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Sample records for randomly dividing cells

  1. High incidence of non-random template strand segregation and asymmetric fate determination in dividing stem cells and their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Michael J; Karasov, Ariela O; Rando, Thomas A

    2007-05-01

    Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretations of experiments involving single labels or different types of labels to follow template strands. Using sequential pulses of halogenated thymidine analogs (bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU], chlorodeoxyuridine [CldU], and iododeoxyuridine [IdU]), and analyzing stem cell progeny during induced regeneration in vivo, we observed extraordinarily high frequencies of segregation of older and younger template strands during a period of proliferative expansion of muscle stem cells. Furthermore, template strand co-segregation was strongly associated with asymmetric cell divisions yielding daughters with divergent fates. Daughter cells inheriting the older templates retained the more immature phenotype, whereas daughters inheriting the newer templates acquired a more differentiated phenotype. These data provide compelling evidence of template strand co-segregation based on template age and associated with cell fate determination, suggest that template strand age is monitored during stem cell lineage progression, and raise important caveats for the interpretation of label-retaining cells.

  2. High incidence of non-random template strand segregation and asymmetric fate determination in dividing stem cells and their progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Conboy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretations of experiments involving single labels or different types of labels to follow template strands. Using sequential pulses of halogenated thymidine analogs (bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU], chlorodeoxyuridine [CldU], and iododeoxyuridine [IdU], and analyzing stem cell progeny during induced regeneration in vivo, we observed extraordinarily high frequencies of segregation of older and younger template strands during a period of proliferative expansion of muscle stem cells. Furthermore, template strand co-segregation was strongly associated with asymmetric cell divisions yielding daughters with divergent fates. Daughter cells inheriting the older templates retained the more immature phenotype, whereas daughters inheriting the newer templates acquired a more differentiated phenotype. These data provide compelling evidence of template strand co-segregation based on template age and associated with cell fate determination, suggest that template strand age is monitored during stem cell lineage progression, and raise important caveats for the interpretation of label-retaining cells.

  3. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  4. A contribution of glutathione to interphase death of dividing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybina, V.V.; Korystov, Yu.N.; Degtyareva, O.V.; Dobrovinskaya, O.R.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of a change in the content of reduced glutathionine (GSH) in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells after irradiation with doses evoking their interphase death (ID). GSH content was determined in a suspension of EAT cells fixed by hot ethanol. The postirradiation decrease in the GSH content of the suspension was due to its oxidation by hydrogen peroxide resulting from radiochemical reactions after releasing thereof from cells upon fixation. In the absence of an irradiated medium no changes occurred in the GSH content of EAT cells. It is concluded that ID of EAT cells is not associated with the radiation-induced decrease in the content of GSH, an endogenous antioxidant

  5. Mammalian cochlear supporting cells can divide and trans-differentiate into hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patricia M; Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Lee, Yun Shain; Groves, Andrew K; Segil, Neil

    2006-06-22

    Sensory hair cells of the mammalian organ of Corti in the inner ear do not regenerate when lost as a consequence of injury, disease, or age-related deafness. This contrasts with other vertebrates such as birds, where the death of hair cells causes surrounding supporting cells to re-enter the cell cycle and give rise to both new hair cells and supporting cells. It is not clear whether the lack of mammalian hair cell regeneration is due to an intrinsic inability of supporting cells to divide and differentiate or to an absence or blockade of regenerative signals. Here we show that post-mitotic supporting cells purified from the postnatal mouse cochlea retain the ability to divide and trans-differentiate into new hair cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that age-dependent changes in supporting cell proliferative capacity are due in part to changes in the ability to downregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (also known as Cdkn1b). These results indicate that postnatal mammalian supporting cells are potential targets for therapeutic manipulation.

  6. Regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in regularly dividing cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribal S Darwish

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ribal S DarwishDepartment of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USAAbstract: The balance between cell survival and death is essential for normal development and homeostasis of organisms. Apoptosis is a distinct type of cell death with ultrastructural features that are consistent with an active, inherently controlled process. Abnormalities and ­dysregulation of apoptosis contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple disease processes. Apoptosis is strictly regulated by several positive and negative feedback mechanisms that regulate cell death and determine the final outcome after cell exposure to apoptotic stimuli. Mitochondria and caspases are central components of the regulatory mechanisms of ­apoptosis. Recently, noncaspase pathways of apoptosis have been explored through the studies of ­apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. Multiple difficulties in the apoptosis research relate to apoptosis detection and imaging. This article reviews current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis.Keywords: caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor, apoptosis inhibitory proteins, cytochrome c, mitochondria 

  7. How cells grow and divide: mathematical analysis confirms demand for the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woong; Choi, M Y

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes usually grow through cell growth and division. How cells grow and divide is essential to life because too small or too large cells cannot function well. In order for an organism to survive even under a condition where cell growth and division processes are independent of each other, cells must have an appropriate growth factor, growth rate and division rate. To determine them, we derive a time evolution equation for the size distribution of cells from the master equation describing changes in the cell size due to growth and in the total number of cells due to division. It is found that long-time behaviors of moments of the size distribution divide the parameter space, consisting of the growth factor and the ratio of the division rate to the growth rate, into infinitely many regions. Examining the properties of each region, we conclude that growth with a small growth factor may be disastrous; this demonstrates the demand for the cell cycle consisting of coordinated growth and division processes. (paper)

  8. Retroviral infection of non-dividing cells: Old and new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Emerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of retroviral replication on cell proliferation was described as early as 1958, although different classes of retroviruses are able to infect non-dividing cells with different efficiencies. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other lentiviruses infect most non-dividing cells nearly as well as dividing cells, while the gammaretroviruses such as the murine leukemia virus (MLV) cannot infect non-dividing cells, and other retroviruses have intermediate phenotypes. One exception to the ability of HIV to infect non-dividing cells involves resting CD4+ T cells in vitro where there are multiple restrictions. However, recent data show that there is massive infection of non-activated CD4+ T cell during acute infection which suggests that the situation is different in vivo. Finally, much work trying to explain the difference between HIV and MLV in non-dividing cells has focused on describing the ability of HIV to enter the nucleus during interphase. However, we suggest that events in the viral lifecycle other than nuclear import may be more important in determining the ability of a given retrovirus to infect non-dividing cells

  9. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies. (paper)

  10. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-06-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies.

  11. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}) with the injected beam current given by I{sub b} = I{sub 1} + I{sub 2}. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I{sub 2}−I{sub 1}) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to I{sub b}. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (ε{sub RMS}) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ε{sub RMS} at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ∼5 times larger at the target, ε{sub RMS} is 2–3 times larger at the target.

  12. Recovery response of dividing cells in the thymus of whole-body γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Maniu, M.

    1976-01-01

    Mice were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays 30 min after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate. The dose-response curves determined at 72 hours after exposure showed an inflection point in the total activity present in the DNA in thymus and spleen. In the low dose-range, the dose-response curves have D 0 = 55 rad(n = 2.5) for thymus and D 0 = 95 rad (n = 2.5) for the spleen. Thirty minutes after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate, the dividing cells from thymus were partially synchronized by the administration of 80 mg per kg body-weight hydroxyurea. At different time-intervals, the mice were irradiated with 80 rad, and the total activity of DNA was determined at 72 hours after synchronization. A significant maximum of recovery was found at 5 hours (S phase) after the administration of hydroxyurea. In similar conditions, the dose-response curves corresponding to the G 1 , S and M phase of the division cycle were also determined. The synchronization of dividing cells induced by hydroxyurea failed in the spleen. (author)

  13. Automatic analysis of dividing cells in live cell movies to detect mitotic delays and correlate phenotypes in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Nathalie; Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Godinez, William J; Wünsche, Annelie; Eils, Roland; Ellenberg, Jan; Rohr, Karl

    2009-11-01

    Live-cell imaging allows detailed dynamic cellular phenotyping for cell biology and, in combination with small molecule or drug libraries, for high-content screening. Fully automated analysis of live cell movies has been hampered by the lack of computational approaches that allow tracking and recognition of individual cell fates over time in a precise manner. Here, we present a fully automated approach to analyze time-lapse movies of dividing cells. Our method dynamically categorizes cells into seven phases of the cell cycle and five aberrant morphological phenotypes over time. It reliably tracks cells and their progeny and can thus measure the length of mitotic phases and detect cause and effect if mitosis goes awry. We applied our computational scheme to annotate mitotic phenotypes induced by RNAi gene knockdown of CKAP5 (also known as ch-TOG) or by treatment with the drug nocodazole. Our approach can be readily applied to comparable assays aiming at uncovering the dynamic cause of cell division phenotypes.

  14. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated [methyl-3H]-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration

  15. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  16. Essential Function of Dicer in Resolving DNA Damage in the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Developing and Malignant Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Swahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical during neurodevelopment, particularly in rapidly dividing cerebellar granule neuronal precursors that experience constitutive replication-associated DNA damage. As Dicer was recently recognized to have an unexpected function in the DNA damage response, we examined whether Dicer was important for preserving genomic integrity in the developing brain. We report that deletion of Dicer in the developing mouse cerebellum resulted in the accumulation of DNA damage leading to cerebellar progenitor degeneration, which was rescued with p53 deficiency; deletion of DGCR8 also resulted in similar DNA damage and cerebellar degeneration. Dicer deficiency also resulted in DNA damage and death in other rapidly dividing cells including embryonic stem cells and the malignant cerebellar progenitors in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Together, these results identify an essential function of Dicer in resolving the spontaneous DNA damage that occurs during the rapid proliferation of developmental progenitors and malignant cells.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped electrodes in undivided and divided cell configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y. [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia); Batstone, Damien J. [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kristiana, Ina [Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Resources and Chemistry Precinct, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102 (Australia); Escher, Beate I. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4108 (Australia); Joll, Cynthia [Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Resources and Chemistry Precinct, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102 (Australia); Radjenovic, Jelena, E-mail: j.radjenovic@uq.edu.au [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • 100% of COD and ∼70% of DOC was removed in both cell configurations. • ∼21.7 mg L{sup −1} of AOCl and ∼2.3 mg L{sup −1} of AOBr was formed regardless of the membrane use. • The TEQ was far lower than expected given the high AOCl concentrations. • The undivided cell consumed lower energy compared to the divided cell. - Abstract: An undivided electrolytic cell may offer lower electrochlorination through reduction of chlorine/hypochlorite at the cathode. This study investigated the performance of electrooxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate using boron-doped diamond electrodes in membrane-divided and undivided cells. In both cell configurations, similar extents of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal were obtained. Continuous formation of chlorinated organic compounds was observed regardless of the membrane presence. However, halogenation of the organic matter did not result in a corresponding increase in toxicity (Vibrio fischeri bioassay performed on extracted samples), with toxicity decreasing slightly until 10 Ah L{sup −1}, and generally remaining near the initial baseline-toxicity equivalent concentration (TEQ) of the raw concentrate (i.e., ∼2 mg L{sup −1}). The exception was a high range toxicity measure in the undivided cell (i.e., TEQ = 11 mg L{sup −1} at 2.4 Ah L{sup −1}), which rapidly decreased to 4 mg L{sup −1}. The discrepancy between the halogenated organic matter and toxicity patterns may be a consequence of volatile and/or polar halogenated by-products formed in oxidation by OH· electrogenerated at the anode. The undivided cell exhibited lower energy compared to the divided cell, 0.25 kWh gCOD{sup −1} and 0.34 kWh gCOD{sup −1}, respectively, yet it did not demonstrate any improvement regarding by-products formation.

  18. Electrochemical treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped electrodes in undivided and divided cell configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Kristiana, Ina; Escher, Beate I; Joll, Cynthia; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2014-08-30

    An undivided electrolytic cell may offer lower electrochlorination through reduction of chlorine/hypochlorite at the cathode. This study investigated the performance of electrooxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate using boron-doped diamond electrodes in membrane-divided and undivided cells. In both cell configurations, similar extents of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal were obtained. Continuous formation of chlorinated organic compounds was observed regardless of the membrane presence. However, halogenation of the organic matter did not result in a corresponding increase in toxicity (Vibrio fischeri bioassay performed on extracted samples), with toxicity decreasing slightly until 10AhL(-1), and generally remaining near the initial baseline-toxicity equivalent concentration (TEQ) of the raw concentrate (i.e., ∼2mgL(-1)). The exception was a high range toxicity measure in the undivided cell (i.e., TEQ=11mgL(-1) at 2.4AhL(-1)), which rapidly decreased to 4mgL(-1). The discrepancy between the halogenated organic matter and toxicity patterns may be a consequence of volatile and/or polar halogenated by-products formed in oxidation by OH electrogenerated at the anode. The undivided cell exhibited lower energy compared to the divided cell, 0.25kWhgCOD(-1) and 0.34kWhgCOD(-1), respectively, yet it did not demonstrate any improvement regarding by-products formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolating dividing neural and brain tumour cells for gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endaya, B.; Cavanagh, B.; Alowaidi, F.; Walker, T.; de Pennington, N.; Ng, J.-M.; Lam, P.Y.P.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Meedeniya, A.C.B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 257, JAN 15 2016 (2016), s. 121-133 ISSN 0165-0270 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Cell division * Click chemistry * FACS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.554, year: 2016

  20. The Zebrafish Anillin-eGFP Reporter Marks Late Dividing Retinal Precursors and Stem Cells Entering Neuronal Lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Cepero Malo

    Full Text Available Monitoring cycling behaviours of stem and somatic cells in the living animal is a powerful tool to better understand tissue development and homeostasis. The tg(anillin:anillin-eGFP transgenic line carries the full-length zebrafish F-actin binding protein Anillin fused to eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC containing Anillin cis-regulatory sequences. Here we report the suitability of the Anillin-eGFP reporter as a direct indicator of cycling cells in the late embryonic and post-embryonic retina. We show that combining the anillin:anillin-eGFP with other transgenes such as ptf1a:dsRed and atoh7:gap-RFP allows obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of the mitotic potentials of specific retinal cell populations. This is exemplified by the analysis of the origin of the previously reported apically and non-apically dividing late committed precursors of the photoreceptor and horizontal cell layers.

  1. Cell-cycle regulation in green algae dividing by multiple fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 10 (2014), s. 2585-2602 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR M200201205; GA MŠk LH12145 Grant - others:Centre for Algal Biotechnologies (Algatech)(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * regulation * growth * light Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  2. Inhibition of clathrin by pitstop 2 activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and induces cell death in dividing HeLa cancer cells

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    Smith Charlotte M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During metaphase clathrin stabilises the mitotic spindle kinetochore(K-fibres. Many anti-mitotic compounds target microtubule dynamics. Pitstop 2™ is the first small molecule inhibitor of clathrin terminal domain and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We investigated its effects on a second function for clathrin in mitosis. Results Pitstop 2 did not impair clathrin recruitment to the spindle but disrupted its function once stationed there. Pitstop 2 trapped HeLa cells in metaphase through loss of mitotic spindle integrity and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, phenocopying clathrin depletion and aurora A kinase inhibition. Conclusions Pitstop 2 is therefore a new tool for investigating clathrin spindle dynamics. Pitstop 2 reduced viability in dividing HeLa cells, without affecting dividing non-cancerous NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that clathrin is a possible novel anti-mitotic drug target.

  3. Electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways for Reactive Black 5 dye using nickel electrodes in divided and undivided cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-Martínez, Ana J.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martin M.; Ornelas-Dávila, Omar; Elizalde-González, María P.; Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni electrodes were used for the mild degradation of the azo dye Reactive Black 5. ► Potentiostatic degradation was performed in undivided and divided cells. ► Degradation by-products were detected and monitored by RP-HPLC and LC–MS/MS. ► Small alkylsulfonyl phenol and isoxazole derivatives were identified. ► The cathodic and anodic degradation pathways for Reactive Black 5 were elucidated. - Abstract: The cathodic reduction and anodic ·OH-mediated oxidation of the azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) have been studied potentiostatically by using undivided and divided cells with a Ni-polyvinylchloride (Ni-PVC) composite cathode and a Ni wire mesh anode. Solutions of 50–100 cm 3 of 20–80 mg dm −3 RB5 in 0.1 mol dm −3 KOH were degraded to assess the effect of electrolysis time and electrode potentials on the infrared and absorbance spectra, as well as on the decay of the total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ion-pairing and diode array detection (ion pair chromatography), along with coupling to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), were used for the identification of the aromatic degradation by-products and monitoring their time course. These analyses revealed the progressive conversion of the RB5 dye to simpler molecules with m/z 200, 369.5 and 547 under the direct action of the electron at the cathode and the formation of polar compounds such as alkylsulfonyl phenol derivatives with m/z 201, 185 and 171 by the ·OH mediation at the anode. From these results, the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways for the RB5 dye were elucidated.

  4. Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van het Reve, Eva; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-12-15

    Exercise interventions often do not combine physical and cognitive training. However, this combination is assumed to be more beneficial in improving walking and cognitive functioning compared to isolated cognitive or physical training. A multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare a motor to a cognitive-motor exercise program. A total of 182 eligible residents of homes-for-the-aged (n = 159) or elderly living in the vicinity of the homes (n = 23) were randomly assigned to either strength-balance (SB) or strength-balance-cognitive (SBC) training. Both groups conducted similar strength-balance training during 12 weeks. SBC additionally absolved computerized cognitive training. Outcomes were dual task costs of walking, physical performance, simple reaction time, executive functions, divided attention, fear of falling and fall rate. Participants were analysed with an intention to treat approach. The 182 participants (mean age ± SD: 81.5 ± 7.3 years) were allocated to either SB (n = 98) or SBC (n = 84). The attrition rate was 14.3%. Interaction effects were observed for dual task costs of step length (preferred walking speed: F(1,174) = 4.94, p = 0.028, η2 = 0.027, fast walking speed: F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.009, η2 = 0.040) and dual task costs of the standard deviation of step length (F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.036), in favor of SBC. Significant interactions in favor of SBC revealed for in gait initiation (F(1,166) = 9.16, p = 0.003, η2 = 0.052), 'reaction time' (F(1,180) = 5.243, p = 0.023, η² = 0.028) & 'missed answers' (F(1,180) = 11.839, p = 0.001, η² = 0.062) as part of the test for divided attention. Within-group comparison revealed significant improvements in dual task costs of walking (preferred speed; velocity (p = 0.002), step time (p = 0.018), step length (p = 0.028), fast speed; velocity (p divided

  5. Interphase death of dividing cells. Death rate of cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts as a function of ph inside and outside cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Kublik, L.N.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    In studying interphase death (ID) of dividing cells from Chinese hamster fibroblast culture a differently directed relationship between ID rate and pH has been shown: the ID rate increases with pH increasing from 6.6 to 8.1 and decreases with pH from 5.0 to 6.6. The dependence is the same as that observed with lymphoid cells. With radiation doses increasing from 100 to 600 Gy and pH defined, the ID rate increases

  6. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias ‘hyperstructures.’ The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself. PMID

  7. Colonic stem cell data are consistent with the immortal model of stem cell division under non-random strand segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, K

    2009-06-01

    Colonic stem cells are thought to reside towards the base of crypts of the colon, but their numbers and proliferation mechanisms are not well characterized. A defining property of stem cells is that they are able to divide asymmetrically, but it is not known whether they always divide asymmetrically (immortal model) or whether there are occasional symmetrical divisions (stochastic model). By measuring diversity of methylation patterns in colon crypt samples, a recent study found evidence in favour of the stochastic model, assuming random segregation of stem cell DNA strands during cell division. Here, the effect of preferential segregation of the template strand is considered to be consistent with the 'immortal strand hypothesis', and explore the effect on conclusions of previously published results. For a sample of crypts, it is shown how, under the immortal model, to calculate mean and variance of the number of unique methylation patterns allowing for non-random strand segregation and compare them with those observed. The calculated mean and variance are consistent with an immortal model that incorporates non-random strand segregation for a range of stem cell numbers and levels of preferential strand segregation. Allowing for preferential strand segregation considerably alters previously published conclusions relating to stem cell numbers and turnover mechanisms. Evidence in favour of the stochastic model may not be as strong as previously thought.

  8. Autoradoigraphic study of /sup 3/H colchicine binding in synchronously dividing cells of antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L. during successive stages of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewska, M J [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The intensity of /sup 3/H colchicine binding was investigated autoradiographically as a marker of an amount of the microtubule subunits during interphase and mitosis in synchronously dividing 4-, 8-, 16- and 32-celled antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris. These cells were incubated with /sup 3/H colchicine in vivo or after fixation. The radioactivity of cells in the successive generations of antheridial filaments diminishes, similarly as the surface of cytoplasm and intensity of protein synthesis. During interphase the intensity of /sup 3/H colchicine binding is proportional to the increase of cytoplasmic surface. During mitosis the increase of radioactivity continues in prophase; the highest radioactivity was found in prophase and telophase cells, the lowest in anaphase cells; a comparatively pronounced radioactivity is visible in metaphase. Radioactivity in posttelophase, as estimated per one daughter cell, is approximately one half of that of the mother cells in telophase of the previous generation suggesting the reutilization of microtubule proteins in the next mitotic cycle.

  9. Autoradoigraphic study of 3H colchicine binding in synchronously dividing cells of antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L. during successive stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewska, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The intensity of 3 H colchicine binding was investigated autoradiographically as a marker of an amount of the microtubule subunits during interphase and mitosis in synchronously dividing 4-, 8-, 16- and 32-celled antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris. These cells were incubated with 3 H colchicine in vivo or after fixation. The radioactivity of cells in the successive generations of antheridial filaments diminishes, similarly as the surface of cytoplasm and intensity of protein synthesis. During interphase the intensity of 3 H colchicine binding is proportional to the increase of cytoplasmic surface. During mitosis the increase of radioactivity continues in prophase; the highest radioactivity was found in prophase and telophase cells, the lowest in anaphase cells; a comparatively pronounced radioactivity is visible in metaphase. Radioactivity in posttelophase, as estimated per one daughter cell, is approximately one half of that of the mother cells in telophase of the previous generation suggesting the reutilization of microtubule proteins in the next mitotic cycle. (author)

  10. Effects of prolonged wakefulness combined with alcohol and hands-free cell phone divided attention tasks on simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudice, A; Bonanni, E; Gelli, A; Frittelli, C; Iudice, G; Cignoni, F; Ghicopulos, I; Murri, L

    2005-03-01

    Simulated driving ability was assessed following administration of alcohol, at an estimated blood level of 0.05%, and combined prolonged wakefulness, while participants were undertaking divided attention tasks over a hands-free mobile phone. Divided attention tasks were structured to provide a sustained cognitive workload to the subjects. Twenty three young healthy individuals drove 10 km simulated driving under four conditions in a counterbalanced, within-subject design: alcohol, alcohol and 19 h wakefulness, alcohol and 24 h wakefulness, and while sober. Study measures were: simulated driving, self-reported sleepiness, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), Stroop word-colour interference test (Stroop) and simple visual reaction times (SVRT). As expected, subjective sleepiness was highly correlated with both sleep restriction and alcohol consumption. The combination of alcohol and 24 h sustained wakefulness produced the highest driving impairment, significantly beyond the alcohol effect itself. Concurrent alcohol and 19 h wakefulness significantly affected only driving time-to-collision. No significant changes of study measures occurred following alcohol intake in unrestricted sleep conditions. CFFT, SVRT and Stroop results showed a similar trend in the four study conditions. Thus apparently 'safe' blood alcohol levels in combination with prolonged wakefulness resulted in significant driving impairments. In normal sleep conditions alcohol effects on driving were partially counteracted by the concomitant hands-free phone based psychometric tasks. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. X-ray and proton induced ultrastructural changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardi, with special reference to the dividing cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid cultures were exposed to 9000 R x-irradiation delivered at approximately 600 R/min. This produced 69 percent mortality in the 137c wild type strain and 71 percent mortality in the acetate-requiring strain ac-31. Irradiated and control cells were fixed for electron microscopic examination at intervals up to five days post exposure. Proton-irradiations using a positive ion Van de Graff accelerator were administered to monolayers of cells attached to Millipore filters. Irradiated and control cells were later resuspended and incubated in liquid culture medium. The dose rate was approximately 20 kilorad/second for thin targets with the dose monitored with a solid state detector. Distinctive fine structural responses were observed for the two kinds of radiation at the indicated exposure levels. Alterations affecting the nucleus were prominent after x-irradiation. Nuclei were observed in which non-nucleolar condensations and swollen nuclear envelopes were evident. Nuclear envelope rupture was noted when cells were in an advanced state of disorganization. Multiple nuclei per cell were also observed. Proton-irradiation often resulted in both live and dead daughter cells within the same mother cell wall. Changes in the chloroplast and mitochondria were seen after both types of irradiation. Two features absent in control cells were of special interest. Following x- and proton-irradiation, cells were observed which remained joined in configurations closely resembling division profiles or division conformations. Irradiated cells also possessed chromosomes and spindle fibers at a time not characteristic for such events in control cells

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Dividing Cells in Live Rodent Brain by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS) and LCModel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, June-Hee; Lee, Hedok; Makaryus, Rany

    2014-01-01

    cells characterized glioblastomas. Nile Red staining revealed a small fraction (3%) of dying cells with intracellular lipid droplets in the tumors of RCAS-PDGF mice. Concentrations of NAA were lower, whereas lactate and Lip13a+Lip13b were found to be significantly higher in glioblastomas of RCAS...

  13. Interphase death of dividing cells. Kinetics of death of cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts after irradiation with various doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kublik, L.N.; Veksler, A.M.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    In studying the kinetics of interphase death (ID) of cultured Chinese hamster cells after irradiation with doses of 100 to 800 Gy the authors showed an increase in the ID rate with increasing radiation dose; the presence of serum in the medium both during and after irradiation prevents the cell death

  14. Expanding the potential of NAI-107 for treating serious ESKAPE pathogens: synergistic combinations against Gram-negatives and bactericidal activity against non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunati, Cristina; Thomsen, Thomas T; Gaspari, Eleonora; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Donadio, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    To characterize NAI-107 and related lantibiotics for their in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, alone or in combination with polymyxin, and against non-dividing cells or biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. NAI-107 was also evaluated for its propensity to select or induce self-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. We used MIC determinations and chequerboard experiments to establish the antibacterial activity of the examined compounds against target microorganisms. Time-kill assays were used to evaluate killing of exponential and stationary-phase cells. The effects on biofilms (growth inhibition and biofilm eradication) were evaluated using biofilm-coated pegs. The frequency of spontaneous resistant mutants was evaluated by either direct plating or by continuous sub-culturing at 0.5 × MIC levels, followed by population analysis profiles. The results showed that NAI-107 and its brominated variant are highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some other fastidious Gram-negative pathogens. Furthermore, all compounds strongly synergized with polymyxin against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and showed bactericidal activity. Surprisingly, NAI-107 alone was bactericidal against non-dividing A. baumannii cells. Against S. aureus, NAI-107 and related lantibiotics showed strong bactericidal activity against dividing and non-dividing cells. Activity was also observed against S. aureus biofilms. As expected for a lipid II binder, no significant resistance to NAI-107 was observed by direct plating or serial passages. Overall, the results of the current work, along with previously published results on the efficacy of NAI-107 in experimental models of infection, indicate that this lantibiotic represents a promising option in addressing the serious threat of antibiotic resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  15. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léguillier, Teddy; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Artus, Jérôme; Houlard, Martin; Picard, Christel; Bernex, Florence; Robine, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2012-07-15

    Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically required in intestinal progenitors. In absence of OMCG1, proliferating intestinal epithelial cells underwent abnormal mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death. As a consequence, the crypt proliferative compartment of the small intestine was quickly and totally abrogated leading to the rapid death of the mice. Lack of OMCG1 in embryonic stem cells led to a similar cellular phenotype, with multiple mitotic defects and rapid cell death. We showed that mutant intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells exhibited a reduced cell cycle arrest following irradiation, suggesting that mitotic defects may be consecutive to M phase entry with unrepaired DNA damages. These findings unravel a crucial role for pre-mRNA processing in the homeostasis of the small intestine and point to a major role of OMCG1 in the maintenance of genome integrity.

  16. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Léguillier

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically required in intestinal progenitors. In absence of OMCG1, proliferating intestinal epithelial cells underwent abnormal mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death. As a consequence, the crypt proliferative compartment of the small intestine was quickly and totally abrogated leading to the rapid death of the mice. Lack of OMCG1 in embryonic stem cells led to a similar cellular phenotype, with multiple mitotic defects and rapid cell death. We showed that mutant intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells exhibited a reduced cell cycle arrest following irradiation, suggesting that mitotic defects may be consecutive to M phase entry with unrepaired DNA damages. These findings unravel a crucial role for pre-mRNA processing in the homeostasis of the small intestine and point to a major role of OMCG1 in the maintenance of genome integrity.

  17. An autoradiographic study of the synthesis of nucleic acids and protein during the cell cycle of synchronously dividing antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewska, M J; Godlewski, M [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein in successive mitotic cycles of the synchronously dividing antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris was studied autoradiographically. In all the generations examined, which enter the next mitosis, i.e., in the 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell generations, the synthesis of DNA begins as early as telephase and continues into the early stages of interphase. The telephase cells of the 32-cell filaments do not incorporate //sup 3/H/thymidine, because the cells which arise from them do not divide but are transformed into spermatozoa. The DNA synthesis is accompanied by intense synthesis of RNA. The intensity of radioactivity calculated for 100 ..mu../sup 2/ of the area of the nucleus and cytoplasm is similar in all the generations, whereas the radioactivity induced by the incorporation of /8-/sup 14/C/adenine and//sup 3/H/phenylalanine calculated for one cell decreases proportionally to the reduction of the volume of the cytoplasm and nucleus in successive generations. (auth)

  18. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  19. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  20. Parallel random number generator for inexpensive configurable hardware cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, J.; Tangen, U.; Bödekker, B.; Breyer, J.; Stoll, E.; McCaskill, J. S.

    2001-11-01

    A new random number generator ( RNG) adapted to parallel processors has been created. This RNG can be implemented with inexpensive hardware cells. The correlation between neighboring cells is suppressed with smart connections. With such connection structures, sequences of pseudo-random numbers are produced. Numerical tests including a self-avoiding random walk test and the simulation of the order parameter and energy of the 2D Ising model give no evidence for correlation in the pseudo-random sequences. Because the new random number generator has suppressed the correlation between neighboring cells which is usually observed in cellular automaton implementations, it is applicable for extended time simulations. It gives an immense speed-up factor if implemented directly in configurable hardware, and has recently been used for long time simulations of spatially resolved molecular evolution.

  1. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins in dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis): Regional differences and changes during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkova, V P; Budayova, M; Kvasnicka, P; Cigankova, N; Chorvat, D

    1994-12-01

    Regional differences in lateral diffusion rates of fluorescence-labeled proteins have been studied in the plasma membrane of dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Apparent animal-vegetal differences in fluorescence intensity, lateral diffusion coefficients, and fractions of mobile proteins have been found, with all these quantities being higher in the animal pole region than in the yolk region. Cyclic changes in protein diffusion coefficients and mobile fractions during the first few cell cycles have also been recorded. Soon after the end of a cleavage, the diffusion coefficient reaches its minimal value and increases rapidly before the next cleavage.

  2. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  3. Autocatalytic polymerization generates persistent random walk of crawling cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambeth, R; Baumgaertner, A

    2001-05-28

    The autocatalytic polymerization kinetics of the cytoskeletal actin network provides the basic mechanism for a persistent random walk of a crawling cell. It is shown that network remodeling by branching processes near the cell membrane is essential for the bimodal spatial stability of the network which induces a spontaneous breaking of isotropic cell motion. Details of the phenomena are analyzed using a simple polymerization model studied by analytical and simulation methods.

  4. Clustering Single-Cell Expression Data Using Random Forest Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2017-07-01

    Complex tissues such as brain and bone marrow are made up of multiple cell types. As the study of biological tissue structure progresses, the role of cell-type-specific research becomes increasingly important. Novel sequencing technology such as single-cell cytometry provides researchers access to valuable biological data. Applying machine-learning techniques to these high-throughput datasets provides deep insights into the cellular landscape of the tissue where those cells are a part of. In this paper, we propose the use of random-forest-based single-cell profiling, a new machine-learning-based technique, to profile different cell types of intricate tissues using single-cell cytometry data. Our technique utilizes random forests to capture cell marker dependences and model the cellular populations using the cell network concept. This cellular network helps us discover what cell types are in the tissue. Our experimental results on public-domain datasets indicate promising performance and accuracy of our technique in extracting cell populations of complex tissues.

  5. Random distribution of nucleoli in metabolic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, R.J.; Waterman, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Hasofer (1974) has studied a probabilistic model for the fusion of nucleoli in metabolic cells. The nucleoli are uniformly distributed at points in the nucleus, assumed to be a sphere. The nucleoli grow from a point to a maximum size during interphase, and fusion is said to occur if the nucleoli touch. For this model, Hasofer calculated the probability of fusion and found it much smaller than experimental data would indicate. Experimental data of this type is taken by use of a microscope where a two-dimensional view or projection of the three-dimensional cell is obtained. Hasofer implicitly assumes that actual fusion can be distinguished from the case where the two nucleoli do not touch but their two-dimensional projections overlap. It is assumed, in this letter, that these two cases cannot be distinguished. The probability obtained by Beckman and Waterman is larger than Hasofer's and a much better fit to the experimental data is obtained. Even if true fusion can be unfailingly distinguished from overlap of the two-dimensional projections, it is hoped that these calculations will allow someone to propose the correct (non-uniform) model. It is concluded, for the assumptions used, that there is not sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis of uniform distribution of the nucleoli.

  6. The Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Steps away from where a concrete wall once divided this city east from west, a group of Muslim 1st graders at E.O. Plauen Elementary School sing a phrase that is unfamiliar to most German ears. Though the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have long provided voluntary religion classes in Berlin schools, only recently have the courts allowed an…

  7. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  8. Facebook's gender divide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  9. Monitoring the digital divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Matthews, W.; Cottrell, R.L.

    2003-05-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low-bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste - a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent 'Recommendations of Trieste' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work. (author)

  10. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work

  11. Random Walk Model for Cell-To-Cell Misalignments in Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2000-01-01

    Due to manufacturing and construction errors, cells in accelerator structures can be misaligned relative to each other. As a consequence, the beam generates a transverse wakefield even when it passes through the structure on axis. The most important effect is the long-range transverse wakefield that deflects the bunches and causes growth of the bunch train projected emittance. In this paper, the effect of the cell-to-cell misalignments is evaluated using a random walk model that assumes that each cell is shifted by a random step relative to the previous one. The model is compared with measurements of a few accelerator structures

  12. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses......, a network of multimedia workshops for youth in the USA. There are references to the learning philosophy Constructionism, which originates from MIT Media Lab and is the basis for the Computer Clubhouse project. Abstract : The consortium for Math and Science at Learning Lab Denmark and the Ministry...... of Education have published the white book 'Life of Science - White Book on Educational Initiatives in the Natural Sciences and Technology', inconnection with a conference for EIST (Initiatives in Science and Technology). The purpose of the EIST project is to make a qualitative overview of a number...

  13. The Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

    2011-01-01

    Megan is a 14-year-old from Nebraska who just started ninth grade. She has her own digital camera, cell phone, Nintendo DS, and laptop, and one or more of these devices is usually by her side. Compared to the interactions and exploration she's engaged in at home, Megan finds the technology in her classroom falls a little flat. Most of the…

  14. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Crabbé

    Full Text Available This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation, which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p. infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the

  15. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  16. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  17. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  18. Studies of Redox Equilibria at Elevated Temperatures 2. An Automatic Divided-Function Autoclave and Cell with Flowing Liquid Junction for Electrochemical Measurements on Aqueous Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, Kerstin; Lewis, Derek; Pourbaix, Marian de

    1970-10-15

    An apparatus is described that has been developed for electrochemical studies of aqueous systems at temperatures above 100 deg C. It consists essentially of an electrically heated experimental cell enclosed by a separate pressure-vessel the walls of which are kept cool. This construction eliminates or reduces the problems of sealing electrical connections and of the corrosion of the pressure vessel, that commonly arise with conventional, externally-heated autoclaves. Pressure is applied to the cell by means of compressed air, diaphragm valves at the electrolyte outlet automatically maintaining the pressure in the cell about 1 atm lower than that in the pressure vessel. Two independent streams of electrolyte can be pumped into the experimental cell a special form of which has been developed in which may be formed a galvanic cell with a continuously regenerated flowing-liquid junction. In this form the apparatus enables experiments with, for example, one molal chloride solutions with pH 1-10, at temperatures up to about 250 deg C and under pressures up to about 40 atm. The apparatus has been tested in experiments in which classical measurements of the conductance of some aqueous electrolytes have been repeated. Good agreement with the earlier results has been obtained

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: Comparison of random and immortal strand segregation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) Random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell. (2) ``Immortal DNA strand'' co-segregation, for which the stem cell reta...

  20. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  1. Cell radiosensitivity variation in synchronously-dividing root meristems of Pisum sativum L. and Zea mays L. during the mitotic cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, I.N.; Grodzinsky, D.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziologii Rastenij)

    1982-04-01

    The cell divisions in pea and maize seedling root meristems were synchronized by treatment with 0.03 per cent hydroxyurea for 24 hours. At different times after block cessation (removing seedlings from hydroxyurea), i.e. according to certain phases and subphases of the mitotic cycle, the seedlings were treated with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation at doses from 3 to 32 Gy. Evaluation of seedling radioresistance by the survival of the main root meristem on the tenth day after irradiation led to the following sequence of cell stages in order of increasing resistance. For the pea root meristem: G/sub 2/, M, late G/sub 1/, early S, late S, middle S and early G/sub 1/. For the maize root meristem: late G/sub 2/, M, G/sub 1/, early S, early G/sub 2/, late S and middle S.

  2. Cell radiosensitivity variation in synchronously-dividing root meristems of Pisum sativum L. and Zea mays L. during the mitotic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, I.N.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The cell divisions in pea and maize seedling root meristems were synchronized by treatment with 0.03 per cent hydroxyurea for 24 hours. At different times after block cessation (removing seedlings from hydroxyurea), i.e. according to certain phases and subphases of the mitotic cycle, the seedlings were treated with 60 Co γ-radiation at doses from 3 to 32 Gy. Evaluation of seedling radioresistance by the survival of the main root meristem on the tenth day after irradiation led to the following sequence of cell stages in order of increasing resistance. For the pea root meristem: G 2 , M, late G 1 , early S, late S, middle S and early G 1 . For the maize root meristem: late G 2 , M, G 1 , early S, early G 2 , late S and middle S. (author)

  3. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  4. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  5. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  6. Non-Random Chromosome Segregation in Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Conboy, Michael J; Karasov, Ariela O; Rando, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretati...

  7. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' differen...

  8. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  9. Causality, Randomness, Intelligibility, and the Epistemology of the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R; Bittner, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Because the basic unit of biology is the cell, biological knowledge is rooted in the epistemology of the cell, and because life is the salient characteristic of the cell, its epistemology must be centered on its livingness, not its constituent components. The organization and regulation of these components in the pursuit of life constitute the fundamental nature of the cell. Thus, regulation sits at the heart of biological knowledge of the cell and the extraordinary complexity of this regulation conditions the kind of knowledge that can be obtained, in particular, the representation and intelligibility of that knowledge. This paper is essentially split into two parts. The first part discusses the inadequacy of everyday intelligibility and intuition in science and the consequent need for scientific theories to be expressed mathematically without appeal to commonsense categories of understanding, such as causality. Having set the backdrop, the second part addresses biological knowledge. It briefly reviews modern scientific epistemology from a general perspective and then turns to the epistemology of the cell. In analogy with a multi-faceted factory, the cell utilizes a highly parallel distributed control system to maintain its organization and regulate its dynamical operation in the face of both internal and external changes. Hence, scientific knowledge is constituted by the mathematics of stochastic dynamical systems, which model the overall relational structure of the cell and how these structures evolve over time, stochasticity being a consequence of the need to ignore a large number of factors while modeling relatively few in an extremely complex environment. PMID:21119887

  10. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  12. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Alka A; Jeon, Junhwan; Weaver, Alissa M; Quaranta, Vito; Cummings, Peter T

    2010-03-10

    Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells) that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans) follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW). Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases) each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation). Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  13. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW.Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation.Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: comparison of random and immortal-strand segregation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2005-04-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell and (2) "immortal DNA strand" co-segregation, for which the stem cell retains the daughter chromosomes with the oldest parent strands. Immortal strand co-segregation is a mechanism, originally proposed by [Cairns Nature (London) 255, 197 (1975)], by which stem cells preserve the integrity of their genomes. For random segregation, we develop an ordered strand pair formulation of the dynamics, analogous to the ordered strand pair formalism developed for quasispecies dynamics involving semiconservative replication with imperfect lesion repair (in this context, lesion repair is taken to mean repair of postreplication base-pair mismatches). Interestingly, a similar formulation is possible with immortal strand co-segregation, despite the fact that this segregation mechanism is age dependent. From our model we are able to mathematically show that, when lesion repair is imperfect, then immortal strand co-segregation leads to better preservation of the stem cell lineage than random chromosome segregation. Furthermore, our model allows us to estimate the optimal lesion repair efficiency for preserving an adult stem cell population for a given period of time. For human stem cells, we obtain that mispaired bases still present after replication and cell division should be left untouched, to avoid potentially fixing a mutation in both DNA strands.

  15. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  16. [Randomized clinical trial of IEP and EP regimens in the treatment of patients with small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Anlan; Huang, Zhihua; Zhou, Wenwei

    2004-06-20

    To observe and compare the efficacy and safety of IEP and EP regimens for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Sixty-four patients with SCLC pathologically proved were randomly divided into IEP group ( n =32) and EP group ( n =32). All the 64 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. In IEP group, the total responsive rate, responsive rates of limited-stage patients and extensive-stage patients were 84.4%(27/32), 100.0%(15/15) and 70.6%(12/17) respectively; while in EP group, those were 75.0%(24/32), 85.7%(12/14) and 66.7% (12/18) respectively. The median duration of remission was 6 months and 1-year survival rate was 62.5% in IEP group, and 5 months and 56.2% in EP group. There was no significant difference in response rate, median duration of remission and 1-year survival between the two groups ( P > 0.05). The main toxicity was myelosuppression. Incidences of leukopenia at grade III-IV, nausea, vomiting and alopecia were significantly higher in the IEP arm than those in the EP arm ( P IEP and EP. IEP regimen shows a similar response rate compared with EP regimen. They might be considered as relevant regimens in initial patients with small cell lung cancer.

  17. Random blebbing motion: A simple model linking cell structural properties to migration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Thomas E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Goriely, Alain

    2017-07-01

    If the plasma membrane of a cell is able to delaminate locally from its actin cortex, a cellular bleb can be produced. Blebs are pressure-driven protrusions, which are noteworthy for their ability to produce cellular motion. Starting from a general continuum mechanics description, we restrict ourselves to considering cell and bleb shapes that maintain approximately spherical forms. From this assumption, we obtain a tractable algebraic system for bleb formation. By including cell-substrate adhesions, we can model blebbing cell motility. Further, by considering mechanically isolated blebbing events, which are randomly distributed over the cell, we can derive equations linking the macroscopic migration characteristics to the microscopic structural parameters of the cell. This multiscale modeling framework is then used to provide parameter estimates, which are in agreement with current experimental data. In summary, the construction of the mathematical model provides testable relationships between the bleb size and cell motility.

  18. Random blebbing motion: A simple model linking cell structural properties to migration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Thomas E; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Goriely, Alain

    2017-07-01

    If the plasma membrane of a cell is able to delaminate locally from its actin cortex, a cellular bleb can be produced. Blebs are pressure-driven protrusions, which are noteworthy for their ability to produce cellular motion. Starting from a general continuum mechanics description, we restrict ourselves to considering cell and bleb shapes that maintain approximately spherical forms. From this assumption, we obtain a tractable algebraic system for bleb formation. By including cell-substrate adhesions, we can model blebbing cell motility. Further, by considering mechanically isolated blebbing events, which are randomly distributed over the cell, we can derive equations linking the macroscopic migration characteristics to the microscopic structural parameters of the cell. This multiscale modeling framework is then used to provide parameter estimates, which are in agreement with current experimental data. In summary, the construction of the mathematical model provides testable relationships between the bleb size and cell motility.

  19. Random small interfering RNA library screen identifies siRNAs that induce human erythroleukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cuiqing; Xiong, Yuan; Zhu, Ning; Lu, Yabin; Zhang, Jiewen; Wang, Song; Liang, Zicai; Shen, Yan; Chen, Meihong

    2011-03-01

    Cancers are characterized by poor differentiation. Differentiation therapy is a strategy to alleviate malignant phenotypes by inducing cancer cell differentiation. Here we carried out a combinatorial high-throughput screen with a random siRNA library on human erythroleukemia K-562 cell differentiation. Two siRNAs screened from the library were validated to be able to induce erythroid differentiation to varying degrees, determined by CD235 and globin up-regulation, GATA-2 down-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. The screen we performed here is the first trial of screening cancer differentiation-inducing agents from a random siRNA library, demonstrating that a random siRNA library can be considered as a new resource in efforts to seek new therapeutic agents for cancers. As a random siRNA library has a broad coverage for the entire genome, including known/unknown genes and protein coding/non-coding sequences, screening using a random siRNA library can be expected to greatly augment the repertoire of therapeutic siRNAs for cancers.

  20. Relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting with random network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Sun, Fan; Xiao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting system using random network codes, where the focus is on devising efficient scheduling algorithms between relay and base stations. Two scheduling algorithms are proposed based on different feedback strategies; namely, a one-step scheduling...

  1. Nanostructure-property relations for phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) line cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B. J.; Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Kaiser, M.; Jedema, F. J.; Gravesteijn, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells have been studied extensively using electrical characterization and rather limited by detailed structure characterization. The combination of these two characterization techniques has hardly been exploited and it is the focus of the present work.

  2. Development of a randomized 3D cell model for Monte Carlo microdosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Michael; Bezak, Eva; Penfold, Scott [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide 5005, South Australia (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, South Australia (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of the current work was to develop an algorithm for growing a macroscopic tumor volume from individual randomized quasi-realistic cells. The major physical and chemical components of the cell need to be modeled. It is intended to import the tumor volume into GEANT4 (and potentially other Monte Carlo packages) to simulate ionization events within the cell regions. Methods: A MATLAB Copyright-Sign code was developed to produce a tumor coordinate system consisting of individual ellipsoidal cells randomized in their spatial coordinates, sizes, and rotations. An eigenvalue method using a mathematical equation to represent individual cells was used to detect overlapping cells. GEANT4 code was then developed to import the coordinate system into GEANT4 and populate it with individual cells of varying sizes and composed of the membrane, cytoplasm, reticulum, nucleus, and nucleolus. Each region is composed of chemically realistic materials. Results: The in-house developed MATLAB Copyright-Sign code was able to grow semi-realistic cell distributions ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cells in 1 cm{sup 3}) in under 36 h. The cell distribution can be used in any number of Monte Carlo particle tracking toolkits including GEANT4, which has been demonstrated in this work. Conclusions: Using the cell distribution and GEANT4, the authors were able to simulate ionization events in the individual cell components resulting from 80 keV gamma radiation (the code is applicable to other particles and a wide range of energies). This virtual microdosimetry tool will allow for a more complete picture of cell damage to be developed.

  3. Skin Mast Cell Promotion in Random Skin Flaps in Rats using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Tavafi, Magid

    2018-03-06

    Skin flap procedures are employed in plastic surgery, but failure can lead to necrosis of the flap. Studies have used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to improve flap viability. BM-MSCs and acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) have been introduced as alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BM-MSCs and AAM on mast cells of random skin flaps (RSF) in rats. RSFs (80 × 30 mm) were created on 40 rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including (I) AAM, (II) BM-MSCs, (III) BM-MSCs/AAM, and (IV) saline (control). Transplantation was carried out during the procedure (zero day). Flap necrosis was observed on day 7, and skin samples were collected from the transition line of the flap to evaluate the total number and types of mast cells. The development and the total number of mast cells were related to the development of capillaries. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean numbers of mast cell types for different study groups. However, the difference between the total number of mast cells in the study groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The present study suggests that the use of AAM/BM-MSCs can improve the total number of mast cells and accelerate the growth of capillaries at the transient site in RSFs in rats.

  4. Guiding the orientation of smooth muscle cells on random and aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-09-01

    Fabricating scaffolds that can simulate the architecture and functionality of native extracellular matrix is a huge challenge in vascular tissue engineering. Various kinds of materials are engineered via nano-technological approaches to meet the current challenges in vascular tissue regeneration. During this study, nanofibers from pure polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane/collagen in two different morphologies (random and aligned) and in three different ratios of polyurethane:collagen (75:25; 50:50; 25:75) are fabricated by electrospinning. The fiber diameters of the nanofibrous scaffolds are in the range of 174-453 nm and 145-419 for random and aligned fibers, respectively, where they closely mimic the nanoscale dimensions of native extracellular matrix. The aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers expressed anisotropic wettability with mechanical properties which is suitable for regeneration of the artery. After 12 days of human aortic smooth muscle cells culture on different scaffolds, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells on hybrid polyurethane/collagen (3:1) nanofibers was 173% and 212% higher than on pure polyurethane scaffolds for random and aligned scaffolds, respectively. The results of cell morphology and protein staining showed that the aligned polyurethane/collagen (3:1) scaffold promote smooth muscle cells alignment through contact guidance, while the random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) also guided cell orientation most probably due to the inherent biochemical composition. Our studies demonstrate the potential of aligned and random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) as promising substrates for vascular tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Stem cells propagate their DNA by random segregation in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Verdoodt

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are proposed to have acquired special features to prevent an accumulation of DNA-replication errors. Two such mechanisms, frequently suggested to serve this goal are cellular quiescence, and non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell division, a theory designated as the immortal strand hypothesis. To date, it has been difficult to test the in vivo relevance of both mechanisms in stem cell systems. It has been shown that in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts are present in adult animals. We sought to address by which means M. lignano neoblasts protect themselves against the accumulation of genomic errors, by studying the exact mode of DNA-segregation during their division. In this study, we demonstrated four lines of in vivo evidence in favor of cellular quiescence. Firstly, performing BrdU pulse-chase experiments, we localized 'Label-Retaining Cells' (LRCs. Secondly, EDU pulse-chase combined with Vasa labeling demonstrated the presence of neoblasts among the LRCs, while the majority of LRCs were differentiated cells. We showed that stem cells lose their label at a slow rate, indicating cellular quiescence. Thirdly, CldU/IdU- double labeling studies confirmed that label-retaining stem cells showed low proliferative activity. Finally, the use of the actin inhibitor, cytochalasin D, unequivocally demonstrated random segregation of DNA-strands in LRCs. Altogether, our data unambiguously demonstrated that the majority of neoblasts in M. lignano distribute their DNA randomly during cell division, and that label-retention is a direct result of cellular quiescence, rather than a sign of co-segregation of labeled strands.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of cell salvage in routine cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andrew A; Nashef, Samer A M; Sharples, Linda; Bottrill, Fiona; Dyer, Matthew; Armstrong, Johanna; Vuylsteke, Alain

    2008-11-01

    Previous trials have indicated that cell salvage may reduce allogeneic blood transfusion during cardiac surgery, but these studies have limitations, including inconsistent use of other blood transfusion-sparing strategies. We designed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether routine cell salvage for elective uncomplicated cardiac surgery reduces blood transfusion and is cost effective in the setting of a rigorous transfusion protocol and routine administration of antifibrinolytics. Two-hundred-thirteen patients presenting for first-time coronary artery bypass grafting and/or cardiac valve surgery were prospectively randomized to control or cell salvage groups. The latter group had blood aspirate during surgery and mediastinal drainage the first 6 h after surgery processed in a cell saver device and autotransfused. All patients received tranexamic acid and were subjected to an algorithm for red blood cell and hemostatic blood factor transfusion. There was no difference between the two groups in the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic blood (32% in both groups, relative risk 1.0 P = 0.89). At current blood products and cell saver prices, the use of cell salvage increased the costs per patient by a minimum of $103. When patients who had mediastinal re-exploration for bleeding were excluded (as planned in the protocol), significantly fewer units of allogeneic red blood cells were transfused in the cell salvage compared with the control group (65 vs 100 U, relative risk 0.71 P = 0.04). In patients undergoing routine first-time cardiac surgery in an institution with a rigorous blood conservation program, the routine use of cell salvage does not further reduce the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic blood transfusion. However, patients who do not have excessive bleeding after surgery receive significantly fewer units of blood with cell salvage. Although the use of cell savage may reduce the demand for blood products during cardiac surgery, this

  7. Reimplantation of cultivated human bone cells from the posterior maxilla for sinus floor augmentation. Histological results from a randomized controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, N.U.; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Donatsky, O

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present randomized clinical study was to evaluate histologically whether the addition of cultivated, autogenous bone cells to a composite graft of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and autogenous bone (AB) for sinus floor augmentation (SFA) enhance bone formation...... bone cells, which were cultivated from a bone biopsy harvested earlier from the tuberosity area. Four months after SFA, two cylindrical biopsies were taken from the augmented sinuses concomitantly with the implant site preparation by means of a trephine bur. An additional biopsy was taken from...... the tuberosity area. Bone density at the augmented sinus and the tuberosity area and the height of augmentation were estimated on non-decalcified histological sections prepared from the biopsies. A relative bone density index (RBD) was also calculated by dividing bone density at the augmented sinus with bone...

  8. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  9. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  10. Conjunctival Goblet Cell Density Following Cataract Surgery With Diclofenac Versus Diclofenac and Rebamipide: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko; Miyake, Kensaku; Kondo, Nagako; Asano, Sayaka; Takeda, Junko; Takahashi, Akiko; Takashima, Yuko; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the effects of topical diclofenac or betamethasone with concomitant application of topical rebamipide on the conjunctival goblet cell density in eyes after cataract surgery. Randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients who were scheduled for cataract surgery. Patients were randomized into 4 groups according to the postoperative topical drugs to be given; Group A, diclofenac alone; Group B, diclofenac and rebamipide; Group C, betamethasone alone; and Group D, betamethasone and rebamipide. Impression cytology was performed before and at 1 month after the surgery, and the mean density of goblet cells was determined. The mean (± SD) density of goblet cells before the surgery in Group A was 257.0 ± 188.7 cells/mm 2 , and it decreased significantly to 86.5 ± 76.7 cells/mm 2 at 1 month after the surgery (P = .002). In Group B, the goblet cell density was not statistically different between before (238.5 ± 116.6 cells/mm 2 ) and at 1 month after the surgery (211.3 ± 184.4 cells/mm 2 , P = .55). In Groups C and D, the mean density of goblet cells was decreased at 1 month after the surgery, but the decreases were not significant (P = .11 and P = .52, respectively). After cataract surgery with postoperative topical diclofenac, the conjunctival goblet cell density was significantly reduced, and this reduction was blocked by the concomitant use of topical rebamipide. These results suggest that the concomitant use of topical rebamipide with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is beneficial, especially in cases with postoperative dry eyes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proteome Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Cells After Long-Term Exposure to a Random Positioning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Bauer, Johann; Weber, Gerhard; Nissum, Mikkel; Westphal, Kriss; Egli, Marcel; Grosse, Jirka; Schönberger, Johann; Eilles, Christoph; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Annulling gravity during cell culturing triggers various types of cells to change their protein expression in a time dependent manner. We therefore decided to determine gravity sensitive proteins and their period of sensitivity to the effects of gravity. In this study, thyroid cancer cells of the ML-1 cell line were cultured under normal gravity (1 g) or in a random positioning machine (RPM), which simulated near weightlessness for 7 and 11 days. Cells were then sonicated and proteins released into the supernatant were separated from those that remained attached to the cell fragments. Subsequently, both types of proteins were fractionated by free-flow isoelectric focussing (FF-IEF). The fractions obtained were further separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to which comparable FF-IEF fractions derived from cells cultured either under 1 g or on the RPM had been applied side by side. The separation resulted in pairs of lanes, on which a number of identical bands were observed. Selected gel pieces were excised and their proteins determined by mass spectrometry. Equal proteins from cells cultured under normal gravity and the RPM, respectively, were detected in comparable gel pieces. However, many of these proteins had received different Mascot scores. Quantifying heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, glutathione S-transferase P, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A and annexin-2 by Western blotting using whole cell lysates indicated usefulness of Mascot scores for selecting the most efficient antibodies.

  13. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  14. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  15. Randomized study: small cell anaplastic lung cancer treated by combination chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.M.; Woods, R.L.; Brodie, G.N.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    1980-01-01

    Chemotherapy and primary site radiation therapy were compared to chemotherapy alone in a randomized study of 125 patients with small cell cancer of the lung. The sites of initial relapse, as well as disease free and overall survival were analyzed. Radiotherapy to the primary site reduced the rate of local relapse, but median survival was not prolonged in patients with either limited or extensive disease, when the radiation therapy-chemotherapy group was compared to the group that received chemotherapy alone

  16. Sequentially switching cell assemblies in random inhibitory networks of spiking neurons in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeff

    2010-04-28

    The striatum is composed of GABAergic medium spiny neurons with inhibitory collaterals forming a sparse random asymmetric network and receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Because the inhibitory collaterals are sparse and weak, their role in striatal network dynamics is puzzling. However, here we show by simulation of a striatal inhibitory network model composed of spiking neurons that cells form assemblies that fire in sequential coherent episodes and display complex identity-temporal spiking patterns even when cortical excitation is simply constant or fluctuating noisily. Strongly correlated large-scale firing rate fluctuations on slow behaviorally relevant timescales of hundreds of milliseconds are shown by members of the same assembly whereas members of different assemblies show strong negative correlation, and we show how randomly connected spiking networks can generate this activity. Cells display highly irregular spiking with high coefficients of variation, broadly distributed low firing rates, and interspike interval distributions that are consistent with exponentially tailed power laws. Although firing rates vary coherently on slow timescales, precise spiking synchronization is absent in general. Our model only requires the minimal but striatally realistic assumptions of sparse to intermediate random connectivity, weak inhibitory synapses, and sufficient cortical excitation so that some cells are depolarized above the firing threshold during up states. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental studies, consistent with recently determined striatal anatomy and physiology, and support a new view of endogenously generated metastable state switching dynamics of the striatal network underlying its information processing operations.

  17. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  18. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  19. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  20. When the genome plays dice: circumvention of the spindle assembly checkpoint and near-random chromosome segregation in multipolar cancer cell mitoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisselsson, David; Håkanson, Ulf; Stoller, Patrick; Marti, Dominik; Jin, Yuesheng; Rosengren, Anders H; Stewénius, Ylva; Kahl, Fredrik; Panagopoulos, Ioannis

    2008-04-02

    Normal cell division is coordinated by a bipolar mitotic spindle, ensuring symmetrical segregation of chromosomes. Cancer cells, however, occasionally divide into three or more directions. Such multipolar mitoses have been proposed to generate genetic diversity and thereby contribute to clonal evolution. However, this notion has been little validated experimentally. Chromosome segregation and DNA content in daughter cells from multipolar mitoses were assessed by multiphoton cross sectioning and fluorescence in situ hybridization in cancer cells and non-neoplastic transformed cells. The DNA distribution resulting from multipolar cell division was found to be highly variable, with frequent nullisomies in the daughter cells. Time-lapse imaging of H2B/GFP-labelled multipolar mitoses revealed that the time from the initiation of metaphase to the beginning of anaphase was prolonged and that the metaphase plates often switched polarity several times before metaphase-anaphase transition. The multipolar metaphase-anaphase transition was accompanied by a normal reduction of cellular cyclin B levels, but typically occurred before completion of the normal separase activity cycle. Centromeric AURKB and MAD2 foci were observed frequently to remain on the centromeres of multipolar ana-telophase chromosomes, indicating that multipolar mitoses were able to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint with some sister chromatids remaining unseparated after anaphase. Accordingly, scoring the distribution of individual chromosomes in multipolar daughter nuclei revealed a high frequency of nondisjunction events, resulting in a near-binomial allotment of sister chromatids to the daughter cells. The capability of multipolar mitoses to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint system typically results in a near-random distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Spindle multipolarity could thus be a highly efficient generator of genetically diverse minority clones in transformed cell

  1. When the genome plays dice: circumvention of the spindle assembly checkpoint and near-random chromosome segregation in multipolar cancer cell mitoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gisselsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal cell division is coordinated by a bipolar mitotic spindle, ensuring symmetrical segregation of chromosomes. Cancer cells, however, occasionally divide into three or more directions. Such multipolar mitoses have been proposed to generate genetic diversity and thereby contribute to clonal evolution. However, this notion has been little validated experimentally. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chromosome segregation and DNA content in daughter cells from multipolar mitoses were assessed by multiphoton cross sectioning and fluorescence in situ hybridization in cancer cells and non-neoplastic transformed cells. The DNA distribution resulting from multipolar cell division was found to be highly variable, with frequent nullisomies in the daughter cells. Time-lapse imaging of H2B/GFP-labelled multipolar mitoses revealed that the time from the initiation of metaphase to the beginning of anaphase was prolonged and that the metaphase plates often switched polarity several times before metaphase-anaphase transition. The multipolar metaphase-anaphase transition was accompanied by a normal reduction of cellular cyclin B levels, but typically occurred before completion of the normal separase activity cycle. Centromeric AURKB and MAD2 foci were observed frequently to remain on the centromeres of multipolar ana-telophase chromosomes, indicating that multipolar mitoses were able to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint with some sister chromatids remaining unseparated after anaphase. Accordingly, scoring the distribution of individual chromosomes in multipolar daughter nuclei revealed a high frequency of nondisjunction events, resulting in a near-binomial allotment of sister chromatids to the daughter cells. CONCLUSION: The capability of multipolar mitoses to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint system typically results in a near-random distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Spindle multipolarity could thus be a highly efficient

  2. Comparison of cell behavior on pva/pva-gelatin electrospun nanofibers with random and aligned configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hu, Keng-Hsiang; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.

  3. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  4. The Digital Divide Revisited: What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    As soon as the Internet came into existence and the World Wide Web was introduced to make Internet utilization much easier, leaders have been worried about the "digital divide." The digital divide refers to the inequality of access to information services. There has been marked improvements over the last 20 years, however the poorest…

  5. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Red Blood Cell Transfusion Triggers in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Colleen G; Sessler, Daniel I; Mascha, Edward J; Sabik, Joseph F; Li, Liang; Duncan, Andra I; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-10-01

    Class I evidence supporting a threshold for transfusion in the cardiac surgical setting is scarce. We randomly allocated patients to a transfusion hematocrit trigger of 24% versus 28% to compare morbidity, mortality, and resource use. From March 2007 to August 2014, two centers randomly assigned 722 adults undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery or valve procedures to a 24% hematocrit trigger (n = 363, low group) or 28% trigger (n = 354, high group). One unit of red blood cells was transfused if the hematocrit fell below the designated threshold. The primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative morbidities and mortality. Treatment effect was primarily assessed using an average relative effect generalized estimating equation model. At the second planned interim analysis, the a priori futility boundary was crossed, and the study was stopped. There was no detected treatment effect on the composite outcome (average relative effect odds ratio, low versus high, 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.29 to 2.54, p = 0.71). However, the low group received fewer red blood cell transfusions than the high group (54% versus 75%, p < 0.001), mostly administered in the operating room (low group, 112 [31%]; high group, 208 [59%]), followed by intensive care unit (low, 105 [31%]; high, 115 [34%]) and floor (low, 41 [12%]; high, 42 [13%]). The low group was exposed to lower hematocrits: median before transfusion, 22% (Q1 = 21%, Q3 = 23%) versus 24% (Q1 = 22%, Q3 = 25%). Negative exposures differed between treatment groups, with lower hematocrit in the 24% trigger group and more red blood cells used in the 28% group, but adverse outcomes did not differ. Because red blood cell use was less with a 24% trigger without adverse effects, our randomized trial results support aggressive blood conservation efforts in cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytokine Release and Focal Adhesion Proteins in Normal Thyroid Cells Cultured on the Random Positioning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Warnke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Spaceflight impacts on the function of the thyroid gland in vivo. In vitro normal and malignant thyrocytes assemble in part to multicellular spheroids (MCS after exposure to the random positioning machine (RPM, while a number of cells remain adherent (AD. We aim to elucidate possible differences between AD and MCS cells compared to 1g-controls of normal human thyroid cells. Methods: Cells of the human follicular epithelial thyroid cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 were incubated for up to 72 h on the RPM. Afterwards, they were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR and by determination of cytokines released in their supernatants. Results: A significant up-regulation of IL6, IL8 and CCL2 gene expression was found after a 4h RPM-exposure, when the whole population was still growing adherently. MCS and AD cells were detected after 24 h on the RPM. At this time, a significantly reduced gene expression in MCS compared to 1g-controls was visible for IL6, IL8, FN1, ITGB1, LAMA1, CCL2, and TLN1. After a 72 h RPM-exposure, IL-6, IL-8, and TIMP-1 secretion rates were increased significantly. Conclusion: Normal thyrocytes form MCS within 24 h. Cytokines seem to be involved in the initiation of MCS formation via focal adhesion proteins.

  8. Weak Ergodicity Breaking of Receptor Motion in Living Cells Stemming from Random Diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Carlo; Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Massignan, Pietro; Lapeyre, Gerald J.; Lewenstein, Maciej; Garcia Parajo, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular transport in living systems regulates numerous processes underlying biological function. Although many cellular components exhibit anomalous diffusion, only recently has the subdiffusive motion been associated with nonergodic behavior. These findings have stimulated new questions for their implications in statistical mechanics and cell biology. Is nonergodicity a common strategy shared by living systems? Which physical mechanisms generate it? What are its implications for biological function? Here, we use single-particle tracking to demonstrate that the motion of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a receptor with unique pathogen-recognition capabilities, reveals nonergodic subdiffusion on living-cell membranes In contrast to previous studies, this behavior is incompatible with transient immobilization, and, therefore, it cannot be interpreted according to continuous-time random-walk theory. We show that the receptor undergoes changes of diffusivity, consistent with the current view of the cell membrane as a highly dynamic and diverse environment. Simulations based on a model of an ordinary random walk in complex media quantitatively reproduce all our observations, pointing toward diffusion heterogeneity as the cause of DC-SIGN behavior. By studying different receptor mutants, we further correlate receptor motion to its molecular structure, thus establishing a strong link between nonergodicity and biological function. These results underscore the role of disorder in cell membranes and its connection with function regulation. Because of its generality, our approach offers a framework to interpret anomalous transport in other complex media where dynamic heterogeneity might play a major role, such as those found, e.g., in soft condensed matter, geology, and ecology.

  9. Mast cell stabilizers as a potential treatment for Irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mast cells are believed to play a role in irritable bowel syndrome pathogenesis and symptom genesis due to their close neighborhood to gastrointestinal innervations. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered cromolyn for reduction of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Material and Methods s: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded 6×6 weeks cross-over study was performed in a private gastrointestinal clinic. 10 patients were allocated to group A and 6 patients to group B. Patients in group A received 150 mg cromolyn divided in three equal doses for the first 6 weeks and placebo for the next 6 weeks but patients in group B received placebo for the first 6 weeks and cromolyn in the next 6 weeks. Weekly evaluation was performed and visual analogue scale was used to determine severity of symptoms. Results: Sixteen patients completed the study. Mean age of the patients was 40.3 ± 10.9 years old [range: 24-57]. Eight patients had D-IBS (Diarrhea dominant and other 8 had C-IBS (Constipation dominant. Both cromolyn sodium and the placebo decreased the severity of bloating (Freidman test, p 0.001 and 0.006 respectively. The severity of the main symptom (diarrhea or constipation did not decrease in patients of group A and B who were treated with different sequences of the drug or placebo. The severity of pain decreased drastically after 6th week of treatment with cromolyn. Freidman test showed a significant difference between the pain levels of the former defined treatment spots (p 0.01, and 0.02 for patients in group A and B, respectively. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the study. Conclusion: In conclusion, long term administration of cromolyn seems to be partially effective for treatment of abdominal pain in patients with IBS while main symptoms (diarrhea or constipation might not decrease during this treatment.

  10. Reduced Osteogenesis of Human Osteogenic Precursors' Cells Cultured in the Random Positioning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershovich, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that simulated microgravity (SMG) results in altered proliferation and differentiation not only osteoblasts but also affects on osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various sources. For present study we used system that simulates effects of microgravity produced by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Cultured MCSs from human bone marrow and human osteoblasts (OBs) were exposed to SMG at RPM for 10-40 days. Induced osteogenesis of these progenitor cells was compared with the appropriate static (1g) and dynamic (horizontal shaker) controls. Clinorotated OBs and MSCs showed proliferation rate lower than static and dynamic control groups of cells in the early terms of SMG. Significant reduction of ALP activity was detected after 10 days of clinorotation of MSCs. There was no such dramatic difference in ALP activity of MSCs derived cells between SMG and control groups after 20 days of clinorotation but the expression of ALP was still reduced. However, virtually no matrix mineralization was found in OBs cultured under SMG conditions in the presence of differentiation stimuli. The similar effect was observed when we assayed matrix calcification of MSCs derived cultures. Thus, our results confirm low gravity mediated reduction of osteogenesis of different osteogenic precursors' cells and can clarify the mechanisms of bone loss during spaceflight.

  11. A Phase Ib open label, randomized, safety study of SANGUINATE™ in patients with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Misra

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Treatment of sickle cell anemia is a challenging task and despite the well understood genetic and biochemical pathway of sickle hemoglobin, current therapy continues to be limited to the symptomatic treatment of pain, supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, red blood cell transfusions and hydroxyurea. SANGUINATE is a carbon monoxide releasing molecule and oxygen transfer agent under clinical development for the treatment of sickle cell anemia and comorbidities. Methods: An open-label randomized Phase Ib study was performed in adult sickle cell anemia patients. Two dose levels of SANGUINATE were compared to hydroxyurea in 24 homozygotes for Hb SS. Twelve subjects received either a low dose (160 mg/kg of SANGUINATE or 15 mg/kg hydroxyurea. Another 12 subjects received either a high dose (320 mg/kg of SANGUINATE or 15 mg/kg hydroxyurea. The primary endpoint was the safety of SANGUINATE versus hydroxyurea in sickle cell anemia patients. Secondary endpoints included determination of the plasma pharmacokinetics and assessment of hematologic measurements. Results: Musculoskeletal related adverse events were the most common. Transient troponin I levels increased in three patients, one of whom had an increase in tricuspid regurgitant velocity; however, no clinical signs were noted. Following an assessment of vital signs, tricuspid regurgitant velocity, electrocardiogram, serum biochemistry, hematology, urinalysis, and analysis of reported adverse events, SANGUINATE was found to be safe in stable sickle cell anemia patients. Conclusions: The clinical trial met its primary objective of demonstrating an acceptable safety profile for SANGUINATE in patients with sickle cell anemia. This trial established the safety of SANGUINATE at both dose levels and permitted its advance to Phase II trials.

  12. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  13. EXERCISE in pediatric autologous stem cell transplant patients: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro-Viña Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects. The recovery of the immune system is a special concern and plays a key role in the success of this treatment. In healthy populations it is known that exercise plays an important role in immune system regulation, but little is known about the role of exercise in the hematological and immunological recovery of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The primary objective of this randomized-controlled trial (RCT is to study the effect of an exercise program (in- and outpatient on immune cell recovery in patients undergoing an autologous stem cell transplantation. The secondary objective is to determine if an exercise intervention diminishes the usual deterioration in quality of life, physical fitness, and the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle. Methods This RCT has received approval from The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board (CHREB of the University of Calgary (Ethics ID # E-24476. Twenty-four participants treated for a malignancy with autologous stem cell transplant (5 to 18 years in the Alberta Children’s Hospital will be randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. The exercise group will participate in a two-phase exercise intervention (in- and outpatient from hospitalization until 10 weeks after discharge. The exercise program includes strength, flexibility and aerobic exercise. During the inpatient phase this program will be performed 5 times/week and will be supervised. The outpatient phase will combine a supervised session with two home-based exercise sessions with the use of the Wii device. The control group will follow the standard protocol without any specific exercise program. A range of outcomes, including quantitative and functional recovery of immune system

  14. Red blood cell transfusion triggers in acute leukemia: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZern, Amy E; Williams, Katherine; Zahurak, Marianna; Hand, Wesley; Stephens, R Scott; King, Karen E; Frank, Steven M; Ness, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds have yet to be examined in large randomized trials in hematologic malignancies. This pilot study in acute leukemia uses a restrictive compared to a liberal transfusion strategy. A randomized (2:1) study was conducted of restrictive (LOW) hemoglobin (Hb) trigger (7 g/dL) compared to higher (HIGH) Hb trigger (8 g/dL). The primary outcome was feasibility of conducting a larger trial. The four requirements for success required that more than 50% of the eligible patients could be consented, more than 75% of the patients randomized to the LOW arm tolerated the transfusion trigger, fewer than 15% of patients crossed over from the LOW arm to the HIGH arm, and no indication for the need to pause the study for safety concerns. Secondary outcomes included fatigue, bleeding, and RBCs and platelets transfused. Ninety patients were consented and randomly assigned to LOW to HIGH. The four criteria for the primary objective of feasibility were met. When the number of units transfused was compared, adjusting for baseline Hb, the LOW arm was transfused on average 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-9.1) units/patient while the HIGH arm received 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.2) units (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in bleeding events or neutropenic fevers between study arms. This study establishes feasibility for trial of Hb thresholds in leukemia through demonstration of success in all primary outcome metrics and a favorable safety profile. This population requires further study to evaluate the equivalence of liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds in this unique clinical setting. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability.

  16. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  17. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

    2013-05-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ∼350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.

  18. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernovae data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state $w$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in the gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. So...

  19. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Crohn’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lv, Samei; Liu, Xiaojing; Song, Bin; Shi, Liping

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Stem cell therapy has been applied to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD), but few studies have examined the use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). This trial sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of UC-MSCs for the treatment of CD. Methods Eighty-two patients who had been diagnosed with CD and had received steroid maintenance therapy for more than 6 months were included in this study. Forty-one patients were randomly selected to receive a total of four peripheral intravenous infusions of 1×106 UC-MSCs/kg, with one infusion per week. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI), and corticosteroid dosage were assessed. Results Twelve months after treatment, the CDAI, HBI, and corticosteroid dosage had decreased by 62.5±23.2, 3.4±1.2, and 4.2±0.84 mg/day, respectively, in the UC-MSC group and by 23.6±12.4, 1.2±0.58, and 1.2±0.35 mg/day, respectively, in the control group (pUC-MSC vs control, respectively). Four patients developed a fever after cell infusion. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions UC-MSCs were effective in the treatment of CD and produced mild side effects. PMID:28873511

  1. RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm for material-informatics: application to photovoltaic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Omer; Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2017-06-06

    An important aspect of chemoinformatics and material-informatics is the usage of machine learning algorithms to build Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. The RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is a predictive modeling tool widely used in the image processing field for cleaning datasets from noise. RANSAC could be used as a "one stop shop" algorithm for developing and validating QSAR models, performing outlier removal, descriptors selection, model development and predictions for test set samples using applicability domain. For "future" predictions (i.e., for samples not included in the original test set) RANSAC provides a statistical estimate for the probability of obtaining reliable predictions, i.e., predictions within a pre-defined number of standard deviations from the true values. In this work we describe the first application of RNASAC in material informatics, focusing on the analysis of solar cells. We demonstrate that for three datasets representing different metal oxide (MO) based solar cell libraries RANSAC-derived models select descriptors previously shown to correlate with key photovoltaic properties and lead to good predictive statistics for these properties. These models were subsequently used to predict the properties of virtual solar cells libraries highlighting interesting dependencies of PV properties on MO compositions.

  2. Contact-free Stress Monitoring for User's Divided Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Dvijesh; Wesley, Avinash; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This research work demonstrates the feasibility of stress quantification in situations where the attention of the user is divided. Psychologically kosher (i.e., unobtrusive) quantification of stress and its correlation to user performance and emotion are of singular importance in man-machine interaction. We have also proved that talking on a cell phone during simulated driving increases the supraorbital skin temperature significantly. This finding clearly demonstrates that concurrent performa...

  3. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  4. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  5. The Testing Effect under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchin, Zachary L.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2017-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances later memory compared with restudying (i.e., the testing effect), indicating that retrieval does not simply reveal but also modifies memory representations. Dividing attention (DA) during encoding greatly disrupts later memory performance while DA during retrieval typically has modest effects--but what of the…

  6. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  7. QSAR as a random event: modeling of nanoparticles uptake in PaCa2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Puzyn, Tomasz; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) are a tool to predict various endpoints for various substances. The "classic" QSPR/QSAR analysis is based on the representation of the molecular structure by the molecular graph. However, simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) gradually becomes most popular representation of the molecular structure in the databases available on the Internet. Under such circumstances, the development of molecular descriptors calculated directly from SMILES becomes attractive alternative to "classic" descriptors. The CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral) is provider of SMILES-based optimal molecular descriptors which are aimed to correlate with various endpoints. We analyzed data set on nanoparticles uptake in PaCa2 pancreatic cancer cells. The data set includes 109 nanoparticles with the same core but different surface modifiers (small organic molecules). The concept of a QSAR as a random event is suggested in opposition to "classic" QSARs which are based on the only one distribution of available data into the training and the validation sets. In other words, five random splits into the "visible" training set and the "invisible" validation set were examined. The SMILES-based optimal descriptors (obtained by the Monte Carlo technique) for these splits are calculated with the CORAL software. The statistical quality of all these models is good. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized combined modality trial in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, L.H.; Tulloh, M.; Weiss, R.B.; Blom, J.; Leone, L.; Glidewell, O.; Pajak, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    A randomized trial of combined modality therapy employing combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide (CTX) and methotrexate (MTX), CTX, MTX and Vincristine (VCR) and CTX, VCR, and high-dose MTX with citrovorum rescue), and radiation therapy was compared to cyclophosphamide and radiation therapy in 258 patients with pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Patients were also randomized: (1) to determine the effects of prophylactic whole brain irradiation; (2) to establish the effects of maintenance chemotherapy. Survival, frequency of response, and site of relapse were different in patients with limited disease (LD) (disease confined to lung, mediastinum, and supraclavicular lymph nodes) when compared with disease spread beyond these sites (extensive disease) (ED). No survival advantage was seen in LD when combination chemotherapy was employed, although the frequency of complete remission was greater with three drugs than with one or two drugs (48% vs 32%). In ED frequency of response was greater for three drugs than for one and two drugs (60% vs 40%), but there was no survival advantage. The median survival time for complete responders was similar for limited or extensive disease (12.1 months), but 23.8% were alive at 24 months with LD compared to none with ED. Maintenance chemotherapy significantly prolonged survival by 16.8 months with 33% alive at 24 months compared to 9% who were unmaintained. Prophylactic whole brain irradiation prevented brain metastases with only 4% developing this complication as compared to 18% of control subjects, but did not influence survival

  9. Music therapy for mood disturbance during hospitalization for autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Vickers, Andrew J; Magill, Lucanne A

    2003-12-15

    High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) is a commonly used treatment for hematologic malignancies. The procedure causes significant psychological distress and no interventions have been demonstrated to improve mood in these patients. Music therapy has been shown to improve anxiety in a variety of acute medical settings. In the current study, the authors determined the effects of music therapy compared with standard care on mood during inpatient stays for HDT/ASCT. Patients with hematologic malignancy admitted for HDT/ASCT at two sites (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Ireland Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio) were randomized to receive music therapy given by trained music therapists or standard care. Outcome was assessed at baseline and every 3 days after randomization using the Profile of Mood States. Of 69 patients registered in the study, follow-up data were available for 62 (90%). During their inpatient stay, patients in the music therapy group scored 28% lower on the combined Anxiety/Depression scale (P = 0.065) and 37% lower (P = 0.01) on the total mood disturbance score compared with controls. Music therapy is a noninvasive and inexpensive intervention that appears to reduce mood disturbance in patients undergoing HDT/ASCT. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.

  10. Bone marrow stromal cell therapy for ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis of randomized control animal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Wang, Yuexiang; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Ghimire, Saruna; Wellik, Kay E; Qu, Wenchun

    2017-04-01

    Background Results of animal studies assessing efficacy of bone marrow stromal cell therapy for ischemic stroke remain inconsistent. Aims The aims are to assess efficacy of bone marrow stromal cell therapy for ischemic stroke in animal studies. Methods Randomized controlled animal trials assessing efficacy of bone marrow stromal cell therapy were eligible. Stroke therapy academic industry round table was used to assess methodologic quality of included studies. Primary outcomes were total infarction volume and modified Neurological Severity Score. Multiple prespecified sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were conducted. Random effects models were used for meta-analysis. Results Thirty-three randomized animal trials were included with a total of 796 animals. The median quality score was 6 (interquartile range, 5-7). Bone marrow stromal cell therapy decreased total infarction volume (standardized mean difference, 0.897; 95% confidence interval, 0.553-1.241; P animals treated with bone marrow stromal cell and controls was 2.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.84-3.11; P animal studies. Conclusions Bone marrow stromal cell therapy significantly decreased total infarction volume and increased neural functional recovery in randomized controlled animal models of ischemic stroke.

  11. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  12. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf, neutrophin-3 (nt-3, platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb, and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  13. Randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Llufriu

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 6 months and at the end of the study.Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×10(6 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite, and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects.At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5 or placebo (n = 4. One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064, and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075. No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells in blood of MSCs treated patients.Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.

  14. Background fluorescence estimation and vesicle segmentation in live cell imaging with conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécot, Thierry; Bouthemy, Patrick; Boulanger, Jérôme; Chessel, Anatole; Bardin, Sabine; Salamero, Jean; Kervrann, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Image analysis applied to fluorescence live cell microscopy has become a key tool in molecular biology since it enables to characterize biological processes in space and time at the subcellular level. In fluorescence microscopy imaging, the moving tagged structures of interest, such as vesicles, appear as bright spots over a static or nonstatic background. In this paper, we consider the problem of vesicle segmentation and time-varying background estimation at the cellular scale. The main idea is to formulate the joint segmentation-estimation problem in the general conditional random field framework. Furthermore, segmentation of vesicles and background estimation are alternatively performed by energy minimization using a min cut-max flow algorithm. The proposed approach relies on a detection measure computed from intensity contrasts between neighboring blocks in fluorescence microscopy images. This approach permits analysis of either 2D + time or 3D + time data. We demonstrate the performance of the so-called C-CRAFT through an experimental comparison with the state-of-the-art methods in fluorescence video-microscopy. We also use this method to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of Rab6 transport carriers at the cell periphery for two different specific adhesion geometries.

  15. Pitfall of the Strongest Cells in Static Random Access Memory Physical Unclonable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Gong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Static Random Access Memory (SRAM Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs are some of the most popular PUFs that provide a highly-secured solution for secret key storage. Given that PUF responses are noisy, the key reconstruction must use error correcting code (ECC to reduce the noise. Repetition code is widely used in resource constrained systems as it is concise and lightweight, however, research has shown that repetition codes can lead to information leakage. In this paper we found that the strongest cell distribution in a SRAM array may leak information of the responses of SRAM PUF when the repetition code is directly applied. Experimentally, on an ASIC platform with the HHGRACE 0.13 μm process, we recovered 8.3% of the measured response using the strongest cells revealed by the helper data, and we finally obtained a clone response 79% similar to weak response using the public helper data. We therefore propose Error Resistant Fuzzy Extractor (ERFE, a 4-bit error tolerant fuzzy extractor, that extracts the value of the sum of the responses as a unique key and reduces the failure rate to 1.8 × 10−8 with 256 bit entropy.

  16. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  17. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  18. The Digital Divide: A Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoko, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Huge progress was made in bridging the digital divide in first decade of 21^st century. This was largely due to the explosive growth of mobile, which saw numbers rise from under 500 million to over five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in just ten years. With household mobile penetration rates of over 50% even in rural areas of developing countries, we have achieved the dream of bringing all the world's people within reach of communications technology. We must now, however, replicate the mobile miracle for the Internet, and especially broadband, if we are to avoid creating a new broadband breach to replace the digital divide. Three things need to happen for this to be achieved: firstly, broadband needs to be brought to the top of the development agenda; secondly, broadband needs to become much more affordable and thirdly, security needs to be part of the strategy.

  19. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  20. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernova data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state w crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of the Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. Some analytical solutions with w -1 are obtained. A minimally coupled scalar with different potentials, including quadratic, cubic, quantic, exponential and logarithmic potentials are investigated via numerical methods, respectively. All these potentials lead to the crossing behavior. We show that it is a robust result which is hardly dependent on the concrete form of the potential of the scalar. (orig.)

  1. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients: A review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials under PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-08-01

    Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery.

  2. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  3. Electrohydrodynamic spinning of random-textured silver webs for electrodes embedded in flexible organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dai Geon; Chin, Byung Doo; Bail, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A convenient process for fabricating a transparent conducting electrode on a flexible substrate is essential for numerous low-cost optoelectronic devices, including organic solar cells (OSCs), touch sensors, and free-form lighting applications. Solution-processed metal-nanowire arrays are attractive due to their low sheet resistance and optical clarity. However, the limited conductance at wire junctions and the rough surface topology still need improvement. Here, we present a facile process of electrohydrodynamic spinning using a silver (Ag) - polymer composite paste with high viscosity. Unlike the metal-nanofiber web formed by conventional electrospinning, a relatively thick, but still invisible-to-naked eye, Ag-web random pattern was formed on a glass substrate. The process parameters such as the nozzle diameter, voltage, flow rate, standoff height, and nozzle-scanning speed, were systematically engineered. The formed random texture Ag webs were embedded in a flexible substrate by in-situ photo-polymerization, release from the glass substrate, and post-annealing. OSCs with a donor-acceptor polymeric heterojunction photoactive layer were prepared on the Ag-web-embedded flexible films with various Ag-web densities. The short-circuit current and the power conversion efficiency of an OSC with a Ag-web-embedded electrode were not as high as those of the control sample with an indium-tin-oxide electrode. However, the Ag-web textures embedded in the OSC served well as electrodes when bent (6-mm radius), showing a power conversion efficiency of 2.06% (2.72% for the flat OSC), and the electrical stability of the Ag-web-textured patterns was maintained for up to 1,000 cycles of bending.

  4. A Randomized Trial of Yoga for Children Hospitalized With Sickle Cell Vaso-Occlusive Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Karen; Abrahams, Bess; Baker, Rebecca; Santizo, Ruth; Manwani, Deepa; Carullo, Veronica; Eugenio, Doris; Carroll, Aaron

    2017-06-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) remains an important cause of acute pain in pediatrics and the most common SCD complication. Pain management recommendations in SCD include nonpharmacological interventions. Yoga is one nonpharmacological intervention that has been shown to reduce pain in some populations; however, evidence is lacking in children with VOC. The primary objective of this study was to compare the effect of yoga vs. an attention control on pain in children with VOC. The secondary objectives were to compare the effect of yoga vs. an attention control on anxiety, lengths of stay, and opioid use in this population. Patients were eligible if they had a diagnosis of SCD, were 5-21 years old, were hospitalized for uncomplicated VOC, and had an admission pain score of ≥7. Subjects were stratified based on disease severity and randomized to the yoga or control group. Eighty-three percent of patients approached (N = 73) enrolled on study. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical or demographic factors between groups. Compared with the control group, children randomized to yoga had a significantly greater reduction in mean pain score after one yoga session (-0.6 ± 0.96 vs. 0.0 ± 1.37; P = 0.029). There were no significant differences in anxiety, lengths of stay, or opioid use between the two groups. This study provides evidence that yoga is an acceptable, feasible, and helpful intervention for hospitalized children with VOC. Future research should further examine yoga for children with SCD pain in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone marrow-derived cells and biophysical stimulation for talar osteochondral lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Buda, Roberto Emanuele; Ramponi, Laura; Sambri, Andrea; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) frequently occur after ankle sprains in young patients participating in sports activities. These injuries may lead to chronic pain, joint swelling, and finally osteoarthritis, therefore, surgical repair is frequently needed. A collagen scaffold seeded with bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) harvested from patient's iliac crest and implanted into the OLT through a single arthroscopic procedure has been recently proposed as an effective treatment option. Nevertheless, BMDCs, embedded in an inflammatory environment, tend to differentiate toward a fibroblast phenotype with a consequential loss of mechanical characteristics. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been shown to promote anabolic chondrocyte activity, stimulate proteoglycan synthesis, and reduce the release of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs on clinical outcome in patients who underwent BMDCs transplantation for OLT. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV Outerbridge OLT underwent BMDCs transplantation. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 hours per day for 60 days starting within 3 days after operation) or control group. Clinical outcome was evaluated with (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) AOFAS score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Significantly higher AOFAS score was recorded in the experimental group both at 6 or 12 months follow-up. At 60 days and 6 and 12 months follow-up, significant lower pain was observed in the experimental group. No significant difference was found in SF-36 between groups. A superior clinical outcome was found in the experimental group with more than 10 points higher AOFAS score at final follow-up. Biophysical stimulation started soon after surgery aided patient recovery leading to pain control and a better clinical outcome

  6. [Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Sheng; Wu, Bin; Song, Hua-Rong; Xuan, Zheng-Rong

    2008-01-01

    To observe the effect of perioperative application of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation. In this prospective, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial, fifty-nine patients with gastric cancer were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n=20) and two study groups (group A, n=21; group B, n=18). Sjunzi Decoction (100 ml) was administered via nasogastric tube to the patients in the study group B from the second postoperation day to the 9th postoperation day. Patients in the two study groups were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous enteral diet, which was started on the second day after operation, and continued for eight days. Patients in the control group were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous parenteral diet for 9 days. All variables of nutritional status such as serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), transferrin (TRF) and T-cell subsets were measured one day before operation, and one day and 10 days after operation. All the nutritional variables and the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+) were decreased significantly after operation. Ten days after operation, T-cell subsets and nutritional variables in the two study groups were increased as compare with the control group. The levels of ALB, TRF and T-cell subsets in the study group B were increased significantly as compared with the study group A (Pnutrition assisted with Sijunzi Decoction can positively improve and optimize cellular immune function and nutritional status in the patients with gastric cancer after operation.

  7. Safety and effects of two red blood cell transfusion strategies in pediatric cardiac surgery patients: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gast-Bakker, D. H.; de Wilde, R. B. P.; Hazekamp, M. G.; Sojak, V.; Zwaginga, J. J.; Wolterbeek, R.; de Jonge, E.; Gesink-van der Veer, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the safety and effects of a restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategy in pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Randomized controlled trial. Pediatric ICU in an academic tertiary care center, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. One hundred seven

  8. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  9. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  10. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-ichi; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Nakasone, Hideki; Kikuchi, Misato; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Junya; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. We collected reports from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science, along with references cited therein. We included prospective, randomized studies on systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Seventeen trials with 1453 autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients were included. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis was compared with placebo or no prophylaxis in 10 trials and with non-absorbable antibiotics in two trials. Systemic antibiotics other than fluoroquinolones were evaluated in five of these 12 trials. Four trials evaluated the effect of the addition of antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria to fluoroquinolones. One trial compared two different systemic antibiotic regimens: fluoroquinolones versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. As a result, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of febrile episodes (OR 0.16; 95%CI 0.09-0.30), clinically or microbiologically documented infection (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.22-0.63) and bacteremia (OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.16-0.59) without significantly affecting all-cause mortality or infection-related mortality. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis successfully reduced the incidence of infection. However, there was no significant impact on mortality. The clinical benefits of prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones were inconclusive because of the small number of clinical trials evaluated. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Captopril to Mitigate Chronic Renal Failure After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Eric P.; Irving, Amy A. B.A.; Drobyski, William R.; Klein, John P.; Passweg, Jakob; Talano, Julie-An M.; Juckett, Mark B.; Moulder, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril was effective in mitigating chronic renal failure after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 55 subjects undergoing total body irradiation (TBI)-HSCT were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Captopril or identical placebo was started at engraftment and continued as tolerated until 1 year after HSCT. Results: The baseline serum creatinine and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) did not differ between groups. The 1-year serum creatinine level was lower and the GFR higher in the captopril compared with the placebo group (p = 0.07 for GFR). Patient survival was higher in the captopril compared with the placebo group, but this was also not statistically significant (p = 0.09). In study subjects who received the study drug for more than 2 months, the 1-year calculated GFRs were 92 mL/min and 80 mL/min, for the captopril and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.1). There was no adverse effect on hematologic outcome. Conclusions: There is a trend in favor of captopril in mitigation of chronic renal failure after radiation-based HSCT

  13. Effects of preemptive analgesia with flurbiprofen ester on lymphocytes and natural killer cells in patients undergoing esophagectomy: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Huang, Jinxi; Bai, Yu; Li, Changsheng; Lu, Xihua

    2017-11-01

    Tumors may induce systemic immune dysfunction, which can be aggravated by surgery and anesthesia/analgesia. Data on the effect of flurbiprofen preemptive analgesia on immune dysfunction is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flurbiprofen preemptive analgesia on lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells in patients undergoing thoracotomy and thoracoscopy radical esophagectomy, and to explore the analgesic methods suitable for tumor patients. This was a randomized controlled pilot study of 89 patients with esophageal cancer treated with surgery at the Henan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1, thoracotomy; group 2, thoracoscopy and laparoscopic surgery; and group 3, flurbiprofen, thoracoscopy, and laparoscopic surgery. CD3+, CD19+, NK, CD4+, and CD8+ cells in whole blood were measured by flow cytometry 30 minutes before surgery (T0), at the end of the thoracic section of the procedure (T1), and at the end of the operation (T2). There were no significant differences in CD3+, CD19+, CD8+, NK, and CD4+ cells between the three groups or regarding the time points during the procedure (all P > 0.05). Thoracotomy and thoracoscopy surgery resulted in similar immunological outcomes. Flurbiprofen ester preemptive analgesia did not suppress the immune function in patients and could be a safe analgesic method for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing surgery. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  15. S-1 plus cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy versus cisplatin alone with concurrent radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lei; Xu, Shidong; Xu, Jianyu; Yang, Chaoyang; Wang, Junfeng; Sun, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of S-1 and cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiation (SCCR) over cisplatin alone plus concurrent thoracic radiation (CCR) for unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between January 2009 and November 2011, 40 eligible patients with NSCLC were included and divided randomly into two groups. Twenty patients received SCCR with S-1 (orally at 40 mg/m 2 per dose, b.i.d.) on days 1 through 14, cisplatin (60 mg/m 2 on day 1) every 4 weeks for two cycles, and radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions over 6 weeks) beginning on day 1. Twenty subjects received CCR (cisplatin and radiotherapy, the same as for SCCR). The 3-year overall response rate was 59.3% and 52.4% for the SCCR and CCR groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant, while the median overall survival was 33 months (range, 4–41 months) and 24 months (range, 2–37 months), respectively (P = 0.048). The median progression-free survival was 31 months for SCCR (range, 5–39 months), whereas it was 20 months (range, 2–37 months) for CCR (P = 0.037). The toxicity profile was similar in both groups. In summary, we demonstrated that S-1 and cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiation was more effective than cisplatin plus radiotherapy in NSCLC patients with acceptable toxicity

  16. Music Therapy for Symptom Management After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: Results From a Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Debbie; Bolwell, Brian; Majhail, Navneet S; Rybicki, Lisa; Yurch, Melissa; Abounader, Donna; Kohuth, Joseph; Jarancik, Shannon; Koniarczyk, Heather; McLellan, Linda; Dabney, Jane; Lawrence, Christine; Gallagher, Lisa; Kalaycio, Matt; Sobecks, Ronald; Dean, Robert; Hill, Brian; Pohlman, Brad; Hamilton, Betty K; Gerds, Aaron T; Jagadeesh, Deepa; Liu, Hien D

    2017-09-01

    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is frequently performed in patients with hematologic malignancies. ASCT can result in significant nausea, pain, and discomfort. Supportive care has improved, and pharmacologic therapies are frequently used, but with limitations. Music has been demonstrated to improve nausea and pain in patients undergoing chemotherapy, but little data are available regarding the effects of music therapy in the transplantation setting. In a prospective study, patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma undergoing ASCT were randomized to receive either interactive music therapy with a board-certified music therapist or no music therapy. The music therapy arm received 2 music therapy sessions on days +1 and +5. Primary outcomes were perception of pain and nausea measured on a visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes were narcotic pain medication use from day -1 to day +5 and impact of ASCT on patient mood as assessed by Profile of Mood States (POMS) on day +5. Eighty-two patients were enrolled, with 37 in the music therapy arm and 45 in the no music therapy arm. Patients who received MT had slightly increased nausea by day +7 compared with the no music therapy patients. The music therapy and no music therapy patients had similar pain scores; however, the patients who received music therapy used significantly less narcotic pain medication (median, 24 mg versus 73 mg; P = .038). Music therapy may be a viable nonpharmacologic method of pain management for patients undergoing ASCT; the music therapy patients required significantly fewer morphine equivalent doses compared with the no music therapy patients. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of music therapy on patient-perceived symptoms, such as pain and nausea. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  18. Discovery of cell-type specific DNA motif grammar in cis-regulatory elements using random Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lin, Peijie; Ho, Joshua W K

    2018-01-19

    It has been observed that many transcription factors (TFs) can bind to different genomic loci depending on the cell type in which a TF is expressed in, even though the individual TF usually binds to the same core motif in different cell types. How a TF can bind to the genome in such a highly cell-type specific manner, is a critical research question. One hypothesis is that a TF requires co-binding of different TFs in different cell types. If this is the case, it may be possible to observe different combinations of TF motifs - a motif grammar - located at the TF binding sites in different cell types. In this study, we develop a bioinformatics method to systematically identify DNA motifs in TF binding sites across multiple cell types based on published ChIP-seq data, and address two questions: (1) can we build a machine learning classifier to predict cell-type specificity based on motif combinations alone, and (2) can we extract meaningful cell-type specific motif grammars from this classifier model. We present a Random Forest (RF) based approach to build a multi-class classifier to predict the cell-type specificity of a TF binding site given its motif content. We applied this RF classifier to two published ChIP-seq datasets of TF (TCF7L2 and MAX) across multiple cell types. Using cross-validation, we show that motif combinations alone are indeed predictive of cell types. Furthermore, we present a rule mining approach to extract the most discriminatory rules in the RF classifier, thus allowing us to discover the underlying cell-type specific motif grammar. Our bioinformatics analysis supports the hypothesis that combinatorial TF motif patterns are cell-type specific.

  19. Introducing the RadBioStat Educational Software: Computer-Assisted Teaching of the Random Nature of Cell Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of radiation with cells and tissues has a random nature. Therefore, understanding the random nature of cell killing that is determined by Poisson distribution statistics is an essential point in education of radiation biology. RadBioStat is a newly developed educational MATLAB-based software designed for computer-assisted learning of the target theory in radiation biology. Although its potential applications is developing rapidly, currently RadBioStat software can be a useful tool in computerassisted education of radiobiological models such as single target single hit, multiple target single hit and multiple target multiple hit. Scholars’ feedback is valuable to the producers of this software and help them continuously improve this product, add new features and increase its desirability and functionality.

  20. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  1. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  2. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  3. Mechanisms of Mutation in Non-Dividing Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrosino, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    .... Previously, our laboratory discovered that RecA (an hRAD51 homolog) and RecBCD recombination repair proteins are necessary for the acquisition of 13-lactam drug-resistant mutations in the Escherichia coli chromosome during stationary-phase...

  4. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  5. Lgr5 intestinal stem cells have high telomerase activity and randomly segregate their chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.G.; Vries, R.G.J.; van den Born, M.M.W.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells have been proposed to be limited in the number of cell divisions they can undergo. This is thought to be a mechanism by which stem cells retain their integrity preventing disease. However, we have recently discovered intestinal crypt stem cells that persist for the lifetime of a mouse,

  6. Chemoprevention of Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma With a Single Course of Fluorouracil, 5%, Cream: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Martin A; Thwin, Soe Soe; Siegel, Julia A; Marcolivio, Kimberly; Means, Alexander D; Leader, Nicholas F; Shaw, Fiona M; Hogan, Daniel; Eilers, David; Swetter, Susan M; Chen, Suephy C; Jacob, Sharon E; Warshaw, Erin M; Stricklin, George P; Dellavalle, Robert P; Sidhu-Malik, Navjeet; Konnikov, Nellie; Werth, Victoria P; Keri, Jonette E; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Ringer, Robert J; Lew, Robert A; Ferguson, Ryan; DiGiovanna, John J; Huang, Grant D

    2018-02-01

    Keratinocyte carcinoma (ie, cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinoma) is the most common cancer in the United States. To determine whether topical fluorouracil could prevent surgically treated keratinocyte carcinoma. The Veterans Affairs Keratinocyte Carcinoma Chemoprevention Trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topical fluorouracil for chemoprevention of keratinocyte carcinoma. Participants were recruited from May 2009 to September 2011 from 12 Veterans Affairs medical centers and followed until June 30, 2013. Participants were veterans (n = 932) with a history of at least 2 keratinocyte carcinomas in the past 5 years; almost all were white males and the median age was 70 years. Application of fluorouracil, 5%, (n = 468) or vehicle control cream (n = 464) to the face and ears twice daily for 2 to 4 weeks upon randomization. Surgically treated keratinocyte, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma risk on the face and ears in the first year after enrollment; and time to first surgically treated keratinocyte, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma. The a priori hypothesis was that fluorouracil would be effective in preventing these cancers. Of 932 participants (916 men [98%]; 926 white [99%]; median age, 70 years), 299 developed a basal cell carcinoma end point (95 in year 1) and 108 developed a squamous cell carcinoma end point (25 in year 1) over 4 years (median follow-up, 2.8 years). Over the entire study, there was no difference between treatment groups in time to first keratinocyte, basal cell, or squamous cell carcinoma. During the first year, however, 5 participants (1%) in the fluorouracil group developed a squamous cell carcinoma vs 20 (4%) in the control group, a 75% (95% CI, 35%-91%) risk reduction (P = .002). The 11% reduction in basal cell carcinoma risk during year 1 (45 [10%] in the fluorouracil group vs 50 [11%] in the control group) was not statistically significant (95% CI, 39% reduction to 31

  7. The efficacy of an intraoperative cell saver during cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guyan; Bainbridge, Daniel; Martin, Janet; Cheng, Davy

    2009-08-01

    Cell salvage may be used during cardiac surgery to avoid allogeneic blood transfusion. It has also been claimed to improve patient outcomes by removing debris from shed blood, which may increase the risk of stroke or neurocognitive dysfunction. In this study, we sought to determine the overall safety and efficacy of cell salvage in cardiac surgery by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials. A comprehensive search was undertaken to identify all randomized trials of cell saver use during cardiac surgery. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and abstract databases were searched up to November 2008. All randomized trials comparing cell saver use and no cell saver use in cardiac surgery and reporting at least one predefined clinical outcome were included. The random effects model was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals [CI]) and the weighted mean differences (WMD, 95% CI) for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. Thirty-one randomized trials involving 2282 patients were included in the meta-analysis. During cardiac surgery, the use of an intraoperative cell saver reduced the rate of exposure to any allogeneic blood product (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.94, P = 0.02) and red blood cells (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.92, P = 0.02) and decreased the mean volume of total allogeneic blood products transfused per patient (WMD -256 mL, 95% CI: -416 to -95 mL, P = 0.002). There was no difference in hospital mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.25-1.68, P = 0.37), postoperative stroke or transient ischemia attack (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.20-1.76, P = 0.34), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.69-1.23, P = 0.56), renal dysfunction (OR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.41-1.80, P = 0.70), infection (OR 1.25, 95% CI: 0.75-2.10, P = 0.39), patients requiring fresh frozen plasma (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.66, P = 0.40), and patients requiring platelet transfusions (OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.63-1.28, P = 0.55) between cell saver and

  8. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  10. A 1T Dynamic Random Access Memory Cell Based on Gated Thyristor with Surrounding Gate Structure for High Scalability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Sihyun; Kim, Hyun-Min; Lee, Kitae; Kim, Sangwan; Pak, Byung-Gook

    2018-09-01

    In this study, we investigate a one-transistor (1T) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell based on a gated-thyristor device utilizing voltage-driven bistability to enable high-speed operations. The structural feature of the surrounding gate using a sidewall provides high scalability with regard to constructing an array architecture of the proposed devices. In addition, the operation mechanism, I-V characteristics, DRAM operations, and bias dependence are analyzed using a commercial device simulator. Unlike conventional 1T DRAM cells utilizing the floating body effect, excess carriers which are required to be stored to make two different states are not generated but injected from the n+ cathode region, giving the device high-speed operation capabilities. The findings here indicate that the proposed DRAM cell offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and high-speed operations.

  11. A note on crossing the phantom divide in hybrid dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Cai Ronggen

    2006-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been given to building dark energy models in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w=-1. However, to our knowledge, these models with crossing the phantom divide only provide the possibility that w can cross -1. They do not answer another question: why crossing phantom divide occurs recently? Since in many existing models whose equation-of-state parameter can cross the phantom divide, w undulates around -1 randomly, why are we living in an epochw<-1? This can be regarded as the second cosmological coincidence problem. In this Letter, we propose a possible approach to alleviate this problem within a hybrid dark energy model

  12. Bifurcation in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, K.; Naitou, H.; Tauchi, Y.; Fukumasa, O.

    2001-05-01

    A magnetic filter (MF) reflecting electrons from both sides can separate a low-temperature and low-density subplasma from a high-temperature and high-density main plasma. The one-dimensional numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell code revealed that, depending on the asymmetry, the plasma divided by the MF behaves dynamically or statically [K. Ohi et al., Physics of Plasmas 8, 23 (2001)]. The transition between the two bifurcated states is discontinuous. In the dynamic state, the autonomous potential oscillation in the subplasma is synchronized with the passage of the shock wave structure generated by the modulated ion beam from the main plasma. The stationary phase of the dynamic state appears after the amplitude of the potential oscillation in the subplasma grows exponentially from the thermal noise. In the static state, the system is stable to the growth of the potential oscillation in the subplasma. (author)

  13. Fundamental criteria for the design of high-performance Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory cells and experimental confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental design criteria for Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory (NDRO RAM) cells are presented, within the context of an LSI array environment. Emphasis is placed upon principles which are relevant to high performance. The criteria are elucidated via a specific design which is simulated and then experimentally evaluated in a technology with a smallest critical dimension of 5 μm. The specific cell differs from previously tested Josephson NDRO cells in several respects; namely, the cell stores only approx.8Phi 0 , employs interferometer gates and an external damping resistor, allows switching into device resonances, and eliminates the need for a special initialization cycle. The cell-selection scheme, employing triple coincidence, results in larger operating margins and smaller operating currents than have previously been achieved. The large operating margins and all basic cell design criteria were experimentally verified. The experimental interferometer gate characteristics were analyzed in detail and found to be describable by simple models. In addition, it was discovered that single flux quantum transitions in the interferometer gates could be exploited beneficially in order to enhance the insensitivity of operating margins to fabrication tolerances

  14. Cytokine-primed bone marrow stem cells vs. peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation: a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisdorf, D; Miller, J; Verfaillie, C; Burns, L; Wagner, J; Blazar, B; Davies, S; Miller, W; Hannan, P; Steinbuch, M; Ramsay, N; McGlave, P

    1997-10-01

    Autologous transplantation for non-Hodgkins lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease is widely used as standard therapy for those with high-risk or relapsed tumor. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections have nearly completely replaced bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) harvests because of the perceived advantages of more rapid engraftment, less tumor contamination in the inoculum, and better survival after therapy. The advantage of PBSC, however, may derive from the hematopoietic stimulating cytokines used for PBSC mobilization. Therefore, we tested a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF used to prime either BMSC or PBSC before collection for use in autologous transplantation. Sixty-two patients receiving transplants (31 PBSC; 31 BMSC) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 51) or Hodgkin's disease (n = 11) were treated. All patients received 6 days of randomly assigned cytokine. Those with cellular marrow in morphologic remission underwent BMSC harvest, while those with hypocellular marrow or microscopic marrow tumor involvement had PBSC collected. Neutrophil recovery was similarly rapid in all groups (median 14 days; range 10-23 days), though two patients had delayed neutrophil recovery using GM-CSF primed PBSC (p = 0.01). Red cell and platelet recovery were significantly quicker after BMSC mobilized with GM-CSF or PBSC mobilized with G-CSF. This speedier hematologic recovery resulted in earlier hospital discharge as well. However, in multivariate analysis, neither the stem cell source nor randomly assigned G-CSF vs. GM-CSF was independently associated with earlier multilineage hematologic recovery or shorter hospital stay. Relapse-free survival was not independently affected by either the assigned stem cell source or the randomly assigned priming cytokine, though malignant relapse was more frequent in those assigned to PBSC (RR of relapse 3.15, p = 0.03). These data document that BMSC, when collected following cytokine priming, can yield a similarly rapid hematologic

  15. Uneven Distribution of Microgranules in Divided Lansoprazole Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Gillian A; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor commonly used in children lansoprazole-containing microgranules within each half of a divided tablet. Clinicians must determine whether this difference is clinically relevant when prescribing "divided" medication to children.

  16. Computation of restoration of ligand response in the random kinetics of a prostate cancer cell signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Saswati; Nakakuki, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kimura, Shuhei; Raha, Soumyendu

    2011-01-01

    Mutation and/or dysfunction of signaling proteins in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway are frequently observed in various kinds of human cancer. Consistent with this fact, in the present study, we experimentally observe that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced activation profile of MAP kinase signaling is not straightforward dose-dependent in the PC3 prostate cancer cells. To find out what parameters and reactions in the pathway are involved in this departure from the normal dose-dependency, a model-based pathway analysis is performed. The pathway is mathematically modeled with 28 rate equations yielding those many ordinary differential equations (ODE) with kinetic rate constants that have been reported to take random values in the existing literature. This has led to us treating the ODE model of the pathways kinetics as a random differential equations (RDE) system in which the parameters are random variables. We show that our RDE model captures the uncertainty in the kinetic rate constants as seen in the behavior of the experimental data and more importantly, upon simulation, exhibits the abnormal EGF dose-dependency of the activation profile of MAP kinase signaling in PC3 prostate cancer cells. The most likely set of values of the kinetic rate constants obtained from fitting the RDE model into the experimental data is then used in a direct transcription based dynamic optimization method for computing the changes needed in these kinetic rate constant values for the restoration of the normal EGF dose response. The last computation identifies the parameters, i.e., the kinetic rate constants in the RDE model, that are the most sensitive to the change in the EGF dose response behavior in the PC3 prostate cancer cells. The reactions in which these most sensitive parameters participate emerge as candidate drug targets on the signaling pathway. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  18. Divided Attention Abilities in Young and Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Benjamin L.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments on divided attention and adult aging are reported that take into account age differences in single-task performance and that measure divided attention independently of resource allocation strategies. No significant age difference in divided attention ability independent of single-task performance level was found in either…

  19. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  1. 5 CFR 838.303 - Expressly dividing employee annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expressly dividing employee annuity. 838... Employee Annuities § 838.303 Expressly dividing employee annuity. (a) A court order directed at employee annuity is not a court order acceptable for processing unless it expressly divides the employee annuity as...

  2. Defibrotide for the treatment of severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease and multiorgan failure after stem cell transplantation: a multicenter, randomized, dose-finding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Uno, Hajime; Jin, Zhezhen; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Martin, Paul L; Steinbach, Gideon; Murray, Karen F; Vogelsang, Georgia B; Chen, Allen R; Krishnan, Amrita; Kernan, Nancy A; Avigan, David E; Spitzer, Thomas R; Shulman, Howard M; Di Salvo, Donald N; Revta, Carolyn; Warren, Diane; Momtaz, Parisa; Bradwin, Gary; Wei, L J; Iacobelli, Massimo; McDonald, George B; Guinan, Eva C

    2010-07-01

    Therapeutic options for severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) are limited and outcomes are dismal, but early phase I/II studies have suggested promising activity and acceptable toxicity using the novel polydisperse oligonucleotide defibrotide. This randomized phase II dose-finding trial determined the efficacy of defibrotide in patients with severe VOD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and identified an appropriate dose for future trials. Adult and pediatric patients received either lower-dose (arm A: 25 mg/kg/day; n = 75) or higher-dose (arm B: 40 mg/kg/day; n = 74) i.v. defibrotide administered in divided doses every 6 hours for > or =14 days or until complete response, VOD progression, or any unacceptable toxicity occurred. Overall complete response and day +100 post-HSCT survival rates were 46% and 42%, respectively, with no significant difference between treatment arms. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was low (8% overall; 7% in arm A, 10% in arm B); there was no significant difference in the overall rate of adverse events between treatment arms. Early stabilization or decreased bilirubin was associated with better response and day +100 survival, and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) during treatment was associated with better outcome; changes were similar in both treatment arms. Defibrotide 25 or 40 mg/kg/day also appears effective in treating severe VOD following HSCT. In the absence of any differences in activity, toxicity or changes in PAI-1 level, defibrotide 25 mg/kg/day was selected for ongoing phase III trials in VOD.

  3. Cell saver for on-pump coronary operations reduces systemic inflammatory markers: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Sune; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Andersen, Lars Willy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).......This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)....

  4. Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment.

  5. Aneuploidy in immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells with non-random loss of chromosome 13 in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masao; Takeuchi, Kikuko; Ozawa, Yutaka; Kohara, Akihiro; Mizusawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes) is commonly observed in most human cancer cells, highlighting the need to examine chromosomal instability in tumorigenesis. Previously, the immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line UE6E7T-3 was shown to undergo a preferential loss of one copy of chromosome 13 after prolonged culture. Here, the loss of chromosome 13 was found to be caused by chromosome missegregation during mitosis, which involved unequal segregation, exclusion of the misaligned chromosome 13 on the metaphase plate, and trapping of chromosome 13 in the midbody region, as observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Near-diploid aneuploidy, not tetraploidy, was the direct result. The loss of chromosome 13 was non-random, and was detected by analysis of microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphism-based loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Of the five microsatellite loci on chromosome 13, four loci showed microsatellite instability at an early stage in culture, and LOH was apparent at a late stage in culture. These results suggest that the microsatellite mutations cause changes in centromere integrity provoking loss of this chromosome in the UE6E7T-3 cell line. Thus, these results support the use of this cell line as a useful model for understanding the mechanism of aneuploid formation in cell cultures.

  6. Digital Divide in India: Measurement, Determinants and Policy for Addressing the Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies of the digital divide reveals the gap that exists between those who have access to ICTs and those who do not create exclusion, endanger social integration and hamper economic growth. The digital divide has many dimensions and can be categorized as global, regional and national. At national level, there is no single divide, but multiple divides: for instance, within countries, between men and women, young and elderly, rich and poor and most importantly rural and urban. The pre...

  7. Concept of rewritable organic ferroelectric random access memory in two lateral transistors-in-one cell architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Gyu Jeong; Keum, Chang-Min; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of rewritable ferroelectric random access memory (RAM) with two lateral organic transistors-in-one cell architecture. Lateral integration of a paraelectric organic field-effect transistor (OFET), being a selection transistor, and a ferroelectric OFET as a memory transistor is realized using a paraelectric depolarizing layer (PDL) which is patterned on a ferroelectric insulator by transfer-printing. For the selection transistor, the key roles of the PDL are to reduce the dipolar strength and the surface roughness of the gate insulator, leading to the low memory on–off ratio and the high switching on–off current ratio. A new driving scheme preventing the crosstalk between adjacent memory cells is also demonstrated for the rewritable operation of the ferroelectric RAM. (paper)

  8. A novel multiplexer-based structure for random access memory cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a new technology in scale of nano and perfect replacement for CMOS circuits in the future. Memory is one of the basic components in any digital system, so designing the random access memory (RAM) with high speed and optimal in QCA is important. In this paper, by employing the structure of multiplexer, a novel RAM cell architecture is proposed. The proposed architecture is implemented without the coplanar crossover approach. The proposed architecture is simulated using the QCADesigner version 2.0.3 and QCAPro. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed QCA RAM architecture has the best performance in terms of delay, circuit complexity, area, cell count and energy consumption in comparison with other QCA RAM architectures.

  9. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  10. Effect of increased exercise in school children on physical fitness and endothelial progenitor cells: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Claudia; Gaede, Luise; Adams, Volker; Gelbrich, Götz; Leichtle, Alexander; Erbs, Sandra; Sonnabend, Melanie; Fikenzer, Kati; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Bruegel, Mathias; Thiery, Joachim; Schuler, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to examine whether additional school exercise lessons would result in improved peak oxygen uptake (primary end point) and body mass index-standard deviation score, motor and coordinative abilities, circulating progenitor cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (major secondary end points). Seven sixth-grade classes (182 children, aged 11.1+/-0.7 years) were randomized to an intervention group (4 classes with 109 students) with daily school exercise lessons for 1 year and a control group (3 classes with 73 students) with regular school sports twice weekly. The significant effects of intervention estimated from ANCOVA adjusted for intraclass correlation were the following: increase of peak o(2) (3.7 mL/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 7.2) and increase of circulating progenitor cells evaluated by flow cytometry (97 cells per 1 x 10(6) leukocytes; 95% confidence interval, 13 to 181). No significant difference was seen for body mass index-standard deviation score (-0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.28 to 0.13); however, there was a trend to reduction of the prevalence of overweight and obese children in the intervention group (from 12.8% to 7.3%). No treatment effect was seen for motor and coordinative abilities (4; 95% confidence interval, -1 to 8) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.14). Regular physical activity by means of daily school exercise lessons has a significant positive effect on physical fitness (o(2)max). Furthermore, the number of circulating progenitor cells can be increased, and there is a positive trend in body mass index-standard deviation score reduction and motor ability improvement. Therefore, we conclude that primary prevention by means of increasing physical activity should start in childhood. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00176371.

  11. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  12. Non-random distribution of instability-associated chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints in human lymphoblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Stephen R.; Papworth, David; Grosovsky, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic instability is observed in tumors and in a large fraction of the progeny surviving irradiation. One of the best-characterized phenotypic manifestations of genomic instability is delayed chromosome aberrations. Our working hypothesis for the current study was that if genomic instability is in part attributable to cis mechanisms, we should observe a non-random distribution of chromosomes or sites involved in instability-associated rearrangements, regardless of radiation quality, dose, or trans factor expression. We report here the karyotypic examination of 296 instability-associated chromosomal rearrangement breaksites (IACRB) from 118 unstable TK6 human B lymphoblast, and isogenic derivative, clones. When we tested whether IACRB were distributed across the chromosomes based on target size, a significant non-random distribution was evident (p < 0.00001), and three IACRB hotspots (chromosomes 11, 12, and 22) and one IACRB coldspot (chromosome 2) were identified. Statistical analysis at the chromosomal band-level identified four IACRB hotspots accounting for 20% of all instability-associated breaks, two of which account for over 14% of all IACRB. Further, analysis of independent clones provided evidence within 14 individual clones of IACRB clustering at the chromosomal band level, suggesting a predisposition for further breaks after an initial break at some chromosomal bands. All of these events, independently, or when taken together, were highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p < 0.000001). These IACRB band-level cluster hotspots were observed independent of radiation quality, dose, or cellular p53 status. The non-random distribution of instability-associated chromosomal rearrangements described here significantly differs from the distribution that was observed in a first-division post-irradiation metaphase analysis (p = 0.0004). Taken together, these results suggest that genomic instability may be in part driven by chromosomal cis mechanisms

  13. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  14. Gemcitabine and treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in relapsed or refractory elderly patients: A prospective randomized trial in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aribi Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Support for non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL with large cells that is refractory or relapsed after first-line chemotherapy poses a greater therapeutic problem with bone marrow transplant therapy or when old age is a contra-indication for high-dose chemotherapy, especially among developing countries such as Algeria. Aim: To show that the regimen, including gemcitabine, could be more effective in treating elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL in relapse / refractory, without complete remission, when compared with the ESHAP (etoposide, cisplatine, solumedrol, aracytine regimen. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six patients in the age group of 60-70 years were volunteers for a prospective randomized single-blind study, carried out for three years. Patients were divided into two groups by the drawing of lots. The first group (GA, n = 48, relapse; n = 27 [56.3%], refractory; n = 21 [43.7%] received treatment with ESHAP protocol and the second one (GB, n = 48, relapse; n = 28 [58%], refractory; n = 20 [42%] with GPD (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, cisplatine protocol. Results: The overall response rates and mean survival at three years were significantly higher among patients subjected to GPD treatment compared with those subjected to ESHAP treatment (63% vs. 55%, P = 0.01 and 20.5% [95% CI 16.5-24.5] vs. 11.8% [8.9-14.6], respectively. Additionally, three-year progression-free and event-free survival rates were 20.5% (16.3-24 and 19.7% (15.9-23.5, respectively, for the GPD regimen and 10.9% (8.2-13.7 and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.7, respectively, for the ESHAP regimen. Moreover, the GPD regimen was associated with improving overall survival (RR=2.02, 95% CI 1.59-2.56; P = 0.000, event-free survival (2.03, 1.64-2.52; P < 0.001 and progression-free survival (1.86, 1.46-2.37; P < 0.001. Conclusion: In cases of contra-indication for high-dose chemotherapy for elderly patients with DLBCL, without complete remission, the Gemcitabine

  15. The Apply of Frequency Divider Circuit in Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU Hefan; Zeng Bing; Zhang Ziliang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Different components in a digital system often need different working frequencies, the way we often used is clock division from the system clock. Through the analysis of frequency divider principle, a applied integer frequency dividing circuit with SE120A is proposed. It can divide the frequency multiple from 2 to 64. It's usually used in nuclear electronics. It's testing and analysis is displayed that it has no noise, good frequency division effect and stability. (authors)

  16. High-resolution characterization of sequence signatures due to non-random cleavage of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrananda, Dineika; Thorne, Natalie P; Bahlo, Melanie

    2015-06-17

    High-throughput sequencing of cell-free DNA fragments found in human plasma has been used to non-invasively detect fetal aneuploidy, monitor organ transplants and investigate tumor DNA. However, many biological properties of this extracellular genetic material remain unknown. Research that further characterizes circulating DNA could substantially increase its diagnostic value by allowing the application of more sophisticated bioinformatics tools that lead to an improved signal to noise ratio in the sequencing data. In this study, we investigate various features of cell-free DNA in plasma using deep-sequencing data from two pregnant women (>70X, >50X) and compare them with matched cellular DNA. We utilize a descriptive approach to examine how the biological cleavage of cell-free DNA affects different sequence signatures such as fragment lengths, sequence motifs at fragment ends and the distribution of cleavage sites along the genome. We show that the size distributions of these cell-free DNA molecules are dependent on their autosomal and mitochondrial origin as well as the genomic location within chromosomes. DNA mapping to particular microsatellites and alpha repeat elements display unique size signatures. We show how cell-free fragments occur in clusters along the genome, localizing to nucleosomal arrays and are preferentially cleaved at linker regions by correlating the mapping locations of these fragments with ENCODE annotation of chromatin organization. Our work further demonstrates that cell-free autosomal DNA cleavage is sequence dependent. The region spanning up to 10 positions on either side of the DNA cleavage site show a consistent pattern of preference for specific nucleotides. This sequence motif is present in cleavage sites localized to nucleosomal cores and linker regions but is absent in nucleosome-free mitochondrial DNA. These background signals in cell-free DNA sequencing data stem from the non-random biological cleavage of these fragments. This

  17. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Gene delivery by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) is efficient, but genomic integration of the viral DNA is strongly biased toward transcriptionally active loci resulting in an increased risk of insertional mutagenesis in gene therapy protocols. Nonviral...... Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase......-mediated insertion of lentiviral DNA circles generated during transduction of target cells with integrase (IN)-defective LVs (IDLVs). By construction of a lentivirus-transposon hybrid vector allowing transposition exclusively from circular viral DNA substrates, we demonstrate that SB transposase added in trans...

  18. The causal effect of red blood cell folate on genome-wide methylation in cord blood: a Mendelian randomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Alexandra M; Michels, Karin B

    2013-12-04

    Investigation of the biological mechanism by which folate acts to affect fetal development can inform appraisal of expected benefits and risk management. This research is ethically imperative given the ubiquity of folic acid fortified products in the US. Considering that folate is an essential component in the one-carbon metabolism pathway that provides methyl groups for DNA methylation, epigenetic modifications provide a putative molecular mechanism mediating the effect of folic acid supplementation on neonatal and pediatric outcomes. In this study we use a Mendelian Randomization Unnecessary approach to assess the effect of red blood cell (RBC) folate on genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood. Site-specific CpG methylation within the proximal promoter regions of approximately 14,500 genes was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 Bead Chip for 50 infants from the Epigenetic Birth Cohort at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. Using methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype as the instrument, the Mendelian Randomization approach identified 7 CpG loci with a significant (mostly positive) association between RBC folate and methylation level. Among the genes in closest proximity to this significant subset of CpG loci, several enriched biologic processes were involved in nucleic acid transport and metabolic processing. Compared to the standard ordinary least squares regression method, our estimates were demonstrated to be more robust to unmeasured confounding. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest genome-wide analysis of the effects of folate on methylation pattern, and the first to employ Mendelian Randomization to assess the effects of an exposure on epigenetic modifications. These results can help guide future analyses of the causal effects of periconceptional folate levels on candidate pathways.

  19. Randomize Trial of Cisplatin plus Gemcitabine with either Sorafenib or Placebo as First-line Therapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yan WANG; Lin WANG; Yutao LIU; Shufei YU; Xiangru ZHANG; Yuankai SHI; Yan SUN

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective Platinum-based chemotherapy doublets reached an efficacy plateau in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This randomized controlled study prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either Sorafenib or placebo as first-line therapy for NSCLC. Methods Thirty patients, which were confirmed advanced NSCLC histologically or cytologically, were randomly assigned to receive up to six cycles of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with sorafenib or ...

  20. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Gwenyth R; Middleton, Kimberly R; Ames, Nancy; Brooks, Alyssa T; Handel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality), anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250 PMID:25520557

  1. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun Ted

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.

  2. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R. Wallen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality, anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250

  3. TRAPping telomerase within the intestinal stem cell niche

    OpenAIRE

    Pech, Matthew F; Artandi, Steven E

    2011-01-01

    Recent work from Hans Clevers' lab reveals high telomerase activity and telomere length in dividing LGR5-positive intestinal stem cells. They further report random chromosome segregation and thus challenge the ‘immortal strand' hypothesis at least for this stem cell population.

  4. A randomized trial of chest irradiation alone versus chest irradiation plus Lentinan in squamous cell lung cancer in limited stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Ikuro; Ohnoshi, Taisuke; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effect of Lentinan, polysaccharides from Lentinusedodes, in combination with chest irradiation for limited-stage squamous cell lung cancer, we conducted a randomized trial between January 1987 and July 1989. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a definitive chest irradiation of 60 Gy alone (RT) or the chest irradiation plus Lentinan (RT+L). Patients allocated to the RT+L group received iv infusion of Lentinan, 1 mg twice a week or 2 mg once a week, as long as possible. Of 201 patients enrolled, 183 (94 for RT, and 89 for RT+L) were eligible for analysis of survival time, and 169 (86 for RT, and 83 for RT+L) were evaluated for tumor response, survival time and quality of life. The response rate to the treatments showed a trend favoring the RT+L group (65% vs. 51%, p=0.142). The median survival time was 455 days for the RT+L group and 371 days for the RT group. The difference was not statistically significant. In the subset of patients with cancer of hilar origin, however, RT+L group patients lived significantly longer than RT group patients: Progression-free interval from symptoms and quality of life were evaluated for the both groups based on manual records of an individual patient. RT+L group patients had a significantly longer progression-free interval from dyspneic feeling than the RT group patients. The RT+L group tended to have a feeling of well-being. We conclude that Lentinan in combination with chest irradiation is useful for patients with limited-stage squamous cell lung cancer in terms of prolongation of life and maintenance of a favorable quality of life as well. (author)

  5. Ga-doped indium oxide nanowire phase change random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun; Latypov, Marat I; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Meyyappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) devices are usually constructed using tellurium based compounds, but efforts to seek other materials providing desirable memory characteristics have continued. We have fabricated PCRAM devices using Ga-doped In 2 O 3 nanowires with three different Ga compositions (Ga/(In+Ga) atomic ratio: 2.1%, 11.5% and 13.0%), and investigated their phase switching properties. The nanowires (∼40 nm in diameter) can be repeatedly switched between crystalline and amorphous phases, and Ga concentration-dependent memory switching behavior in the nanowires was observed with ultra-fast set/reset rates of 80 ns/20 ns, which are faster than for other competitive phase change materials. The observations of fast set/reset rates and two distinct states with a difference in resistance of two to three orders of magnitude appear promising for nonvolatile information storage. Moreover, we found that increasing the Ga concentration can reduce the power consumption and resistance drift; however, too high a level of Ga doping may cause difficulty in achieving the phase transition. (paper)

  6. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  7. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  8. A pulse amplitude dividing circuit for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediss, C.; McQuarrie, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulse dividing circuit has been developed to provide analogue and digital outputs proportional to the ratio of the amplitudes of two nuclear pulses. Input pulses ranging from 200 mV to 10 V may be processed by the device. The pulse dividing circuit has been successfully incorporated as part of a small gamma camera. (orig.)

  9. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  10. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  11. Negotiating Digital Divides: Perspectives from the New Zealand Schooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Louise; Sylvester, Allan; Johnstone, David

    2017-01-01

    This article explores digital divides identified in research literature and considers educational policy directions that may mitigate or enhance future inequities. A review of literature identified three categories of digital divides in society; access, capability, and participation. To explore the strategic focus in schooling, data were gathered…

  12. Confronting the Digital Divide: Debunking Brave New World Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Morrell, Ernest; Alvermann, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    There is far more to the digital divide than meets the eye. In this article, the authors consolidate existing research on the digital divide to offer some tangible ways for educators to bridge the gap between the haves and have-nots, or the cans and cannots. Drawing on Aldous Huxley's notion of a "brave new world," some digital divide…

  13. A Divided Attention Experiment with Pervasively Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Task performance of 12 pervasive hyperactives and controls (ages 8-13) was studied in a divided attention reaction time experiment. Hyperactives were slower than controls, had more variable reaction times, and made more frequent errors. Task inefficiency in hyperactives could not be explained by a divided attention deficiency or impulsive…

  14. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  15. Connecting across Many Divides: Digital, Racial, and Socio-Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Janice; Daniel, Cathy

    As Internet usage increases nationally, it becomes more apparent that the Digital Divide (the gap between those who have information access and those who do not) is related to demographics. Although the number of low income and ethnic households that have Internet access is increasing, the Digital Divide is expected to widen because access…

  16. The effect of sleep deprivation on BOLD activity elicited by a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Hughes, Matthew E; Croft, Rodney J; Howard, Mark E; Crewther, David; Kennedy, Gerard A; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Rob J; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Johnston, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Sleep loss, widespread in today's society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of sleep deprivation and one after a normal night of sleep. During each session, BOLD fMRI was measured while subjects completed a cross-modal divided attention task (visual and auditory). After normal sleep, increased BOLD activation was observed bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe during divided attention performance. Subjects reported feeling significantly more sleepy in the sleep deprivation session, and there was a trend towards poorer divided attention task performance. Sleep deprivation led to a down regulation of activation in the left superior frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting an attenuation of top-down control mechanisms on the attentional system. These findings have implications for understanding the neural correlates of divided attention and the neurofunctional changes that occur in individuals who are sleep deprived.

  17. The New Frontier of Digital Inequality. The Participatory Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Robles Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between digital participation and the digital participation divide. The first concept refers to the use of the Internet to produce cultural goods that are subsequently shared on a global scale; the latter, refers to the inequalities generated by the uneven distribution of these creative uses of the Internet in a given population. Empirically, our work focuses on the role of digital skills and sociopolitical attitudes toward the Internet in explaining the digital participation divide, as they are considered precursors of digital participation. Results suggest that the same mechanisms that previously sustained digital divide are now fostering digital participation divide; however, we argue that the negative social consequences of this divide exceed those of its predecessor.

  18. Dynamical system modeling to simulate donor T cell response to whole exome sequencing-derived recipient peptides: Understanding randomness in alloreactivity incidence following stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Koparde

    Full Text Available Quantitative relationship between the magnitude of variation in minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA and graft versus host disease (GVHD pathophysiology in stem cell transplant (SCT donor-recipient pairs (DRP is not established. In order to elucidate this relationship, whole exome sequencing (WES was performed on 27 HLA matched related (MRD, & 50 unrelated donors (URD, to identify nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. An average 2,463 SNPs were identified in MRD, and 4,287 in URD DRP (p<0.01; resulting peptide antigens that may be presented on HLA class I molecules in each DRP were derived in silico (NetMHCpan ver2.0 and the tissue expression of proteins these were derived from determined (GTex. MRD DRP had an average 3,670 HLA-binding-alloreactive peptides, putative mHA (pmHA with an IC50 of <500 nM, and URD, had 5,386 (p<0.01. To simulate an alloreactive donor cytotoxic T cell response, the array of pmHA in each patient was considered as an operator matrix modifying a hypothetical cytotoxic T cell clonal vector matrix; each responding T cell clone's proliferation was determined by the logistic equation of growth, accounting for HLA binding affinity and tissue expression of each alloreactive peptide. The resulting simulated organ-specific alloreactive T cell clonal growth revealed marked variability, with the T cell count differences spanning orders of magnitude between different DRP. Despite an estimated, uniform set of constants used in the model for all DRP, and a heterogeneously treated group of patients, higher total and organ-specific T cell counts were associated with cumulative incidence of moderate to severe GVHD in recipients. In conclusion, exome wide sequence differences and the variable alloreactive peptide binding to HLA in each DRP yields a large range of possible alloreactive donor T cell responses. Our findings also help understand the apparent randomness observed in the development of alloimmune responses.

  19. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation vs intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Jacob M; Farge, Dominique; Sont, Jacob K; Naraghi, Kamran; Marjanovic, Zora; Larghero, Jérôme; Schuerwegh, Annemie J; Marijt, Erik W A; Vonk, Madelon C; Schattenberg, Anton V; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Daikeler, Thomas; Kötter, Ina; Schmalzing, Marc; Martin, Thierry; Lioure, Bruno; Weiner, Stefan M; Kreuter, Alexander; Deligny, Christophe; Durand, Jean-Marc; Emery, Paul; Machold, Klaus P; Sarrot-Reynauld, Francoise; Warnatz, Klaus; Adoue, Daniel F P; Constans, Joël; Tony, Hans-Peter; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Fassas, Athanasios; Himsel, Andrea; Launay, David; Lo Monaco, Andrea; Philippe, Pierre; Quéré, Isabelle; Rich, Éric; Westhovens, Rene; Griffiths, Bridget; Saccardi, Riccardo; van den Hoogen, Frank H; Fibbe, Willem E; Socié, Gérard; Gratwohl, Alois; Tyndall, Alan

    2014-06-25

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have shown efficacy in systemic sclerosis in phase 1 and small phase 2 trials. To compare efficacy and safety of HSCT vs 12 successive monthly intravenous pulses of cyclophosphamide. The Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Scleroderma (ASTIS) trial, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized (1:1), open-label, parallel-group, clinical trial conducted in 10 countries at 29 centers with access to a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-registered transplant facility. From March 2001 to October 2009, 156 patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis were recruited and followed up until October 31, 2013. HSCT vs intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide. The primary end point was event-free survival, defined as time from randomization until the occurrence of death or persistent major organ failure. A total of 156 patients were randomly assigned to receive HSCT (n = 79) or cyclophosphamide (n = 77). During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 53 events occurred: 22 in the HSCT group (19 deaths and 3 irreversible organ failures) and 31 in the control group (23 deaths and 8 irreversible organ failures). During the first year, there were more events in the HSCT group (13 events [16.5%], including 8 treatment-related deaths) than in the control group (8 events [10.4%], with no treatment-related deaths). At 2 years, 14 events (17.7%) had occurred cumulatively in the HSCT group vs 14 events (18.2%) in the control group; at 4 years, 15 events (19%) had occurred cumulatively in the HSCT group vs 20 events (26%) in the control group. Time-varying hazard ratios (modeled with treatment × time interaction) for event-free survival were 0.35 (95% CI, 0.16-0.74) at 2 years and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.16-0.74) at 4 years. Among patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, HSCT was associated with increased treatment-related mortality in the first year

  20. The effects of divided attention at study and test on false recognition: a comparison of DRM and categorized lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of divided attention at encoding and retrieval on false recognition. In Experiment 1, participants studied word lists in either full or divided attention (random number generation) conditions and then took part in a recognition test with full attention. In Experiment 2, after studying word lists with full attention, participants carried out a recognition test with either full or divided attention. Experiment 3 manipulated attention at both study and test. We also compared Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) and categorized lists, due to recent claims regarding the locus of false memories produced by such lists (Smith, Gerkens, Pierce, & Choi, 2002). With both list types, false "remember" responses were reduced by divided attention at encoding and increased by divided attention at retrieval. The findings suggest that the production of false memories occurs as a result of the generation of associates at encoding and failures of source monitoring retrieval. Crucially, this is true for both DRM and categorized lists.

  1. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD.

  2. Improved process for contacting finely divided solid particles with gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-07-30

    A process of contacting solids and gases of the type in which finely divided solids are maintained in a dense fluidized state in a treating zone by means of an upflowing gaseous fluidizing medium wherein solid packing in the form of a body static contiguous elements is maintained in the treating zone. The size, shape, and arrangement of the elements constituting the packing being such as to define a labyrinth of passageways in which the finely divided solids are maintained in a fluidized state, and the finely divided solids are adapted to flow freely downwardly through the passageways in the absence of a gaseous fluidizing medium.

  3. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  4. Three-dimensional random resistor-network model for solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Ali; Luo Jingli; Nandakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes was developed to evaluate the performance and further investigate the effect of microstructure on the performance of SOFC electrodes. Porosity of the electrode is controlled by adding pore former particles (spheres) to the electrode and ignoring them in analysis step. To enhance connectivity between particles and increase the length of triple-phase boundary (TPB), sintering process is mimicked by enlarging particles to certain degree after settling them inside the packing. Geometrical characteristics such as length of TBP and active contact area as well as porosity can easily be calculated using the current model. Electrochemical process is simulated using resistor-network model and complete Butler-Volmer equation is used to deal with charge transfer process on TBP. The model shows that TPBs are not uniformly distributed across the electrode and location of TPBs as well as amount of electrochemical reaction is not uniform. Effects of electrode thickness, particle size ratio, electron and ion conductor conductivities and rate of electrochemical reaction on overall electrochemical performance of electrode are investigated.

  5. Reproductive health choices for young adults with sickle cell disease or trait: randomized controlled trial immediate posttest effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Diana J; Gallo, Agatha M; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christine; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Labotka, Robert J; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigo; Angulo, Veronica; Carrasco, Jesus; Shuey, David; Pelligra, Stephanie; Wang, Edward; Rogers, Dennie T; Thompson, Alexis A

    2013-01-01

    People with sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell trait (SCT) may not have information about genetic inheritance needed for making informed reproductive health decisions. CHOICES is a Web-based, multimedia educational intervention that provides information about reproductive options and consequences to help those with SCD or SCT identify and implement an informed parenting plan. Efficacy of CHOICES compared with usual care must be evaluated. The purpose was to compare immediate posttest effects of CHOICES versus an attention-control usual care intervention (e-Book) on SCD-/SCT-related reproductive health knowledge, intention, and behavior. In a randomized controlled study, we recruited subjects with SCD/SCT from clinics, community settings, and online networks with data collected at sites convenient to the 234 subjects with SCD (n = 136) or SCT (n = 98). Their ages ranged from 18 to 35 years; 65% were women, and 94% were African American. Subjects completed a measure of sickle cell reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior before and immediately after the intervention. Compared with the e-Book group, the CHOICES group had significantly higher average knowledge scores and probability of reporting a parenting plan to avoid SCD or SCD and SCT when pretest scores were controlled. Effects on intention and planned behavior were not significant. The CHOICES group showed significant change in their intention and planned behavior, whereas the e-Book group did not show significant change in their intention, but their planned behavior differed significantly. Initial efficacy findings are encouraging but warrant planned booster sessions and outcome follow-ups to determine sustained intervention efficacy on reproductive health knowledge, intention, and actual behavior of persons with SCD/SCT.

  6. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in patients with decompensated alcoholic liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Spahr

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impaired liver regeneration is associated with a poor outcome in patients with decompensated alcoholic liver disease (ALD. We assessed whether autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation (BMMCT improved liver function in decompensated ALD. DESIGN: 58 patients (mean age 54 yrs; mean MELD score 19, all with cirrhosis, 81% with alcoholic steatohepatitis at baseline liver biopsy were randomized early after hospital admission to standard medical therapy (SMT alone (n = 30, including steroids in patients with a Maddrey's score ≥32, or combined with G-CSF injections and autologous BMMCT into the hepatic artery (n = 28. Bone marrow cells were harvested, isolated and reinfused the same day. The primary endpoint was a ≥3 points decrease in the MELD score at 3 months, corresponding to a clinically relevant improvement in liver function. Liver biopsy was repeated at week 4 to assess changes in Ki67+/CK7+ hepatic progenitor cells (HPC compartment. RESULTS: Both study groups were comparable at baseline. After 3 months, 2 and 4 patients died in the BMMCT and SMT groups, respectively. Adverse events were equally distributed between groups. Moderate alcohol relapse occurred in 31% of patients. The MELD score improved in parallel in both groups during follow-up with 18 patients (64% from the BMMCT group and 18 patients (53% from the SMT group reaching the primary endpoint (p = 0.43 (OR 1.6, CI 0.49-5.4 in an intention to treat analysis. Comparing liver biopsy at 4 weeks to baseline, steatosis improved (p<0.001, and proliferating HPC tended to decrease in both groups (-35 and -33%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Autologous BMMCT, compared to SMT is a safe procedure but did not result in an expanded HPC compartment or improved liver function. These data suggest either insufficient regenerative stimulation after BMMCT or resistance to liver regenerative drive in patients with decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  7. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Immediate Posttest Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Diana J; Gallo, Agatha M.; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E.; Stahl, Christine; Hershberger, Patricia E.; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L.; Labotka, Robert J.; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigo; Angulo, Veronica; Carrasco, Jesus; Shuey, David; Pelligra, Stephanie; Wang, Edward; Rogers, Dennie T.; Thompson, Alexis A.

    2013-01-01

    Background People with sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell trait (SCT) may not have information about genetic inheritance needed for making informed reproductive health decisions. CHOICES is a web-based, multimedia educational intervention that provides information about reproductive options and consequences to help those with SCD or SCT identify and implement an informed parenting plan. Efficacy of CHOICES compared with usual care must be evaluated. Objective The purpose was to compare immediate posttest effects of CHOICES versus an attention control usual care intervention (e-Book) on SCD/SCT-related reproductive health knowledge, intention, and behavior. Methods In a randomized controlled study, we recruited subjects with SCD/SCT from clinics, community settings, and online networks with data collected at sites convenient to the 234 subjects with SCD (n = 136) or SCT (n = 98) (age ranged from18-35 years, 65% were female, and 94% were African American). Subjects completed a measure of sickle cell reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior before and immediately after the intervention. Results Compared to the e-Book group, the CHOICES group had significantly higher average knowledge scores and probability of reporting a parenting plan to avoid SCD or SCD and SCT when pretest scores were controlled. Effects on intention and planned behavior were not significant. The CHOICES group showed significant change in their intention and planned behavior; the e-Book group did not show significant change in their intention, but their planned behavior differed significantly. Discussion Initial efficacy findings are encouraging but warrant planned booster sessions and outcome follow-ups to determine sustained intervention efficacy on reproductive health knowledge, intention, and actual behavior of persons with SCD/SCT. PMID:23995469

  8. An automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method for touching cells by integrating concave points clustering and random walker algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available Characterizing cytoarchitecture is crucial for understanding brain functions and neural diseases. In neuroanatomy, it is an important task to accurately extract cell populations' centroids and contours. Recent advances have permitted imaging at single cell resolution for an entire mouse brain using the Nissl staining method. However, it is difficult to precisely segment numerous cells, especially those cells touching each other. As presented herein, we have developed an automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method applied to the Nissl staining data, with the following two key steps: 1 concave points clustering to determine the seed points of touching cells; and 2 random walker segmentation to obtain cell contours. Also, we have evaluated the performance of our proposed method with several mouse brain datasets, which were captured with the micro-optical sectioning tomography imaging system, and the datasets include closely touching cells. Comparing with traditional detection and segmentation methods, our approach shows promising detection accuracy and high robustness.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Axitinib Versus Sorafenib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Subgroup Analysis of Japanese Patients from the Global Randomized Phase 3 AXIS Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kanayama, Hiroomi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tarazi, Jamal; Chen, Connie; Kim, Sinil; Ozono, Seiichiro; Naito, Seiji; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Objective Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3. The efficacy and safety of axitinib in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were evaluated. Methods A subgroup analysis was conducted in Japanese patients enrolled in the randomized Phase III trial of axitinib versus sorafenib after failure of one prior systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Results Twenty-five (of 361) and 29 (o...

  10. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V; Jensen, Siri Beier; Bardow, Allan; Oliveri, Roberto S; Specht, Lena; Thomsen, Carsten; Darkner, Sune; Kiss, Katalin; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-03-07

    Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia. This is a single-center, phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months following investigational intervention. The trial is the first attempt to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. The results may provide evidence for the effectiveness of ASC in patients with salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia and deliver valuable information for the design of subsequent trials. EudraCT, Identifier: 2014-004349-29. Registered on 1 April 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02513238 . First received on 2 July 2015. The trial is prospectively registered.

  11. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  12. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  13. Evaluation of the divided attention condition during functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Harper, Jill M; Querim, Angie C

    2013-01-01

    A common condition included in most functional analyses (FAs) is the attention condition, in which the therapist ignores the client by engaging in a solitary activity (antecedent event) but delivers attention to the client contingent on problem behavior (consequent event). The divided attention condition is similar, except that the antecedent event consists of the therapist conversing with an adult confederate. We compared the typical and divided attention conditions to determine whether behavior in general (Study 1) and problem behavior in particular (Study 2) were more sensitive to one of the test conditions. Results showed that the divided attention condition resulted in faster acquisition or more efficient FA results for 2 of 9 subjects, suggesting that the divided attention condition could be considered a preferred condition when resources are available. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  15. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan; Doghri, Ali; Wu, Ke; Shamim, Atif

    2013-01-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics

  16. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly a...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh.......Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...

  17. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  18. Divided attention deficits in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Fantie, B; Straus, S F; Grafman, J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and controls were compared on a variety of mood state, personality, and neuropsychological measures, including memory, word finding, and attentional tasks that required participants to focus, sustain, or divide their attention, or to perform a combination of these functions. CFS patients demonstrated a selective deficit on 3 measures of divided attention. Their performance on the other neuropsychological tests of intelligence, fluency, and memory was no different than that of normal controls despite their reports of generally diminished cognitive capacity. There was an inverse relation between CFS patient fatigue severity and performance on 1 of the divided attention measures. Given these findings, it is probable that CFS patients will report more cognitive difficulties in real-life situations that cause them to divide their effort or rapidly reallocate cognitive resources between 2 response channels (vision and audition).

  19. Afterword. Internet Freedom, Nuanced Digital Divide, and the Internet Craftsman

    OpenAIRE

    Meinrath, Sascha D; Losey, James; Lennett, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines 'the digital divide' as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic an...

  20. The contribution of working memory to divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that increasing working memory (WM) load can affect the attentional selection of signals originating from one object/location. Here we assessed whether WM load affects also the selection of multiple objects/locations (divided attention). Participants monitored either two object-categories (vs. one category; object-based divided attention) or two locations (vs. one location; space-based divided attention) while maintaining in WM either a variable number of objects (object-based WM load) or locations (space-based WM load). Behavioural results showed that WM load affected attentional performance irrespective of divided or focused attention. However, fMRI results showed that the activity associated with object-based divided attention increased linearly with increasing object-based WM load in the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS); while, in the same areas, activity associated with space-based divided attention was not affected by any type of WM load. These findings support the hypothesis that WM contributes to the maintenance of resource-demanding attentional sets in a domain-specific manner. Moreover, the dissociable impact of WM load on performance and brain activity suggests that increased IPS activation reflects a recruitment of additional, domain-specific processing resources that enable dual-task performance under conditions of high WM load and high attentional demand. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Patient reported outcomes following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy or surgery for stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer : Results from the ROSEL multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louie, Alexander V.; van Werkhoven, Erik; Chen, Hanbo; Smit, Egbert F.; Paul, Marinus A.; Widder, Joachim; Groen, Harry J. M.; van den Borne, Ben E. E. M.; De Jaeger, Katrien; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    We report quality of life and indirect costs from patient reported outcomes from the ROSEL randomized control trial comparing stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, also known as stereotactic body radiotherapy or SBRT) versus surgical resection for medically operable stage IA non-small cell lung

  2. Comparison of topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy with cryotherapy or Fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ: Results of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, C.; Horn, M.; Leman, J.; Tack, B.; Bedane, C.; Tjioe, M.; Ibbotson, S.; Khemis, A.; Wolf, P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical methyl aminolevulinate with cryotherapy or topical fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled study, with follow-up at 3 and

  3. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2015-01-07

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz ≥ 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ∼ 60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.

  4. Sp1 transcriptional activity is up-regulated by phosphatase 2A in dividing T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Lipcey, Carol; Imbert, Jean; Kahn-Perlès, Brigitte

    2002-03-15

    We have followed Sp1 expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced, via CD2 plus CD28 costimulation, to sustained proliferation and subsequent return to quiescence. Binding of Sp1 to wheat germ agglutinin lectin was not modified following activation, indicating that the overall glycosylation of the protein was unchanged. Sp1 underwent, instead, a major dephosphorylation that correlated with cyclin A expression and, thus, with cell cycle progression. A similar change was observed in T cells that re-entered cell cycle following secondary interleukin-2 stimulation, as well as in serum-induced proliferating NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) appears involved because 1) treatment of dividing cells with okadaic acid or cantharidin inhibited Sp1 dephosphorylation and 2) PP2A dephosphorylated Sp1 in vitro and strongly interacted with Sp1 in vivo. Sp1 dephosphorylation is likely to increase its transcriptional activity because PP2A overexpression potentiated Sp1 site-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in dividing Kit225 T cells and okadaic acid reversed this effect. This increase might be mediated by a stronger affinity of dephosphorylated Sp1 for DNA, as illustrated by the reduced DNA occupancy by hyperphosphorylated Sp factors from cantharidin- or nocodazole-treated cells. Finally, Sp1 dephosphorylation appears to occur throughout cell cycle except for mitosis, a likely common feature to all cycling cells.

  5. The effect of divided attention on novices and experts in laparoscopic task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Mudassar Ali; Cook, Malcolm; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain; Alijani, Afshin

    2015-03-01

    Attention is important for the skilful execution of surgery. The surgeon's attention during surgery is divided between surgery and outside distractions. The effect of this divided attention has not been well studied previously. We aimed to compare the effect of dividing attention of novices and experts on a laparoscopic task performance. Following ethical approval, 25 novices and 9 expert surgeons performed a standardised peg transfer task in a laboratory setup under three randomly assigned conditions: silent as control condition and two standardised auditory distracting tasks requiring response (easy and difficult) as study conditions. Human reliability assessment was used for surgical task analysis. Primary outcome measures were correct auditory responses, task time, number of surgical errors and instrument movements. Secondary outcome measures included error rate, error probability and hand specific differences. Non-parametric statistics were used for data analysis. 21109 movements and 9036 total errors were analysed. Novices had increased mean task completion time (seconds) (171 ± 44SD vs. 149 ± 34, p 0.05). Divided attention conditions in theatre environment require careful consideration during surgical training as the junior surgeons are less able to focus their attention during these conditions.

  6. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  7. Daily vs every other day administration of G-CSF following autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan Atilla; Ozer, Ufuk Guney; Bal, Cengiz; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether every other day administration of G-CSF was as safe and efficient as daily administration of G-CSF on neutrophil engraftment following autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (APSCT). Duration of G-CSF administration, incidence of blood stream infections, duration of febrile neutropenia, duration of non-prophylactic antibiotic therapy, transfusion requirements, duration of hospitalization and G-CSF costs were also studied. Forty-seven patients with diagnosis of lymphoma and multiple myeloma undergoing APSCT were randomized to receive post-transplant daily or every other day G-CSF therapy both beginning on day +1. Both groups were comparable with regard to patient characteristics. There was no significant difference in time to neutrophil engraftment (p=0.31). The duration of G-CSF administration was significantly less in the every other day group (pdays, duration of non-prophylactic antibiotics, the incidence of blood stream infections, transfusion requirements and the duration of hospitalization. There was a trend towards a faster platelet recovery in the every other day group, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.059). The number of doses of G-CSF used per transplant is significantly reduced, resulting in a significant reduction in drug costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Cuervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM, owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS, and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months.

  9. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Belen; Rubio, Monica; Sopena, Joaquin; Dominguez, Juan Manuel; Vilar, Jose; Morales, Manuel; Cugat, Ramón; Carrillo, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM), owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS), and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months. PMID:25089877

  10. Fast neutron therapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region: results of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.; Kerr, G.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A randomized trial of fast neuron therapy compared with 4MV photons for patients with head and neck cancer is reported. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were recruited between 1977 and 1984. The minimum follow-up is 2 years. Three patients were withdrawn before treatment began. Eighty-five were allocated to neutron therapy and 80 to receive photon therapy. All patients had squamous cell cancers in one of four primary sites: oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Local tumor control was similar in both groups: 44.7% after neutrons and 45.0% after photons. Salvage surgery was performed on 18 patients in each treatment group for residual or recurrent cancer. Acute radiation reactions of the mucous membranes were significantly more severe after photons. The number of patients with serious late reactions was greater after neutron therapy but the difference was not statistically significant. There were six deaths related to late morbidity after neutron therapy but none after photon therapy. Survival was better after photon therapy but the difference compared with the neutron group failed to reach statistical significance. When intercurrent deaths are excluded, the difference is less marked. Photon therapy was clearly better in terms of disease-free survival giving a 2-year local disease-free rate of 41.3% (s.e. 5.5%) compared with 29.4% (s.e. 4.9%) after neutrons

  11. Flexible conductive-bridging random-access-memory cell vertically stacked with top Ag electrode, PEO, PVK, and bottom Pt electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Kyoung-Cheol; Lee, Gon-Sub; Park, Jea-Gun

    2014-10-01

    Flexible conductive-bridging random-access-memory (RAM) cells were fabricated with a cross-bar memory cell stacked with a top Ag electrode, conductive polymer (poly(n-vinylcarbazole): PVK), electrolyte (polyethylene oxide: PEO), bottom Pt electrode, and flexible substrate (polyethersulfone: PES), exhibiting the bipolar switching behavior of resistive random access memory (ReRAM). The cell also exhibited bending-fatigue-free nonvolatile memory characteristics: i.e., a set voltage of 1.0 V, a reset voltage of -1.6 V, retention time of >1 × 105 s with a memory margin of 9.2 × 105, program/erase endurance cycles of >102 with a memory margin of 8.4 × 105, and bending-fatigue-free cycles of ˜1 × 103 with a memory margin (Ion/Ioff) of 3.3 × 105.

  12. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  13. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  14. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  15. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  16. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  17. Digital Divide Measurement in Lembata Regency Using SIBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cecilia Dai Payon Binti; Setyohadi, Djoko Budiyanto; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Along with technological development in Indonesia, digital divide occurs in various regions, which were behind in terms of information on how to use, access and utilize ICT in collecting information from internet. One of the regions is Lembata Regency in East Nusa Tenggara, where digital divide among the people should be measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of digital divide among the people of Lembata Regency. To determine the level of digital divide, we used SIBIS GPS (General Population Survey) method, which consisted of several indicators or aspect, i.e. internet usage behavior, internet utilization, and e-government. We also performed two tests, i.e. validity test and reliability test to obtain value of index of digital divide measurement among the people of Lembata Regency. The results of validity test which is processed using SPSS program are categorized valid for each variable indicator and the reliability test results show reliable status. According to the test results on digital discrepancy in Lembata people, the internet usage attitude indicator is categorized low which is 63.1%, the internet usage function indicator is categorized low which is 64%, and the digital discrepancy of e-government indicator is categorized medium which is 40.4%. Therefore, the result of this study because consideration for the government of Lembata Regency in improving ICT services in e-government and in distributing ICT access and ability equally to the people.

  18. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  19. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  20. Efficacy of a randomized cell phone-based counseling intervention in postponing subsequent pregnancy among teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P teen pregnancy. Cell phone-based approaches to counseling may not be the

  1. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  3. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  4. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  5. Acoustic tool for leak inspections in steam generator divider plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Maak, P.; Colbert, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross flow leakage through divider plates in the primary head of steam generators, may be a contributor to RIHT rise which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick and reliable inspection of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping make timely and effective maintenance decisions. A novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in drained steam generators during shutdowns has been developed by OH Technologies and successfully demonstrated in a field application. The technique, referred as ALIS (acoustic leak inspection system), performs a scan of the divider plate face and presents a graphic image of the leakage paths and an estimate of the total leakage area. (author)

  6. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  7. Bruce NGS A Unit 4 preheater divider plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landridge, M.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    On May 19, 1995, without any prior operational indications, Bruce A discovered preheater divider plate damage in Unit 4 that had the potential to have a major impact on the continued safe operation of the station. Further investigations indicated that Unit 4 may have been operating with this damage for as long as ten years. In the two months following the discovery, Bruce A has procured and replaced the 4 divider plates, located most of the missing pieces, retrieved pieces from the PHT system, investigated historical operational information, performed detailed analytical investigations, investigated root cause, performed in-situ and mock-up testing, updated operational procedures and installed DP monitoring equipment

  8. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  9. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    FREYDIER, Chloé; BERTHELON, Catherine; BASTIEN-TONIAZZO, Mireille; GINEYT, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to two crashes factors, divided attention task and alcohol, and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Method: Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identif...

  10. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  11. Oral tetrahydrouridine and decitabine for non-cytotoxic epigenetic gene regulation in sickle cell disease: A randomized phase 1 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Molokie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD, a congenital hemolytic anemia that exacts terrible global morbidity and mortality, is driven by polymerization of mutated sickle hemoglobin (HbS in red blood cells (RBCs. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF interferes with this polymerization, but HbF is epigenetically silenced from infancy onward by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1.To pharmacologically re-induce HbF by DNMT1 inhibition, this first-in-human clinical trial (NCT01685515 combined 2 small molecules-decitabine to deplete DNMT1 and tetrahydrouridine (THU to inhibit cytidine deaminase (CDA, the enzyme that otherwise rapidly deaminates/inactivates decitabine, severely limiting its half-life, tissue distribution, and oral bioavailability. Oral decitabine doses, administered after oral THU 10 mg/kg, were escalated from a very low starting level (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, or 0.16 mg/kg to identify minimal doses active in depleting DNMT1 without cytotoxicity. Patients were SCD adults at risk of early death despite standard-of-care, randomized 3:2 to THU-decitabine versus placebo in 5 cohorts of 5 patients treated 2X/week for 8 weeks, with 4 weeks of follow-up. The primary endpoint was ≥ grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity. This endpoint was not triggered, and adverse events (AEs were not significantly different in THU-decitabine-versus placebo-treated patients. At the decitabine 0.16 mg/kg dose, plasma concentrations peaked at approximately 50 nM (Cmax and remained elevated for several hours. This dose decreased DNMT1 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by >75% and repetitive element CpG methylation by approximately 10%, and increased HbF by 4%-9% (P < 0.001, doubling fetal hemoglobin-enriched red blood cells (F-cells up to approximately 80% of total RBCs. Total hemoglobin increased by 1.2-1.9 g/dL (P = 0.01 as reticulocytes simultaneously decreased; that is, better quality and efficiency of HbF-enriched erythropoiesis elevated hemoglobin using fewer reticulocytes. Also

  12. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  13. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  14. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  15. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  16. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  18. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  19. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.

    2012-01-01

    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  20. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a...

  1. Microcanonical rates, gap times, and phase space dividing surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezra, Gregory S.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The general approach to classical unimolecular reaction rates due to Thiele is revisited in light of recent advances in the phase space formulation of transition state theory for multidimensional systems. Key concepts, such as the phase space dividing surface separating reactants from products, the

  2. Lost in the Great Divide: Motivation in Religious Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Emily O.

    2018-01-01

    One of the most illuminating finds in Barbara E. Walvoord's "Teaching and Learning in College Introductory Religion Courses" (2008) is what she calls "the great divide," a mismatch between instructors' goals for their courses, which are academic, and the students' reasons for taking them, which relate to their personal…

  3. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  4. Loop versus divided colostomy for the management of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Omar; Davies, Dafydd; Colapinto, Kimberly; Gerstle, J Ted

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of loop and divided colostomies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing the medical records of all patients with ARM managed with diverting colostomies between 2000 and 2010 at our institution. Independent variables and outcomes of stoma complications were analyzed by parametric measures and logistic regression. One hundred forty-four patients managed with a colostomy for ARM were evaluated (37.5% females, 50.7% loop, 49.3% divided). The incidence of patients with loop and divided colostomies who developed stoma-related complications was 31.5 and 15.5%, respectively (p=0.031). The incidence of prolapse was 17.8 and 2.8%, respectively (p=0.005). Multivariable-logistic regression controlling for other significant independent variables found loop colostomies to be positively associated with the development of a stoma complication (OR 3.13, 95%CI (1.09, 8.96), p=0.033). When individual complications were evaluated, it was only stoma prolapse that was more likely in patients with loop colostomies (OR 8.75, 95%CI (1.74, 44.16), p=0.009). Because of the higher incidence of prolapse, loop colostomies were found to be associated with a higher total incidence of complications than divided stomas. The development of other complications, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) and megarectum, were independent of the type of colostomy performed. © 2014.

  5. Communication in a Divided World: Opportunities and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Harold

    Communication systems in a divided world can perpetuate tension and violence or can be instrumental in developing unity. In response to this power, communicators must focus on generating worldwide recognition of interdependence in the shaping and sharing of values. Likewise, a responsible communication policy must stimulate the invention and…

  6. Simulation of Material Flow Through a Sample Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for a modern approach to innovative procedures of the development of current or even newly created equipment for the transport of particulate materials is the utilization of simulation methods, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM. This article focuses on the basic, or initial, validation of movement of material through the sample divider. The mechanical-physical properties of brown coal were measured. Based on these parameters the preliminary input values for EDEM Academic were selected, and a simulation of the dividing process was run. The key monitored parameters included density and friction coefficient. Experiments on a realistic model of the equipment were performed and assessed. The total weights of brown coal at the exit from the divider were determined for a specific speed of the divider. The aim of this task was to simulate the realistically determined weight division of the brown coal sample. The result from the DEM was compared with the results of measurement on a realistic model.

  7. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  8. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  9. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  10. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, C; Berthelon, C; Bastien-Toniazzo, M; Gineyt, G

    2014-06-01

    The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to divided attention task and alcohol and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identification. Driving performance, response time and accuracy on the additional task were measured. ANOVA showed a driving impairment and a decrease in additional task performance from a BAC of 0.5 g/L, particularly for novice drivers. Indeed, the latter adopt more risky behavior such as tailgating. In the divided attention task, driving impairment was found for all drivers and impairment on information processing accuracy was highlighted, notably in peripheral vision. The divided attention task used here provides a relevant method for identifying the effects of alcohol on cognitive functions and could be used in psychopharmacological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Competing discourses on Europe: the divided case of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational

  12. PREVENTION OF CONVERSION TO ABNORMAL TCD WITH HYDROXYUREA IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA: A PHASE III INTERNATIONAL RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Jane S.; McCarville, M. Beth; Rankine-Mullings, Angela; Reid, Marvin E.; Lobo, Clarisse L.C.; Moura, Patricia G.; Ali, Susanna; Soares, Deanne; Aldred, Karen; Jay, Dennis W.; Aygun, Banu; Bennett, John; Kang, Guolian; Goldsmith, Jonathan C.; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Boyett, James M.; Ware, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and conditional transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound velocities (170-199 cm/sec) may develop stroke. However, with limited available clinical data, the current standard of care for conditional TCD velocities is observation. The efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing conversion from conditional to abnormal TCD (≥200 cm/sec), which confers a higher stroke risk, has not been studied prospectively in a randomized trial. Sparing Conversion to Abnormal TCD Elevation (SCATE #NCT01531387) was an NHLBI-funded Phase III multicenter international clinical trial comparing alternative therapy (hydroxyurea) to standard care (observation) to prevent conversion from conditional to abnormal TCD velocity in children with SCA. SCATE enrolled 38 children from the United States, Jamaica, and Brazil [HbSS (36), HbSβ0-thalassemia (1), and HbSD (1), median age 5.4 years (range, 2.7-9.8)]. Due to slow patient accrual and administrative delays, SCATE was terminated early. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the cumulative incidence of abnormal conversion was 9% (95% CI 0 to 35%) in the hydroxyurea arm and 47% (95% CI 6 to 81%) in observation arm at 15 months (p=0.16). In post-hoc analysis according to treatment received, significantly fewer children on hydroxyurea converted to abnormal TCD velocities, compared to observation (0% versus 50%, p=0.02). After a mean of 10.1 months, a significant change in mean TCD velocity was observed with hydroxyurea treatment (−15.5 versus +10.2 cm/sec, p=0.02). No stroke events occurred in either arm. Hydroxyurea reduces TCD velocities in children with SCA and conditional velocities. PMID:26414435

  13. Prevention of conversion to abnormal transcranial Doppler with hydroxyurea in sickle cell anemia: A Phase III international randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Jane S; McCarville, Mary Beth; Rankine-Mullings, Angela; Reid, Marvin E; Lobo, Clarisse L C; Moura, Patricia G; Ali, Susanna; Soares, Deanne P; Aldred, Karen; Jay, Dennis W; Aygun, Banu; Bennett, John; Kang, Guolian; Goldsmith, Jonathan C; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Boyett, James M; Ware, Russell E

    2015-12-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and conditional transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound velocities (170-199 cm/sec) may develop stroke. However, with limited available clinical data, the current standard of care for conditional TCD velocities is observation. The efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing conversion from conditional to abnormal TCD (≥200 cm/sec), which confers a higher stroke risk, has not been studied prospectively in a randomized trial. Sparing Conversion to Abnormal TCD Elevation (SCATE #NCT01531387) was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Phase III multicenter international clinical trial comparing alternative therapy (hydroxyurea) to standard care (observation) to prevent conversion from conditional to abnormal TCD velocity in children with SCA. SCATE enrolled 38 children from the United States, Jamaica, and Brazil [HbSS (36), HbSβ(0) -thalassemia (1), and HbSD (1), median age = 5.4 years (range, 2.7-9.8)]. Because of the slow patient accrual and administrative delays, SCATE was terminated early. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the cumulative incidence of abnormal conversion was 9% (95% CI = 0-35%) in the hydroxyurea arm and 47% (95% CI = 6-81%) in observation arm at 15 months (P = 0.16). In post hoc analysis according to treatment received, significantly fewer children on hydroxyurea converted to abnormal TCD velocities when compared with observation (0% vs. 50%, P = 0.02). After a mean of 10.1 months, a significant change in mean TCD velocity was observed with hydroxyurea treatment (-15.5 vs. +10.2 cm/sec, P = 0.02). No stroke events occurred in either arm. Hydroxyurea reduces TCD velocities in children with SCA and conditional velocities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Prospective randomized study of HMVP, MVP, and HVP regimens in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fei; Li, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Du, Guang-Zu; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Yu-Ze; Ou, Wu-Ling; Yang, Bo

    2004-04-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is hyposensitive to the normal first and second-line chemotherapy regimens. Camptothecin derivative is becoming a hot point in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. The objective of this article was to evaluate the response, toxicity, and survival time of HMVP, MVP, and HVP regimens (detail in below) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. A total of 134 cases with advanced NSCLC was randomized into three groups: HMVP group [46 patients, hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) 12 mg/m(2) from d1 to d5, mitomycin C (MMC) 6 mg/m(2) d1, vindesine (VDS) 2.5-3 mg/m(2) d1 and d8, cisplatin (DDP) 50 mg/m(2) d2 and d3], MVP group (44 patients, MMC, VDS and DDP were the same as HMVP group) and HVP group (44 patients, HCPT, VDS, DDP were the same as HMVP group). The response rates were 39.54% (17/43), 35.57% (15/42), and 26.19% (11/42) in HMVP, MVP, and HVP groups, respectively; no significant difference was detected among the three groups (P >0.05). No significant difference was detected in the median time of remission, median survival time, and 1-, 2-year survival rates among the three groups. Moreover, no significant difference was detected in grade III-IV leukopenia, grade III-IV thrombocytopenia, grade III-IV nausea and vomiting and grade III-IV constipation among the three groups. The response rate of MVP regimen is slightly lower than that of HMVP regimen, but HMVP regimen do not show obvious superiority. It may increase toxicities such as leukopenia, nausea/vomiting, and constipation. The response rate of HVP regimen is slightly lower than that of MVP regimen.

  15. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Ohae, Chiaki; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-12-15

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f₁:2403  nm, f₂:1201  nm, f₃:801  nm, f₄:600  nm, and f₅:480  nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1:2:3:4:5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  16. Divider plate leak inspections using an acoustic tool 'ALIS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Colbert, M.

    1998-01-01

    Divider plate leakage in the primary head of steam generators may be a contributor to high Reactor Inlet Header Temperature (RIHT) which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick information of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping operators to make timely and cost effective repair and maintenance decisions. As part of a CANDU Owners Group (COG) funded program, a novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in empty steam generators during a shutdown has been developed and successfully demonstrated by Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). The basic principle of this technique utilizes sound transmission through the leakage paths of a divider plate assembly for creating a graphic image which reveals the locations and relative sizes of leaks. This is accomplished by injecting one side of the primary head with a series of airborne, ultrasonic sound bursts while scanning the divider plates from the opposite side and collecting transmitted sound pressure levels. Once a scan is completed the results are processed and displayed graphically as a color mapping of the entire divider plate assembly showing an image of the leakage locations and relative severity. The special transducers of the acoustic leak inspection system (ALIS) are installed through the manways of the steam generator at both sides of the primary head. These are clamped to the tube sheet and operated from a convenient remote location within the containment building. This process minimizes radiation exposure of the workers, as well, it reduces risk of contamination of the ALIS equipment. The current version of this tool performs the scans by remote manual control. (author)

  17. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  18. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  19. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Center for Vacuum, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Heyoung, E-mail: kdhh@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  20. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  1. The digital health divide: evaluating online health information access and use among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W

    2015-04-01

    Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide debate. This study evaluated the potential digital health divide in relation to characteristic and belief differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information sources. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted using a random sample of older adults. A total of 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9 years, SD = 10.4) participated in the study. Seventy-six percent of all respondents had Internet access. Users and nonusers of online health information differed significantly on age (M = 66.29 vs. M = 71.13), education, and previous experience with the health care system. Users and nonusers of online health information also differed significantly on Internet and technology access, however, a large percentage of nonusers had Internet access (56.3%), desktop computers (55.9%), and laptop computers or netbooks (43.2%). Users of online health information had higher mean scores on the Computer Self-Efficacy Measure than nonusers, t(159) = -7.29, p information. Findings suggest strategies for reducing this divide and implications for health education programs to promote HIT use among older adults. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Effect of Amifostine on Response Rates in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated on Randomized Controlled Trials: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mell, Loren K.; Malik, Renuka; Komaki, Ritsuko; Movsas, Benjamin; Swann, R. Suzanne; Langer, Corey; Antonadou, Dosia; Koukourakis, Michael; Mundt, Arno J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Amifostine can reduce the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, but concerns remain regarding its possible tumor-protective effects. Studies with sufficient statistical power to address this question are lacking. Methods and Materials: We performed a meta-analysis of all published clinical trials involving locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, who had been randomized to treatment with amifostine vs. no amifostine or placebo. Random effects estimates of the relative risk of overall, partial, and complete response were obtained. Results: Seven randomized trials involving 601 patients were identified. Response rate data were available for six studies (552 patients). The pooled relative risk (RR) estimate was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.18; p = 0.18), 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.78; p = 0.33), and 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.26; p = 0.95) for overall, complete, and partial response, respectively (a RR >1 indicates improvement in response with amifostine compared with the control arm). The results were similar after sensitivity analyses. No evidence was found of treatment effect heterogeneity across the studies. Conclusions: Amifostine has no effect on tumor response in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy

  3. SMALL-DOSE CYTOKINES IN COMBINATION WITH 5-FLUOROURACIL IN OLISSEMINATED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: FINAL RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demidov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High and intermediate IL-2 regimens are difficult to recommend because of great toxicity and efficacy is not sufficient. We suggest that a combination of very low-dose cytokines is effective and safe in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC patients (pts. A prospective randomized study was started in 2003. The primary end-point was a response rate. Methods: The eligibility criteria included histopathologically confirmed MRCC, ECOG PS 0-2, no autoimmune diseases, no brain metastases, and normal organ function. All pts were randomized in three arms: IL-2 alone, 1.5 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 or IL-2 1.0 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 plus IFN 5 MIU, sc, t.i.w, weeks 1—3 or biochemotherapy group 5-FU, 500 mg/m2, iv, once a week, weeks 1—3 plus IL-2 1.0 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 plus IFN 5 MIU, sc, t.i.w., weeks 1—3. Courses were repeated every three weeks. A response was assessed according to the RECIST every 2 courses.Results: 64 pts were enrolled, of whom 63 were analyzed. Their median age was 55.4 years (range 16—74. 42.9% of the patients had pre- viously received chemo- or immunotherapy. 55.6 percent of the pts had poor prognosis (according to Motzer et al., 2002. Bone metastases were present in 52.4% of the pts. Sixteen patients treated with IL-2 alone showed no CR, PR, 2 SD, or 14 PD. Of 23 patients in the IL-2+IFN group, there were 5 PR, 8 SD, and 10 PD, with a response rate of 21.7%. Amongst 24 patients in the 5-FU+IL-2+IFN group, there were 1 CR, 3 PR, 10 SD, and 10 PD, with a response rate of 16.7%. One-year survival was 20.0%, 81.3% and 81.0%, respectively. The influenza-like syndrome was the most common side effect in the pts who received IFN (89.1%, grade 1, CTC. Hypotension associated with IL-2 (all groups was seen in 56.3% (50%, grade 1 and 6.3%, grade 2. The other adverse reactions were 12.7% grade 1 neutropenia and vomiting in 4.7% pts (Group 3.Conclusion: All regimens are well tolerated. Small-dose IL-2

  4. Divided attention interferes with fulfilling activity-based intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Ball, B Hunter; Knight, Justin B; Dewitt, Michael R; Marsh, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of divided attention on activity-based prospective memory. After establishing a goal to fulfill an intention upon completion of an ongoing activity, successful completion of the intention generally suffered when attention was being devoted to an additional task (Experiment 1). Forming an implementation intention at encoding ameliorated the negative effects of divided attention (Experiment 2). The results from the present experiments demonstrate that activity-based prospective memory is susceptible to distraction and that implementing encoding strategies that enhance prospective memory performance can reduce this interference. The current work raises interesting questions about the similarities and differences between event- and activity-based prospective memories. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  6. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  7. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam

    2017-09-01

    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  8. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Linda L; Phelan, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this 'cultural divide'. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  9. Design and analysis of unequal split Bagley power dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alnadi, Omar; Dib, Nihad; Al-Shamaileh, Khair; Sheta, Abdelfattah

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we propose a general design procedure to develop unequal split Bagley power dividers (BPDs). Based on the mathematical approach carried out in the insight of simple circuit and transmission line theories, exact design equations for 3-way and 5-way BPDs are derived. Utilising the developed equations leads to power dividers with the ability of offering different output power ratios through a suitable choice of the characteristic impedances of the interconnecting transmission lines. For verification purposes, a 1:2:1 3-way, 1:2:1:2:1 5-way and 1:3:1:3:1 5-way BPDs are designed and fabricated. The experimental and full-wave simulation results prove the validity of the designed unequal split BPDs.

  10. Full versus divided attention and implicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, G; Prinsen, A

    1997-11-01

    Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the divided-attention condition. In this experiment, however, standard implicit memory tests were used and contamination by explicit memory influences cannot be ruled out. Therefore, in Experiments 2 and 3 the process dissociation procedure was applied. Manipulations of attention during study and of study time clearly affected the controlled (explicit) memory component, but had no effect on the automatic (implicit) memory component. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Finding effective responses against cyber attacks for divided nations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There can be hostile relations between nations that are divided politically or ideologically, and there are threats in cyberspace as well as physical space. Although every cyber threat, like a physical threat, has countermeasures, this can be hard because of the complexity of cyberspace and the ethics in cyberspace. This study tries to find effective countermeasures for South Korea in cyberspace against North Korea’s continuing cyber a...

  13. Divided versus selective attention: evidence for common processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Ross, Thomas J; Myers, Carol S; Heishman, Stephen J; Stein, Dan J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Stein, Elliot A

    2008-06-18

    The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously process two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks' processing demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants' BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional processing demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from processes of selective attention.

  14. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  15. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  16. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S. W.; Brockmark, S.; Höjesjö, J.; Johnsson, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from ag...

  17. Pseudodifference operators and uniform convergence of divided differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    2002-01-01

    The concept of pseudodifference operator is introduced. The properties of a class of pseudodifference operators in spaces of fractional quotients are studied. A local theorem on the uniform convergence of divided differences of arbitrary order for an approximate solution is established. In particular, the local infinite differentiability of a precise solution of operator equations of elliptic type with locally infinitely differentiable right-hand side is proved on the basis of a numerical method. Examples related to applications are presented

  18. Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS

    Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme. 283. Restrict the Poincaré bundle to X × Pic0 red(X). Viewing this restriction as a line bundle on Pic0 red(X) parametrized by X, we ... which gives rise to an exact sequence of the projective systems considered in Definition. 2.3. Applying the projective limit functor ...

  19. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prull, Matthew W.; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M.; Sherman, Annabella T. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting...

  20. Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The Nigerian Dilemma of Nation-State Building. Abu Bakarr Bah. Abstract. « Réconcilier les Identités Ethniques et Nationales dans une Société Divisée: Le Dilemme Nigérian de la Construction de l\\'Etat-Nation ». Résumé Il s\\'agit ici d\\'une analyse théorique et ...

  1. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  2. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  3. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of divided attention on auditory priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Duke, Marquinn; Cooper, Angela W

    2007-09-01

    Traditional theorizing stresses the importance of attentional state during encoding for later memory, based primarily on research with explicit memory. Recent research has begun to investigate the role of attention in implicit memory but has focused almost exclusively on priming in the visual modality. The present experiments examined the effect of divided attention on auditory implicit memory, using auditory perceptual identification, word-stem completion and word-fragment completion. Participants heard study words under full attention conditions or while simultaneously carrying out a distractor task (the divided attention condition). In Experiment 1, a distractor task with low response frequency failed to disrupt later auditory priming (but diminished explicit memory as assessed with auditory recognition). In Experiment 2, a distractor task with greater response frequency disrupted priming on all three of the auditory priming tasks as well as the explicit test. These results imply that although auditory priming is less reliant on attention than explicit memory, it is still greatly affected by at least some divided-attention manipulations. These results are consistent with research using visual priming tasks and have relevance for hypotheses regarding attention and auditory priming.

  5. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  6. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  7. Selected CD133⁺ progenitor cells to promote angiogenesis in patients with refractory angina: final results of the PROGENITOR randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Gonzalez-Ferrer, Juan Jose; Sabate, Manel; Garcia-Moll, Xavier; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Llorente, Leopoldo; Bernardo, Esther; Ortega-Pozzi, Aranzazu; Hernandez-Antolin, Rosana; Alfonso, Fernando; Gonzalo, Nieves; Escaned, Javier; Bañuelos, Camino; Regueiro, Ander; Marin, Pedro; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Neves, Barbara Das; Del Trigo, Maria; Fernandez, Cristina; Tejerina, Teresa; Redondo, Santiago; Garcia, Eulogio; Macaya, Carlos

    2014-11-07

    Refractory angina constitutes a clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the feasibility of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells to foster angiogenesis in patients with refractory angina. In this randomized, double-blinded, multicenter controlled trial, eligible patients were treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, underwent an apheresis and electromechanical mapping, and were randomized to receive treatment with CD133(+) cells or no treatment. The primary end point was the safety of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells, as measured by the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event at 6 months. Secondary end points analyzed the efficacy. Twenty-eight patients were included (n=19 treatment; n=9 control). At 6 months, 1 patient in each group had ventricular fibrillation and 1 patient in each group died. One patient (treatment group) had a cardiac tamponade during mapping. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to efficacy parameters; however, the comparison within groups showed a significant improvement in the number of angina episodes per month (median absolute difference, -8.5 [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -4.0]) and in angina functional class in the treatment arm but not in the control group. At 6 months, only 1 simple-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) parameter: summed score improved significantly in the treatment group at rest and at stress (median absolute difference, -1.0 [95% confidence interval, -1.9 to -0.1]) but not in the control arm. Our findings support feasibility and safety of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells in patients with refractory angina. The promising clinical results and favorable data observed in SPECT summed score may set up the basis to test the efficacy of cell therapy in a larger randomized trial. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Randomized Adjuvant Chemotherapy of EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with or without Icotinib Consolidation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Siyang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Kaican; Wu, Hua; Xiong, Gang; Wang, Haofei; Zhang, Ziliang

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in up to 50% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) confers a significant survival benefit. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with or without icotinib in patients undergoing resection of stage IB to ⅢA EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Patients with surgically resected stage IB (with high risk factors) to ⅢA EGFR-mutated NSCLC were randomly assigned (1:1) to one of two treatment plans. One group received four cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy every three weeks, and the other group received platinum-based chemotherapy supplemented with consolidation therapy of orally administered icotinib (125 mg thrice daily) two weeks after chemotherapy. The icotinib treatment continued for four to eight months, or until the occurrence of disease relapse, metastasis or unacceptable icotinib or chemotherapy toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). 41 patients were enrolled between Feb 9, 2011 and Dec 17, 2012. 21 patients were assigned to the combined chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group, while 20 patients received chemotherapy only. DFS at 12 months was 100% for icotinib-treated patients and 88.9% for chemotherapy-only patients (p = 0. 122). At 18 months DFS for icotinib-treated vs. chemotherapy-only patients was 95.2% vs. 83.3% (p = 0. 225), respectively, and at 24 months DFS was 90.5% vs. 66.7% (p = 0. 066). The adverse chemotherapy effects predominantly presented as gastrointestinal reactions and marrow suppression, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups. Patients in the chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group showed favorable tolerance to oral icotinib. The results suggest that chemotherapy plus orally icotinib displayed better DFS compared with chemotherapy only, yet the difference in DFS was not significant. We would think

  9. Randomized Adjuvant Chemotherapy of EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with or without Icotinib Consolidation Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyang Feng

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations occur in up to 50% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Treatment of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI confers a significant survival benefit. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with or without icotinib in patients undergoing resection of stage IB to ⅢA EGFR-mutated NSCLC.Patients with surgically resected stage IB (with high risk factors to ⅢA EGFR-mutated NSCLC were randomly assigned (1:1 to one of two treatment plans. One group received four cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy every three weeks, and the other group received platinum-based chemotherapy supplemented with consolidation therapy of orally administered icotinib (125 mg thrice daily two weeks after chemotherapy. The icotinib treatment continued for four to eight months, or until the occurrence of disease relapse, metastasis or unacceptable icotinib or chemotherapy toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS.41 patients were enrolled between Feb 9, 2011 and Dec 17, 2012. 21 patients were assigned to the combined chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group, while 20 patients received chemotherapy only. DFS at 12 months was 100% for icotinib-treated patients and 88.9% for chemotherapy-only patients (p = 0. 122. At 18 months DFS for icotinib-treated vs. chemotherapy-only patients was 95.2% vs. 83.3% (p = 0. 225, respectively, and at 24 months DFS was 90.5% vs. 66.7% (p = 0. 066. The adverse chemotherapy effects predominantly presented as gastrointestinal reactions and marrow suppression, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups. Patients in the chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group showed favorable tolerance to oral icotinib.The results suggest that chemotherapy plus orally icotinib displayed better DFS compared with chemotherapy only, yet the difference in DFS was not significant. We would

  10. Concomitant boost radiation therapy for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer: preliminary report of a prospective randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.-M.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Wang, C.-J.; Chen, H.-C.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.; Yeh, S.-A.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Huang, David T.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The radiation therapy results for patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been disappointing. Tumor dose escalation using concomitant boost technique (CBT) has been shown to improve local control in a few prospective studies. This trial was carried out to prospectively assess the radiation response and acute toxicity of CBT in comparison to the conventional treatment technique (CTT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-seven consecutive eligible patients were entered in this prospective clinical trial between November 1994 and February 1998. Patients were randomized to receive either CBT (43 patients) or CTT (54 patients) radiation therapy. These patients either refused chemotherapy or were judged as unsuitable for chemotherapy. Patients in the CBT group received 46.8 Gy in 26 fractions using large fields that encompassed the gross and occult disease. A concomitant boost of 18.2 Gy (0.7 Gy per fraction) was delivered to the gross disease using small fields with 1.5-cm margins. The small fields were treated concurrently with the large fields and the total dose to the tumor area was 65 Gy in 26 fractions. Patients in the CTT group received 70.8 Gy in 38 fractions. The acute toxicity between each group was compared. The response rate was analyzed and compared by treatment group, gender, age, stage, histology, initial Karnofsky performance score (KPS), severity of acute toxicity, and maximum body weight loss (MBWL) during treatment course. Results: The demographic parameters such as sex, age, and stage were evenly distributed in each treatment group. The majority of these patients had Stage IIIA and IIIB disease. Overall median treatment times were 39 days for the CBT group of patients and 62 days for the CTT group. No treatment-related mortality was found. There were 2 patients in the CTT group with acute RTOG Grade 3 lung toxicity, and no Grade 3 lung or esophageal toxicity was observed in CBT group. The response rates, assessed by

  11. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating preoperative chemotherapy in resectable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwei Chen,* Qingquan Luo,* Hong Jian, Zhen Zhou, Baijun Cheng, Shun Lu, Meilin LiaoShanghai Lung Tumor Clinical Medical Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equallyObjective: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative chemotherapy provides benefits in the survival and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in resectable stages I to IIIA, except T1N0. Methods: In this randomized, controlled trial, 356 patients with stage I (except for T1N0, II and IIIA NSCLC were assigned to either the preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery arm (179 patients or the primary surgery arm (177 patients. Both treatments were followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The end point of this study included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, and survival rate associated with clinical remission. Results: Statistical survival difference was found between the preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery arm and the surgery-alone arm. However, the median survival time (MST in the preoperative chemotherapy arm was lower than that of surgery-alone arm (MST, 45.42 months vs 57.59 months (P = 0.016. When comparing the effect of preoperative chemotherapy at each stage of NSCLC, a statistical survival difference was found in stage II NSCLC but not in stage I and IIIA (MST 40.86 months vs 80.81 months (P = 0.044. However, no statistically significant difference in PFS was noticed between the two arms, except for stage I NSCLC (hazard radio [HR] = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.561−1.629; P = 0.027. The survival rate was higher for patients who had clinical remission after preoperative chemotherapy, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (MST 42.10 months vs 35.33 months (P = 0.630. Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy did not show benefits in OS and PFS for stage I-IIIA NSCLC patients. Keywords: NSCLC, neoadjuvent, mitomycin, cisplatin, vindesine

  12. Antitumor activity and safety of tivozanib (AV-951) in a phase II randomized discontinuation trial in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosov, Dmitry A; Esteves, Brooke; Lipatov, Oleg N; Lyulko, Alexei A; Anischenko, A A; Chacko, Raju T; Doval, Dinesh C; Strahs, Andrew; Slichenmyer, William J; Bhargava, Pankaj

    2012-05-10

    The antitumor activity and safety of tivozanib, which is a potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, -2, and -3 inhibitor, was assessed in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this phase II, randomized discontinuation trial, 272 patients received open-label tivozanib 1.5 mg/d (one cycle equaled three treatment weeks followed by a 1-week break) orally for 16 weeks. Thereafter, 78 patients who demonstrated ≥ 25% tumor shrinkage continued to take tivozanib, and 118 patients with less than 25% tumor change were randomly assigned to receive tivozanib or a placebo in a double-blind manner; patients with ≥ 25% tumor growth were discontinued. Primary end points included safety, the objective response rate (ORR) at 16 weeks, and the percentage of randomly assigned patients who remained progression free after 12 weeks of double-blind treatment; secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS). Of 272 patients enrolled onto the study, 83% of patients had clear-cell histology, 73% of patients had undergone nephrectomy, and 54% of patients were treatment naive. The ORR after 16 weeks of tivozanib treatment was 18% (95% CI, 14% to 23%). Of the 118 randomized patients, significantly more patients who were randomly assigned to receive double-blind tivozanib remained progression free after 12 weeks versus patients who received the placebo (49% v 21%; P = .001). Throughout the study, the ORR was 24% (95% CI, 19% to 30%), and the median PFS was 11.7 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 14.3 months) in the overall study population. The most common grade 3 and 4 treatment-related adverse event was hypertension (12%). Tivozanib was active and well tolerated in patients with advanced RCC. These data support additional development of tivozanib in advanced RCC.

  13. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

  14. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels

  15. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18-35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 24 [corrected] months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01092364. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  17. Preferential processing of tactile events under conditions of divided attention: Effects of divided attention on reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, James V. M.; Whitaker, David; Heron, James

    2009-01-01

    Differences in transduction and transmission latencies of visual, auditory and tactile events cause corresponding differences in simple reaction time. As reaction time is usually measured in unimodal blocks, it is unclear whether such latency differences also apply when observers monitor multiple sensory channels. We investigate this by comparing reaction time when attention is focussed on a single modality, and when attention is divided between multiple modalities. Results show that tactile ...

  18. All-optical clocked flip-flops and random access memory cells using the nonlinear polarization rotation effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinyu; Tian, Qinghua; Wang, Lina; Xin, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    Basic configurations of various all-optical clocked flip-flops (FFs) and optical random access memory (RAM) based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are proposed. As the constituent elements, all-optical logic gates and all-optical SR latches are constructed by taking advantage of the SOA's NPR switch. Different all-optical FFs (AOFFs), including SR-, D-, T-, and JK-types as well as an optical RAM cell were obtained by the combination of the proposed all-optical SR latches and logic gates. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes were verified by simulation results and demonstrated by a D-FF and 1-bit RAM cell experimental system. The proposed all-optical clocked FFs and RAM cell are significant to all-optical signal processing.

  19. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Judith S; Britto, Paula; Hoffman, Risa M; Brummel, Sean; Masheto, Gaerolwe; Joao, Esau; Santos, Breno; Aurpibul, Linda; Losso, Marcelo; Pierre, Marie F; Weinberg, Adriana; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Klingman, Karin; Browning, Renee; Coletti, Anne; Mofenson, Lynne; Shapiro, David; Pilotto, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials. Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen. The sample size was selected to provide 88% power to detect a 50% reduction from an annualized primary event rate of 2.07%. A post-hoc analysis evaluated HIV/AIDS-related and World Health Organization (WHO) Stage 2 and 3 events. All analyses were intent to treat. 1652 women from 52 sites in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Haiti, Peru, Thailand and the US were enrolled (1/2010-11/2014). Median age was 28 years and major racial categories were Black African (28%), Asian (25%) White (15%). Median entry CD4 count was 696 cells/mm3 (IQR 575-869), median ART exposure prior to delivery was 19 weeks (IQR 13-24) and 94% had entry HIV-1 RNA women randomized to continue ART, 189/827 (23%) had virologic failure; of the 155 with resistance testing, 103 (66%) failed without resistance to their current regimen, suggesting non-adherence. Overall, serious clinical events were rare among young HIV-positive post-partum women with high CD4 cell counts. Continued ART was safe and was associated with a halving of the rate of WHO 2/3 conditions. Virologic failure rates were high, underscoring the urgent need to improve adherence in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00955968.

  20. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kreiberg, Michael; Oturai, Peter Sandor; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Daugaard, Gedske

    2017-07-03

    Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed consent will be obtained. Afterwards, a 52-weeks treatment period begins in which study participants will receive a daily dose of transdermal testosterone or placebo. Dose adjustment will be made three times during the initial 8 weeks of the study to a maximal daily dose of 40 mg of testosterone in the intervention arm. Evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints will be performed at baseline, 26 weeks post-randomization, at the end of treatment (52 weeks) and 3 months after completion of treatment (week 64). This study is the first to investigate the effect of testosterone substitution in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. If positive, it may change the clinical handling of testicular cancer survivors with borderline low levels of testosterone. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02991209 (November 25, 2016).

  1. Identification by random forest method of HLA class I amino acid substitutions associated with lower survival at day 100 in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, S R; Lin, S; Maiers, M; Haagenson, M; Spellman, S; Klein, J P; Binkowski, T A; Lee, S J; van Besien, K

    2012-02-01

    The identification of important amino acid substitutions associated with low survival in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is hampered by the large number of observed substitutions compared with the small number of patients available for analysis. Random forest analysis is designed to address these limitations. We studied 2107 HCT recipients with good or intermediate risk hematological malignancies to identify HLA class I amino acid substitutions associated with reduced survival at day 100 post transplant. Random forest analysis and traditional univariate and multivariate analyses were used. Random forest analysis identified amino acid substitutions in 33 positions that were associated with reduced 100 day survival, including HLA-A 9, 43, 62, 63, 76, 77, 95, 97, 114, 116, 152, 156, 166 and 167; HLA-B 97, 109, 116 and 156; and HLA-C 6, 9, 11, 14, 21, 66, 77, 80, 95, 97, 99, 116, 156, 163 and 173. In all 13 had been previously reported by other investigators using classical biostatistical approaches. Using the same data set, traditional multivariate logistic regression identified only five amino acid substitutions associated with lower day 100 survival. Random forest analysis is a novel statistical methodology for analysis of HLA mismatching and outcome studies, capable of identifying important amino acid substitutions missed by other methods.

  2. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  3. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  4. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  5. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  6. Divide and conquer approach to quantum Hamiltonian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Stuart; Papageorgiou, Anargyros

    2018-04-01

    We show a divide and conquer approach for simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. We can obtain fast simulation algorithms using Hamiltonian structure. Considering a sum of Hamiltonians we split them into groups, simulate each group separately, and combine the partial results. Simulation is customized to take advantage of the properties of each group, and hence yield refined bounds to the overall simulation cost. We illustrate our results using the electronic structure problem of quantum chemistry, where we obtain significantly improved cost estimates under very mild assumptions.

  7. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO 2 emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO 2 releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  8. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  9. Matrix analysis of the digital divide in eHealth services using awareness, want, and adoption gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2012-02-13

    The digital divide usually refers to access or usage, but some studies have identified two other divides: awareness and demand (want). Given that the hierarchical stages of the innovation adoption process of a customer are interrelated, it is necessary and meaningful to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services through three main stages, namely, awareness, want, and adoption. By following the three main integrated stages of the innovation diffusion theory, from the customer segment viewpoint, this study aimed to propose a new matrix analysis of the digital divide using the awareness, want, and adoption gap ratio (AWAG). I compared the digital divide among different groups. Furthermore, I conducted an empirical study on eHealth services to present the practicability of the proposed methodology. Through a review and discussion of the literature, I proposed hypotheses and a new matrix analysis. To test the proposed method, 3074 Taiwanese respondents, aged 15 years and older, were surveyed by telephone. I used the stratified simple random sampling method, with sample size allocation proportioned by the population distribution of 23 cities and counties (strata). This study proposed the AWAG segment matrix to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services. First, awareness and want rates were divided into two levels at the middle point of 50%, and then the 2-dimensional cross of the awareness and want segment matrix was divided into four categories: opened group, desire-deficiency group, perception-deficiency group, and closed group. Second, according to the degrees of awareness and want, each category was further divided into four subcategories. I also defined four possible strategies, namely, hold, improve, evaluate, and leave, for different regions in the proposed matrix. An empirical test on two recently promoted eHealth services, the digital medical service (DMS) and the digital home care service (DHCS), was conducted. Results showed that for both e

  10. Novel β-lactamase-random peptide fusion libraries for phage display selection of cancer cell-targeting agents suitable for enzyme prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Girja S.; Krag, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Novel phage-displayed random linear dodecapeptide (X12) and cysteine-constrained decapeptide (CX10C) libraries constructed in fusion to the amino-terminus of P99 β-lactamase molecules were used for identifying β-lactamase-linked cancer cell-specific ligands. The size and quality of both libraries were comparable to the standards of other reported phage display systems. Using the single-round panning method based on phage DNA recovery, we identified severalβ-lactamase fusion peptides that specifically bind to live human breast cancer MDA-MB-361 cells. The β-lactamase fusion to the peptides helped in conducting the enzyme activity-based clone normalization and cell-binding screening in a very time- and cost-efficient manner. The methods were suitable for 96-well readout as well as microscopic imaging. The success of the biopanning was indicated by the presence of ~40% cancer cell-specific clones among recovered phages. One of the binding clones appeared multiple times. The cancer cell-binding fusion peptides also shared several significant motifs. This opens a new way of preparing and selecting phage display libraries. The cancer cell-specific β-lactamase-linked affinity reagents selected from these libraries can be used for any application that requires a reporter for tracking the ligand molecules. Furthermore, these affinity reagents have also a potential for their direct use in the targeted enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. PMID:19751096

  11. Toxicity, physical function and everyday activity reported by patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer in a randomized trial (chemotherapy versus radiotherapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, S.; Mastekaasa, A.; Thorud, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a randomized trial, patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer with limited disease were randomly given either radiotherapy (42 Gy) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, 70 mg/m 2 , and etoposide, 100 mg/m 2 , given every third week with a maximum of 4 cycles. The patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning psychosocial well-being, medical and treatment related symptoms, physical function and everyday activity. Of the chemotherapy patients 61% reported nausea 5 weeks after their last chemotherapy session and 44% had spells of vomiting. Only 14% of the radiotherapy patients had nausea and 5% vomited 14 weeks after start of treatment. Of the radiotherapy patients 64% experienced dysphagia compared to 8% of the chemotherapy patients 6 weeks after the start of treatment. (orig.)

  12. Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J

    2013-05-01

    Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.

  13. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Moroz, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling's interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling's interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling's interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs. PMID:29621292

  16. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Adrian Rill

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  17. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Róbert Adrian; Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  18. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul

    2009-09-01

    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  19. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  20. Mutation analysis with random DNA identifiers (MARDI) catalogs Pig-a mutations in heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Javier R; Crabtree, Nathaniel M; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N

    2016-03-01

    Identification of mutations induced by xenotoxins is a common task in the field of genetic toxicology. Mutations are often detected by clonally expanding potential mutant cells and genotyping each viable clone by Sanger sequencing. Such a "clone-by-clone" approach requires significant time and effort, and sometimes is even impossible to implement. Alternative techniques for efficient mutation identification would greatly benefit both basic and regulatory genetic toxicology research. Here, we report the development of Mutation Analysis with Random DNA Identifiers (MARDI), a novel high-fidelity Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach that circumvents clonal expansion and directly catalogs mutations in pools of mutant cells. MARDI uses oligonucleotides carrying Random DNA Identifiers (RDIs) to tag progenitor DNA molecules before PCR amplification, enabling clustering of descendant DNA molecules and eliminating NGS- and PCR-induced sequencing artifacts. When applied to the Pig-a cDNA analysis of heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats, MARDI detected nearly all Pig-a mutations that were previously identified by conventional clone-by-clone analysis and discovered many additional ones consistent with DMBA exposure: mostly A to T transversions, with the mutated A located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  2. Evolution of cell resistance, threshold voltage and crystallization temperature during cycling of line-cell phase-change random access memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Attenborough, K.; Hurkx, G. A. M.; Jedema, F. J.; Gravesteijn, D. J.; Kooi, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Doped SbTe phase change (PRAM) line cells produced by e-beam lithography were cycled 100 million times. During cell cycling the evolution of many cell properties were monitored, in particular the crystalline and amorphous resistance, amorphous resistance drift exponent, time-dependent threshold

  3. Dose and Fractionation in Radiation Therapy of Curative Intent for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramroth, Johanna; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C. [Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Higgins, Geoff S. [Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); McGale, Paul [Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Partridge, Mike [CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Taylor, Carolyn W., E-mail: carolyn.taylor@ndph.ox.ac.uk [Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: The optimum dose and fractionation in radiation therapy of curative intent for non-small cell lung cancer remains uncertain. We undertook a published data meta-analysis of randomized trials to examine whether radiation therapy regimens with higher time-corrected biologically equivalent doses resulted in longer survival, either when given alone or when given with chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible studies were randomized comparisons of 2 or more radiation therapy regimens, with other treatments identical. Median survival ratios were calculated for each comparison and pooled. Results: 3795 patients in 25 randomized comparisons of radiation therapy dose were studied. The median survival ratio, higher versus lower corrected dose, was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.22) when radiation therapy was given alone and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) when it was given with concurrent chemotherapy (P for difference=.001). In comparisons of radiation therapy given alone, the survival benefit increased with increasing dose difference between randomized treatment arms (P for trend=.004). The benefit increased with increasing dose in the lower-dose arm (P for trend=.01) without reaching a level beyond which no further survival benefit was achieved. The survival benefit did not differ significantly between randomized comparisons where the higher-dose arm was hyperfractionated and those where it was not. There was heterogeneity in the median survival ratio by geographic region (P<.001), average age at randomization (P<.001), and year trial started (P for trend=.004), but not for proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P=.2). Conclusions: In trials with concurrent chemotherapy, higher radiation therapy doses resulted in poorer survival, possibly caused, at least in part, by high levels of toxicity. Where radiation therapy was given without chemotherapy, progressively higher radiation therapy doses resulted in progressively longer survival, and no

  4. Dose and Fractionation in Radiation Therapy of Curative Intent for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramroth, Johanna; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C.; Higgins, Geoff S.; McGale, Paul; Partridge, Mike; Taylor, Carolyn W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The optimum dose and fractionation in radiation therapy of curative intent for non-small cell lung cancer remains uncertain. We undertook a published data meta-analysis of randomized trials to examine whether radiation therapy regimens with higher time-corrected biologically equivalent doses resulted in longer survival, either when given alone or when given with chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible studies were randomized comparisons of 2 or more radiation therapy regimens, with other treatments identical. Median survival ratios were calculated for each comparison and pooled. Results: 3795 patients in 25 randomized comparisons of radiation therapy dose were studied. The median survival ratio, higher versus lower corrected dose, was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.22) when radiation therapy was given alone and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) when it was given with concurrent chemotherapy (P for difference=.001). In comparisons of radiation therapy given alone, the survival benefit increased with increasing dose difference between randomized treatment arms (P for trend=.004). The benefit increased with increasing dose in the lower-dose arm (P for trend=.01) without reaching a level beyond which no further survival benefit was achieved. The survival benefit did not differ significantly between randomized comparisons where the higher-dose arm was hyperfractionated and those where it was not. There was heterogeneity in the median survival ratio by geographic region (P<.001), average age at randomization (P<.001), and year trial started (P for trend=.004), but not for proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P=.2). Conclusions: In trials with concurrent chemotherapy, higher radiation therapy doses resulted in poorer survival, possibly caused, at least in part, by high levels of toxicity. Where radiation therapy was given without chemotherapy, progressively higher radiation therapy doses resulted in progressively longer survival, and no

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a randomized Phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Freddi; Damber, Lena; Jonsson, Haakan; Andersson, Torsten; Berthelsen, Anne; Bioerklund, Anders; Blomqvist, Erik; Evensen, Jan F.; Hansen, Hanne S.; Hansen, Olfred; Jetlund, Olav; Mercke, Claes; Modig, Hans; Overgaard, Marie; Rosengren, Bengt; Tausjoe, Johan; Ringborg, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: In 1986 a prospective, randomized, multi-centre trial for evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was initiated. As survival in this group of patients is poor the purpose was to find a possible survival benefit of the chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy only. Methods. Four-hundred sixty-one patients from Denmark, Norway and Sweden with tumors in oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were randomized to receive either standard treatment (radiotherapy or radiotherapy followed by surgery) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by standard treatment. Chemotherapy included three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 i.v. infusion on day 1 followed by 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m 2 per day continuous i.v. infusion for 120 hours. Radiotherapy 64-70 Gy in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times/week, was given to patients in both treatment arms. Results: Response rate was 71% for patients randomized to chemotherapy-radiotherapy and 66% for patients randomized to standard treatment (not statistically significant). Residual tumors were excised if possible. After surgery 62% of the patients randomized to chemotherapy-radiotherapy and 60% of the patients in the standard treatment group were clinically tumor free. Conclusions: No statistically significant benefit in survival was observed for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Nor was there any impact of chemotherapy on the number of patients achieving loco-regional tumor control after primary treatment

  6. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, RS; Jorgensen, E; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of......: Bone marrow stem cell mobilization with subcutaneous G-CSF is safe but did not lead to further improvement in ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction compared with the recovery observed in the placebo group...

  7. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974 ± 68 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832 ± 70, 764 ± 80, and 486 ± 64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. - Highlights: • PLGA-based random nanofibers embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning method • Incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds increased the hydrophilicity of scaffold • Addition of nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds • Introduction of MSNPs led to improved cell attachment and proliferation

  8. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrasa, Mohammad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: ma.asadollahi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaedi, Kamran [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hossein [Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza [DTU Nanotech, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Arpanaei, Ayyoob, E-mail: arpanaei@yahoo.com [Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974 ± 68 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832 ± 70, 764 ± 80, and 486 ± 64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. - Highlights: • PLGA-based random nanofibers embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning method • Incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds increased the hydrophilicity of scaffold • Addition of nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds • Introduction of MSNPs led to improved cell attachment and proliferation.

  9. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  10. A novel approach to non-biased systematic random sampling: a stereologic estimate of Purkinje cells in the human cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashiwala, Rajiv M; Louis, Elan D; Hof, Patrick R; Perl, Daniel P

    2008-10-21

    Non-biased systematic sampling using the principles of stereology provides accurate quantitative estimates of objects within neuroanatomic structures. However, the basic principles of stereology are not optimally suited for counting objects that selectively exist within a limited but complex and convoluted portion of the sample, such as occurs when counting cerebellar Purkinje cells. In an effort to quantify Purkinje cells in association with certain neurodegenerative disorders, we developed a new method for stereologic sampling of the cerebellar cortex, involving calculating the volume of the cerebellar tissues, identifying and isolating the Purkinje cell layer and using this information to extrapolate non-biased systematic sampling data to estimate the total number of Purkinje cells in the tissues. Using this approach, we counted Purkinje cells in the right cerebella of four human male control specimens, aged 41, 67, 70 and 84 years, and estimated the total Purkinje cell number for the four entire cerebella to be 27.03, 19.74, 20.44 and 22.03 million cells, respectively. The precision of the method is seen when comparing the density of the cells within the tissue: 266,274, 173,166, 167,603 and 183,575 cells/cm3, respectively. Prior literature documents Purkinje cell counts ranging from 14.8 to 30.5 million cells. These data demonstrate the accuracy of our approach. Our novel approach, which offers an improvement over previous methodologies, is of value for quantitative work of this nature. This approach could be applied to morphometric studies of other similarly complex tissues as well.

  11. Involved-Field Radiotherapy versus Elective Nodal Irradiation in Combination with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong; Ma, Hong-Lian; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yan; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Qi-Chao; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomized study is to evaluate the locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It appears that higher dose could be delivered in IFRT arm than that in ENI arm, and IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures. Both a tendency of improved locoregional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate are in favor of IFRT arm in this study. PMID:23762840

  12. The supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset in advanced complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor static random-access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Da-Wei; Qin Jun-Rui; Chen Shu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Using computer-aided design three-dimensional simulation technology, the supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset and charge collection in static random-access memory cells are investigated. It reveals that the recovery linear energy transfer threshold decreases with the supply voltage reducing, which is quite attractive for dynamic voltage scaling and subthreshold circuit radiation-hardened design. Additionally, the effect of supply voltage on charge collection is also investigated. It is concluded that the supply voltage mainly affects the bipolar gain of the parasitical bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and the existence of the source plays an important role in supply voltage variation. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  14. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  15. Divided Saddle Theory: A New Idea for Rate Constant Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, János; Stirling, András

    2014-03-11

    We present a theory of rare events and derive an algorithm to obtain rates from postprocessing the numerical data of a free energy calculation and the corresponding committor analysis. The formalism is based on the division of the saddle region of the free energy profile of the rare event into two adjacent segments called saddle domains. The method is built on sampling the dynamics within these regions: auxiliary rate constants are defined for the saddle domains and the absolute forward and backward rates are obtained by proper reweighting. We call our approach divided saddle theory (DST). An important advantage of our approach is that it requires only standard computational techniques which are available in most molecular dynamics codes. We demonstrate the potential of DST numerically on two examples: rearrangement of alanine-dipeptide (CH3CO-Ala-NHCH3) conformers and the intramolecular Cope reaction of the fluxional barbaralane molecule.

  16. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  17. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  18. Size and emotion averaging: costs of dividing attention after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Oriet, Chris; Tottenham, Laurie Sykes

    2012-03-01

    Perceptual averaging is a process by which sets of similar items are represented by summary statistics such as their average size, luminance, or orientation. Researchers have argued that this process is automatic, able to be carried out without interference from concurrent processing. Here, we challenge this conclusion and demonstrate a reliable cost of computing the mean size of circles distinguished by colour (Experiments 1 and 2) and the mean emotionality of faces distinguished by sex (Experiment 3). We also test the viability of two strategies that could have allowed observers to guess the correct response without computing the average size or emotionality of both sets concurrently. We conclude that although two means can be computed concurrently, doing so incurs a cost of dividing attention.

  19. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  2. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  3. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Closing the divide: Can the IAEA make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the world has seen many fundamental changes in the way countries interact. It is seen today in how business is conducted, how fast travel and super-fast communications have opened up the world into almost one huge market and how news of break-through technological innovations appear almost weekly in the media. Yet the world still lives with a vast divide between rich and poor and, from many perspectives, this divide appears to be increasing. The world's development programmes have thus been increasingly scrutinized for their effectiveness and efficiency. The aim is to ensure that the planned benefits reach the end-beneficiaries in a manner that adequately addresses the socio-economic needs of the recipient society. Against this background, the IAEA's relatively small but nevertheless significant programme of technical cooperation has had to reform itself. It has gone from a largely 'technology push' focus to adopting a new 'needs driven' strategy. As the world marks 50 years of the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative, the questions must be asked whether the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) really can make a difference? Is this programme correctly positioned to be able to meet these very large global challenges? Must it reform itself further to remain meaningful and relevant? What are the determinants for its success within a highly demanding environment? These are the typical questions that have largely shaped the deliberations between the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department and its Standing Advisory Group, called SAGTAC, since the group of representatives from Member States was formed in the mid- 1990s

  5. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-point-type spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory cell with multi-pillar vertical body channel MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Taro; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, from the viewpoint of cell size and sensing margin, the impact of a novel cross-point-type one transistor and one magnetic tunnel junction (1T–1MTJ) spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) cell with a multi-pillar vertical body channel (BC) MOSFET is shown for high density and wide sensing margin STT-MRAM, with a 10 ns writing period and 1.2 V V DD. For that purpose, all combinations of n/p-type MOSFETs and bottom/top-pin MTJs are compared, where the diameter of MTJ (D MTJ) is scaled down from 55 to 15 nm and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is increased from 100 to 200%. The results show that, benefiting from the proposed STT-MRAM cell with no back bias effect, the MTJ with a high TMR ratio (200%) can be used in the design of smaller STT-MRAM cells (over 72.6% cell size reduction), which is a difficult task for conventional planar MOSFET based design.

  7. In vivo cell kinetic measurements in a randomized trial of continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with or without mitomycin C in head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowsky, Werner; Dobrowsky, Eva; Wilson, George D.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor cell repopulation is still considered to be a major cause of failure in radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated the influence of cell kinetic parameters on the outcome of patients treated in a randomized trial of accelerated fractionation, with or without mitomycin C, vs. conventional fractionation. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients were studied using administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), and cell kinetic parameters were measured using flow cytometry. The patients were treated with either 70 Gy for 7 weeks or 55.3 Gy for 17 continuous days (V-CHART) with or without 20 mg/m 2 mitomycin C on day 5. Results: The potential doubling time (Tpot) and labeling index (LI) failed to provide any prognostic information with regard to local control or survival. However, the duration of the S phase (Ts) revealed patients whose tumors had a long Ts had significantly worse local control (p = 0.028) and survival (p = 0.034) irrespective of treatment. A similar trend was evident within the different treatment arms particularly associated with overall survival. Conclusions: The Ts values of head-and-neck squamous cell cancers provided prognostic information that predicted clinical outcome irrespective of treatment schedule in this study. This neglected parameter of the Tpot method might provide information related to redistribution of cells during fractionated radiotherapy

  8. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  9. Cell phone intervention for you (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetkey, Laura P; Batch, Bryan C; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen S; Corsino, Leonor; Tyson, Crystal C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Grambow, Steven C; Voils, Corrine; Loria, Catherine; Gallis, John A; Schwager, Jenifer; Bennett, Gary G; Bennett, Gary B

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control. The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m(2) . Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect -1.92 kg [CI -3.17, -0.67], P = 0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months. Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss, and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to Control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  11. The random co-polymer glatiramer acetate rapidly kills primary human leukocytes through sialic-acid-dependent cell membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stig Hill; Zhang, Xianwei; Juul-Madsen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    in innate immunity. It shares the positive charge and amphipathic character of GA, and, as shown here, also the ability to kill human leukocyte. The cytotoxicity of both compounds depends on sialic acid in the cell membrane. The killing was associated with the generation of CD45 + debris, derived from cell...... membrane deformation. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed the formation of such debris, even at low GA concentrations. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing measurements also recorded stable alterations in T lymphocytes following such treatment. LL-37 forms oligomers through weak hydrophobic...

  12. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  13. A randomized controlled pilot study feasibility of a tablet-based guided audio-visual relaxation intervention for reducing stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Engeland, Christopher G; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To test feasibility of a guided audio-visual relaxation intervention protocol for reducing stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease. Sickle cell pain is inadequately controlled using opioids, necessitating further intervention such as guided relaxation to reduce stress and pain. Attention-control, randomized clinical feasibility pilot study with repeated measures. Randomized to guided relaxation or control groups, all patients recruited between 2013-2014 during clinical visits, completed stress and pain measures via a Galaxy Internet-enabled Android tablet at the Baseline visit (pre/post intervention), 2-week posttest visit and also daily at home between the two visits. Experimental group patients were asked to use a guided relaxation intervention at the Baseline visit and at least once daily for 2 weeks. Control group patients engaged in a recorded sickle cell discussion at the Baseline visit. Data were analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. At baseline, 27/28 of consented patients completed the study protocol. Group comparison showed that guided relaxation significantly reduced current stress and pain. At the 2-week posttest, 24/27 of patients completed the study, all of whom reported liking the study. Patients completed tablet-based measures on 71% of study days (69% in control group, 72% in experiment group). At the 2-week posttest, the experimental group had significantly lower composite pain index scores, but the two groups did not differ significantly on stress intensity. This study protocol appears feasible. The tablet-based guided relaxation intervention shows promise for reducing sickle cell pain and warrants a larger efficacy trial. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is: NCT02501447. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Outcome of burns treated with autologous cultured proliferating epidermal cells: a prospective randomized multicenter intrapatient comparative trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardien, K.L.M.; Marck, R.E.; Bloemen, M.C.T.; Waaijman, T.; Gibbs, S.; Uhlrich, M.M.W.; Middelkoop, E.

    2016-01-01

    Standard treatment for large burns is transplantation with meshed split skin autografts (SSGs). A disadvantage of this treatment is that healing is accompanied by scar formation. Application of autologous epidermal cells (keratinocytes and melanocytes) may be a suitable therapeutic alternative,

  15. Randomized phase II study of vandetanib alone or with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymach, John V; Paz-Ares, Luis; De Braud, Filippo; Sebastian, Martin; Stewart, David J; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Cohen, Graham; Trigo, Jose Manuel; Sandler, Alan B; Bonomi, Philip D; Herbst, Roy S; Krebs, Annetta D; Vasselli, James; Johnson, Bruce E

    2008-11-20

    Vandetanib is a once-daily, oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. The antitumor activity of vandetanib monotherapy or vandetanib with paclitaxel and carboplatin (VPC) was compared with paclitaxel and carboplatin (PC) in previously untreated patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All NSCLC histologies and previously treated CNS metastases were permitted in this partially blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1:1 to receive vandetanib, VPC, or PC. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary end point, and the study was powered to detect a reduced risk of progression with VPC versus PC (hazard ratio = 0.70; one-sided P 1.33 v PC). Overall survival was not significantly different between patients receiving VPC or PC. Rash, diarrhea, and hypertension were common adverse events; no pulmonary or CNS hemorrhage events required intervention. VPC could be safely administered to patients with NSCLC, including those with squamous cell histology and treated brain metastases. Compared with the PC control arm, patients receiving VPC had longer PFS, meeting the prespecified study end point, whereas those receiving vandetanib monotherapy had shorter PFS.

  16. An online randomized controlled trial, with or without problem-solving treatment, for long-term cancer survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjala, Karen L; Yi, Jean C; Artherholt, Samantha B; Romano, Joan M; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Fiscalini, Allison S; Hegel, Mark T; Flowers, Mary E D; Martin, Paul J; Leisenring, Wendy M

    2018-05-05

    This randomized controlled trial examines the efficacy of INSPIRE, an INternet-based Survivorship Program with Information and REsources, with or without problem-solving treatment (PST) telehealth calls, for survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). All adult survivors who met eligibility criteria were approached for consent. Participants completed patient-reported outcomes at baseline and 6 months. Those with baseline impaired scores on one or more of the outcomes were randomized to INSPIRE, INSPIRE + PST, or control with delayed INSPIRE access. Outcomes included Cancer and Treatment Distress, Symptom Checklist-90-R Depression, and Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Planned analyses compared arms for mean change in aggregated impaired outcomes and for proportion of participants improved on each outcome. Of 1306 eligible HCT recipients, 755 (58%) participated, and 344 (45%) had one or more impaired scores at baseline. We found no reduction in aggregated outcomes for either intervention (P > 0.3). In analyses of individual outcomes, participants randomized to INSPIRE + PST were more likely to improve in distress than controls (45 vs. 20%, RR 2.3, CI 1.0, 5.1); those randomized to INSPIRE alone were marginally more likely to improve in distress (40 vs. 20%, RR 2.0, CI 0.9, 4.5). The INSPIRE online intervention demonstrated a marginal benefit for distress that improved with the addition of telehealth PST, particularly for those who viewed the website or were age 40 or older. Online and telehealth programs such as INSPIRE offer opportunities to enhance HCT survivorship outcomes, particularly for mood, though methods would benefit from strategies to improve efficacy.

  17. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V

    2017-01-01

    and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months....... A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative...

  18. Using environment friendly finely divided materials in brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    Material engineers the world over are increasingly recommending the use of environment friendly efficient construction materials, which otherwise would have been classed as waste materials for improving the durability of concrete. Pakistan has been blessed by nature with huge natural resources of lime, and fly-ash is also becoming increasingly available with the induction of thermal power generation plants. To introduce the benefits of such concrete modifying materials to the engineering community in our country, an investigation has been carried out on the use of locally available powdered hydrated lime, fly-ash and their combinations in making concretes with a view to evaluate their strength, workability, durability and cost effectiveness. As such there is no documented data of local materials available on the topic in Pakistan. ACI mentions powdered hydrated lime and fly-ash as finely divided admixtures which can be used to improve concrete properties at microstructure level. It is commonly believed by the engineers that the use of such materials is especially desirable for durability purposes. Moreover, lime when added in concrete absorbs CO/sub 2/ from the environment thus making it friendly flexible material. he results of investigation are encouraging especially when the two were used in combination as some weight fraction of cement to make quality and environment friendly concrete. (author)

  19. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  20. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes. PMID:23404158

  1. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  2. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  3. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  4. Divided we fall... or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  5. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S W; Brockmark, S; Höjesjö, J; Johnsson, J I

    2004-04-07

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from aggression to predator vigilance and feeding. Wild juvenile brown trout were used to test the prediction that familiar fishes respond more quickly than unfamiliar fishes to a simulated predator attack. Our results confirm this prediction by demonstrating that familiar trout respond 14% faster than unfamiliar individuals to a predator attack. The results also show that familiar fishes consume a greater number of food items, foraging at more than twice the rate of unfamiliar conspecifics. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that familiarity-biased association confers advantages through the immediate fitness benefits afforded by faster predator-evasion responses and the long-term benefits provided by increased feeding opportunities.

  6. Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Dalton-Brown, Sally; Schrempf, Benjamin; Kaplan, David

    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This article aims to substantiate the following points: (1) The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can be used to derive similar ethical positions on the nano-divide. (2) Given the ambitious policy aims of RRI (e.g. economic competitiveness enhancer), the concept may be better suited to push for ethical outcomes on access to nanotechnology and its products rather than debates based on justice issues alone. It may thus serve as a mediator concept between those who push solely for competitiveness considerations and those who push solely for justice considerations in nano-technology debates. (3) The descriptive, non-normative Systems of Innovation approaches (see below) should be linked into RRI debates to provide more evidence on whether the approach advocated to achieve responsible and ethical governance of research and innovation (R&I) can indeed deliver on competitiveness (in nano-technology and other fields).

  7. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  8. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  9. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteroo, P A; Bluemink, J G; Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; de Laat, S W

    1984-07-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xenopus laevis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("HEDAF") and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("TEDAF") as probes. The preexisting plasma membrane of the animal side showed an inhomogeneous, dotted fluorescence pattern after labeling and the lateral mobility of both probes used was below the detection limits of the FPR method (D much less than 10(-10) cm2/sec). In contrast, the preexisting plasma membrane of the vegetal side exhibited homogeneous fluorescence and the lateral diffusion coefficient of both probes used was relatively high (HEDAF, D = 2.8 X 10(-8) cm2/sec; TEDAF, D = 2.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). In the cleaving egg visible transfer of HEDAF or TEDAF from prelabeled plasma membrane to the new membrane in the furrow did not occur, even on the vegetal side. Upon labeling during cleavage, however, the new membrane was uniformly labeled and both probes were mobile, as in the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane. These data show that the membrane of the dividing Xenopus egg comprises three macrodomains: (i) the animal preexisting plasma membrane; (ii) the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane; (iii) the new furrow membrane.

  10. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M; Sherman, Annabella T K

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (CEG; Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes), or semantic judgments (similar processes) on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA) in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on CEG priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  11. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Prull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3, or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2, both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes, or semantic judgments (similar processes on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on category exemplar generation priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  12. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  13. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Currier

    Full Text Available Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials.Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen. The sample size was selected to provide 88% power to detect a 50% reduction from an annualized primary event rate of 2.07%. A post-hoc analysis evaluated HIV/AIDS-related and World Health Organization (WHO Stage 2 and 3 events. All analyses were intent to treat.1652 women from 52 sites in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Haiti, Peru, Thailand and the US were enrolled (1/2010-11/2014. Median age was 28 years and major racial categories were Black African (28%, Asian (25% White (15%. Median entry CD4 count was 696 cells/mm3 (IQR 575-869, median ART exposure prior to delivery was 19 weeks (IQR 13-24 and 94% had entry HIV-1 RNA < 1000 copies/ml. After a median follow-up of 2.3 years, the primary composite endpoint rate was significantly lower than expected, and not significantly different between arms (continue arm 0.21 /100 person years(py; discontinue 0.31/100 py, Hazard ratio (HR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.40. WHO Stage 2 and 3 events were significantly reduced with continued ART (2.08/100 py vs. 4.36/100 py in the discontinue arm; HR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.70. Toxicity rates did not differ significantly between arms. Among women randomized to continue ART, 189/827 (23% had virologic failure; of the 155 with resistance testing, 103 (66% failed without resistance to their current regimen, suggesting non-adherence.Overall, serious clinical events were rare among young HIV-positive post-partum women with high CD4 cell counts. Continued ART was safe and was associated with a halving of the

  15. KIF1Bβ and Neuroblastoma: Failure to Divide and Cull

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastomas are associated with KIF1Bβ mutations within tumor suppressor region 1p36. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Li et al. (2016) show that KIF1Bβ binding releases calcineurin autoinhibition, leading to dephosphorylation of the DRP1 GTPase and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation. KIF1Bβ impairment causes mitochondrial hyperfusion, impairing developmental apoptosis and promoting tumorigenesis.

  16. Randomized Trial Comparing R-CHOP Versus High-Dose Sequential Chemotherapy in High-Risk Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzo, Sergio; Tarella, Corrado; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Ladetto, Marco; Barbui, Anna Maria; Rossi, Andrea; Gritti, Giuseppe; Corradini, Paolo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Patti, Caterina; Mulé, Antonino; Zanni, Manuela; Zoli, Valerio; Billio, Atto; Piccin, Andrea; Negri, Giovanni; Castellino, Claudia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Benedetti, Fabio; La Nasa, Giorgio; Gini, Guido; Trentin, Livio; Frezzato, Maurizio; Flenghi, Leonardo; Falorio, Simona; Chilosi, Marco; Bruna, Riccardo; Tabanelli, Valentina; Pileri, Stefano; Masciulli, Arianna; Delaini, Federica; Boschini, Cristina; Rambaldi, Alessandro

    2016-11-20

    Purpose The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas is still a matter of debate. To address this point, we designed a randomized phase III trial to compare rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP)-14 (eight cycles) with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with ASCT. Patients and Methods From June 2005 to June 2011, 246 high-risk patients with a high-intermediate (56%) or high (44%) International Prognostic Index score were randomly assigned to the R-CHOP or R-HDS arm, and 235 were analyzed by intent to treat. The primary efficacy end point of the study was 3-year event-free survival, and results were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Results Clinical response (complete response, 78% v 76%; partial response, 5% v 9%) and failures (no response, 15% v 11%; and early treatment-related mortality, 2% v 3%) were similar after R-CHOP versus R-HDS, respectively. After a median follow-up of 5 years, the 3-year event-free survival was 62% versus 65% ( P = .83). At 3 years, compared with the R-CHOP arm, the R-HDS arm had better disease-free survival (79% v 91%, respectively; P = .034), but this subsequently vanished because of late-occurring treatment-related deaths. No difference was detected in terms of progression-free survival (65% v 75%, respectively; P = .12), or overall survival (74% v 77%, respectively; P = .64). Significantly higher hematologic toxicity ( P < .001) and more infectious complications ( P < .001) were observed in the R-HDS arm. Conclusion In this study, front-line intensive R-HDS chemotherapy with ASCT did not improve the outcome of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

  17. Randomized phase II study of a bendamustine monotherapy schedule for relapsed or refractory low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma (RABBIT-14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kuniaki; Igarashi, Tadahiko; Irisawa, Hiroyuki; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Shinichi; Utsu, Yoshikazu; Tsujimura, Hideki; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Wakita, Hisashi

    2017-10-30

    The aim of this randomized phase II study was to improve the treatment delays and discontinuations associated with bendamustine use by comparing the effect of Benda-14 (intravenous bendamustine, 120 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 15, repeated every 4 weeks for a total of 6 cycles) with those of the standard treatment in relapsed indolent lymphoma and/or mantle cell lymphoma. Forty-six patients were randomly assigned to the treatments from September 2012 to February 2016. Treatment accomplishment rate and median relative dose intensity were similar in both arms: 38 and 63.4% in the Benda-14 arm and 41 and 66.3% in the standard treatment arm, respectively. The overall response rate and median progression-free survival, respectively, were 83% and 21.0 months for Benda-14, and 77% and 15.5 months for the standard treatment. Benda-14 induced favorable responses with less frequent hematological toxicities.

  18. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt

  19. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  20. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  1. Bridging the transatlantic climate divide. Final project paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, W.C.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    2005-10-01

    International climate change policy is presently dominated by the different visions of two major blocks, the USA and EU. It is not always realized that a part of these differences is more fundamental than one may expect in view of the historical connections between the populations of the two continents. Socio-cultural aspects like the role of government, the value of individual liberty and the consequences of population density are different in both regions and play an important role in determining what is acceptable policy-wise. Despite the apparent stalemate in formal positions, signs have been detected that indicate that the 'transatlantic divide' on this issue is (slowly) closing. One cause is that bottom-up momentum is building up in the USA, which can eventually push the federal level to initiate a more active policy. Another cause is the finding in the EU that it turns out to be difficult to reach the Kyoto-targets, which results in the development of policy instruments that could be attractive for the USA to endorse or even participate in. Such instruments could have similarities with the Kyoto Protocol. To obtain more insight in the driving forces behind such changes and why they lead to higher or lower acceptability of certain policy instruments, it makes sense to identify attitudinal indicators that signify such changes. By regularly monitoring these attitudinal indicators, e.g., concrete behavior of companies, proportional media attention, formal political statements, and relating the value of these indicators to a corresponding set of policy instruments, policy makers at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have an extra tool at their disposal to frame the issue and identify joint solutions in a way that is acceptable to the other party. This project makes a first attempt to design such a method (dynamic analytic model). It holds promises, and it is recommended to develop this model further in order to support the effectiveness of the climate negotiations

  2. Concurrent versus Sequential Chemoradiotherapy with Cisplatin and Vinorelbine in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zatloukal, P.; Petruželka, L.; Zemanová, M.; Havel, L.; Janků, F.; Judas, L.; Kubík, A.; Křepela, E.; Fiala, P.; Pecen, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2004), s. 87-98 ISSN 0169-5002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : concurrent chemoradiotherapy * sequential chemoradiotherapy * locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer * cisplatin * vinorelbine Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2004

  3. Efficacy of targeted therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the efficacy of the targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced RCC and, via an indirect comparison, to provide an optimal treatment among these agents. A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials unpublished was performed up to Jan 1, 2015 to identify eligible randomized trials. Outcomes of interest assessing a targeted agent included progression free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and objective response rate (ORR. Thirty eligible randomized controlled studies, total twentyfourth trails (5110 cases and 4626 controls were identified. Compared with placebo and IFN-α, single vascular epithelial growth factor (receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and mammalian target of rapamycin agent (VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor were associated with improved PFS, improved OS and higher ORR, respectively. Comparing sorafenib combination vs sorafenib, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS and OS, but with a higher ORR. Comparing single or combination VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor vs BEV + IFN-α, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS, OS, or ORR. Our network ITC meta-analysis also indicated a superior PFS of axitinib and everolimus compared to sorafenib. Our data suggest that targeted therapy with VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor is associated with superior efficacy for treating advanced RCC with improved PFS, OS and higher ORR compared to placebo and IFN-α. In summary, here we give a comprehensive overview of current targeted therapies of advanced RCC that may provide evidence for the adequate targeted therapy selecting.

  4. A randomized and blinded comparison of qPCR and NGS-based detection of aneuploidy in a cell line mixture model of blastocyst biopsy mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, David; Tao, Xin; Bohrer, Chelsea; Lonczak, Agnieszka; Xing, Tongji; Zimmerman, Rebekah; Zhan, Yiping; Scott, Richard T; Treff, Nathan R

    2016-11-01

    A subset of preimplantation stage embryos may possess mosaicism of chromosomal constitution, representing a possible limitation to the clinical predictive value of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) from a single biopsy. However, contemporary methods of CCS may be capable of predicting mosaicism in the blastocyst by detecting intermediate levels of aneuploidy within a trophectoderm biopsy. This study evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of aneuploidy detection by two CCS platforms using a cell line mixture model of a mosaic trophectoderm biopsy. Four cell lines with known karyotypes were obtained and mixed together at specific ratios of six total cells (0:6, 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2, 5:1, and 6:0). A female euploid and a male trisomy 18 cell line were used for one set, and a male trisomy 13 and a male trisomy 15 cell line were used for another. Replicates of each mixture were prepared, randomized, and blinded for analysis by one of two CCS platforms (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or VeriSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS)). Sensitivity and specificity of aneuploidy detection at each level of mosaicism was determined and compared between platforms. With the default settings for each platform, the sensitivity of qPCR and NGS were not statistically different, and 100 % specificity was observed (no false positives) at all levels of mosaicism. However, the use of previously published custom criteria for NGS increased sensitivity but also significantly decreased specificity (33 % false-positive prediction of aneuploidy). By demonstrating increased false-positive diagnoses when reducing the stringency of predicting an abnormality, these data illustrate the importance of preclinical evaluation of new testing paradigms before clinical implementation.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Reduce Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Complex Multilevel Spine Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabini, Louanne M; Moreland, Natalie C; Vealey, Ryan J; Bebawy, John F; Koski, Tyler R; Koht, Antoun; Gupta, Dhanesh K; Avram, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Multilevel spine fusion surgery for adult deformity correction is associated with significant blood loss and coagulopathy. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in high-risk surgery, but the efficacy of a low-dose regimen is unknown. Sixty-one patients undergoing multilevel complex spinal fusion with and without osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive low-dose tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg loading dose, then 1 mg·kg -1 ·hr -1 throughout surgery) or placebo. The primary outcome was the total volume of red blood cells transfused intraoperatively. Thirty-one patients received tranexamic acid, and 30 patients received placebo. Patient demographics, risk of major transfusion, preoperative hemoglobin, and surgical risk of the 2 groups were similar. There was a significant decrease in total volume of red blood cells transfused (placebo group median 1460 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 1140 mL; median difference 463 mL, 95% confidence interval 15 to 914 mL, P = 0.034), with a decrease in cell saver transfusion (placebo group median 490 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 256 mL; median difference 166 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 368 mL, P = 0.042). The decrease in packed red blood cell transfusion did not reach statistical significance (placebo group median 1050 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 600 mL; median difference 300 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 600 mL, P = 0.097). Our results support the use of low-dose tranexamic acid during complex multilevel spine fusion surgery to decrease total red blood cell transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distress and quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of a web-based stepped care intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijgens Peter C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (i.e. depression and anxiety is a strong predictor of functional status and other aspects of quality of life in autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy. Treatment of psychological distress is hypothesized to result in improvement of functional status and other aspects of quality of life. The aim is to evaluate the outcome of stepped care for psychological distress on functional status and other aspects of quality of life in patients with hematological malignancy treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized clinical trial with 2 treatment arms: a stepped care intervention program versus care as usual. Patients are randomized immediately pre transplant. Stepped care and care as usual are initiated after a 6 weeks buffer period. Outcome is evaluated at 13, 30, and 42 weeks post transplant. In the experimental group, the first step includes an Internet-based self-help program. If psychological distress persists after the self-help intervention, the second step of the program is executed, i.e. a diagnostic evaluation and a standardized interview, yielding a problem analysis. Based on this information, a contract is made with the patient and treatment is provided consisting of individual face-to-face counseling, medication, or referral to other services. Care as usual comprises an interview with the patient, on ad hoc basis; emotional support and advice, on ad hoc basis; if urgent problems emerge, the patient is referred to other services. Primary outcome variables are psychological distress and functional status. Data are analyzed according to the intention to treat-principle. Discussion This study has several innovative characteristics. First, the outcome of the intervention for psychological distress in patients with hematological malignancy treated with autologous stem cell transplantation is evaluated in a randomized

  7. Human placenta-derived cells (PDA-001) for the treatment of adults with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Fred D; Bowen, James D; Huddlestone, John; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Carpenter, Adam; Corboy, John R; Freedman, Mark S; Krupp, Lauren; Paulo, Corri; Hariri, Robert J; Fischkoff, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    Infusion of PDA-001, a preparation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from full-term human placenta, is a new approach in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. This safety study aimed to rule out the possibility of paradoxical exacerbation of disease activity by PDA-001 in patients with multiple sclerosis. This was a phase 1b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-dose ranging study including patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted at 6 sites in the United States and 2 sites in Canada. Patients were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 low-dose infusions of PDA-001 (150×10(6) cells) or placebo, given 1 week apart. After completing this cohort, subsequent patients received high-dose PDA-001 (600×10(6) cells) or placebo. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed. The primary end point was ruling out the possibility of paradoxical worsening of MS disease activity. This was monitored using Cutter׳s rule (≥5 new gadolinium lesions on 2 consecutive scans) by brain magnetic resonance imaging on a monthly basis for six months and also the frequency of multiple sclerosis relapse. Ten patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 6 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to treatment: 6 to low-dose PDA-001, 6 to high-dose PDA-001, and 4 to placebo. No patient met Cutter׳s rule. One patient receiving high-dose PDA-001 had an increase in T2 and gadolinium lesions and in Expanded Disability Status Scale score during a multiple sclerosis flare 5 months after receiving PDA-001. No other patient had an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score>0.5, and most had stable or decreasing Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. With high-dose PDA-001, 1 patient experienced a grade 1 anaphylactoid reaction and 1 had grade 2 superficial thrombophlebitis. Other adverse events were mild to moderate and included

  8. CheckMate 025 Randomized Phase 3 Study: Outcomes by Key Baseline Factors and Prior Therapy for Nivolumab Versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudier, Bernard; Sharma, Padmanee; McDermott, David F; George, Saby; Hammers, Hans J; Srinivas, Sandhya; Tykodi, Scott S; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Procopio, Giuseppe; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Castellano, Daniel; Gurney, Howard; Donskov, Frede; Peltola, Katriina; Wagstaff, John; Gauler, Thomas C; Ueda, Takeshi; Zhao, Huanyu; Waxman, Ian M; Motzer, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    The randomized, phase 3 CheckMate 025 study of nivolumab (n=410) versus everolimus (n=411) in previously treated adults (75% male; 88% white) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) demonstrated significantly improved overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). To investigate which baseline factors were associated with OS and ORR benefit with nivolumab versus everolimus. Subgroup OS analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Hazard ratios were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Nivolumab 3mg/kg every 2 wk or everolimus 10mg once daily. The minimum follow-up was 14 mo. Baseline subgroup distributions were balanced between nivolumab and everolimus arms. Nivolumab demonstrated an OS improvement versus everolimus across subgroups, including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk groups; age guide treatment decisions, and further supports nivolumab as the standard of care in previously treated patients with aRCC. We investigated the impact of demographic and pretreatment features on survival benefit and tumor response with nivolumab versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). Survival benefit and response were observed for multiple subgroups, supporting the use of nivolumab as a new standard of care across a broad range of patients with previously treated aRCC. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01668784. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic Ferroelectric-Based 1T1T Random Access Memory Cell Employing a Common Dielectric Layer Overcoming the Half-Selection Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Hanlin; Ni, Zhenjie; Liu, Jie; Zhen, Yonggang; Zhang, Xiaotao; Jiang, Lang; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2017-09-01

    Organic electronics based on poly(vinylidenefluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) dielectric is facing great challenges in flexible circuits. As one indispensable part of integrated circuits, there is an urgent demand for low-cost and easy-fabrication nonvolatile memory devices. A breakthrough is made on a novel ferroelectric random access memory cell (1T1T FeRAM cell) consisting of one selection transistor and one ferroelectric memory transistor in order to overcome the half-selection problem. Unlike complicated manufacturing using multiple dielectrics, this system simplifies 1T1T FeRAM cell fabrication using one common dielectric. To achieve this goal, a strategy for semiconductor/insulator (S/I) interface modulation is put forward and applied to nonhysteretic selection transistors with high performances for driving or addressing purposes. As a result, high hole mobility of 3.81 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and electron mobility of 0.124 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDI-FCN 2 ) are obtained in selection transistors. In this work, we demonstrate this technology's potential for organic ferroelectric-based pixelated memory module fabrication. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Tura, Andrea; Hill, Martin; Holubkov, Richard; Barnard, Neal D

    2018-02-09

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants ( n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet ( n = 38) or to make no diet changes ( n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting. A marked increase in meal-stimulated insulin secretion was observed in the intervention group compared with controls (interaction between group and time, Gxt, p effect -1.0 (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.8); Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in HOMA-IR correlated positively with changes in body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat volume ( r = 0.34; p = 0.009 and r = 0.42; p = 0.001, respectively). The latter remained significant after adjustment for changes in BMI ( r = 0.41; p = 0.002). Changes in glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated negatively with BMI changes ( r = -0.25; p = 0.04), but not with changes in visceral fat. Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved through a low-fat plant-based diet in overweight adults.

  11. Engaging diverse underserved communities to bridge the mammography divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cully Angelia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening continues to be underutilized by the population in general, but is particularly underutilized by traditionally underserved minority populations. Two of the most at risk female minority groups are American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN and Latinas. American Indian women have the poorest recorded 5-year cancer survival rates of any ethnic group while breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer mortality among Latina women. Breast cancer screening rates for both minority groups are near or at the lowest among all racial/ethnic groups. As with other health screening behaviors, women may intend to get a mammogram but their intentions may not result in initiation or follow through of the examination process. An accumulating body of research, however, demonstrates the efficacy of developing 'implementation intentions' that define when, where, and how a specific behavior will be performed. The formulation of intended steps in addition to addressing potential barriers to test completion can increase a person's self-efficacy, operationalize and strengthen their intention to act, and close gaps between behavioral intention and completion. To date, an evaluation of the formulation of implementation intentions for breast cancer screening has not been conducted with minority populations. Methods/Design In the proposed program, community health workers will meet with rural-dwelling Latina and American Indian women one-on-one to educate them about breast cancer and screening and guide them through a computerized and culturally tailored "implementation intentions" program, called Healthy Living Kansas - Breast Health, to promote breast cancer screening utilization. We will target Latina and AI/AN women from two distinct rural Kansas communities. Women attending community events will be invited by CHWs to participate and be randomized to either a mammography "implementation intentions" (MI2 intervention or a

  12. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M

    2015-03-01

    digital divide.

  13. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  14. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating preoperative chemotherapy in resectable non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhiwei; Luo, Qingquan; Jian, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Cheng, Baijun; Lu, Shun; Liao, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Zhiwei Chen,* Qingquan Luo,* Hong Jian, Zhen Zhou, Baijun Cheng, Shun Lu, Meilin LiaoShanghai Lung Tumor Clinical Medical Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equallyObjective: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative chemotherapy provides benefits in the survival and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in resectable stages I to IIIA, except T1N0. Methods: In this ra...

  16. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  17. Confirmation of the mantle-cell lymphoma International Prognostic Index in randomized trials of the European Mantle-Cell Lymphoma Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoster, Eva; Klapper, Wolfram; Hermine, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma associated with poor outcome. In 2008, the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) was developed as the first prognostic stratification tool specifically directed to patients with MCL. External validation was planned.......9) and 2.6 (2.0 to 3.3), respectively. MIPI was similarly prognostic for TTF. All four clinical baseline characteristics constituting the MIPI, age, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase level, and WBC count, were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for OS and TTF. The validity of MIPI...

  18. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pendina, G.; Zianbetov, E.; Beigne, E.

    2015-05-01

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  19. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pendina, G., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr; Zianbetov, E., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Beigne, E., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-07

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  20. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pendina, G.; Zianbetov, E.; Beigne, E.

    2015-01-01

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes

  1. Axitinib dose titration: analyses of exposure, blood pressure and clinical response from a randomized phase II study in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, B I; Melichar, B; Fishman, M N; Oya, M; Pithavala, Y K; Chen, Y; Bair, A H; Grünwald, V

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized, double-blind phase II trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), axitinib versus placebo titration yielded a significantly higher objective response rate. We evaluated pharmacokinetic and blood pressure (BP) data from this study to elucidate relationships among axitinib exposure, BP change, and efficacy. Patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a lead-in period. Patients who met dose-titration criteria were randomized 1:1 to stepwise dose increases with axitinib or placebo. Patients ineligible for randomization continued without dose increases. Serial 6-h and sparse pharmacokinetic sampling were carried out; BP was measured at clinic visits and at home in all patients, and by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in a subset of patients. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h throughout the course of treatment (AUCstudy) was higher in patients with complete or partial responses than those with stable or progressive disease in the axitinib-titration arm, but comparable between these groups in the placebo-titration and nonrandomized arms. In the overall population, AUCstudy and efficacy outcomes were not strongly correlated. Mean BP across the population was similar when measured in clinic, at home, or by 24-h ABPM. Weak correlations were observed between axitinib steady-state exposure and diastolic BP. When grouped by change in diastolic BP from baseline, patients in the ≥10 and ≥15 mmHg groups had longer progression-free survival. Optimal axitinib exposure may differ among patients with mRCC. Pharmacokinetic or BP measurements cannot be used exclusively to guide axitinib dosing. Individualization of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including axitinib, is thus more complex than anticipated and cannot be limited to a single clinical factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  2. Postoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Versus Postoperative Radiotherapy in High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: The Randomized Phase III TROG 05.01 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Sandro Virgilio; Bressel, Mathias; Poulsen, Michael Geoffrey; Stoneley, Adam; Veness, Michael John; Kenny, Lizbeth Moira; Wratten, Chris; Corry, June; Cooper, Stephen; Fogarty, Gerald Blaise; Collins, Marnie; Collins, Michael Kevin; Macann, Andrew Martin John; Milross, Christopher Gerard; Penniment, Michael Gordon; Liu, Howard Yu-Hao; King, Madeleine Trudy; Panizza, Benedict James; Rischin, Danny

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To report the results of the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group randomized phase III trial designed to determine whether the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy (CRT) improved locoregional control in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Patients and Methods The primary objective was to determine whether there was a difference in freedom from locoregional relapse (FFLRR) between 60 or 66 Gy (6 to 6.5 weeks) with or without weekly carboplatin (area under the curve 2) after resection of gross disease. Secondary efficacy objectives were to compare disease-free survival and overall survival. Results Three hundred twenty-one patients were randomly assigned, with 310 patients commencing allocated treatment (radiotherapy [RT] alone, n = 157; CRT, n = 153). Two hundred thirty-eight patients (77%) had high-risk nodal disease, 59 (19%) had high-risk primary or in-transit disease, and 13 (4%) had both. Median follow-up was 60 months. Median RT dose was 60 Gy, with 84% of patients randomly assigned to CRT completing six cycles of carboplatin. The 2- and 5-year FFLRR rates were 88% (95% CI, 83% to 93%) and 83% (95% CI, 77% to 90%), respectively, for RT and 89% (95% CI, 84% to 94%) and 87% (95% CI, 81% to 93%; hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.55; P = .58), respectively, for CRT. There were no significant differences in disease-free or overall survival. Locoregional failure was the most common site of first treatment failure, with isolated distant metastases as the first site of failure seen in 7% of both arms. Treatment was well tolerated in both arms, with no observed enhancement of RT toxicity with carboplatin. Grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were infrequent. Conclusion Although surgery and postoperative RT provided excellent FFLRR, there was no observed benefit with the addition of weekly carboplatin.

  3. Improving the Performances of Random Copolymer Based Organic Solar Cells by Adjusting the Film Features of Active Layers Using Mixed Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel random copolymer based on donor–acceptor type polymers containing benzodithiophene and dithienosilole as donors and benzothiazole and diketopyrrolopyrrole as acceptors was designed and synthesized by Stille copolymerization, and their optical, electrochemical, charge transport, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. This copolymer with high molecular weight exhibited broad and strong absorption covering the spectra range from 500 to 800 nm with absorption maxima at around 750 nm, which would be very conducive to obtaining large short-circuits current densities. Unlike the general approach using single solvent to prepare the active layer film, mixed solvents were introduced to change the film feature and improve the morphology of the active layer, which lead to a significant improvement of the power conversion efficiency. These results indicate that constructing random copolymer with multiple donor and acceptor monomers and choosing proper mixed solvents to change the characteristics of the film is a very promising way for manufacturing organic solar cells with large current density and high power conversion efficiency.

  4. MVP Chemotherapy and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Stage III Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Randomized for maintenance Chemotherapy vs. Observation; Preliminary Report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Euk Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook; Suh, Cheol Won

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of MVP chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in Stage III unresectable non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), authors have conducted a prospective randomized study since January 1991. Stage IIIa or IIIb unresectable NSCLC patients were treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (120 cGy/fx BID) up to 6500 cGY following 3 cycles of induction MVP (Mitomycin C 6 mg/m 2 , vinblastine 6 mg/m 2 , Cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 ) and randomized for either observation or 3 cycles of maintenance MVP chemotherapy. Until August 1991, 18 patients were registered to this study. 4 cases were stage IIIa and 14 were stage IIIb. Among 18 cases 2 were lost after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and 16 were analyzed for this preliminary report. The response rate of induction chemotherapy was 62.5%; partial response, 50% and minimal response, 12.5%. Residual tumor of the one partial responder was completely disappeared after radiotherapy. Among 6 cases who were progressed during induction chemotherapy, 4 of them were also progressed after radiotherapy. All patients were tolerated BID radiotherapy without definite increase of acute complications, compared with conventional radiotherapy group. But at the time of this report, one patient expired in two month after the completion of the radiotherapy because of treatment related complication. Although the longer follow up is needed, authors are encouraged with higher response rate and acceptable toxicity of this treatment. Authors believe that this study is worthwhile to continue

  5. Long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: a randomized comparison of stem cell transplantation with drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratwohl, A; Pfirrmann, M; Zander, A; Kröger, N; Beelen, D; Novotny, J; Nerl, C; Scheid, C; Spiekermann, K; Mayer, J; Sayer, H G; Falge, C; Bunjes, D; Döhner, H; Ganser, A; Schmidt-Wolf, I; Schwerdtfeger, R; Baurmann, H; Kuse, R; Schmitz, N; Wehmeier, A; Fischer, J Th; Ho, A D; Wilhelm, M; Goebeler, M-E; Lindemann, H W; Bormann, M; Hertenstein, B; Schlimok, G; Baerlocher, G M; Aul, C; Pfreundschuh, M; Fabian, M; Staib, P; Edinger, M; Schatz, M; Fauser, A; Arnold, R; Kindler, T; Wulf, G; Rosselet, A; Hellmann, A; Schäfer, E; Prümmer, O; Schenk, M; Hasford, J; Heimpel, H; Hossfeld, D K; Kolb, H-J; Büsche, G; Haferlach, C; Schnittger, S; Müller, M C; Reiter, A; Berger, U; Saußele, S; Hochhaus, A; Hehlmann, R

    2016-03-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent today's treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is regarded as salvage therapy. This prospective randomized CML-study IIIA recruited 669 patients with newly diagnosed CML between July 1997 and January 2004 from 143 centers. Of these, 427 patients were considered eligible for HSCT and were randomized by availability of a matched family donor between primary HSCT (group A; N=166 patients) and best available drug treatment (group B; N=261). Primary end point was long-term survival. Survival probabilities were not different between groups A and B (10-year survival: 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.82) vs 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.76)), but influenced by disease and transplant risk. Patients with a low transplant risk showed superior survival compared with patients with high- (Ptreatment (56% vs 6%; P<0.001). Differences in symptoms and Karnofsky score were not significant. In the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HSCT remains a valid option when both disease and transplant risk are considered.

  6. A prospective and randomized study of radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy radiotherapy and concomitant chemo therapy-radiotherapy in unresectable non small cell carcinoma of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Anirban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment of advanced Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC often produces dismal results. Combination of available treatment modalities has reportedly improved the outcome. A prospectively randomized trial was conducted, comparing combined treatment modalities versus radiotherapy alone, in treatment of unresectable NSCLC. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients were randomized to three groups. In group ′A′, 32 patients received radiotherapy alone (6500 cGy/30 fraction. In group ′B′, 35 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 and Etoposide 100 mg/m day 1-3 intravenously q3 weeks for 3 cycles, followed by radiotherapy (6000 cGy/30 fractions and 3 more cycles of Chemotherapy, with the same regimen. In group ′C′, 36 patients received radiotherapy (5000 cGy/25 fractions with concurrent chemotherapy (ciplatin 20 mg/m2 + Etoposide 75 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1-5 and day 22-26, followed by 2 more cycles of chemotherapy,q3 weeks with the same regimen. Results: Initial treatment responses were significantly higher in group ′B′ ( P P Conclusion: Addition of chemotherapy with radiation in unresectable NSCLC improves response rates, time to tumour progression and disease free survival, though the same effect is not translated in overall survival.

  7. Randomize Trial of Cisplatin plus Gemcitabine with either Sorafenib or Placebo as First-line Therapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Platinum-based chemotherapy doublets reached an efficacy plateau in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This randomized controlled study prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either Sorafenib or placebo as first-line therapy for NSCLC. Methods Thirty patients, which were confirmed advanced NSCLC histologically or cytologically, were randomly assigned to receive up to six cycles of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with sorafenib or placebo. The maintenance of sorafenib or placebo after chemotherapy will continued in patients with response or stable disease until disease progression or unacceptable adverse events. Results Overall demographics were balanced between experimental group (sorafenib+chemotherapy and controlled group (chemotherapy only. Overall response (OS rate was 55.6% and 41.7% in experimental arm and controlled arm, respectively (P=0.905. Median progressivefree survival (PFS and median overall survial were similar (5 months vs 4 months, P=0.75; 18 months vs 18 months, P=0.68. Adverse events were tolerable, though the risk of hypertension and diarrhea was increase in experimental arm. Since patients with ECOG PS 0, stage IIIb, no liver metastasis and tyrasine kinasis inhibitor treatment after study had longer survive, these factors seemed to be predictive factors favor of survival in Cox regression analyses. Conclusion No additional benefit of response rate, PFS or OS were observed from adding targeted agent-sorafenib to regular cisplatin plus gemcitabine chemotherapy. Selecting aproper patients is needed in further study.

  8. [Randomize trial of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either sorafenib or placebo as first-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Lin; Liu, Yutao; Yu, Shufei; Zhang, Xiangru; Shi, Yuankai; Sun, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy doublets reached an efficacy plateau in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This randomized controlled study prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either Sorafenib or placebo as first-line therapy for NSCLC. Thirty patients, which were confirmed advanced NSCLC histologically or cytologically, were randomly assigned to receive up to six cycles of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with sorafenib or placebo. The maintenance of sorafenib or placebo after chemotherapy will continued in patients with response or stable disease until disease progression or unacceptable adverse events. Overall demographics were balanced between experimental group (sorafenib+chemotherapy) and controlled group (chemotherapy only). Overall response (OS) rate was 55.6% and 41.7% in experimental arm and controlled arm, respectively (P=0.905). Median progressive-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival were similar (5 months vs 4 months, P=0.75; 18 months vs 18 months, P=0.68). Adverse events were tolerable, though the risk of hypertension and diarrhea was increase in experimental arm. Since patients with ECOG PS 0, stage IIIb, no liver metastasis and tyrasine kinasis inhibitor treatment after study had longer survive, these factors seemed to be predictive factors favor of survival in Cox regression analyses. No additional benefit of response rate, PFS or OS were observed from adding targeted agent-sorafenib to regular cisplatin plus gemcitabine chemotherapy. Selecting aproper patients is needed in further study.

  9. Design and measurement of fully digital ternary content addressable memory using ratioless static random access memory cells and hierarchical-AND matching comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Daisuke; Ali, Mohammad Alimudin Bin Mohd; Hosoda, Kento; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2018-04-01

    A 36-bit × 32-entry fully digital ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) using the ratioless static random access memory (RL-SRAM) technology and fully complementary hierarchical-AND matching comparators (HAMCs) was developed. Since its fully complementary and digital operation enables the effect of device variabilities to be avoided, it can operate with a quite low supply voltage. A test chip incorporating a conventional TCAM and a proposed 24-transistor ratioless TCAM (RL-TCAM) cells and HAMCs was developed using a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The minimum operating voltage of 0.25 V of the developed RL-TCAM, which is less than half of that of the conventional TCAM, was measured via the conventional CMOS push–pull output buffers with the level-shifting and flipping technique using optimized pull-up voltage and resistors.

  10. Physical activity reduces fatigue in patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sapna; Robinson, Paula D; Cataudella, Danielle; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Davis, Hailey; Duong, Nathan; Gibson, Faith; Götte, Miriam; Hinds, Pamela; Nijhof, Sanne L; Tomlinson, Deborah; van der Torre, Patrick; Cabral, Sandra; Dupuis, L Lee; Sung, Lillian

    2018-02-01

    Objective was to determine whether physical activity reduces the severity of fatigue in patients with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing physical activity with control interventions for the management of fatigue in patients with cancer or HSCT recipients. There were 170 trials included. Physical activity reduced the severity of fatigue when compared to all control groups (standardized mean difference -0.49, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.37; P fatigue although smaller effects were observed with resistance exercises (P interaction = 0.01). Other intervention and patient characteristics did not influence the effect of physical activity on the severity of fatigue. Physical activity was effective at reducing fatigue in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients across patient sub-groups. Determining the best approaches for safe implementation should be a priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of disorder on condensation in the lattice gas model on a random graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Thomas P; Dear, Alexander; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Taraskin, Sergei N

    2014-07-01

    The lattice gas model of condensation in a heterogeneous pore system, represented by a random graph of cells, is studied using an exact analytical solution. A binary mixture of pore cells with different coordination numbers is shown to exhibit two phase transitions as a function of chemical potential in a certain temperature range. Heterogeneity in interaction strengths is demonstrated to reduce the critical temperature and, for large-enough degreeS of disorder, divides the cells into ones which are either on average occupied or unoccupied. Despite treating the pore space loops in a simplified manner, the random-graph model provides a good description of condensation in porous structures containing loops. This is illustrated by considering capillary condensation in a structural model of mesoporous silica SBA-15.

  12. A GAP that Divides [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angika Basant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis in metazoan cells is mediated by an actomyosin-based contractile ring that assembles in response to activation of the small GTPase RhoA. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates RhoA during cytokinesis, ECT-2, is highly regulated. In most metazoan cells, with the notable exception of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, RhoA activation and furrow ingression require the centralspindlin complex. This exception is due to the existence of a parallel pathway for RhoA activation in C. elegans. Centralspindlin contains CYK-4 which contains a predicted Rho family GTPase-activating protein (GAP domain. The function of this domain has been the subject of considerable debate. Some publications suggest that the GAP domain promotes RhoA activation (for example, Zhang and Glotzer, 2015; Loria, Longhini and Glotzer, 2012, whereas others suggest that it functions to inactivate the GTPase Rac1 (for example, Zhuravlev et al., 2017. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying RhoA activation during cytokinesis, primarily focusing on data in C. elegans. We highlight the importance of considering the parallel pathway for RhoA activation and detailed analyses of cyk-4 mutant phenotypes when evaluating the role of the GAP domain of CYK-4.

  13. Bridging the divide between neuroprosthetic design, tissue engineering and neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Leach

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices have made a major impact in the treatment of a variety of disorders such as paralysis and stroke. However, a major impediment in the advancement of this technology is the challenge of maintaining device performance during chronic implantation (months to years due to complex intrinsic host responses such as gliosis or glial scarring. The objective of this review is to bring together research communities in neurobiology, tissue engineering, and neuroprosthetics to address the major obstacles encountered in the translation of neuroprosthetics technology into long-term clinical use. This article draws connections between specific challenges faced by current neuroprosthetics technology and recent advances in the areas of nerve tissue engineering and neurobiology. Within the context of the device-nervous system interface and central nervous system (CNS implants, areas of synergistic opportunity are discussed, including platforms to present cells with multiple cues, controlled delivery of bioactive factors, three-dimensional constructs and in vitro models of gliosis and brain injury, nerve regeneration strategies, and neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC biology. Finally, recent insights gained from the fields of developmental neurobiology and cancer biology are discussed as examples of exciting new biological knowledge that may provide fresh inspiration towards novel technologies to address the complexities associated with long-term neuroprosthetic device performance.

  14. Radiotherapy in stage 3, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer. Final results of a prospective randomized study of 240 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinfuss, M.; Glinski, B.; Kowalska, T.; Kulpa, J.; Zawila, K.; Reinfuss, K.; Dymek, P.; Herman, K.; Skolyszewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: to report the results of a prospective randomized study concerning the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of stage III, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: between 1992 and 1996, 240 patients with stage III, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and sequentially randomized to one of the three treatment arms: conventional irradiation, hypo-fractionated irradiation and control group. In the conventional irradiation arm (79 patients), a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions in five weeks was delivered to the primary tumor and the mediastinum. In the hypo-fractionated irradiation arm (81 patients), there were two courses of irradiation separated by an interval of four weeks. In each series, patients received 20 Gy in five fractions in five days, in the same treatment volume as the conventional irradiation group. in the control group arm, 80 patients initially did not receive radiotherapy and were only observed. Delayed palliative hypo-fractionated irradiation (20-25 Gy in four to five fractions in four to five days) was given to the primary tumor when major symptoms developed. Results: the two-year actuarial survival rates for patients in the conventional irradiation, hypo-fractionated irradiation and control group arms were 18%, 6% and 0%, with a median survival time of 12 months, nine months and six months respectively. The differences between survival rates were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Conclusion: although irradiation provides good palliation the results are disappointing. The comparison of conventional and hypo-fractionated irradiation shows an advantage for conventional schedules. (author)

  15. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche: Protocol for a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-11-01

    Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1*10 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  16. Risk of adverse events with bevacizumab addition to therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai XX

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Xi Lai, Ren-Ai Xu, Yu-Ping Li, Han Yang Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor ligand, has shown survival benefits in the treatment of many types of malignant tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the risk of the most clinically relevant adverse events related to bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC.Methods: Databases from PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to August 2015, were searched to identify relevant studies. We included prospective randomized controlled Phase II/III clinical trials that compared therapy with or without bevacizumab for advanced NSCLC. Summary relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects or fixed effects according to the heterogeneity among included trials.Results: A total of 3,745 patients from nine clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs showed a statistically significant bevacizumab-associated increased risk in three of the adverse outcomes studied: proteinuria (RR =7.55, hypertension (RR =5.34, and hemorrhagic events (RR =2.61. No statistically significant differences were found for gastrointestinal perforation (P=0.60, arterial and venous thromboembolic events (P=0.35 and P=0.92, respectively, or fatal events (P=0.29.Conclusion: The addition of bevacizumab to therapy in advanced NSCLC did significantly increase the risk of proteinuria, hypertension, and hemorrhagic events but not arterial/venous thromboembolic events, gastrointestinal perforation, or fatal adverse events. Keywords: toxicities, angiogenesis inhibitors, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, meta-analysis, safety

  17. A randomized trial of combined multidrug chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report concerns the design and results of a randomized prospective trial (SECOG I) in the treatment of advanced Stage III and IV head and neck cancer with radical radiotherapy combined with polychemotherapy. Synchronous administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy was compared with sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy and VBM (vincristine, bleomycin and methotrexate) compared with VBM plus 5-fluorouracil in a 2 x 2 standard factorial design. Two-hundred-and-seventy patients were entered and 267 were included in the analysis. Treatment did not present serious problems of toxicity. The addition of 5-fluorouracil to VBM produced a significant improvement in disease-free survival (P=0.04) though not in overall survival. Synchronous chemotherapy was similarly better than sequential chemotherapy, though not significantly so (P=0.1). A new study (SECOG II), based on this was started in February 1984, and one-third of the patients are now being allocated to treatment by radiotherapy as the sole method of treatment. (author)

  18. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  19. SAFETY OF CELL-DERIVED SUBUNIT ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR CHILDREN VACCINATION: DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the safety data for cell-derived inactivated subunit adjuvanted influenza vaccine «Grippol Neo» in children 3–17 years old in comparison with reference egg-derived inactivated subunit vaccine «Grippol plus». Good test vaccine tolerability and high efficacy profile is demonstrated. Based on the results obtained vaccine «Grippol Neo» is recommended for mass influenza prophylaxis in pediatry, including National Immunization Schedule.Key words: children, influenza, vaccination, «Grippol Neo».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:44-49

  20. P(MMA-EMA Random Copolymer Electrolytes Incorporating Sodium Iodide for Potential Application in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Akmaliah Dzulkurnain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes based on 90 wt% of methyl methacrylate and 10 wt% of ethyl methacrylate (90MMA-co-10EMA incorporating different weight ratios of sodium iodide were prepared using the solution casting method. The complexation between salt and copolymer host has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity and thermal stability of the electrolytes were measured using impedance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the polymer electrolytes. The ionic conductivity and glass transition temperature increased up to 20 wt% of sodium iodide (5.19 × 10−6 S·cm−1 and decreased with the further addition of salt concentration, because of the crosslinked effect. The morphology behavior of the highest conducting sample also showed smaller pores compared to the other concentration. The total ionic transference number proved that this system was mainly due to ions, and the electrochemical stability window was up to 2.5 V, which is suitable for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. This sample was then tested in a dye-sensitized solar cell and exhibited an efficiency of 0.62%.

  1. Effect of dose of thoracic irradiation on recurrence in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer. Initial results of a Canadian Multicenter Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, P.; Hodson, I.; Payne, D.G.; Evans, W.K.; Feld, R.; MacDonald, A.S.; Osoba, D.; Pater, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer were initially randomized to receive either three courses of Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and Vincristine (CAV) followed by three courses of VP-16 and Cis-platin (VP-PT) or six courses of alternating CAV and VP-PT. Responding patients received prophylactic cranial radiation (PCI) after three courses of chemotherapy (CT) and loco-regional thoracic radiation (LRTR) after six courses. No maintenance chemotherapy was given. Patients receiving LRTR were randomized to receive either 25 Gy in ten fractions over 2 weeks (SD) or 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (HD). In both arms the pre-chemotherapy disease was treated with a 2 cm margin around the primary tumor volume. The mediastinum was included in the treatment volume and the supraclavicular nodes were also included if involved originally. The spinal cord was shielded after 32 Gy. Of the 333 patients enrolled by the time the trial closed in October 1984, 168 were eventually randomized to LRTR and are eligible for response assessment. The overall response rate after combined RT and CT was 94% (CR 67%, PR 27%). The CR rate for SD was 65% and for HD 69%. The combined treatment was well tolerated by most patients. Forty-nine percent of HD patients developed dysphagia compared to 26% of those SD (p less than 0.01). At the time of this analysis the median duration of follow-up since randomization to radiotherapy is 30 months. The median local progression-free survival on HD is 49 weeks. On SD it is 38 weeks (p = 0.05, one sided). The actuarial incidence of local progression by 2 years is 69% on HD and 80% on LD. There is as yet no significant difference in overall survival between the two arms. It appears that HD radiotherapy as administered in this study may have an impact on local control, but it is too early to determine if this will translate into a survival benefit

  2. Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Anthony C; Kuruvilla, Sara; Chen, Jeff; Corsten, Martin; Odell, Michael; Eapen, Libni; Theurer, Julie; Doyle, Philip C; Wehrli, Bret; Kwan, Keith; Palma, David A; Yoo, John; Hammond, J Alex; Fung, Kevin; Winquist, Eric; Read, Nancy; Venkatesan, Varagur; MacNeil, S Danielle; Ernst, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized comparison of the conventional strategy of primary RT

  3. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Schalkwijk, Casper; Desideri, Giovambattista; D’Angeli, Anatolia; Francavilla, Sandro; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2) Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols) or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3) Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006) and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest. PMID:27854314

  4. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2 Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3 Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006 and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001. Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  5. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, S.; Imai, T.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K.; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Berio, S.; Brossaud, J.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.

    1997-03-01

    A realistic antenna module using a poloidal divider for lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiment, is modelled and fabricated. In this antenna module test II, three types of poloidal dividers, which split the power in 3, are tested. (author)

  6. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  7. High Power Combiner/Divider with Coupled Lines for Broadband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    novel isolation structure will also be presented. I. INTRODUCTION Power divider/combiners are traditionally used in the development of high power ...a novel Gysel divider/combiner structure have been demonstrated. The divider/combiner are applicable to various high- power , broadband radar, EW...Gysel Power Divider With Arbitrary Power Ratios and Filtering Responses Using Coupling Structure ,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol

  8. Vildagliptin, but not glibenclamide, increases circulating endothelial progenitor cell number: a 12-month randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, Alessandra; Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ridolfi, Valentina; Marchesi, Elisabetta; Marina, Michela; Derlindati, Eleonora; Aloe, Rosalia; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2017-02-23

    Fewer circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and increased plasma (C-term) stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), a substrate of DPP-4, are biomarkers, and perhaps mediators, of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Short-term/acute treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors improve EPC bioavailability; however, long-term effects of DPP-4i on EPCs bioavailability/plasma (C-term) SDF-1α are unknown. Randomized (2:1) open-label trial to compare the effects of vildagliptin (V) (100 mg/day) vs glibenclamide (G) (2.5 mg bid to a maximal dose of 5 mg bid) on circulating EPC levels at 4 and 12 months of treatment in 64 patients with type 2 diabetes in metformin failure. At baseline, and after 4 and 12 months, main clinical/biohumoral parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, concomitant therapies, EPC number (CD34 + /CD133 + /KDR + /10 6 cytometric events) and plasma (C-term) SDF-1α (R&D system) were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. V and G similarly and significantly (p < 0.0001) improved glucose control. At 12 months, V significantly increased EPC number (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (C-term) SDF-1α plasma levels (p < 0.01) compared to G, with no differences in inflammatory biomarkers. V exerts a long-term favorable effect on EPC and (C-term) SDF-1α levels at glucose equipoise, thereby implying a putative beneficial effect on vascular integrity. Trial registration Clinical Trials number: NCT01822548; name: Effect of Vildagliptin vs. Glibenclamide on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number Type 2 Diabetes. Registered 28 March, 2013.

  9. Generation of cell lines for drug discovery through random activation of gene expression: application to the human histamine H3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Doucette, C; Hanniford, D; Hunady, K; Wang, N; Sherf, B; Harrington, J J; Brunden, K R; Stricker-Krongrad, A

    2005-06-01

    Target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) plays an integral role in drug discovery. The implementation of HTS assays generally requires high expression levels of the target protein, and this is typically accomplished using recombinant cDNA methodologies. However, the isolated gene sequences to many drug targets have intellectual property claims that restrict the ability to implement drug discovery programs. The present study describes the pharmacological characterization of the human histamine H3 receptor that was expressed using random activation of gene expression (RAGE), a technology that over-expresses proteins by up-regulating endogenous genes rather than introducing cDNA expression vectors into the cell. Saturation binding analysis using [125I]iodoproxyfan and RAGE-H3 membranes revealed a single class of binding sites with a K(D) value of 0.77 nM and a B(max) equal to 756 fmol/mg of protein. Competition binding studies showed that the rank order of potency for H3 agonists was N(alpha)-methylhistamine approximately (R)-alpha- methylhistamine > histamine and that the rank order of potency for H3 antagonists was clobenpropit > iodophenpropit > thioperamide. The same rank order of potency for H3 agonists and antagonists was observed in the functional assays as in the binding assays. The Fluorometic Imaging Plate Reader assays in RAGE-H3 cells gave high Z' values for agonist and antagonist screening, respectively. These results reveal that the human H3 receptor expressed with the RAGE technology is pharmacologically comparable to that expressed through recombinant methods. Moreover, the level of expression of the H3 receptor in the RAGE-H3 cells is suitable for HTS and secondary assays.

  10. A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75 were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38 or to make no diet changes (n = 37 for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting. A marked increase in meal-stimulated insulin secretion was observed in the intervention group compared with controls (interaction between group and time, Gxt, p < 0.001. HOMA-IR index fell significantly (p < 0.001 in the intervention group (treatment effect −1.0 (95% CI, −1.2 to −0.8; Gxt, p = 0.004. Changes in HOMA-IR correlated positively with changes in body mass index (BMI and visceral fat volume (r = 0.34; p = 0.009 and r = 0.42; p = 0.001, respectively. The latter remained significant after adjustment for changes in BMI (r = 0.41; p = 0.002. Changes in glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated negatively with BMI changes (r = −0.25; p = 0.04, but not with changes in visceral fat. Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved through a low-fat plant-based diet in overweight adults.

  11. Pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of aquatic and land physical therapy on musculoskeletal dysfunction of sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tatiana Zanoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effect of aquatic and land-based physiotherapy in reducing musculoskeletal hip and lower back pain and increasing overall physical capabilities of sickle cell disease patients. Methods: Informed written consent was obtained from all volunteers who were submitted to evaluations using different functional scales: Lequesne's Algofunctional Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index, trunk and hip range of motion, goniometry, trunk and hip muscle strength assessment using load cell, and surface electromyography of the iliocostalis, long dorsal (longissimus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles. Ten patients were randomized into two groups: aquatic physiotherapy with a mean age of 42 years (range: 25-67 and conventional physiotherapy with a mean age of 49 years (range: 43-59. Both groups were submitted to a twelve-week program of two sessions weekly. Results: After the intervention, significant improvements were observed regarding the Lequesne index (p-value = 0.0217, Oswestry Disability Index (p-value = 0.0112, range of motion of trunk extension (p-value = 0.0320, trunk flexion muscle strength (p-value = 0.0459, hip extension and abduction muscle strength (p-value = 0.0062 and p-value = 0.0257, respec- tively. Range of motion of trunk and hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, trunk extensor muscle strength and all surface electromyography variables showed no significant statistical difference. Conclusion: Physical therapy is efficient to treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions in sickle cell disease patients, irrespective of the technique; however, aquatic therapy showed a trend toward improvement in muscle strength. Further studies with a larger patient sample and longer periods of therapy are necessary to confirm these results.

  12. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This digital divide can be seen as an educational divide and thus we examine how ICT is influencing education. We also investigate the nature of this digital divide while focusing on the local perspective. A short pilot study was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT.

  13. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  14. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  15. Divided Attention Capacity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Van Engeland, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was tested using a computerized variant of a…

  16. Are changes in the digital divide consistent with global equality or inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To answer the question in the title, the author divides a sample of developing countries according to whether they have experienced a rise or fall of the (absolute) digital divide in the Internet. He suggests that in countries where the divide is falling, incomes will tend to be relatively high, and

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry of emotion words in a non-native mind: a divided visual field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates hemispheric specialization for emotional words among proficient non-native speakers of English by means of the divided visual field paradigm. The motivation behind the study is to extend the monolingual hemifield research to the non-native context and see how emotion words are processed in a non-native mind. Sixty eight females participated in the study, all highly proficient in English. The stimuli comprised 12 positive nouns, 12 negative nouns, 12 non-emotional nouns and 36 pseudo-words. To examine the lateralization of emotion, stimuli were presented unilaterally in a random fashion for 180 ms in a go/no-go lexical decision task. The perceptual data showed a right hemispheric advantage for processing speed of negative words and a complementary role of the two hemispheres in the recognition accuracy of experimental stimuli. The data indicate that processing of emotion words in non-native language may require greater interhemispheric communication, but at the same time demonstrates a specific role of the right hemisphere in the processing of negative relative to positive valence. The results of the study are discussed in light of the methodological inconsistencies in the hemifield research as well as the non-native context in which the study was conducted.

  18. Cluster randomization and political philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwang, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  20. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy: a randomized phase II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Maddocks

    Full Text Available A reduced exercise capacity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Therapeutic exercise can be beneficial and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES of the quadriceps muscles may represent a practical approach. The primary aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of NMES of the quadriceps to patients with NSCLC used alongside palliative chemotherapy. Secondary aims explored aspects of safety and efficacy of NMES in this setting.Patients with advanced NSCLC due to receive first-line palliative chemotherapy were randomized to usual care with or without NMES. They were asked to undertake 30 minute sessions of NMES, ideally daily, but as a minimum, three times weekly. For NMES to be considered acceptable, it was predetermined that ≥80% of patients should achieve this minimum level of adherence. Qualitative interviews were held with a subset of patients to explore factors influencing adherence. Safety was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass, and physical activity level were assessed at baseline and after three cycles of chemotherapy.49 patients (28 male, median (IQR age 69 (64-75 years participated. Of 30 randomized to NMES, 18 were eligible for the primary endpoint, of whom 9 (50% [90% CI, 29 to 71] met the minimum level of adherence. Adherence was enhanced by incorporating sessions into a daily routine and hindered by undesirable effects of chemotherapy. There were no serious adverse events related to NMES, nor significant differences in quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass or physical activity level between groups.NMES is not acceptable in this setting, nor was there a suggestion of benefit. The need remains to explore NMES in patients with cancer in other settings.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 42944026 www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN42944026.

  1. A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial Comparing Pemetrexed/Cisplatin and Gemcitabine/Cisplatin as First-line Treatment for Advanced Nonsquamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HUANG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is still the standard first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Previous studies have demonstrated that pemetrexed combined with platinum had promising efficacy and safety profile in NSCLC, especially in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. This trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed made in China as first-line treatment. Methods The present study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 to receive cisplatin plus pemetrexed chemotherapy (PC group or gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC group every 3 weeks. The primary end point was progression free survival (PFS and the secondary end points included 1 year survival rate, objective response rate (ORR, survival without grade 3/4 toxicity (SWT3/4 and safety profile. Results A total of 288 patients from 20 institutions across China were enrolled into the study. Based on the Full Analyses Set (FAS, the PFS was 168 days (5.6 months vs 140 days (4.7 months (P=0.16, one year survival rate was 50.0% vs 54.9% (P=0.47, ORR was 24.4% vs 14.2% (P=0.06 in the PC group and the GC group, respectively; Survival without grade 3/4 toxicity was 11.3 months in GC group vs 8.1 months in PC group (P=0.23. In terms of the safety, side effects were less observed on the PC group (81.95% vs 93.75%, P=0.003. The main side effects included leukopenia, neutropenia, emesis, anemia, thrombopenia. Conclusion The both regimens have similar efficacy as the treatment for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, but pemetrexed plus cisplatin regimen has better safety profile and seems to have longer PFS, which makes it a new option as the first line setting.

  2. Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer-Random iced for Adjuvant Chemotherapy vs. Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook; Ahn, Seung Do

    1993-01-01

    Since Jan. 1991 a prospective randomized study for Stage III unresectable non small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) has been conducted to evaluate the response rate and tolerance of induction chemotherapy with MVP followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy and evaluate the efficacy of maintenance chemotherapy in Asan Medical Center. All patients in this study were treated with hypefractionated radiotherapy (120 cGy/fx BID, 0480 cGy/54 fx) following 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy, MVP (Mitomycin C 6 mg/m2, Vinblastin B mg/ m2, Cisplatin 60 Mg/ m2) and then the partial and complete responders from induction chemotherapy were randomized to 3 cycles of adjuvant MVP chemotherapy group and observation group. 48 patients were registered to this study until December 1992; among 48 patients 3 refused further treatment after induction chemotherapy and 6 received incomplete radiation therapy because of patient refusal, 39 completed planned therapy. Twenty-three(58%) patients including 2 complete responders showed response from induction chemotherapy. Among the 21 patients who achieved a partial response after induction chemotherapy, 1 patient rendered complete clearance of disease and 10 patients showed further regression of tumor following hypefractionated radiotherapy. Remaining 10 patients showed stable disease or progression after radiotherapy. Of the sixteen patients judged to have stable disease or progression after induction chemotherapy, seven showed more than partial remission after radiotherapy but nine showed no response in spite of radiotherapy. Of the 35 patients who completed induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 25 patients(64%) including 3 complete responders showed more than partial remission. Nineteen patients were randomized after radiotherapy. Nine patients were allocated to adjuvant chemotherapy group and 4/9 shewed further regression of tumor after adjuvant chemotherapy. For the time being, there is no suggestion of a difference between the adjuvant

  3. Two biomarker-directed randomized trials in European and Chinese patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer: the BRCA1-RAP80 Expression Customization (BREC) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, T; Wei, J; Cobo, M; Qian, X; Domine, M; Zou, Z; Bover, I; Wang, L; Provencio, M; Yu, L; Chaib, I; You, C; Massuti, B; Song, Y; Vergnenegre, A; Lu, H; Lopez-Vivanco, G; Hu, W; Robinet, G; Yan, J; Insa, A; Xu, X; Majem, M; Chen, X; de Las Peñas, R; Karachaliou, N; Sala, M A; Wu, Q; Isla, D; Zhou, Y; Baize, N; Zhang, F; Garde, J; Germonpre, P; Rauh, S; ALHusaini, H; Sanchez-Ronco, M; Drozdowskyj, A; Sanchez, J J; Camps, C; Liu, B; Rosell, R

    2014-11-01

    In a Spanish Lung Cancer Group (SLCG) phase II trial, the combination of BRCA1 and receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80) expression was significantly associated with outcome in Caucasian patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The SLCG therefore undertook an industry-independent collaborative randomized phase III trial comparing nonselected cisplatin-based chemotherapy with therapy customized according to BRCA1/RAP80 expression. An analogous randomized phase II trial was carried out in China under the auspices of the SLCG to evaluate the effect of BRCA1/RAP80 expression in Asian patients. Eligibility criteria included stage IIIB-IV NSCLC and sufficient tumor specimen for molecular analysis. Randomization to the control or experimental arm was 1 : 1 in the SLCG trial and 1 : 3 in the Chinese trial. In both trials, patients in the control arm received docetaxel/cisplatin; in the experimental arm, patients with low RAP80 expression received gemcitabine/cisplatin, those with intermediate/high RAP80 expression and low/intermediate BRCA1 expression received docetaxel/cisplatin, and those with intermediate/high RAP80 expression and high BRCA1 expression received docetaxel alone. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Two hundred and seventy-nine patients in the SLCG trial and 124 in the Chinese trial were assessable for PFS. PFS in the control and experimental arms in the SLCG trial was 5.49 and 4.38 months, respectively [log rank P = 0.07; hazard ratio (HR) 1.28; P = 0.03]. In the Chinese trial, PFS was 4.74 and 3.78 months, respectively (log rank P = 0.82; HR 0.95; P = 0.82). Accrual was prematurely closed on the SLCG trial due to the absence of clinical benefit in the experimental over the control arm. However, the BREC studies provide proof of concept that an international, nonindustry, biomarker-directed trial is feasible. Thanks to the groundwork laid by these studies, we expect that ongoing further research on alternative biomarkers to

  4. A novel water resistor divider with a coaxial low-voltage arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Mao, Congguang; Zeng, Jiangtao

    2010-03-01

    A new style high voltage resistor divider made of saline solution has been constructed and tested. A coaxial construction is used on the low-voltage arm, as the signal extraction electrode, which can increase the attenuation ratio of the divider. The time response of divider limited by the stray parameter also can be improved. Comparing the results of calibrated experiment with the commonly used equal size copper sulfate dividers, the new probe has nearly five times increase in the attenuation ratio. The time response of the new style divider in the dimension of 30 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length can reach to 1 ns.

  5. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving...

  6. Sub-1-V-60 nm vertical body channel MOSFET-based six-transistor static random access memory array with wide noise margin and excellent power delay product and its optimization with the cell ratio on static random access memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Ryosuke; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, with the aim to achieve a wide noise margin and an excellent power delay product (PDP), a vertical body channel (BC)-MOSFET-based six-transistor (6T) static random access memory (SRAM) array is evaluated by changing the number of pillars in each part of a SRAM cell, that is, by changing the cell ratio in the SRAM cell. This 60 nm vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array realizes 0.84 V operation under the best PDP and up to 31% improvement of PDP compared with the 6T SRAM array based on a 90 nm planar MOSFET whose gate length and channel width are the same as those of the 60 nm vertical BC-MOSFET. Additionally, the vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array achieves an 8.8% wider read static noise margin (RSNM), a 16% wider write margin (WM), and an 89% smaller leakage. Moreover, it is shown that changing the cell ratio brings larger improvements of RSNM, WM, and write time in the vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array.

  7. Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis:II. Cell Genome and Interactome, Neoplastic Non-random Transformation Models in Topoi with Lukasiewicz-Logic and MV Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative Biology, abstract q-bio.OT/0406045 From: I.C. Baianu Dr. [view email] Date (v1): Thu, 24 Jun 2004 02:45:13 GMT (164kb) Date (revised v2): Fri, 2 Jul 2004 00:58:06 GMT (160kb) Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: II. Authors: I.C. Baianu Comments: 23 pages, 1 Figure Report-no: CC04 Subj-class: Other Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected modular sub-networks that evolve under the influence of micro-environmentally induced perturbations, in non-random, pseudo-Markov chain processes. An appropriate n-stage model of carcinogenesis involves therefore n-valued Logic treatments of nonlinear dynamic transformations of complex functional genomes and cell interactomes. Lukasiewicz Algebraic Logic models of genetic networks and signaling pathways in cells are formulated in terms of nonlinear dynamic systems with n-state components that allow for the generalization of previous, Boolean or "fuzzy", logic models of genetic activities in vivo....

  8. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized, Phase II Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Pemetrexed in First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Felip, Enriqueta; Besse, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer....

  9. Chemotherapy with or without low-dose interleukin-2 in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: results from a phase III randomized multicentric trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Bertetto, Oscar; Santo, Antonio; Naglieri, Emanuele; Lopez, Massimo; Recchia, Francesco; Lissoni, Paolo; Galliano, Marco; Testore, Franco; Porta, Camillo; Maglie, Monica; Dall'agata, Monia; Fumagalli, Luca; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2011-10-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with IL-2-dependent cell-mediated immunodeficiency. As IL-2 is the main lymphocyte growth factor, a phase III randomized multicenter trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 added to standard chemotherapy (CT) on overall survival (OS) in advanced NSCLC patients. Patients (n=241) with histologically confirmed stage IIIb or IV non-operable NSCLC underwent stratified randomization on the basis of center, ECOG PS, stage of disease and percentage of weight loss. Patients received gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 + cisplatin (100 mg/m2) on day 2 every 21 days for a maximum of 6 cycles [chemotherapy (CT) arm]. In the CT+IL-2 arm, patients also received low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 3,000,000 IU/die on days 3-5, 9-11, 15-17. The study had 90% power to detect a 20% absolute increase in 1-year OS with 118 patients/arm. An overall response (OR) rate of 12.8% (14% in the CT+IL-2 arm and 11.4% in CT arm) was observed. Stable disease was 70 and 66.7%, and progressive disease 16 and 21.8% in the CT+IL-2 and CT arms, respectively. No differences in response were found in any subgroup analysis. At a median follow-up of 32 months, 1-year OS was 45% for the CT+IL-2 arm vs. 51% for the CT arm (p=0.456 log-rank). Median progression-free survival was 6.6 months in the CT+IL-2 arm vs. 6.9 months in the CT arm (p=0.573, log-rank). A higher number of grade 4 toxicities were reported with CT+IL-2. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events were gastrointestinal toxicity (mainly nausea and diarrhea) and myelosuppression. No relevant differences in clinical outcome were observed from the addition of IL-2 to CT. Future studies investigating the role of T-regulators in chemoimmunotherapeutic regimens could be performed.

  10. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  11. A randomized trial of artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine in Ghanaian paediatric sickle cell and non-sickle cell disease patients with acute uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, George O; Goka, Bamenla Q; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C

    2014-01-01

    of the SCD patients were also compared with a group of malaria-negative SCD children (n = 82) in steady state. RESULTS: The parasite densities on admission were significantly lower in the SCD group, compared with the non-SCD group (p = 0.0006). The parasite reduction ratio (PRR) was lower, clearance....../57) in the SCD group and 96.4% (53/55) in the non-SCD group. The fractional changes in haemoglobin, platelets and white blood cell counts between baseline (day 0) and endpoint (day 42) were 16.9, 40.6 and 92.3%, respectively, for the SCD group, and, 12.3, 48.8 and 7.5%, respectively, for the non-SCD group....... There were no differences in these indices between AA- and AL-treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The parasite clearance of SCD children with uncomplicated malaria was slower compared with non-SCD children. AA and AL showed similar clinical and parasitological effects in the SCD and non-SCD groups...

  12. Impact of the prophylactic gastrostomy for unresectable squamous cell head and neck carcinomas treated with radio-chemotherapy on quality of life: Prospective randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Sebastien; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Alfonsi, Marc; Digue, Laurence; Bagarry, Danielle; Feham, Nasreddine; Bensadoun, Rene Jean; Pignon, Thierry; Loundon, Anderson; Deville, Jean-Laurent; Zanaret, Michel; Favre, Roger; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment for unresectable head and neck carcinomas. Placement of prophylactic gastrostomy has been proposed to provide adequate nutrition during the therapeutic sequence. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of prophylactic gastrostomy on the 6-month quality of life, and to determine the factors related to this quality of life. Materials and methods: Design. randomized, controlled, open study ('systematic percutaneous gastrostomy' versus 'no systematic gastrostomy'). Patients. squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (stages III and IV, UICC 1997). Setting. oncological departments of French university teaching hospitals. Treatment. optimal concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Evaluations. T0 baseline evaluation, T1 during the treatment, T2 end of the treatment, and T3 6-month post-inclusion. Primary endpoint. 6-month quality of life (Qol) assessed using SF36, EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ H and N35 questionnaires. Results: The Qol changes from baseline included a decline (T1 and T2) followed by an improvement (T3). Qol at 6 months was significantly higher in the group receiving systematic prophylactic gastrostomy (p = 10 -3 ). Higher initial BMI and lower initial Karnofsky index were significant factors related to a higher 6-month Qol. Conclusions: The study results suggest that prophylactic gastrostomy improves post-treatment quality of life for unresectable head and neck cancer patients, after adjusting for other potential predictive quality of life factors.

  13. Phase II Randomized Study of Plitidepsin (Aplidin, Alone or in Association with L-carnitine, in Patients with Unresectable Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schöffski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This randomized phase II study evaluated two schedules of the marine compound Plitidepsin with or without co-administration of L-carnitine in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Patients had adequate performance status and organ function.The primary endpoint was the rate of disease control (no progression at 12 weeks (RECIST.Other endpoints included the response rate and time dependent efficacy measures.The trial also assessed the efficacy of L-carnitine to prevent Plitidepsin-related toxicity. The two regimes given as 24 hour infusion every two weeks showed hints of antitumoral activity. Disease control at 12 weeks was 15.8% in Arm A (5mg/m2, no L-carnitine and 11,1% in Arm B (7mg/m2 with L-carnitine. Two partial responses were observed in Arm A (19 patients, none in Arm B (20 patients. Both schedules had the same progression-free interval (2.1 months.The median overall survival was 7.0 and 7.6 months.The safety profile was similar in both arms of the trial and adverse events were mainly mild to moderate (NCI CTC version 2.0. Increasing the dose to 7mg/m2 did not increase the treatment efficacy but the incidence of transaminase and CPK elevations and serious AEs. Coadministration of L-carnitine did not prevent muscular toxicity or CPK-elevation associated with Plitidepsin.

  14. Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family-Based Intervention to Promote School Functioning for School-Age Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lauren C; Li, Yimei; Smith, Kelsey; Tarazi, Reem; Robinson, M Renee; Patterson, Chavis A; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Stuart, Marie; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-01-01

    Tested a family-based group problem-solving intervention, "Families Taking Control," (FTC) to improve school functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQL) for children with sickle cell disease. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires assessing HRQL and school functioning and children completed performance-based measures of IQ and achievement at baseline and 6 months later. Families were randomized to the intervention (FTC, n = 42) or delayed intervention control (DIC, n = 41) group. FTC involved a full-day workshop followed by 3 booster calls. There were no differences between FTC completers (n = 24) and noncompleters (n = 18). FTC group (n = 24) and DIC group (n = 38) did not differ significantly on primary outcomes at follow-up: number of formal academic and disease-related accommodations, individualized education plan/504 service plan, school absences, school HRQL, or academic skills. Although families found FTC to be acceptable, there were no intervention effects. Challenges of the trial and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Use of Cell Phone Support for Non-adherent HIV-Infected Youth and Young Adults: An Initial Randomized and Controlled Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Marvin E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Olson, Johanna; Sarr, Moussa; Thornton, Sarah; Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Gaur, Aditya H.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2014-01-01

    This randomized behavioral trial examined whether youth living with HIV (YLH) receiving cell-phone support with study funded phone plans, demonstrated improved adherence and viral control during the 24 week intervention and 24 weeks post-intervention compared to controls. Monday through Friday phone calls confirmed medications were taken, provided problem-solving support, and referred to services to address adherence barriers. Of 37 participants (ages 15–24), 62 % were male and 70 % were African American. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control at 24 and 48 weeks for the past month (P = 0.007) and log 10 HIV VL was significantly lower at both 24 weeks (2.82 versus 4.52 P = 0.002) and 48 weeks (3.23 versus 4.23 P = 0.043). Adherence and viral load showed medium to large effect sizes across the 48 week study. This is the first study to demonstrate sustained clinically significant reductions in HIV VL using youth friendly technology. PMID:24271347

  16. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Cao, F F; Wang, Y; Meng, F L; Zhang, Y; Zhong, D S; Zhou, Q H

    2015-05-01

    The application of newer signaling pathway-targeted agents has become an important addition to chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of PKC inhibitors combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC systematically. Literature retrieval, trials selection and assessment, data collection, and statistic analysis were performed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. The outcome measures were tumor response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse effects. Five randomized controlled trials, comprising totally 1,005 patients, were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed significantly decreased response rate (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.64-0.99) and disease control rate (RR 0.90; 95 % CI 0.82-0.99) in PKC inhibitors-chemotherapy groups versus chemotherapy groups. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding progression-free survival (PFS, HR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.91-1.22) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.86-1.16). The risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia, leucopenia, and thrombosis/embolism increased significantly in PKC inhibitors combination groups as compared with chemotherapy alone groups. The use of PKC inhibitors in addition to chemotherapy was not a valid alternative for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  17. Intra-operative intravenous fluid restriction reduces perioperative red blood cell transfusion in elective cardiac surgery, especially in transfusion-prone patients: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgopoulou Stavroula

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of blood products, and hemodilution increases transfusion requirements during cardiac surgery under CPB. As intraoperative parenteral fluids contribute to hemodilution, we evaluated the hypothesis that intraoperative fluid restriction reduces packed red-cell (PRC use, especially in transfusion-prone adults undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods 192 patients were randomly assigned to restrictive (group A, 100 pts, or liberal (group B, 92 pts intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. All operations were conducted by the same team (same surgeon and perfusionist. After anesthesia induction, intravenous fluids were turned off in Group A (fluid restriction patients, who only received fluids if directed by protocol. In contrast, intravenous fluid administration was unrestricted in group B. Transfusion decisions were made by the attending anesthesiologist, based on identical transfusion guidelines for both groups. Results 137 of 192 patients received 289 PRC units in total. Age, sex, weight, height, BMI, BSA, LVEF, CPB duration and surgery duration did not differ between groups. Fluid balance was less positive in Group A. Fewer group A patients (62/100 required transfusion compared to group B (75/92, p Conclusions Our data suggest that fluid restriction reduces intraoperative PRC transfusions without significantly increasing postoperative transfusions in cardiac surgery; this effect is more pronounced in transfusion-prone patients. Trial registration NCT00600704, at the United States National Institutes of Health.

  18. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  19. Random walk of passive tracers among randomly moving obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Matteo; Donato, Irene; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Pettini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is mainly motivated by the need of understanding how the diffusion behaviour of a biomolecule (or even of a larger object) is affected by other moving macromolecules, organelles, and so on, inside a living cell, whence the possibility of understanding whether or not a randomly walking biomolecule is also subject to a long-range force field driving it to its target. Method: By means of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) technique the topic of random walk in random en...

  20. Safety and Efficacy of the Intravenous Infusion of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients With Heart Failure: A Phase 1/2 Randomized Controlled Trial (RIMECARD Trial [Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravenous Infusion Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cardiopathy]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Jorge; Verdugo, Fernando J; González, Paz L; Larrea, Ricardo E; Abarzua, Ema; Goset, Carlos; Rojo, Pamela; Palma, Ivan; Lamich, Ruben; Pedreros, Pablo A; Valdivia, Gloria; Lopez, Valentina M; Nazzal, Carolina; Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; Cuenca, Jimena; Brobeck, Matthew J; Patel, Amit N; Figueroa, Fernando E; Khoury, Maroun

    2017-10-27

    Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) are easily accessible and expanded in vitro, possess distinct properties, and improve myocardial remodeling and function in experimental models of cardiovascular disease. Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been previously assessed for their therapeutic potential in individuals with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, no clinical trial has evaluated intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs in these patients. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of the intravenous infusion of UC-MSC in patients with chronic stable heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction under optimal medical treatment were randomized to intravenous infusion of allogenic UC-MSCs (Cellistem, Cells for Cells S.A., Santiago, Chile; 1×10 6 cells/kg) or placebo (n=15 per group). UC-MSCs in vitro, compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, displayed a 55-fold increase in the expression of hepatocyte growth factor, known to be involved in myogenesis, cell migration, and immunoregulation. UC-MSC-treated patients presented no adverse events related to the cell infusion, and none of the patients tested at 0, 15, and 90 days presented alloantibodies to the UC-MSCs (n=7). Only the UC-MSC-treated group exhibited significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up assessed both through transthoracic echocardiography ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and cardiac MRI ( P =0.025 versus baseline). Echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction change from baseline to month 12 differed significantly between groups (+7.07±6.22% versus +1.85±5.60%; P =0.028). In addition, at all follow-up time points, UC-MSC-treated patients displayed improvements of New York Heart Association functional class ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire ( P <0.05 versus baseline). At study completion