focuses on the two mode entanglement for massive bosons, but is put in the context of tests of local hidden variable theories, where one may not be able to make the above restrictions. The review provides the detailed
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t...... excellent agreement for the Likhtman-McLeish theory using the double reptation approximation for constraint release, if we remove the contribution of high-frequency modes to contour length fluctuations of the primitive chain....
Nonlocality, Entanglement Witnesses and Supra-correlations
2012-04-01
O]=1 and probabilities are given by the trace formulas ( , | , ) [ ]x ya bP a b x y Tr OM M= ⊗ , ( | ) [ ]xaP a x Tr O M I= ⊗ and ( | )P b y...its applications,” Academic Press, N.Y (1976). [18] Z. Hong-Hao, Y. Wen-Bin and L. Xue-Song, “Trace formulas of characteristic polynomial and...032317 (2004). [23] W. Dur, G. Vidal and J.I. Cirac, “Three qubits can be entangled in two equivalent ways,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062314 (2000); C. Sabin
An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*
Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun
2017-09-01
Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.
Entanglement the greatest mystery in physics
Aczel, Amir
2003-01-01
Can two particles become inextricably linked, so that a change in one is instantly reflected in its counterpart, even if a universe separates them? Albert Einstein's work suggested it was possible, but it was too bizarre, and too contrary to how we then understood space and time, for him to prove. No one could. Until now. Entanglement tells the astounding story of the scientists who set out to complete Einstein's work. With accesible language and a highly entertaining tone, Amir Aczel shows us a world where the improbable—from unbreakable codes to teleportation—becomes possible.
Creating entanglement using integrals of motion
Olshanii, Maxim; Scoquart, Thibault; Yampolsky, Dmitry; Dunjko, Vanja; Jackson, Steven Glenn
2018-01-01
A quantum Galilean cannon is a one-dimensional sequence of N hard-core particles with special mass ratios and a hard wall; conservation laws due to the reflection group AN prevent both classical stochastization and quantum diffraction. It is realizable through specie-alternating mutually repulsive bosonic soliton trains. We show that an initial disentangled state can evolve into one where the heavy and light particles are entangled, and we propose a sensor, containing Ntotal atoms, with a √{Ntotal} times higher sensitivity than in a one-atom sensor with Ntotal repetitions.
Unexpected power-law stress relaxation of entangled ring polymers
KAPNISTOS, M.; LANG, M.; PYCKHOUT-HINTZEN, W.; RICHTER, D.; CHO, D.; CHANG, T.
2016-01-01
After many years of intense research, most aspects of the motion of entangled polymers have been understood. Long linear and branched polymers have a characteristic entanglement plateau and their stress relaxes by chain reptation or branch retraction, respectively. In both mechanisms, the presence of chain ends is essential. But how do entangled polymers without ends relax their stress? Using properly purified high-molar-mass ring polymers, we demonstrate that these materials exhibit self-similar dynamics, yielding a power-law stress relaxation. However, trace amounts of linear chains at a concentration almost two decades below their overlap cause an enhanced mechanical response. An entanglement plateau is recovered at higher concentrations of linear chains. These results constitute an important step towards solving an outstanding problem of polymer science and are useful for manipulating properties of materials ranging from DNA to polycarbonate. They also provide possible directions for tuning the rheology of entangled polymers. PMID:18953345
Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states
Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.
2017-12-01
Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.
$E_{6}$ and the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits
Duff, M J
2007-01-01
Recent investigations have established an analogy between the entropy of four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes in string theory and entanglement in quantum information theory. Examples include: (1) N=2 STU black holes and the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (2-state systems), where the common symmetry is [SL(2)]^3 and (2) N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the common symmetry is E_7 which contains [SL(2)]^7. Here we present another example: N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions and the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems), where the common symmetry is E_6 which contains [SL(3)]^3. Both the black hole (or black string) entropy and the entanglement measure are provided by the Cartan cubic E_6 invariant. Similar analogies exist for ``magic'' N=2 supergravity black holes in both four and five dimensions.
Entanglement entropy in excited states of the quantum Lifshitz model
Parker, Daniel E.; Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of an infinite class of excited states in the quantum Lifshitz model (QLM). The presence of a conformal quantum critical point in the QLM makes it unusually tractable for a model above one spatial dimension, enabling the ground state entanglement entropy for an arbitrary domain to be expressed in terms of geometrical and topological quantities. Here we extend this result to excited states and find that the entanglement can be naturally written in terms of quantities which we dub ‘entanglement propagator amplitudes’ (EPAs). EPAs are geometrical probabilities that we explicitly calculate and interpret. A comparison of lattice and continuum results demonstrates that EPAs are universal. This work shows that the QLM is an example of a 2 + 1d field theory where the universal behavior of excited-state entanglement may be computed analytically.
A System For High Flexibility Entangling Gates With Trapped Ions
Milne, Alistair; Edmunds, Claire; Mavadia, Sandeep; Green, Todd; Biercuk, Michael
Trapped ion qubits may be entangled via coupling to shared modes of motion using spin-dependent forces generated by optical fields. Residual qubit-motional coupling at the conclusion of the entangling operation is the dominant source of infidelity in this type of gate. For synchronously entangling increasing numbers of ions, longer gate times are required to minimise this residual coupling. We present a scheme that enables the state of each qubit to be simultaneously decoupled from all motional modes in an arbitrarily chosen gate time, increasing the gate fidelity and scalability. This is achieved by implementing discrete phase shifts in the optical field moderating the entangling operation. We describe an experimental system based on trapped ytterbium ions and demonstrate this scheme for two-qubit entangling gates on ytterbium ion pairs.
Entanglement Dynamics in a Model Tripartite Quantum System
Laha, Pradip; Sudarsan, B.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2016-09-01
A Λ-type atom interacting with two radiation fields exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency and other nonclassical effects that appear in the entanglement dynamics of the atomic subsystem and in appropriate field observables. Both EIT and field-atom entanglement are important for quantum information processing. We investigate the roles played by specific initial field states, detuning parameters, field nonlinearities and intensity-dependent field-atom couplings on EIT and the entanglement between subsystems. Departure from coherence of the initial field states produces significant effects. We investigate these aspects in a model that exhibits the salient features of entangled tripartite systems. For initial photon-added coherent states, collapses and revivals of the atomic subsystem von Neumann entropy appear as the intensity parameter varies over a narrow range of values. These features could be useful in enabling entanglement.
Entanglement Swapping between Photons that have Never Coexisted
Megidish, E.; Halevy, A.; Shacham, T.; Dvir, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.
2013-05-01
The role of the timing and order of quantum measurements is not just a fundamental question of quantum mechanics, but also a puzzling one. Any part of a quantum system that has finished evolving can be measured immediately or saved for later, without affecting the final results, regardless of the continued evolution of the rest of the system. In addition, the nonlocality of quantum mechanics, as manifested by entanglement, does not apply only to particles with spacelike separation, but also to particles with timelike separation. In order to demonstrate these principles, we generated and fully characterized an entangled pair of photons that have never coexisted. Using entanglement swapping between two temporally separated photon pairs, we entangle one photon from the first pair with another photon from the second pair. The first photon was detected even before the other was created. The observed two-photon state demonstrates that entanglement can be shared between timelike separated quantum systems.
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.
Novel quantum phase transition from bounded to extensive entanglement.
Zhang, Zhao; Ahmadain, Amr; Klich, Israel
2017-05-16
The nature of entanglement in many-body systems is a focus of intense research with the observation that entanglement holds interesting information about quantum correlations in large systems and their relation to phase transitions. In particular, it is well known that although generic, many-body states have large, extensive entropy, ground states of reasonable local Hamiltonians carry much smaller entropy, often associated with the boundary length through the so-called area law. Here we introduce a continuous family of frustration-free Hamiltonians with exactly solvable ground states and uncover a remarkable quantum phase transition whereby the entanglement scaling changes from area law into extensively large entropy. This transition shows that entanglement in many-body systems may be enhanced under special circumstances with a potential for generating "useful" entanglement for the purpose of quantum computing and that the full implications of locality and its restrictions on possible ground states may hold further surprises.
Self-healing of quantum entanglement after an obstruction.
McLaren, Melanie; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Padgett, Miles J; Roux, Filippus S; Forbes, Andrew
2014-01-01
Quantum entanglement between photon pairs is fragile and can easily be masked by losses in transmission path and noise in the detection system. When observing the quantum entanglement between the spatial states of photon pairs produced by parametric down-conversion, the presence of an obstruction introduces losses that can mask the correlations associated with the entanglement. Here we show that we can overcome these losses by measuring in the Bessel basis, thus once again revealing the entanglement after propagation beyond the obstruction. We confirm that, for the entanglement of orbital angular momentum, measurement in the Bessel basis is more robust to these losses than measuring in the usually employed Laguerre-Gaussian basis. Our results show that appropriate choice of measurement basis can overcome some limitations of the transmission path, perhaps offering advantages in free-space quantum communication or quantum processing systems.
Entanglement of identical particles and the detection process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; de Melo, Fernando; Kus, Marek
2013-01-01
, which is controlled by the measurement setup and which quantifies the extent to which the (anti-)symmetrization of the wavefunction impacts on physical observables. Initially indistinguishable particles can gain or loose entanglement on their transition to distinguishability, and their quantum......We introduce detector-level entanglement, a unified entanglement concept for identical particles that takes into account the possible deletion of many-particle which-way information through the detection process. The concept implies a measure for the effective indistinguishability of the particles...... statistical behavior depends on their initial entanglement. Our results show that entanglement cannot be attributed to a state of identical particles alone, but that the detection process has to be incorporated in the analysis....
Deterministic generation of multiparticle entanglement by quantum Zeno dynamics.
Barontini, Giovanni; Hohmann, Leander; Haas, Florian; Estève, Jérôme; Reichel, Jakob
2015-09-18
Multiparticle entangled quantum states, a key resource in quantum-enhanced metrology and computing, are usually generated by coherent operations exclusively. However, unusual forms of quantum dynamics can be obtained when environment coupling is used as part of the state generation. In this work, we used quantum Zeno dynamics (QZD), based on nondestructive measurement with an optical microcavity, to deterministically generate different multiparticle entangled states in an ensemble of 36 qubit atoms in less than 5 microseconds. We characterized the resulting states by performing quantum tomography, yielding a time-resolved account of the entanglement generation. In addition, we studied the dependence of quantum states on measurement strength and quantified the depth of entanglement. Our results show that QZD is a versatile tool for fast and deterministic entanglement generation in quantum engineering applications. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Progress towards measurement-induced entanglement of remote superconducting qubits
Schwartz, M. E.; Roch, N.; Macklin, C.; Vijay, R.; Siddiqi, I.
2013-03-01
Generation and distribution of entanglement are critical capabilities for quantum computation and simulation. In superconducting qubits, entanglement can be achieved via direct qubit-qubit coupling on chip. In contrast to this type of local interaction, we present experiments and simulations targeted at generating entanglement between remote (non-coupled) 3D transmons. Entanglement is achieved via joint measurement in a basis that does not project, and thus does not dephase, the odd-parity Bell manifold (|01>/|10>). The experiments rely on coherent state detection, rather than photon-counting, and are a step towards deterministic feedback stabilization of remote qubit entanglement. We also model the effects of experimental realities, including excess amplifier noise, cable insertion loss, and finite qubit coherence times. This research was supported by the Army Research Office under a QCT grant, and by the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation.
Time dependence of entanglement entropy on the fuzzy sphere
Sabella-Garnier, Philippe
2017-08-01
We numerically study the behaviour of entanglement entropy for a free scalar field on the noncommutative ("fuzzy") sphere after a mass quench. It is known that the entanglement entropy before a quench violates the usual area law due to the non-local nature of the theory. By comparing our results to the ordinary sphere, we find results that, despite this non-locality, are compatible with entanglement being spread by ballistic propagation of entangled quasi-particles at a speed no greater than the speed of light. However, we also find that, when the pre-quench mass is much larger than the inverse of the short-distance cutoff of the fuzzy sphere (a regime with no commutative analogue), the entanglement entropy spreads faster than allowed by a local model.
Entanglement entropy in a holographic p-wave superconductor model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Fang Li
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper, arXiv:1309.4877, a holographic p-wave model has been proposed in an Einstein–Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The model exhibits rich phase structure depending on the mass and the charge of the vector field. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement entropy of dual field theory in this model. When the above two model parameters change, we observe the second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions from the behavior of the entanglement entropy at some intermediate temperatures. These imply that the entanglement entropy can indicate not only the occurrence of the phase transition, but also the order of the phase transition. The entanglement entropy is indeed a good probe to phase transition. Furthermore, the “retrograde condensation” which is a sub-dominated phase is also reflected on the entanglement entropy.
Entanglement in Lifshitz-type quantum field theories
Mohammadi Mozaffar, M. Reza; Mollabashi, Ali
2017-07-01
We study different aspects of quantum entanglement and its measures, including entanglement entropy in the vacuum state of a certain Lifshitz free scalar theory. We present simple intuitive arguments based on "non-local" effects of this theory that the scaling of entanglement entropy depends on the dynamical exponent as a characteristic parameter of the theory. The scaling is such that in the massless theory for small entangling regions it leads to area law in the Lorentzian limit and volume law in the z → ∞ limit. We present strong numerical evidences in (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensions in support of this behavior. In (2 + 1)-dimensions we also study some shape dependent aspects of entanglement. We argue that in the massless limit corner contributions are no more additive for large enough dynamical exponent due to non-local effects of Lifshitz theories. We also comment on possible holographic duals of such theories based on the sign of tripartite information.
Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields
Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.
Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.
Entanglement of coherent superposition of photon-subtraction squeezed vacuum
Liu, Cun-Jin; Ye, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Hao-Liang; Huang, Jie-Hui; Hu, Li-Yun
2017-10-01
A new kind of non-Gaussian quantum state is introduced by applying nonlocal coherent superposition ( τa + sb) m of photon subtraction to two single-mode squeezed vacuum states, and the properties of entanglement are investigated according to the degree of entanglement and the average fidelity of quantum teleportation. The state can be seen as a single-variable Hermitian polynomial excited squeezed vacuum state, and its normalization factor is related to the Legendre polynomial. It is shown that, for τ = s, the maximum fidelity can be achieved, even over the classical limit (1/2), only for even-order operation m and equivalent squeezing parameters in a certain region. However, the maximum entanglement can be achieved for squeezing parameters with a π phase difference. These indicate that the optimal realizations of fidelity and entanglement could be different from one another. In addition, the parameter τ/ s has an obvious effect on entanglement and fidelity.
Quantum discord and entanglement in grover search algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ye Bin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Imperfections and noise in realistic quantum computers may seriously affect the accuracy of quantum algorithms. In this article we explore the impact of static imperfections on quantum entanglement as well as non-entangled quantum correlations in Grover’s search algorithm. Using the metrics of concurrence and geometric quantum discord, we show that both the evolution of entanglement and quantum discord in Grover algorithm can be restrained with the increasing strength of static imperfections. For very weak imperfections, the quantum entanglement and discord exhibit periodic behavior, while the periodicity will most certainly be destroyed with stronger imperfections. Moreover, entanglement sudden death may occur when the strength of static imperfections is greater than a certain threshold.
Novel quantum phase transition from bounded to extensive entanglement
Zhang, Zhao; Ahmadain, Amr; Klich, Israel
2017-05-01
The nature of entanglement in many-body systems is a focus of intense research with the observation that entanglement holds interesting information about quantum correlations in large systems and their relation to phase transitions. In particular, it is well known that although generic, many-body states have large, extensive entropy, ground states of reasonable local Hamiltonians carry much smaller entropy, often associated with the boundary length through the so-called area law. Here we introduce a continuous family of frustration-free Hamiltonians with exactly solvable ground states and uncover a remarkable quantum phase transition whereby the entanglement scaling changes from area law into extensively large entropy. This transition shows that entanglement in many-body systems may be enhanced under special circumstances with a potential for generating “useful” entanglement for the purpose of quantum computing and that the full implications of locality and its restrictions on possible ground states may hold further surprises.
Slip-spring model of entangled rod-coil block copolymers
Wang, Muzhou; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.
2015-03-01
Understanding the dynamics of rod-coil block copolymers is important for optimal design of functional nanostructured materials for organic electronics and biomaterials. Recently, we proposed a reptation theory of entangled rod-coil block copolymers, predicting the relaxation mechanisms of activated reptation and arm retraction that slow rod-coil dynamics relative to coil and rod homopolymers, respectively. In this work, we introduce a coarse-grained slip-spring model of rod-coil block copolymers to further explore these mechanisms. First, parameters of the coarse-grained model are tuned to match previous molecular dynamics simulation results for coils, rods, and block copolymers. For activated reptation, rod-coil copolymers are shown to disfavor configurations where the rod occupies curved portions of the entanglement tube of randomly varying curvature created by the coil ends. The effect of these barriers on diffusion is quantitatively captured by considering one-dimensional motion along an entanglement tube with a rough free energy potential. Finally, we analyze the crossover between the two mechanisms. The resulting dynamics from both mechanisms acting in combination is faster than from each one individually.
A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model.
Entanglment assisted zero-error codes
Matthews, William; Mancinska, Laura; Leung, Debbie; Ozols, Maris; Roy, Aidan
2011-03-01
Zero-error information theory studies the transmission of data over noisy communication channels with strictly zero error probability. For classical channels and data, much of the theory can be studied in terms of combinatorial graph properties and is a source of hard open problems in that domain. In recent work, we investigated how entanglement between sender and receiver can be used in this task. We found that entanglement-assisted zero-error codes (which are still naturally studied in terms of graphs) sometimes offer an increased bit rate of zero-error communication even in the large block length limit. The assisted codes that we have constructed are closely related to Kochen-Specker proofs of non-contextuality as studied in the context of foundational physics, and our results on asymptotic rates of assisted zero-error communication yield non-contextuality proofs which are particularly `strong' in a certain quantitive sense. I will also describe formal connections to the multi-prover games known as pseudo-telepathy games.
Relationship between squeezing and entangled state transformations
Fan Hong Yi
2003-01-01
We show that c-number dilation transform in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled state, i.e. vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2) -> vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2 /mu) (or vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2) -> vertical bar eta sub 1 /mu, eta sub 2)), maps onto a kind of one-sided two-mode squeezing operator exp left brace i lambda/2(P sub 1 + P sub 2)(Q sub 1 + Q sub 2) - lambda/2 right brace, (or exp left brace i lambda/2(P sub 1 - P sub 2)(Q sub 1 - Q sub 2) - lambda/2 right brace). Using the IWOP technique, we derive their normally ordered form and construct the corresponding squeezed states. In doing so, some new relationship between squeezing and entangled state transformation is revealed. The dynamic Hamiltonian for such a kind of squeezing evolution is derived. The properties and application of the one-sided squeezed state are briefly discussed. These states can also be obtained with the use of a beam splitter.
Entangled polymer complexes as Higgs phenomena.
Kim, Ki-Seok; Dutta, Sandipan; Jho, YongSeok
2015-10-28
We derive an effective Maxwell-London equation for entangled polymer complexes under topological constraints, borrowing the theoretical framework from topological field theory. We find that the transverse current flux of a test polymer chain, surrounded by entangled chains, decays exponentially from its centerline position with a finite penetration depth, which is analogous to the magnetic-field decay in a superconductor (SC), referred to as the Meissner effect. Just as the mass acquirement of photons in a SC is the origin of the magnetic-field decay, the polymer obtains uncrossable intersections along the chain due to the preservation of the linking number, which restricts the deviation of the transverse polymer current in the normal direction. The underlying physics is as follows: less flexible polymers have stronger current-current correlations, giving rise to a heavier effective mass of the gauge fields and resulting in a shorter decay length. Interestingly, this picture is well incorporated within the most successful phenomenological theory of the, so called, tube model, the microscopic origins of which researchers have long pursued. The correspondence of our equation of motion to the tube model claims that the confining tube potential is a consequence of the topological constraint (linking number). The tube radius is attributed to the decay length. On increasing the effective mass (by strengthening the interaction at an uncrossable intersection or a number of intersections), the tube becomes narrower. Using this argument, the exponential decay of the chain leakage out of the tube is well understood.
Correlation Plenoptic Imaging With Entangled Photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco V. Pepe
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Plenoptic imaging is a novel optical technique for three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. It is enabled by the simultaneous measurement of both the location and the propagation direction of light in a given scene. In the standard approach, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are inversely proportional, and so are the resolution and the maximum achievable depth of focus of the 3D image. We have recently proposed a method to overcome such fundamental limits by combining plenoptic imaging with an intriguing correlation remote-imaging technique: ghost imaging. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that correlation plenoptic imaging can be effectively achieved by exploiting the position-momentum entanglement characterizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC photon pairs. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we shall show that correlation plenoptic imaging with entangled photons may enable the refocusing of an out-of-focus image at the same depth of focus of a standard plenoptic device, but without sacrificing diffraction-limited image resolution.
Bounds for entanglement of formation of two mode squeezed thermal states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Pei-Liang
2003-07-28
The upper and lower bounds of entanglement of formation are given for two mode squeezed thermal state. The bounds are compared with other entanglement measure or bounds. The entanglement distillation and the relative entropy of entanglement of infinitive squeezed state are obtained at the postulation of hashing inequality.
Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.
2008-07-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P
2015-05-01
Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.
Quantum entanglement based on surface phonon polaritons in condensed matter systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Ming
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Surface phonon polariton (SPhP is a special propagation mode in condensed matter systems. We present an investigation on the entanglement of SPhP modes. The entangled SPhP pairs are generated through launching entangled photons onto the grating coupling systems. The interaction Hamiltonian for the coupling process between entangled photons and entangled LRSPhPs is derived. State vector of the entangled LRSPhPs is obtained through the perturbation theory. The origin of LRSPhP entanglement is revealed. Wave mechanics approach is taken to describe the coupling process as an alteration. To present the nonlocality, the second-order correlation function is studied.
Exploring the tripartite entanglement and quantum phase transition in the XXZ+h model
Joyia, Wajid; Khan, Khalid
2017-10-01
The behavior of bipartite and tripartite entanglement in Heisenberg XXZ+h spins chain is investigated with the size of system using the approach of quantum renormalization group method. In thermodynamics limit, both types of entanglement exhibit quantum phase transition (QPT). The boundary of QPT links the phases of saturated entanglement and zero entanglement. The first derivative of both entanglements becomes discontinuous at the critical point, which corresponds to the second-order phase transition. Furthermore, the amount of saturated bipartite entanglement strongly depends on relative positions of spins, while tripartite entanglement is robust than bipartite entanglement. It turns out that the tripartite entanglement can be a better candidate than bipartite entanglement for analyzing QPT and implementing quantum information tasks.
Entanglement entropy for 2D gauge theories with matters
Aoki, Sinya; Iizuka, Norihiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro; Yokoya, Tsuyoshi
2017-08-01
We investigate the entanglement entropy in 1 +1 -dimensional S U (N ) gauge theories with various matter fields using the lattice regularization. Here we use extended Hilbert space definition for entanglement entropy, which contains three contributions; (1) classical Shannon entropy associated with superselection sector distribution, where sectors are labeled by irreducible representations of boundary penetrating fluxes, (2) logarithm of the dimensions of their representations, which is associated with "color entanglement," and (3) EPR Bell pairs, which give "genuine" entanglement. We explicitly show that entanglement entropies (1) and (2) above indeed appear for various multiple "meson" states in gauge theories with matter fields. Furthermore, we employ transfer matrix formalism for gauge theory with fundamental matter field and analyze its ground state using hopping parameter expansion (HPE), where the hopping parameter K is roughly the inverse square of the mass for the matter. We evaluate the entanglement entropy for the ground state and show that all (1), (2), (3) above appear in the HPE, though the Bell pair part (3) appears in higher order than (1) and (2) do. With these results, we discuss how the ground state entanglement entropy in the continuum limit can be understood from the lattice ground state obtained in the HPE.
Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control.
Gonzalez-Henao, J C; Pugliese, E; Euzzor, S; Abdalah, S F; Meucci, R; Roversi, J A
2015-08-19
The control of quantum entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. However, interactions with the environment, even when very weak, entail decoherence in the system with consequent loss of entanglement. Here we consider a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We demonstrate that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable, otherwise when the classical system is stable, entanglement is not possible. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external controller. We also show that the entanglement rate is approximately proportional to the real part of the Floquet coefficient of the classical counterpart of the oscillators. Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system.
Deterministic entanglement generation from driving through quantum phase transitions.
Luo, Xin-Yu; Zou, Yi-Quan; Wu, Ling-Na; Liu, Qi; Han, Ming-Fei; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li
2017-02-10
Many-body entanglement is often created through the system evolution, aided by nonlinear interactions between the constituting particles. These very dynamics, however, can also lead to fluctuations and degradation of the entanglement if the interactions cannot be controlled. Here, we demonstrate near-deterministic generation of an entangled twin-Fock condensate of ~11,000 atoms by driving a arubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensate undergoing spin mixing through two consecutive quantum phase transitions (QPTs). We directly observe number squeezing of 10.7 ± 0.6 decibels and normalized collective spin length of 0.99 ± 0.01. Together, these observations allow us to infer an entanglement-enhanced phase sensitivity of ~6 decibels beyond the standard quantum limit and an entanglement breadth of ~910 atoms. Our work highlights the power of generating large-scale useful entanglement by taking advantage of the different entanglement landscapes separated by QPTs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Deep inelastic scattering as a probe of entanglement
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Levin, Eugene M.
2017-06-01
Using nonlinear evolution equations of QCD, we compute the von Neumann entropy of the system of partons resolved by deep inelastic scattering at a given Bjorken x and momentum transfer q2=-Q2. We interpret the result as the entropy of entanglement between the spatial region probed by deep inelastic scattering and the rest of the proton. At small x the relation between the entanglement entropy S (x ) and the parton distribution x G (x ) becomes very simple: S (x )=ln [x G (x )]. In this small x , large rapidity Y regime, all partonic microstates have equal probabilities—the proton is composed by an exponentially large number exp (Δ Y ) of microstates that occur with equal and exponentially small probabilities exp (-Δ Y ), where Δ is defined by x G (x )˜1 /xΔ. For this equipartitioned state, the entanglement entropy is maximal—so at small x , deep inelastic scattering probes a maximally entangled state. We propose the entanglement entropy as an observable that can be studied in deep inelastic scattering. This will require event-by-event measurements of hadronic final states, and would allow to study the transformation of entanglement entropy into the Boltzmann one. We estimate that the proton is represented by the maximally entangled state at x ≤10-3; this kinematic region will be amenable to studies at the Electron Ion Collider.
Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-10-01
Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.
Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states
Tittel; Brendel; Zbinden; Gisin
2000-05-15
We present a setup for quantum cryptography based on photon pairs in energy-time Bell states and show its feasibility in a laboratory experiment. Our scheme combines the advantages of using photon pairs instead of faint laser pulses and the possibility to preserve energy-time entanglement over long distances. Moreover, using four-dimensional energy-time states, no fast random change of bases is required in our setup: Nature itself decides whether to measure in the energy or in the time base, thus rendering eavesdropper attacks based on "photon number splitting" less efficient.
Entanglement entropy of U (1) quantum spin liquids
Pretko, Michael; Senthil, T.
2016-09-01
We here investigate the entanglement structure of the ground state of a (3 +1 )-dimensional U (1 ) quantum spin liquid, which is described by the deconfined phase of a compact U (1 ) gauge theory. A gapless photon is the only low-energy excitation, with matter existing as deconfined but gapped excitations of the system. It is found that, for a given bipartition of the system, the elements of the entanglement spectrum can be grouped according to the electric flux between the two regions, leading to a useful interpretation of the entanglement spectrum in terms of electric charges living on the boundary. The entanglement spectrum is also given additional structure due to the presence of the gapless photon. Making use of the Bisognano-Wichmann theorem and a local thermal approximation, these two contributions to the entanglement (particle and photon) are recast in terms of boundary and bulk contributions, respectively. Both pieces of the entanglement structure give rise to universal subleading terms (relative to the area law) in the entanglement entropy, which are logarithmic in the system size (logL ), as opposed to the subleading constant term in gapped topologically ordered systems. The photon subleading logarithm arises from the low-energy conformal field theory and is essentially local in character. The particle subleading logarithm arises due to the constraint of closed electric loops in the wave function and is shown to be the natural generalization of topological entanglement entropy to the U (1 ) spin liquid. This contribution to the entanglement entropy can be isolated by means of the Grover-Turner-Vishwanath construction (which generalizes the Kitaev-Preskill scheme to three dimensions).
Thermal Entanglement in a Three-Qubit Quantum System with DM Interaction
Li, Jianping
2017-03-01
Entanglement properties of Heisenberg spin chain has received much attention in the context of quantum information. The generation and the manipulation of entangled states especially thermal entanglement have been extensively studied in the Heisenberg models. In this article, we studied the thermal entanglement in a three-qubit spin system. It is found that the DM interaction along the Z axis can give rise to a thermal entanglement.
Geometric measures of multipartite entanglement in finite-size spin chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, M; Dell' Anno, F; De Siena, S; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F, E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2010-09-01
We investigate the behaviour of multipartite entanglement in finite-size quantum spin systems, resorting to a hierarchy of geometric measures of multipartite entanglement recently introduced in the literature. In particular, we investigate the ground-state entanglement in the XY model defined on finite chains of N sites with periodic boundary conditions. We analyse the behaviour of the geometric measures of (N- 1)-partite and (N/2)-partite entanglement and compare them with the Wei-Goldbart geometric measure of global entanglement.
Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barzanjeh, Sh. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib, 81746-73441 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P. [School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Milburn, G. J. [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)
2011-10-15
We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.
Holographic entanglement entropy for gravitational anomaly in four dimensions
Ali, Tibra; Haque, S. Shajidul; Murugan, Jeff
2017-03-01
We compute the holographic entanglement entropy for the anomaly polynomial Tr R 2 in 3+1 dimensions. Using the perturbative method developed for computing entanglement entropy for quantum field theories, we also compute the parity odd contribution to the entanglement entropy of the dual field theory that comes from a background gravitational Chern-Simons term. We find that, in leading order in the perturbation of the background geometry, the two contributions match except for a logarithmic divergent term on the field theory side. We interpret this extra contribution as encoding our ignorance of the source which creates the perturbation of the geometry.
High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers
Hayes, Keesha A.
2008-11-17
We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)
2011-12-15
Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.
Local unitary representation of braids and N-qubit entanglements
Yu, Li-Wei
2018-03-01
In this paper, by utilizing the idea of stabilizer codes, we give some relationships between one local unitary representation of braid group in N-qubit tensor space and the corresponding entanglement properties of the N-qubit pure state |Ψ >, where the N-qubit state |Ψ > is obtained by applying the braiding operation on the natural basis. Specifically, we show that the separability of |Ψ > =B|0> ^{⊗ N} is closely related to the diagrammatic version of the braid operator B. This may provide us more insights about the topological entanglement and quantum entanglement.
Projection of Two Biphoton Qutrits onto a Maximally Entangled State
Halevy, A.; Megidish, E.; Shacham, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.
2011-04-01
Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons—a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping.
Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics
Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-10-01
We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained.
An efficient source of continuous variable polarization entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, R.; Heersink, J.; Yoshikawa, J.-I.
2007-01-01
We have experimentally demonstrated the efficient creation of highly entangled bipartite continuous variable polarization states. Exploiting an optimized scheme for the production of squeezing using the Kerr non-linearity of a glass fibre we generated polarization squeezed pulses with a mean...... classical excitation in Ŝ3. Polarization entanglement was generated by interfering two independent polarization squeezed fields on a symmetric beam splitter. The resultant beams exhibit strong quantum noise correlations in the dark Ŝ1-Ŝ2 polarization plane. To verify entanglement generation, we...
Entanglement of higher-derivative oscillators in holographic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimov, Hristo, E-mail: h_dimov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mladenov, Stefan, E-mail: smladenov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rashkov, Radoslav C., E-mail: rash@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8–10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Vetsov, Tsvetan, E-mail: vetsov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2017-05-15
We study the quantum entanglement of coupled Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillators using the formalism of thermo-field dynamics. The entanglement entropy is computed for the specific cases of two and a ring of N coupled Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillators of fourth order. It is shown that the entanglement entropy depends on the temperatures, frequencies and coupling parameters of the different degrees of freedom corresponding to harmonic oscillators. We also make remarks on the appearance of instabilities of higher-derivative oscillators in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we advert to the information geometry theory by calculating the Fisher information metric for the considered system of coupled oscillators.
Remote Entanglement by Coherent Multiplication of Concurrent Quantum Signals.
Roy, Ananda; Jiang, Liang; Stone, A Douglas; Devoret, Michel
2015-10-09
Concurrent remote entanglement of distant, noninteracting quantum entities is a crucial function for quantum information processing. In contrast with the existing protocols which employ the addition of signals to generate entanglement between two remote qubits, the continuous variable protocol we present is based on the multiplication of signals. This protocol can be straightforwardly implemented by a novel Josephson junction mixing circuit. Our scheme would be able to generate provable entanglement even in the presence of practical imperfections: finite quantum efficiency of detectors and undesired photon loss in current state-of-the-art devices.
Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics.
Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-10-07
We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained.
Three qubit entanglement within graphical Z/X-calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bob Coecke
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The compositional techniques of categorical quantum mechanics are applied to analyse 3-qubit quantum entanglement. In particular the graphical calculus of complementary observables and corresponding phases due to Duncan and one of the authors is used to construct representative members of the two genuinely tripartite SLOCC classes of 3-qubit entangled states, GHZ and W. This nicely illustrates the respectively pairwise and global tripartite entanglement found in the W- and GHZ-class states. A new concept of supplementarity allows us to characterise inhabitants of the W class within the abstract diagrammatic calculus; these method extends to more general multipartite qubit states.
Entanglement spectra of superconductivity ground states on the honeycomb lattice
Predin, Sonja; Schliemann, John
2017-12-01
We analytically evaluate the entanglement spectra of the superconductivity states in graphene, primarily focusing on the s-wave and chiral d x2- y2 + id xy superconductivity states. We demonstrate that the topology of the entanglement Hamiltonian can differ from that of the subsystem Hamiltonian. In particular, the topological properties of the entanglement Hamiltonian of the chiral d x2- y2 + id xy superconductivity state obtained by tracing out one spin direction clearly differ from those of the time-reversal invariant Hamiltonian of noninteracting fermions on the honeycomb lattice.
Finite-Size Geometric Entanglement from Tensor Network Algorithms
Shi, Qian-Qian; Orus, Roman; Fjaerestad, John Ove; Zhou, Huan-Qiang
2009-01-01
The global geometric entanglement is studied in the context of newly-developed tensor network algorithms for finite systems. For one-dimensional quantum spin systems it is found that, at criticality, the leading finite-size correction to the global geometric entanglement per site behaves as $b/n$, where $n$ is the size of the system and $b$ a given coefficient. Our conclusion is based on the computation of the geometric entanglement per spin for the quantum Ising model in a transverse magneti...
Quality of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down conversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali N
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrated a high degree of polarization entanglement known as entanglement visibility through spontaneous parametric down conversion process pumped by a femtosecond laser. The entangled-photon pair was obtained using two type-I BBO crystal. The down-converted photons from these crystals demonstrates a high visibility of 98.7% (θ2 = 0° and 90% (θ2 = 22.5°. These results are in agreement with the theory which expects high visibility from such arrangement.
Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons.
Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul
2013-12-28
The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.
Entangling mobility and interactions in social media
Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Goncalves, Bruno; Eguiluz, Victor M
2013-01-01
Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships. As a result, it is possible to predict not only someone's location from their friends' locations but also friendship from spatial and temporal co-occurrence. While several models have been developed to separately describe mobility and the evolution of social networks, there is a lack of studies coupling social interactions and mobility. In this work, we introduce a new model that bridges this gap by explicitly considering the feedback of mobility on the formation of social ties. Data coming from three online social networks (Twitter, Gowalla and Brightkite) is used for validation. Our model reproduces various topological and physical properties of these networks such as: i) the size of the connected components, ii) the distance distribution between connected users, iii) the d...
Entangled state fusion with Rydberg atoms
Ji, Y. Q.; Dai, C. M.; Shao, X. Q.; Yi, X. X.
2017-10-01
We propose a scheme for preparation of large-scale entangled GHZ states and W states with neutral Rydberg atoms. The scheme mainly depends on Rydberg antiblockade effect, i.e., as the Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strength and the detuning between the atom transition frequency and the classical laser frequency satisfies some certain conditions, the effective Rabi oscillation between the two ground states and the two excitation Rydberg states would be generated. The prominent advantage is that both two multiparticle GHZ states and two multiparticle W states can be fused in this model, especially the success probability for fusion of GHZ states can reach unit. In addition, the imperfections induced by the spontaneous emission is also discussed through numerical simulation.
Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmai, T., E-mail: palmai@phy.bme.hu
2016-08-10
A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.
Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Palmai
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.
Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States
Hyatt, Katharine; Garrison, James R.; Bauer, Bela
2017-10-01
Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network—and hence the geometry—is largely fixed a priori by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.
The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions
Cramer, John G
2016-01-01
This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.
Bipartite quantum states and random complex networks
Garnerone, Silvano; Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-01-01
We introduce a mapping between graphs and pure quantum bipartite states and show that the associated entanglement entropy conveys non-trivial information about the structure of the graph. Our primary goal is to investigate the family of random graphs known as complex networks. In the case of classical random graphs, we derive an analytic expression for the averaged entanglement entropy \\bar S while for general complex networks we rely on numerics. For a large number of nodes n we find a scaling \\bar {S} \\sim c log n +g_{ {e}} where both the prefactor c and the sub-leading O(1) term ge are characteristic of the different classes of complex networks. In particular, ge encodes topological features of the graphs and is named network topological entropy. Our results suggest that quantum entanglement may provide a powerful tool for the analysis of large complex networks with non-trivial topological properties.
Critical medical humanities: embracing entanglement, taking risks
Viney, William; Callard, Felicity; Woods, Angela
2015-01-01
What can the medical humanities achieve? This paper does not seek to define what is meant by the medical humanities, nor to adjudicate the exact disciplinary or interdisciplinary knowledges it should offer, but rather to consider what it might be capable of doing. Exploring the many valences of the word ‘critical’, we argue here for a critical medical humanities characterised by: (i) a widening of the sites and scales of ‘the medical’ beyond the primal scene of the clinical encounter; (ii) greater attention not simply to the context and experience of health and illness, but to their constitution at multiple levels; (iii) closer engagement with critical theory, queer and disability studies, activist politics and other allied fields; (iv) recognition that the arts, humanities and social sciences are best viewed not as in service or in opposition to the clinical and life sciences, but as productively entangled with a ‘biomedical culture’; and, following on from this, (v) robust commitment to new forms of interdisciplinary and cross-sector collaboration. We go on to introduce the five other articles published in this special issue of the journal, reflecting on the ways in which collaboration and critique are articulated in their analyses of immunology, critical neuroscience, toxicity, global clinical labour, and psychological coercion and workfare. As these articles demonstrate, embracing the complex role of critical collaborator—one based on notions of entanglement, rather than servility or antagonism—will, we suggest, develop the imaginative and creative heterodox qualities and practices which have long been recognised as core strengths of the medical humanities. PMID:26052111
Critical medical humanities: embracing entanglement, taking risks.
Viney, William; Callard, Felicity; Woods, Angela
2015-06-01
What can the medical humanities achieve? This paper does not seek to define what is meant by the medical humanities, nor to adjudicate the exact disciplinary or interdisciplinary knowledges it should offer, but rather to consider what it might be capable of doing. Exploring the many valences of the word 'critical', we argue here for a critical medical humanities characterised by: (i) a widening of the sites and scales of 'the medical' beyond the primal scene of the clinical encounter; (ii) greater attention not simply to the context and experience of health and illness, but to their constitution at multiple levels; (iii) closer engagement with critical theory, queer and disability studies, activist politics and other allied fields; (iv) recognition that the arts, humanities and social sciences are best viewed not as in service or in opposition to the clinical and life sciences, but as productively entangled with a 'biomedical culture'; and, following on from this, (v) robust commitment to new forms of interdisciplinary and cross-sector collaboration. We go on to introduce the five other articles published in this special issue of the journal, reflecting on the ways in which collaboration and critique are articulated in their analyses of immunology, critical neuroscience, toxicity, global clinical labour, and psychological coercion and workfare. As these articles demonstrate, embracing the complex role of critical collaborator--one based on notions of entanglement, rather than servility or antagonism--will, we suggest, develop the imaginative and creative heterodox qualities and practices which have long been recognised as core strengths of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial
Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2015-01-01
Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790
Compact Tunable High-Efficiency Entangled Photon Source Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MagiQ proposes to develop a compact tunable high-efficiency low-power-consumption entangled photon source. The source, based on inter-Fabry-Perot-cavity Spontaneous...
Enforcing Thermal Entanglement of Three Coupled Qubits by Dissipation
Wang, An-Ge; Yang, Wen-Shu; Lv, Sheng-Fang; Yue, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Song-Lin; Liu, Jie
2017-02-01
The stationary state entanglement in a chain with three spins is reported. Each of spins couples to its own separate bosonic reservoir. The master equation for such spins' system is derived under the Born-Markovian approximation. The result presents that the coupling between the middle spin and its bosonic bath in some special temperature region reinforce the entanglement between the spins. By analyzing the heat current between the middle spin and its bosonic bath, we find a tight relationship between the direction of heat current from the middle spin to its bosonic bath and the reinforcement of the entanglement. The entanglement increases with the heat current between the middle spin and its bosonic bath almost linearly.
Generating entangled microwave radiation over two transmission lines.
Flurin, E; Roch, N; Mallet, F; Devoret, M H; Huard, B
2012-11-02
Using a superconducting circuit, the Josephson mixer, we demonstrate the first experimental realization of spatially separated two-mode squeezed states of microwave light. Driven by a pump tone, a first Josephson mixer generates, out of quantum vacuum, a pair of entangled fields at different frequencies on separate transmission lines. A second mixer, driven by a π-phase shifted copy of the first pump tone, recombines and disentangles the two fields. The resulting output noise level is measured to be lower than for the vacuum state at the input of the second mixer, an unambiguous proof of entanglement. Moreover, the output noise level provides a direct, quantitative measure of entanglement, leading here to the demonstration of 6 Mebit · s(-1) (mega entangled bits per second) generated by the first mixer.
Nonlinear optical generation of time-delayed entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McRae, Terry G; Bowen, Warwick P, E-mail: wbowen@physics.uq.edu.au [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)
2011-05-14
A model is presented of nth order nonlinear processes in whispering gallery mode resonators, with scattering coherently coupling degenerate counter propagating modes. It is shown that such systems generate strong squeezing and time-delayed entanglement. The model can be generally applied to any pair of nonlinear coherently coupled cavities and is of particular relevance to whispering gallery mode resonators. A feature of the entanglement is that, by tuning the coherent coupling rate the peak entanglement can be tuned to occur away from the carrier frequency. This has technological significance allowing low frequency noise sources around the carrier frequency to be avoided. All-optical time-delayed entanglement has many applications, such as an all-optical quantum memory.
Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurizio Melis
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.
Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source.
Ward, M B; Dean, M C; Stevenson, R M; Bennett, A J; Ellis, D J P; Cooper, K; Farrer, I; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J
2014-01-01
Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell's inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.
Entangling Mobility and Interactions in Social Media: e92196
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Przemyslaw A Grabowicz; José J Ramasco; Bruno Gonçalves; Víctor M Eguíluz
2014-01-01
Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships...
Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities
Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang
2016-02-01
We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).
Experimental verification of multipartite entanglement in quantum networks
McCutcheon, W.; Pappa, A.; Bell, B. A.; McMillan, A.; Chailloux, A.; Lawson, T.; Mafu, M.; Markham, D.; Diamanti, E.; Kerenidis, I.; Rarity, J. G.; Tame, M. S.
2016-11-01
Multipartite entangled states are a fundamental resource for a wide range of quantum information processing tasks. In particular, in quantum networks, it is essential for the parties involved to be able to verify if entanglement is present before they carry out a given distributed task. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a protocol that allows any party in a network to check if a source is distributing a genuinely multipartite entangled state, even in the presence of untrusted parties. The protocol remains secure against dishonest behaviour of the source and other parties, including the use of system imperfections to their advantage. We demonstrate the verification protocol in a three- and four-party setting using polarization-entangled photons, highlighting its potential for realistic photonic quantum communication and networking applications.
Quenched dynamics of entangled states in correlated quantum dots
Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.
2017-10-01
The time evolution of an initially prepared entangled state in the system of coupled quantum dots has been analyzed by means of two different theoretical approaches: equations of motion for all orders localized electron correlation functions, considering interference effects, and kinetic equations for the pseudoparticle occupation numbers with constraint on the possible physical states. Results obtained by means of different approaches were carefully analyzed and compared to each other. Revealing a direct link between concurrence (degree of entanglement) and quantum dots pair correlation functions allowed us to follow the changes of entanglement during the time evolution of the coupled quantum dots system. It was demonstrated that the degree of entanglement can be controllably tuned during the time evolution of quantum dots system.
Practically Engaged : The entanglements between data journalism and civic tech
Baack, Stefan
2017-01-01
This article explores the entanglements between data journalists and civic technologists. Following an approach inspired by practice theory, it describes how they form a community that comes together through interlocking practices and complementary values and ambitions. Data journalists and civic
Cooling and entanglement of multimode graphene resonators via vacuum fluctuations
Ribeiro, Sofia; Terças, Hugo
2017-08-01
Sympathetic laser cooling of a single mode graphene membrane coupled to an atomic cloud interacting via Casimir-Polder forces has been recently proposed. Here, we extend this study to the effect of secondary graphene membrane whose frequency may be far or close to resonance. We show that if the two mechanical modes are close together, it is possible to simultaneously cool both modes. Conversely, if the two frequencies are set far apart, the secondary mode does not affect the cooling of the first one. We also study the entanglement properties of the steady-state using the logarithmic negativity. We show how stationary mechanical entanglement between two graphene sheets can be generated by means of vacuum fluctuations. Moreover, we find that, within feasible experimental parameters, large steady-state acoustomechanical entanglement, i.e. entanglement between the phononic and mechanical mode, {E}N≈ 5, can be generated.
Quantum Atomic Clock Synchronization: An Entangled Concept of Nonlocal Simultaneity
Abrams, D.; Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Jozsa, R.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two spatially separated parties (Alice and Bob) can utilize shared prior quantum entanglement, as well as a classical information channel, to establish a synchronized pair of atomic clocks.
Nonlinear dynamics and quantum entanglement in optomechanical systems.
Wang, Guanglei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2014-03-21
To search for and exploit quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear dynamics is one of the most fundamental problems in physics. Using optomechanical systems as a paradigm, we address this problem from the perspective of quantum entanglement. We uncover strong fingerprints in the quantum entanglement of two common types of classical nonlinear dynamical behaviors: periodic oscillations and quasiperiodic motion. There is a transition from the former to the latter as an experimentally adjustable parameter is changed through a critical value. Accompanying this process, except for a small region about the critical value, the degree of quantum entanglement shows a trend of continuous increase. The time evolution of the entanglement measure, e.g., logarithmic negativity, exhibits a strong dependence on the nature of classical nonlinear dynamics, constituting its signature.
Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators.
Marty, O; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B
2016-03-11
We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators.
Spin-photon entanglement interfaces in silicon carbide defect centers
Economou, Sophia E.; Dev, Pratibha
2016-12-01
Optically active spins in solid-state systems can be engineered to emit photons that are entangled with the spin in the solid. This allows for applications such as quantum communications, quantum key distribution, and distributed quantum computing. Recently, there has been a strong interest in silicon carbide defects, as they emit very close to the telecommunication wavelength, making them excellent candidates for long range quantum communications. In this work we develop explicit schemes for spin-photon entanglement in several SiC defects: the silicon monovacancy, the silicon divacancy, and the NV center in SiC. Distinct approaches are given for (i) single-photon and spin entanglement and (ii) the generation of long strings of entangled photons. The latter are known as cluster states and comprise a resource for measurement-based quantum information processing.
The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 8-12 July 2013 The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence Roux FS CSIR, National Laser Centre, Pretoria, 0001 Corresponding email: FSroux...
Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons
Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min
2016-12-01
We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.
Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)
2016-11-04
We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.
Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Narla
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.
Ground state entanglement and geometric entropy in the Kitaev model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamma, Alioscia [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Via Cintia ed. G, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Ionicioiu, Radu [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy); Zanardi, Paolo [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: zanardi@isiosf.isi.it
2005-03-28
We study the entanglement properties of the ground state in Kitaev's model. This is a two-dimensional spin system with a torus topology and non-trivial four-body interactions between its spins. For a generic partition (A,B) of the lattice we calculate analytically the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix {rho}{sub A} in the ground state. We prove that the geometric entropy associated with a region A is linear in the length of its boundary. Moreover, we argue that entanglement can probe the topology of the system and reveal topological order. Finally, no partition has zero entanglement and we find the partition that maximizes the entanglement in the given ground state.
Dissipative entanglement of solid-state spins in diamond
Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Yang, Sen; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2017-02-01
Generating robust entanglement among solid-state spins is key for applications in quantum information processing and precision sensing. Here we show a dissipative approach to generate such entanglement among the hyperfine coupled electron nuclear spins using the rapid optical decay of electronic excited states. The combined dark state interference effects of the optical and microwave driving fields in the presence of spontaneous emission from the short-lived excited state leads to a dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that the dissipative entanglement is generated for any initial state conditions of the spins and is resilient to external field fluctuations. We analyze the scheme for both continuous and pulsed driving fields in the presence of realistic noise sources.
Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity
Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-12-01
What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations.
Protecting the entanglement of twisted photons by adaptive optics
Leonhard, Nina; Sorelli, Giacomo; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav N.; Reinlein, Claudia; Buchleitner, Andreas
2018-01-01
We study the efficiency of adaptive optics (AO) correction for the free-space propagation of entangled photonic orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) qubit states to reverse moderate atmospheric turbulence distortions. We show that AO can significantly reduce crosstalk to modes within and outside the encoding subspace and thereby stabilize entanglement against turbulence. This method establishes a reliable quantum channel for OAM photons in turbulence, and it enhances the threshold turbulence strength for secure quantum communication by at least a factor 2.
Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna
Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-01-01
Photons with a twisted phase front can carry a discrete, in principle unbounded amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The large state space allows for complex types of entanglement, interesting both for quantum communication and for fundamental tests of quantum theory. However, the distribution of such entangled states over large distances was thought to be infeasible due to influence of atmospheric turbulence, indicating a serious limitation on their usefulness. Here we show that it is p...
Tube Model for the Elasticity of Entangled Nematic Rubbers
Kutter, S.; Terentjev, E. M.
2001-01-01
Dense rubbery networks are highly entangled polymer systems, with significant topological restrictions for the mobility of neighbouring chains and crosslinks preventing the reptation constraint release. In a mean field approach, entanglements are treated within the famous reptation approach, since they effectively confine each individual chain in a tube-like geometry. We apply the classical ideas of reptation dynamics to calculate the effective rubber-elastic free energy of anisotropic networ...
Quantum Discord for Investigating Quantum Correlations without Entanglement in Solids
Rong, Xing; Wang, Zixiang; Jin, Fangzhou; Geng, Jianpei; Feng, Pengbo; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Mingjun; Du, Jiangfeng
2012-01-01
Quantum systems unfold diversified correlations which have no classical counterparts. These quantum correlations have various different facets. Quantum entanglement, as the most well known measure of quantum correlations, plays essential roles in quantum information processing. However, it has recently been pointed out that quantum entanglement cannot describe all the nonclassicality in the correlations. Thus the study of quantum correlations in separable states attracts widely attentions. He...
EPR = ER, scattering amplitude and entanglement entropy change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, Shigenori, E-mail: sigenori@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: sjsin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-30
We study the causal structure of the minimal surface of the four-gluon scattering, and find a world-sheet wormhole parametrized by Mandelstam variables, thereby demonstrate the EPR = ER relation for gluon scattering. We also propose that scattering amplitude is the change of the entanglement entropy by generalizing the holographic entanglement entropy of Ryu–Takayanagi to the case where two regions are divided in space–time.
Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-11-26
We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities.
Sources of photonic entanglement for applications in space
Steinlechner, Fabian
2015-01-01
Error de paginació al capítol 5 The nonlocal correlations of entangled systems are a feature inherent to quantum theory that is fundamentally at odds with our common-sense notions of realism and locality. Additionally, entanglement is an essential resource for numerous quantum communication protocols such as quantum teleportation and quantum dense coding, quantum cryptography, as well as quantum-enhanced metrological schemes and quantum computation. These quantum schemes allow for signific...
Time-bin entangled photons from a quantum dot
Jayakumar, Harishankar; Predojević, Ana; Kauten, Thomas; Huber, Tobias; Solomon, Glenn S.; Weihs, Gregor
2014-01-01
Long distance quantum communication is one of the prime goals in the field of quantum information science. With information encoded in the quantum state of photons, existing telecommunication fiber networks can be effectively used as a transport medium. To achieve this goal, a source of robust entangled single photon pairs is required. While time-bin entanglement offers the required robustness, currently used parametric down-conversion sources have limited performance due to multi-pair contri...
Entanglement and area laws in weakly correlated gaussian states
Matera, Juan Mauricio; Rossignoli, Raúl Dante; Canosa, Norma B.
2012-01-01
We examine the evaluation of entanglement measures in weakly correlated gaussian states. It is shown that they can be expressed in terms of the singular values of a particular block of the generalized contraction matrix. This result enables to obtain in a simple way asymptotic expressions and related area laws for the entanglement entropy of bipartitions in pure states, as well as for the logarithmic negativity associated with bipartitions and also pairs of arbitrary subsystems. As illustrati...
Continuous variables triple-photon states quantum entanglement
Gonzalez, E. A. Rojas; Borne, A.; Boulanger, B.; Levenson, J.A.; Bencheikh, K
2017-01-01
We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show for example the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon gene...
Control of entanglement transitions in quantum spin clusters
Irons, Hannah R.; Quintanilla, Jorge; Perring, Toby G.; Amico, Luigi; Aeppli, Gabriel
2017-12-01
Quantum spin clusters provide a platform for the experimental study of many-body entanglement. Here we address a simple model of a single-molecule nanomagnet featuring N interacting spins in a transverse field. The field can control an entanglement transition (ET). We calculate the magnetization, low-energy gap, and neutron-scattering cross section and find that the ET has distinct signatures, detectable at temperatures as high as 5% of the interaction strength. The signatures are stronger for smaller clusters.
Dynamic dilution exponent in monodisperse entangled polymer solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shahid, T.; Huang, Qian; Oosterlinck, F.
2017-01-01
We study and model the linear viscoelastic properties of several entangled semi-dilute and concentrated solutions of linear chains of different molar masses and at different concentrations dissolved in their oligomers. We discuss the dilution effect of the oligomers on the entangled long chains. ......-molecule theta or good solvents. Possible explanations for the differences between these sample sets are proposed, based on the comparison of their viscoelastic behavior....
Robust creation of entanglement between ions in spatially separate cavities.
Browne, Daniel E; Plenio, Martin B; Huelga, Susana F
2003-08-08
We present a protocol that allows the generation of a maximally entangled state between individual atoms held in spatially separate cavities. Assuming perfect detectors and neglecting spontaneous emission from the atoms, the resulting idealized scheme is deterministic. Under more realistic conditions, when the atom-cavity interaction departs from the strong coupling regime, and considering imperfect detectors, we show that the scheme is robust against experimental inefficiencies and yields probabilistic entanglement of very high fidelity.
Creating, maintaining, and breaking of quantum entanglement in quantum operations
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Chernyavskiy, A. Yu.; Holevo, A. S.; Lukichev, V. F.; Orlikovsky, Alexander A.; Bantysh, B. I.
2013-01-01
We study the evolution of entanglement in quantum gates in terms of Choi-Jamiolkowski relative states negativity. SQiSW (generated by XY-interaction), CNOT and CZ gates are considered in ideal case and under amplitude and phase relaxation. In addition, we consider an important task of analyzing entanglement of "pure" noise, which is obtained by deducting an ideal gate from a noisy one.
Entangled Absorption of a Single Photon with a Single Spin in Diamond
Kosaka, Hideo; Niikura, Naeko
2015-02-01
Quantum entanglement, a key resource for quantum information science, is inherent in a solid. It has been recently shown that entanglement between a single optical photon and a single spin qubit in a solid is generated via spontaneous emission. However, entanglement generation by measurement is rather essential for quantum operations. We here show that the physics behind the entangled emission can be time reversed to demonstrate entangled absorption mediated by an inherent spin-orbit entanglement in a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Optical arbitrary spin state preparation and complete spin state tomography reveal the fidelity of the entangled absorption to be 95%. With the entangled emission and absorption of a photon, materials can be spontaneously entangled or swap their quantum state based on the quantum teleportation scheme.
Entangled dynamics of polyethylene melts and tracer dynamics
Guenza, Marina G.
2014-05-01
We present a microscopic Langevin Equation that describes the dynamics of a group of interacting polymers in a melt, for samples with increasing chain length, covering the whole regime from the unentangled to the entangled dynamics. The confinement of the dynamics due to the presence of entanglements is accounted for by a potential acting between a pair of monomers belonging to different, but interpenetrating, chains. This potential is zero until the distance between those two monomers reaches a characteristic value, which in the conventional reptation model corresponds to the so-called "tube" diameter. At that distance, the pair of monomers experiences an effective constraint potential, which then decays following diffusive dynamics, as the two entangled chains inter-diffuse and their dynamics becomes progressively less correlated. The same potential acts on both unentangled and entangled polymer chains, but short chains are not affected as they relax faster than they experience the presence of the constraint potential. The approach shows good agreement with experimental data in both the unentangled and the entangled regimes. More recently, it has been extended to treat the dynamics of a short polymer chain diffusing inside a matrix of long, entangled polymers.
Entanglement Growth in Quench Dynamics with Variable Range Interactions
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J. Schachenmayer
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Studying entanglement growth in quantum dynamics provides both insight into the underlying microscopic processes and information about the complexity of the quantum states, which is related to the efficiency of simulations on classical computers. Recently, experiments with trapped ions, polar molecules, and Rydberg excitations have provided new opportunities to observe dynamics with long-range interactions. We explore nonequilibrium coherent dynamics after a quantum quench in such systems, identifying qualitatively different behavior as the exponent of algebraically decaying spin-spin interactions in a transverse Ising chain is varied. Computing the buildup of bipartite entanglement as well as mutual information between distant spins, we identify linear growth of entanglement entropy corresponding to propagation of quasiparticles for shorter-range interactions, with the maximum rate of growth occurring when the Hamiltonian parameters match those for the quantum phase transition. Counterintuitively, the growth of bipartite entanglement for long-range interactions is only logarithmic for most regimes, i.e., substantially slower than for shorter-range interactions. Experiments with trapped ions allow for the realization of this system with a tunable interaction range, and we show that the different phenomena are robust for finite system sizes and in the presence of noise. These results can act as a direct guide for the generation of large-scale entanglement in such experiments, towards a regime where the entanglement growth can render existing classical simulations inefficient.
Quantum Trajectories and Their Statistics for Remotely Entangled Quantum Bits
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Areeya Chantasri
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We experimentally and theoretically investigate the quantum trajectories of jointly monitored transmon qubits embedded in spatially separated microwave cavities. Using nearly quantum-noise-limited superconducting amplifiers and an optimized setup to reduce signal loss between cavities, we can efficiently track measurement-induced entanglement generation as a continuous process for single realizations of the experiment. The quantum trajectories of transmon qubits naturally split into low and high entanglement classes. The distribution of concurrence is found at any given time, and we explore the dynamics of entanglement creation in the state space. The distribution exhibits a sharp cutoff in the high concurrence limit, defining a maximal concurrence boundary. The most-likely paths of the qubits’ trajectories are also investigated, resulting in three probable paths, gradually projecting the system to two even subspaces and an odd subspace, conforming to a “half-parity” measurement. We also investigate the most-likely time for the individual trajectories to reach their most entangled state, and we find that there are two solutions for the local maximum, corresponding to the low and high entanglement routes. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental entangled-qubit trajectory data.
Avalanche of entanglement and correlations at quantum phase transitions.
Krutitsky, Konstantin V; Osterloh, Andreas; Schützhold, Ralf
2017-06-16
We study the ground-state entanglement in the quantum Ising model with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic coupling J and find a sequential increase of entanglement depth d with growing J. This entanglement avalanche starts with two-point entanglement, as measured by the concurrence, and continues via the three-tangle and four-tangle, until finally, deep in the ferromagnetic phase for J = ∞, arriving at a pure L-partite (GHZ type) entanglement of all L spins. Comparison with the two, three, and four-point correlations reveals a similar sequence and shows strong ties to the above entanglement measures for small J. However, we also find a partial inversion of the hierarchy, where the four-point correlation exceeds the three- and two-point correlations, well before the critical point is reached. Qualitatively similar behavior is also found for the Bose-Hubbard model, suggesting that this is a general feature of a quantum phase transition. This should be taken into account in the approximations starting from a mean-field limit.
Pairwise entanglement of two impurities in the XY model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yi [Department of Physics, Changji University, Changji, 830011 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Huang, Xuchu, E-mail: hxuchu@163.com [Department of Physics, Changji University, Changji, 830011 (China); Min, Guanghui [Materials Science and Engineering Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)
2017-01-30
We propose a general method to solve the anisotropic XY model with two impurities on the period boundary condition. On the basis of exact solution, we discuss the impurity excitations in detail. The results indicate that the critical behaviors of the system near the critical point are closely related to the particle excitations. We investigate the quantum phase transition and the pairwise entanglement of the nearest-neighbors impurities, and find that the singular behaviors of pairwise entanglement near the critical point are naturally derived from the competition between impurity excitation and normal fermion excitation. When the two impurities are separated at certain distance, the pairwise entanglements oscillate with the variation of the distance, and the oscillations diminish with the increase of the distance. The couple interaction and anisotropy of impurity both can control the pairwise entanglement, however, this effects strongly depend on the order state of the system. - Highlights: • By introducing a proper displacement quantity of impurity, this method can be applied in complex spin model. • The pairwise entanglement of impurities can be controlled by the coupling and anisotropy of impurity. • The singular behaviors of the pairwise entanglement are closely related to the particle excitation.
Performing Cosmopolitan Entanglement in the Philippine Pista: Sariaya Agawan Festival
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Shirley V. Guevarra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This essay proposes cosmopolitan entanglement as a conceptual framework for the understanding of the Philippine pista (fiesta. The pista is a cosmopolitan phenomenon because communities engage in a disposition of cultural openness with the strange and the stranger. It is a performance of entanglement because it is a complex cultural phenomenon projected to be solemn yet secular, a festivity that neither the State nor the Church is in an ultimate position of authority, a parade of divinity, and a procession of spectacle. In arguing for cosmopolitan entanglement in the pista, the essay explores the 2007 Agawan festivity in Sariaya, Quezon, some 120 km south of Manila, as a case study. The first part is a conceptualization of cosmopolitanism as related to the pista using the Catholic dogma as lens. The analysis of Catholic dogma is necessary because in the Philippines the pista has its origin in Catholicism, its celebrations often coinciding with the feast day of a community’s patron saint. The second part examines the pista as a performance of entanglement. The final section describes the Sariaya pista via the Agawan festival as a case of cosmopolitan entanglement. The pista in Sariaya is an exemplar of cosmopolitan entanglement because community members perform cultural openness, which is also a mixing and matching of different performance activities, a strategy of combining the secular and the sacred, and a welcoming gesture to both the familiar and the stranger.
Comments on universal properties of entanglement entropy and bulk reconstruction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Science Laboratories,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2015-10-26
Entanglement entropy of holographic CFTs is expected to play a crucial role in the reconstruction of semiclassical bulk gravity. We consider the entanglement entropy of spherical regions of vacuum, which is known to contain universal contributions. After perturbing the CFT with a relevant scalar operator, also the first order change of this quantity gives a universal term which only depends on a discrete set of basic CFT parameters. We show that in gravity this statement corresponds to the uniqueness of the ghost-free graviton propagator on an AdS background geometry. While the gravitational dynamics in this context contains little information about the structure of the bulk theory, there is a discrete set of dimensionless parameters of the theory which determines the entanglement entropy. We argue that for every (not necessarily holographic) CFT, any reasonable gravity model can be used to compute this particular entanglement entropy. We elucidate how this statement is consistent with AdS/CFT and also give various generalizations. On the one hand this illustrates the remarkable usefulness of geometric concepts for understanding entanglement in general CFTs. On the other hand, it provides hints as to what entanglement data can be expected to provide enough information to distinguish, e.g., bulk theories with different higher curvature couplings.
Probing Entanglement in Adiabatic Quantum Optimization with Trapped Ions
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Philipp eHauke
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Adiabatic quantum optimization has been proposed as a route to solve NP-complete problems, with a possible quantum speedup compared to classical algorithms. However, the precise role of quantum effects, such as entanglement, in these optimization protocols is still unclear. We propose a setup of cold trapped ions that allows one to quantitatively characterize, in a controlled experiment, the interplay of entanglement, decoherence, and non-adiabaticity in adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that, in this way, a broad class of NP-complete problems becomes accessible for quantum simulations, including the knapsack problem, number partitioning, and instances of the max-cut problem. Moreover, a general theoretical study reveals correlations of the success probability with entanglement at the end of the protocol. From exact numerical simulations for small systems and linear ramps, however, we find no substantial correlations with the entanglement during the optimization. For the final state, we derive analytically a universal upper bound for the success probability as a function of entanglement, which can be measured in experiment. The proposed trapped-ion setups and the presented study of entanglement address pertinent questions of adiabatic quantum optimization, which may be of general interest across experimental platforms.
Lattice-layer entanglement in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene
Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.
2017-05-01
The complete lattice-layer entanglement structure of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene is obtained for the quantum system described by a tight-binding Hamiltonian which includes mass and bias voltage terms. Through a suitable correspondence with the parity-spin S U (2 )⊗S U (2 ) structure of a Dirac Hamiltonian, when it brings up tensor and pseudovector external field interactions, the lattice-layer degrees of freedom can be mapped into such a parity-spin two-qubit basis which supports the interpretation of the bilayer graphene eigenstates as entangled ones in a lattice-layer basis. The Dirac Hamiltonian mapping structure simply provides the tools for the manipulation of the corresponding eigenstates and eigenenergies of the Bernal-stacked graphene quantum system. The quantum correlational content is then quantified by means of quantum concurrence, in order to have the influence of mass and bias voltage terms quantified, and in order to identify the role of the trigonal warping of energy in the intrinsic entanglement. Our results show that while the mass term actively suppresses the intrinsic quantum entanglement of bilayer eigenstates, the bias voltage term spreads the entanglement in the Brillouin zone around the Dirac points. In addition, the interlayer coupling modifies the symmetry of the lattice-layer quantum concurrence around a given Dirac point. It produces some distortion on the quantum entanglement profile which follows the same pattern of the isoenergy line distortion in the Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene.
Collapse–revival of quantum discord and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Xue-Qun, E-mail: xqyan867@tom.com; Zhang, Bo-Ying
2014-10-15
In this paper the correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. Our results predict certain quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomena for quantum discord and entanglement when the field is in Fock state and the two atoms are initially in maximally mixed state, which is a special separable state. Our calculations also show that the oscillations of the time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase and they both have similar evolution behavior in some time range. The fact reveals the consistency of quantum discord and entanglement in some dynamical aspects. - Highlights: • The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. • A quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomenon for quantum discord and entanglement is reported. • A phenomenon of correlations revivals different from that of non-Markovian dynamics is revealed. • The oscillations of time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase in our system. • Quantum discord and entanglement have similar evolution behavior in some time range.
Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-10-07
We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.
Entanglement Properties of a Higher-Integer-Spin AKLT Model with Quantum Group Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chikashi Arita
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We study the entanglement properties of a higher-integer-spin Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model with quantum group symmetry in the periodic boundary condition. We exactly calculate the finite size correction terms of the entanglement entropies from the double scaling limit. We also evaluate the geometric entanglement, which serves as another measure for entanglement. We find the geometric entanglement reaches its maximum at the isotropic point, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropy. This behavior is similar to that of the entanglement entropies.
Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons
Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.
2004-07-13
Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.
Entanglement of quantum clocks through gravity.
Castro Ruiz, Esteban; Giacomini, Flaminia; Brukner, Časlav
2017-03-21
In general relativity, the picture of space-time assigns an ideal clock to each world line. Being ideal, gravitational effects due to these clocks are ignored and the flow of time according to one clock is not affected by the presence of clocks along nearby world lines. However, if time is defined operationally, as a pointer position of a physical clock that obeys the principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics, such a picture is, at most, a convenient fiction. Specifically, we show that the general relativistic mass-energy equivalence implies gravitational interaction between the clocks, whereas the quantum mechanical superposition of energy eigenstates leads to a nonfixed metric background. Based only on the assumption that both principles hold in this situation, we show that the clocks necessarily get entangled through time dilation effect, which eventually leads to a loss of coherence of a single clock. Hence, the time as measured by a single clock is not well defined. However, the general relativistic notion of time is recovered in the classical limit of clocks.
Seismic entangled patterns analyzed via multiresolution decomposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. E. A. Leite
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This article explores a method for distinguishing entangled coherent structures embedded in geophysical images. The original image is decomposed in a series of j-scale-images using multiresolution decomposition. To improve the image processing analysis each j-image is divided in l-spacial regions generating set of (j, l-regions. At each (j, l-region we apply a continuous wavelet transform to evaluate E_{ν}, the spectrum of energy. E_{ν} has two maxima in the original data. Otherwise, at each scale E_{ν} hast typically one peak. The localization of the peaks changes according to the (j, l-region. The intensity of the peaks is linked with the presence of coherent structures, or patterns, at the respective (j, l-region. The method is successfully applied to distinguish, in scale and region, the ground roll noise from the relevant geologic information in the signal.
Entanglement in Nonunitary Quantum Critical Spin Chains
Couvreur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert
2017-07-01
Entanglement entropy has proven invaluable to our understanding of quantum criticality. It is natural to try to extend the concept to "nonunitary quantum mechanics," which has seen growing interest from areas as diverse as open quantum systems, noninteracting electronic disordered systems, or nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT). We propose and investigate such an extension here, by focusing on the case of one-dimensional quantum group symmetric or supergroup symmetric spin chains. We show that the consideration of left and right eigenstates combined with appropriate definitions of the trace leads to a natural definition of Rényi entropies in a large variety of models. We interpret this definition geometrically in terms of related loop models and calculate the corresponding scaling in the conformal case. This allows us to distinguish the role of the central charge and effective central charge in rational minimal models of CFT, and to define an effective central charge in other, less well-understood cases. The example of the s l (2 |1 ) alternating spin chain for percolation is discussed in detail.
Holographic Dynamics from Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz
Chua, Victor; Tiwari, Apoorv; Ryu, Shinsei
2016-01-01
The Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) is a tensor network based variational ansatz that is capable of capturing many of the key physical properties of strongly correlated ground states such as criticality and topological order. MERA also shares many deep relationships with the AdS/CFT (gauge-gravity) correspondence by realizing a UV complete holographic duality within the tensor networks framework. Motivated by this, we have re-purposed the MERA tensor network as an analysis tool to study the real-time evolution of the 1D transverse Ising model in its low energy excited state sector. We performed this analysis by allowing the ancilla qubits of the MERA tensor network to acquire quantum fluctuations, which yields a unitary transform between the physical (boundary) and ancilla qubit (bulk) Hilbert spaces. This then defines a reversible quantum circuit which is used as a `holographic transform' to study excited states and their real-time dynamics from the point of the bulk ancillae. In the ga...
Quantum Entanglement and Projective Ring Geometry
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Michel Planat
2006-08-01
Full Text Available The paper explores the basic geometrical properties of the observables characterizing two-qubit systems by employing a novel projective ring geometric approach. After introducing the basic facts about quantum complementarity and maximal quantum entanglement in such systems, we demonstrate that the 15 × 15 multiplication table of the associated four-dimensional matrices exhibits a so-far-unnoticed geometrical structure that can be regarded as three pencils of lines in the projective plane of order two. In one of the pencils, which we call the kernel, the observables on two lines share a base of Bell states. In the complement of the kernel, the eight vertices/observables are joined by twelve lines which form the edges of a cube. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to showing that the nature of this geometry has much to do with the structure of the projective lines defined over the rings that are the direct product of n copies of the Galois field GF(2, with n = 2, 3 and 4.
Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States.
Hyatt, Katharine; Garrison, James R; Bauer, Bela
2017-10-06
Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network-and hence the geometry-is largely fixed a priori by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sussman, Daniel [University of Pennsylvania; Schweizer, Kenneth [University of Illinois
2013-01-01
The phenomenological reptation-tube model is based on a single chain perspective and was originally proposed to explain the remarkable viscoelastic properties of dense entangled polymer liquids. However, simulations over the last two decades have revealed a fundamental tension in the model: it assumes that bonded, single-chain backbone stresses are the sole polymer contribution to the slowly relaxing component of stress storage and elasticity, but mounting evidence suggests that at the local level of forces it is interchain contributions that dominate, as in simple liquids. Here we show that based on a chain model constructed at the level of self-consistently determined primitive paths, an explicit force-level treatment of the correlated intermolecular contributions to stress that arise from chain uncrossability can essentially quantitatively predict the entanglement plateau modulus associated with the soft rubbery response of polymer liquids. Analogies to transient localization and elasticity in glass-forming liquids are identified. Predictions for the effect of macroscopic deformation and anisotropic orientational order on the tube diameter are also made. Based on the interchain stress perspective the theory reproduces some aspects of the rheological response to shear and extensional deformations associated with the single chain tube model.
Sussman, Daniel M.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.
2013-12-01
The phenomenological reptation-tube model is based on a single chain perspective and was originally proposed to explain the remarkable viscoelastic properties of dense entangled polymer liquids. However, simulations over the last two decades have revealed a fundamental tension in the model: it assumes that bonded, single-chain backbone stresses are the sole polymer contribution to the slowly relaxing component of stress storage and elasticity, but mounting evidence suggests that at the local level of forces it is interchain contributions that dominate, as in simple liquids. Here we show that based on a chain model constructed at the level of self-consistently determined primitive paths, an explicit force-level treatment of the correlated intermolecular contributions to stress that arise from chain uncrossability can essentially quantitatively predict the entanglement plateau modulus associated with the soft rubbery response of polymer liquids. Analogies to transient localization and elasticity in glass-forming liquids are identified. Predictions for the effect of macroscopic deformation and anisotropic orientational order on the tube diameter are also made. Based on the interchain stress perspective the theory reproduces some aspects of the rheological response to shear and extensional deformations associated with the single chain tube model.
Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise
2015-09-15
Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Raum-Suryan, Kimberly L; Jemison, Lauri A; Pitcher, Kenneth W
2009-10-01
Entanglement in marine debris is a contributing factor in Steller sea lion (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) injury and mortality. We quantified SSL entanglement by debris type, sex and age class, entanglement incidence, and estimated population level effects. Surveys of SSL haul-outs were conducted from 2000-2007 in Southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. We recorded 386 individuals of all age classes as being either entangled in marine debris or having ingested fishing gear. Packing bands were the most common neck entangling material (54%), followed by rubber bands (30%), net (7%), rope (7%), and monofilament line (2%). Ingested fishing gear included salmon fishery flashers (lures: 80%), longline gear (12%), hook and line (4%), spinners/spoons (2%), and bait hooks (2%). Entanglement incidence was 0.26% (SD=0.0064, n=69 sites). "Lose the Loop!" Simple procedures such as cutting entangling loops of synthetic material and eliminating the use of packing bands can prevent entanglements.