WorldWideScience

Sample records for randomly distributed arrays

  1. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyt, Wojciech; Guerra, Carlos; Utke, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires) as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i) the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii) the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight), (iii) the surface impingement rate, and (iv) the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes.

  2. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szmyt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight, (iii the surface impingement rate, and (iv the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes.

  3. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    beams. A random array with Gaussian distribution of transmitters and uniform distribution of receivers was found to have better resolution and depth-of-field than both a Mills cross array and a random array with uniform distribution of both transmit and receive elements. The Gaussian random array......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  4. On bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tran Loc; Giang, Le Truong

    2016-01-01

    Using the Stein-Chen method some upper bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of row-wise triangular arrays of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables are established in this note.

  5. Cidre: Programming with Distributed Shared Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    André, Françoise; Mahéo, Yves

    1996-01-01

    International audience; A programming model that is widely approved today for large applications is parallel programming with shared variables. We propose an implementation of shared arrays on distributed memory architectures: it provides the user with an uniform addressing scheme while being effcient thanks to a logical paging technique and optimized communication mechanisms.

  6. DASI: Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    The NAS Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey has recommended that the next major ground-based instrumentation initiative for space science research be the deployment of widely-distributed arrays of small instrumentation. Such arrays will provide continuous real-time observations of Earthspace with the resolution needed resolve mesoscale phenomena and their dynamic evolution. Ground-based arrays will address the need for observations to support the next generation of space weather data-assimilation models and will push our understanding of the physical processes which interconnect the spheres of Earthspace to a new level. It is envisioned that DASI instrumentation will provide real-time data for a wide variety of research, applications, and educational users. Infrastructure issues including instrument design and deployment, communications, and data distribution will be important aspects of a DASI plan. In order to provide a strong foundation for future initiatives addressing the DASI goals, the NAS Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) has undertaken a study of the scientific need for such arrays, the infrastructure needed to support and utilize them, and an implementation plan for their deployment. Community input was solicited in the spring of 2004 and a working group meeting was held at the NAS Woods Hole facilities in June, 2004 to discuss a science plan for DASI and to address issues for inclusion in a DASI report. The focus of the CSSP report is the compelling science which will be enabled by the development of arrays of small instruments. The current status and an outline of the DASI science report will be reviewed.

  7. Process of random distributions : classification and prediction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dirichlet random distribution. The parameter of this process can be the distribution of any usual such as the (multifractional) Brownian motion. We also extend Kraft random distribution to the continuous time case. We give an application in ...

  8. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...

  9. Spatial and temporal distributions of magnetisation in arrays of interacting bistable microwires

    CERN Document Server

    Velazquez, J

    2002-01-01

    The unbalanced distribution of magnetic poles at the ends of the bistable Fe-based magnetostrictive glass-coated amorphous microwires generates a magnetic stray field that interacts with magnetisation in neighbouring microwires. A theoretical model is developed to analyse the magnetisation process of a two-dimensional array of quasi-identical microwires, taking into account the symmetry of the distribution (hexagonal, cubic, random), the number of microwires, and the distance between them. The conditions are analysed for arrays which behave as a complex system, specifically a system with self-organised criticality where both distributions of microwires with parallel and antiparallel magnetisation follow a fractal patron, and also conditions when individual magnetisation reversals in the array extend to the neighbours, as well as the possibility of application of this effect in magnetic recording devices.

  10. CRF: detection of CRISPR arrays using random forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats are particular repeat sequences found in wide range of bacteria and archaea genomes. Several tools are available for detecting CRISPR arrays in the genomes of both domains. Here we developed a new web-based CRISPR detection tool named CRF (CRISPR Finder by Random Forest. Different from other CRISPR detection tools, a random forest classifier was used in CRF to filter out invalid CRISPR arrays from all putative candidates and accordingly enhanced detection accuracy. In CRF, particularly, triplet elements that combine both sequence content and structure information were extracted from CRISPR repeats for classifier training. The classifier achieved high accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover, CRF offers a highly interactive web interface for robust data visualization that is not available among other CRISPR detection tools. After detection, the query sequence, CRISPR array architecture, and the sequences and secondary structures of CRISPR repeats and spacers can be visualized for visual examination and validation. CRF is freely available at http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/crf/home.php.

  11. GAiN: Distributed Array Computation with Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Jeffrey A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Scientific computing makes use of very large, multidimensional numerical arrays - typically, gigabytes to terabytes in size - much larger than can fit on even the largest single compute node. Such arrays must be distributed across a "cluster" of nodes. Global Arrays is a cluster-based software system from Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that enables an efficient, portable, and parallel shared-memory programming interface to manipulate these arrays. Written in and for the C and FORTRAN programming languages, it takes advantage of high-performance cluster interconnections to allow any node in the cluster to access data on any other node very rapidly. The "numpy" module is the de facto standard for numerical calculation in the Python programming language, a language whose use is growing rapidly in the scientific and engineering communities. numpy provides a powerful N-dimensional array class as well as other scientific computing capabilities. However, like the majority of the core Python modules, numpy is inherently serial. Our system, GAiN (Global Arrays in NumPy), is a parallel extension to Python that accesses Global Arrays through numpy. This allows parallel processing and/or larger problem sizes to be harnessed almost transparently within new or existing numpy programs.

  12. A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, J W [Radiological Sciences Unit, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0HS (United Kingdom); Shaw, A; Sadhoo, N; Rajagopal, S [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Dickinson, R J [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gavrilov, L R [N.N. Andreev Acoustics Institute, 117036 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: j.hand@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-10-07

    Randomized phased arrays can offer electronic steering of a single focus and simultaneous multiple foci concomitant with low levels of secondary maxima and are potentially useful as sources of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This work describes laboratory testing of a 1 MHz random phased array consisting of 254 elements on a spherical shell of radius of curvature 130 mm and diameter 170 mm. Acoustic output power and efficiency are measured for a range of input electrical powers, and field distributions for various single- and multiple-focus conditions are evaluated by a novel technique using an infrared camera to provide rapid imaging of temperature changes on the surface of an absorbing target. Experimental results show that the array can steer a single focus laterally to at least {+-}15 mm off axis and axially to more than {+-}15 mm from the centre of curvature of the array and patterns of four and five simultaneous foci {+-}10 mm laterally and axially whilst maintaining low intensity levels in secondary maxima away from the targeted area in good agreement with linear theoretical predictions. Experiments in which pork meat was thermally ablated indicate that contiguous lesions several cm{sup 3} in volume can be produced using the patterns of multiple foci.

  13. Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhiying; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2010-01-01

    In distributed storage systems that use coding, the issue of minimizing the communication required to rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. We consider the problem of repairing an erased node in a distributed storage system that uses an EVENODD code. EVENODD codes are maximum distance separable (MDS) array codes that are used to protect against erasures, and only require XOR operations for encoding and decoding. We show that when there are two redundancy nodes, to rebuild one erased systematic node, only 3/4 of the information needs to be transmitted. Interestingly, in many cases, the required disk I/O is also minimized.

  14. Off-Grid Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on Joint Spatial Sparsity for Distributed Sparse Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

  15. Off-grid direction of arrival estimation based on joint spatial sparsity for distributed sparse linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yujie; Ying, Rendong; Lu, Zhenqi; Liu, Peilin

    2014-11-20

    In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs) and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA) to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

  16. Raney Distributions and Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Liu, Dang-Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Recent works have shown that the family of probability distributions with moments given by the Fuss-Catalan numbers permit a simple parameterized form for their density. We extend this result to the Raney distribution which by definition has its moments given by a generalization of the Fuss-Catalan numbers. Such computations begin with an algebraic equation satisfied by the Stieltjes transform, which we show can be derived from the linear differential equation satisfied by the characteristic polynomial of random matrix realizations of the Raney distribution. For the Fuss-Catalan distribution, an equilibrium problem characterizing the density is identified. The Stieltjes transform for the limiting spectral density of the singular values squared of the matrix product formed from inverse standard Gaussian matrices, and standard Gaussian matrices, is shown to satisfy a variant of the algebraic equation relating to the Raney distribution. Supported on , we show that it too permits a simple functional form upon the introduction of an appropriate choice of parameterization. As an application, the leading asymptotic form of the density as the endpoints of the support are approached is computed, and is shown to have some universal features.

  17. Distributions on unbounded moment spaces and random moment sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Dette, Holger; Nagel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define distributions on moment spaces corresponding to measures on the real line with an unbounded support. We identify these distributions as limiting distributions of random moment vectors defined on compact moment spaces and as distributions corresponding to random spectral measures associated with the Jacobi, Laguerre and Hermite ensemble from random matrix theory. For random vectors on the unbounded moment spaces we prove a central limit theorem where the centering vecto...

  18. Probability Distributions for Random Quantum Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kevin

    Motivated by uncertainty quantification and inference of quantum information systems, in this work we draw connections between the notions of random quantum states and operations in quantum information with probability distributions commonly encountered in the field of orientation statistics. This approach identifies natural sample spaces and probability distributions upon these spaces that can be used in the analysis, simulation, and inference of quantum information systems. The theory of exponential families on Stiefel manifolds provides the appropriate generalization to the classical case. Furthermore, this viewpoint motivates a number of additional questions into the convex geometry of quantum operations relative to both the differential geometry of Stiefel manifolds as well as the information geometry of exponential families defined upon them. In particular, we draw on results from convex geometry to characterize which quantum operations can be represented as the average of a random quantum operation. This project was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity via Department of Interior National Business Center Contract Number 2012-12050800010.

  19. Far-field distributions of semiconductor phase-locked arrays with multiple contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results on far-field patterns of semiconductor laser arrays with multiple contacts are reported. It is found that, by tailoring the distribution of the currents through the array elements, narrow single-lobe patterns, which are more useful in most applications, can be obtained from arrays that usually operate in a double-lobe mode. A diffraction-limited 1.8 deg-wide far field pattern was obtained from a three-element array.

  20. DNA methylation arrays as surrogate measures of cell mixture distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houseman Eugene

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a long-standing need in biomedical research for a method that quantifies the normally mixed composition of leukocytes beyond what is possible by simple histological or flow cytometric assessments. The latter is restricted by the labile nature of protein epitopes, requirements for cell processing, and timely cell analysis. In a diverse array of diseases and following numerous immune-toxic exposures, leukocyte composition will critically inform the underlying immuno-biology to most chronic medical conditions. Emerging research demonstrates that DNA methylation is responsible for cellular differentiation, and when measured in whole peripheral blood, serves to distinguish cancer cases from controls. Results Here we present a method, similar to regression calibration, for inferring changes in the distribution of white blood cells between different subpopulations (e.g. cases and controls using DNA methylation signatures, in combination with a previously obtained external validation set consisting of signatures from purified leukocyte samples. We validate the fundamental idea in a cell mixture reconstruction experiment, then demonstrate our method on DNA methylation data sets from several studies, including data from a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC study and an ovarian cancer study. Our method produces results consistent with prior biological findings, thereby validating the approach. Conclusions Our method, in combination with an appropriate external validation set, promises new opportunities for large-scale immunological studies of both disease states and noxious exposures.

  1. Light trapping in randomly arranged silicon nanorocket arrays for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Peng, Kui-Qing; Sun, Rui-Nan; Hu, Ya; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-09-18

    Realization of broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin film c-Si solar cells is essential for improving energy conversion efficiency and reducing cost. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of randomly arranged silicon nanorocket (SiNR) arrays as a new light trapping structure design for thin film silicon solar cells. The optical absorption of the randomly arranged SiNR arrays is investigated via finite-difference-frequency-domain (FDTD) simulation. Our calculations reveal that the light trapping structures facilitate the coupling of incident sunlight into the resonant modes and lead to significant photon absorption enhancement across a wide solar spectrum, resulting in ultimate efficiencies superior to nanowire and nanohole arrays with the same thickness. Our findings indicate that the randomly arranged SiNR arrays fabricated by the simple self-assembly and etching approach can have a significant impact on performance improvement in thin film silicon solar cells.

  2. MicroRNA array normalization: an evaluation using a randomized dataset as the benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA arrays possess a number of unique data features that challenge the assumption key to many normalization methods. We assessed the performance of existing normalization methods using two microRNA array datasets derived from the same set of tumor samples: one dataset was generated using a blocked randomization design when assigning arrays to samples and hence was free of confounding array effects; the second dataset was generated without blocking or randomization and exhibited array effects. The randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression between two tumor groups and treated as the benchmark. The non-randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression after normalization and compared against the benchmark. Normalization improved the true positive rate significantly in the non-randomized data but still possessed a false discovery rate as high as 50%. Adding a batch adjustment step before normalization further reduced the number of false positive markers while maintaining a similar number of true positive markers, which resulted in a false discovery rate of 32% to 48%, depending on the specific normalization method. We concluded the paper with some insights on possible causes of false discoveries to shed light on how to improve normalization for microRNA arrays.

  3. A two-stage noise source identification technique based on a farfield random parametric array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Chen, You Siang; Lo, Yi-Yang

    2017-05-01

    A farfield random array is implemented for noise source identification. Microphone positions are optimized, with the aid of the simulated annealing method. A two-stage localization and separation algorithm is devised on the basis of the equivalent source method (ESM). In the localization stage, the active source regions are located by using the delay-and-sum method, followed by a parametric localization procedure, stochastic maximum likelihood algorithm. Multidimensional nonlinear optimization is exploited in the bearing estimation process. In the separation stage, source amplitudes are extracted by formulating an inverse problem based on the preceding source bearings identified. The number of equivalent sources is selected to be less than that of microphones to render an overdetermined problem which can be readily solved by using the Tikhonov regularization. Alternatively, the separation problem can be augmented into an underdetermined problem which can be solved by using the compressive sensing technique. Traditionally, farfield arrays only give a relative distribution of source field. However, by using the proposed method, the acoustic variables including sound pressure, particle velocity, sound intensity, and sound power can be calculated based on ESM. Numerical and experimental results of several objective and subjective tests are presented.

  4. Complete Moment Convergence and Mean Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Extended Negatively Dependent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors first present a Rosenthal inequality for sequence of extended negatively dependent (END random variables. By means of the Rosenthal inequality, the authors obtain some complete moment convergence and mean convergence results for arrays of rowwise END random variables. The results in this paper extend and improve the corresponding theorems by Hu and Taylor (1997.

  5. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  6. Investigation of Beamforming Patterns from Volumetric Randomly Distributed Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Modern wireless technologies, such as ad-hoc networking, require agile and controllable antennas on their frontends. These networks often...Traditionally, these antennas are designed as periodic structures, where each element is placed in a lattice. The elements constructively add in

  7. Improving beampatterns of two-dimensional random arrays using convex optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S

    2011-04-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous and can be combined in arrays for source localization purposes. If classical conventional beamforming is used, then random arrays have poor beampatterns. By pre-computing sensor weights, these beampatterns can be improved significantly. The problem is formulated in the frequency domain as a desired look direction, a frequency-independent transition region, and the power minimized in a rejection-region. Using this formulation, the frequency-dependent sensor weights can be obtained using convex optimization. Since the weights are data independent they can be pre-computed, the beamforming has similar computational complexity as conventional beamforming. The approach is demonstrated for real 2D arrays.

  8. Frequency-wavenumber processing for infrasound distributed arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, R Daniel; Frazier, W Garth; Dillion, Kevin; Picucci, Jennifer R; Williams, Jay E; McKenna, Mihan H

    2013-10-01

    The work described herein discusses the application of a frequency-wavenumber signal processing technique to signals from rectangular infrasound arrays for detection and estimation of the direction of travel of infrasound. Arrays of 100 sensors were arranged in square configurations with sensor spacing of 2 m. Wind noise data were collected at one site. Synthetic infrasound signals were superposed on top of the wind noise to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique with respect to signal-to-noise ratio. The technique was then applied to an impulsive event recorded at a different site. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  9. Distributed Subarray Antennas for Multifunction Phased-Array Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Chih-heng

    2003-01-01

    As the target radar cross section (RCS) continuously decreases, the need for high-resolution high-gain radar increases, One approach to high resolution is to use distributed subarray antennas (DSAs...

  10. Distributed Subarray Antennas for Multifunction Phased-Array Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Chih-heng

    2003-01-01

    ...) and Very High Frequency (VHF) applications. By combining distributed subarrays located on the available areas of a constrained platforms, the MFAR and VHF DSA can achieve increased resolution and potential reductions in cost and complexity...

  11. Hybrid computer technique yields random signal probability distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hybrid computer determines the probability distributions of instantaneous and peak amplitudes of random signals. This combined digital and analog computer system reduces the errors and delays of manual data analysis.

  12. Randomized distributed access to mutually exclusive resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Dror

    2005-01-01

    they generally suffer from the need for extensive interagent communication. In this paper, we develop a randomized approach to make multiagent resource-allocation decisions with the objective of maximizing expected concurrency measured by the number of the active agents. This approach does not assume a centralized mechanism and has no need for interagent communication. Compared to existing autonomous-decentralized-decision-making (ADDM-based approaches for resource-allocation, our work emphasizes achieving the highest degree of agent autonomy and is able to handle more general resource requirements.

  13. Characterizations of Distributions of Ratios of Certain Independent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani G.G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Various characterizations of the distributions of the ratio of two independent gamma and exponential random variables as well as that of two independent Weibull random variables are presented. These characterizations are based, on a simple relationship between two truncated moments ; on hazard function ; and on functions of order statistics.

  14. A directional array approach for the measurement of rotor noise source distributions with controlled spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, T. F.; Marcolini, M. A.; Pope, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A special array system has been designed to examine noise source distributions over a helicopter rotor model. The particular measurement environment is for a rotor operating in the open jet of an anechoic wind tunnel. An out-of-flow directional microphone element array is used with a directivity pattern whose major directional lobe projects on the rotor disk. If significant contributions from extraneous tunnel noise sources in the direction of the side lobes are excluded, the dominant output from the array would be that noise emitted from the projected area on the rotor disk. The design incorporates an array element signal blending features which serves to control the spatial resolution of the size of the directional lobes. (Without blending, the resolution and side lobe size are very strong functions of frequency, which severely limits the array's usefulness).

  15. Characterization of switching field distributions in Ising-like magnetic arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Fraleigh, Robert D.; Kempinger, Susan; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent H.; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Sheng; Schiffer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The switching field distribution within arrays of single-domain ferromagnetic islands incorpo- rates both island-island interactions and quenched disorder in island geometry. Separating these two contributions is important for disentangling the effects of disorder and interactions in the magnetization dynamics of island arrays. Using sub-micron, spatially resolved Kerr imaging in an external magnetic field for islands with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, we map out the evolution of island ...

  16. Characterization of switching field distributions in Ising-like magnetic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraleigh, Robert D.; Kempinger, Susan; Lammert, Paul E.; Zhang, Sheng; Crespi, Vincent H.; Schiffer, Peter; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-04-01

    The switching field distribution within arrays of single-domain ferromagnetic islands incorporates both island-island interactions and quenched disorder in island geometry. Separating these two contributions is important for disentangling the effects of disorder and interactions in themagnetization dynamics of island arrays. Using submicron, spatially resolved Kerr imaging in an external magnetic field for islands with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, we map out the evolution of island arrays during hysteresis loops. Resolving and tracking individual islands across four different lattice types and a range of interisland spacings, we can extract the individual switching fields of every island and thereby quantitatively determine the contributions of interactions and quenched disorder in the arrays. The width of the switching field distribution is found to be well fitted by a simple model comprising the sum of an array-independent contribution (interpreted as disorder induced) and a term proportional to the maximum field the entire rest of the array could exert on a single island, i.e., in a fully polarized state. This supports the claim that disorder in these arrays is primarily a single-island property and provides a methodology by which to quantify such disorder.

  17. On Distributed Computation in Noisy Random Planar Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kanoria, Y.; Manjunath, D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider distributed computation of functions of distributed data in random planar networks with noisy wireless links. We present a new algorithm for computation of the maximum value which is order optimal in the number of transmissions and computation time.We also adapt the histogram computation algorithm of Ying et al to make the histogram computation time optimal.

  18. Asymptotic distribution of products of sums of independent random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    453007 Henan, China. E-mail: bigduckwyl@163.com; duhongxia24@gmail.com. MS received 7 April 2012; revised 10 October 2012. Abstract. In the paper we consider the asymptotic distribution of products of weighted sums of independent random variables. Keywords. Asymptotic distribution; products of sums. 1.

  19. Continuous Time Random Walks with memory and financial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-11-01

    We study financial distributions from the perspective of Continuous Time Random Walks with memory. We review some of our previous developments and apply them to financial problems. We also present some new models with memory that can be useful in characterizing tendency effects which are inherent in most markets. We also briefly study the effect on return distributions of fractional behaviors in the distribution of pausing times between successive transactions.

  20. Fully-distributed randomized cooperation in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-01-07

    When marrying randomized distributed space-time coding (RDSTC) to geographical routing, new performance horizons can be created. In order to reach those horizons however, routing protocols must evolve to operate in a fully distributed fashion. In this letter, we expose a technique to construct a fully distributed geographical routing scheme in conjunction with RDSTC. We then demonstrate the performance gains of this novel scheme by comparing it to one of the prominent classical schemes.

  1. Accuracy and uncertainty in random speckle modulation transfer function measurement of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kenneth J.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Plummer, Philip J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper expands upon a previously reported random speckle technique for measuring the modulation transfer function of midwave infrared focal plane arrays by considering a number of factors that impact the accuracy of the estimated modulation transfer function. These factors arise from assumptions in the theoretical derivation and bias in the estimation procedure. Each factor is examined and guidelines are determined to maintain accuracy within 2% of the true value. The uncertainty of the measurement is found by applying a one-factor ANOVA analysis and confidence intervals are established for the results. The small magnitude of the confidence intervals indicates a very robust technique capable of distinguishing differences in modulation transfer function among focal plane arrays on the order of a few percent. This analysis directly indicates the high quality of the random speckle modulation transfer function measurement technique. The methodology is applied to a focal plane array and results are presented that emphasize the need for generating independent random speckle realizations to accurately assess measured values.

  2. A Time Delay Estimation Method Based on Wavelet Transform and Speech Envelope for Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN, F.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A time delay estimation method based on wavelet transform and speech envelope is proposed for distributed microphone arrays. This method first extracts the speech envelopes of the signals processed with multi-level discrete wavelet transform, and then makes use of the speech envelopes to estimate a coarse time delay. Finally it searches for the accurate time delay near the coarse time delay by the cross-correlation function calculated in time domain. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method can accurately estimate the time delay between two distributed microphone array signals.

  3. A microfluidic distribution system for an array of hollow microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Antonin; Baron, Nolwenn; Cabodevila, Gonzalo; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2008-06-01

    We report a microfluidic device able to control the ejection of fluid through a matrix of out-of-plane microneedles. The device comprises a matrix of open dispensing units connected to needles and filled by a common filling system. A deformable membrane (e.g. in PDMS) is brought into contact with the dispensing units. Pressure exerted on the deformable membrane closes (and thus individualizes) each dispensing unit and provokes the ejection of the dispensing unit content through the outlets. Sufficient pressure over the deformable membrane ensures that all dispensing units deliver a fixed volume (their content) irrespective of the hydrodynamic pressure outside the dispensing unit outlet. The size of the ensemble matrix of dispensing units, the number of liquid reservoirs, as well as the material can vary depending on the considered application of the device or on the conditions of use. In the present paper, the liquid reservoirs are geometrically identical. The geometrical parameters of the device are optimized to avoid as much dead volume as possible, as it was to handle plasmid DNA solutions which are very expensive. The conception, the fabrication and the experimental results are described in this paper. Our prototype is conceived to inject in a uniform way 10 µl of drug through 100 microneedles distributed over 1 cm2.

  4. Maximum Likelihood and Bayes Estimation in Randomly Censored Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the geometric distribution under randomly censored data. Maximum likelihood estimators and confidence intervals based on Fisher information matrix are derived for the unknown parameters with randomly censored data. Bayes estimators are also developed using beta priors under generalized entropy and LINEX loss functions. Also, Bayesian credible and highest posterior density (HPD credible intervals are obtained for the parameters. Expected time on test and reliability characteristics are also analyzed in this article. To compare various estimates developed in the article, a Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out. Finally, for illustration purpose, a randomly censored real data set is discussed.

  5. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  6. Pitch and TDOA-Based Localization of Acoustic Sources with Distributed Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a method for acoustic source localization using distributed microphone arrays based on time-differences of arrival (TDOAs) is presented. The TDOAs are used to estimate the location of an acoustic source using a recently proposed method, based on a 4D parameter space defined by the ...

  7. A simple consensus algorithm for distributed averaging in random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    guaranteed convergence with this simple algorithm. Keywords. Sensor networks; random geographical networks; distributed averaging; consensus algorithms. PACS Nos 89.75.Hc; 89.75.Fb; 89.20.Ff. 1. Introduction. Wireless sensor networks are increasingly used in many applications ranging from envi- ronmental to ...

  8. Random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Strogatz, S. H.; Watts, D. J.

    2001-08-01

    Recent work on the structure of social networks and the internet has focused attention on graphs with distributions of vertex degree that are significantly different from the Poisson degree distributions that have been widely studied in the past. In this paper we develop in detail the theory of random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. In addition to simple undirected, unipartite graphs, we examine the properties of directed and bipartite graphs. Among other results, we derive exact expressions for the position of the phase transition at which a giant component first forms, the mean component size, the size of the giant component if there is one, the mean number of vertices a certain distance away from a randomly chosen vertex, and the average vertex-vertex distance within a graph. We apply our theory to some real-world graphs, including the world-wide web and collaboration graphs of scientists and Fortune 1000 company directors. We demonstrate that in some cases random graphs with appropriate distributions of vertex degree predict with surprising accuracy the behavior of the real world, while in others there is a measurable discrepancy between theory and reality, perhaps indicating the presence of additional social structure in the network that is not captured by the random graph.

  9. Ultrathin wide bandwidth metamaterial absorber using randomly distributed scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Ida, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a broadband, ultrathin metamaterial absorber (MA) using randomly distributed scatterers is presented. Each scattering element consists of two parallel strips. These elements can either be isolated or they may overlap with nearby elements. Three different randomly positioned structures are investigated for normal incident angle as well as oblique incident angles showing that these MAs can provide broadband absorption for all cases. The results presented here coincide with some previous works. Each structure obviously has different absorption spectrum and FWHM since the coupling between the randomly positioned scatterers is different in each case. The coupling between neighboring isolated and clustered scatterers form many resonating modes resulting in broadband absorption. The distribution of the electromagnetic fields are analyzed to obtain the physical behavior of the absorber. This shows that promising results can still be obtained for MAs when there is a significant tolerance distance between scatterers due to fabrication errors in micro and nanoscale metadevices.

  10. Electronic transport in a one-dimensional random array of scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Filinov, V S; Varga, I; Meier, T; Bonitz, M; Fortov, V E; Koch, S W

    2003-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of an ensemble of interacting electrons in an array of random scatterers is treated using a new numerical approach for the calculation of average values of quantum operators and time correlation functions in the Wigner representation. This approach combines both molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods and computes numerical traces and spectra of the relevant dynamical quantities such as momentum-momentum correlation functions and spatial dispersions. Considering, as an application, a system with fixed scatterers, the results clearly demonstrate that the many-particle interaction between the electrons can lead to an enhancement of the conductivity at intermediate densities.

  11. Conservation laws in coupled multiplicative random arrays lead to $1/f$ noise

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the dynamic evolution of a coupled array of N multiplicative random variables. The magnitude of each is constrained by a lower bound w_0 and their sum is conserved. Analytical calculation shows that the simplest case, N=2 and w_0=0, exhibits a Lorentzian spectrum which gradually becomes fractal as w_0 increases. Simulation results for larger $N$ reveal fractal spectra for moderate to high values of w_0 and power-law amplitude fluctuations at all values. The results are applied to estimating the fractal exponents for cochlear-nerve-fiber action-potential sequences with remarkable success, using only two parameters.

  12. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  13. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Coherently Distributed Sources with Symmetric Properties in Crossed Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhengliang; Cui, Weijia; Ba, Bin; Wang, Daming; Sun, Youming

    2017-06-06

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed for the two-dimensional (2D) central direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherently distributed (CD) sources. Specifically, we focus on a centro-symmetric crossed array consisting of two uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the conventional low-complexity methods using the one-order Taylor series approximation to obtain the approximate rotational invariance relation, we first prove the symmetric property of angular signal distributed weight vectors of the CD source for an arbitrary centrosymmetric array, and then use this property to establish two generalized rotational invariance relations inside the array manifolds in the two ULAs. Making use of such relations, the central elevation and azimuth DOAs are obtained by employing a polynomial-root-based search-free approach, respectively. Finally, simple parameter matching is accomplished by searching for the minimums of the cost function of the estimated 2D angular parameters. When compared with the existing low-complexity methods, the proposed algorithm can greatly improve estimation accuracy without significant increment in computation complexity. Moreover, it performs independently of the deterministic angular distributed function. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.

  15. Nonparametric Estimation of Distributions in Random Effects Models

    KAUST Repository

    Hart, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We propose using minimum distance to obtain nonparametric estimates of the distributions of components in random effects models. A main setting considered is equivalent to having a large number of small datasets whose locations, and perhaps scales, vary randomly, but which otherwise have a common distribution. Interest focuses on estimating the distribution that is common to all datasets, knowledge of which is crucial in multiple testing problems where a location/scale invariant test is applied to every small dataset. A detailed algorithm for computing minimum distance estimates is proposed, and the usefulness of our methodology is illustrated by a simulation study and an analysis of microarray data. Supplemental materials for the article, including R-code and a dataset, are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.

  16. Near-field distribution and propagation of scattering resonances in Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lawrence, N.; Trevino, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Dal Negro, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we employ scanning near-field optical microscopy, full-vector finite difference time domain numerical simulations and fractional Fourier transformation to investigate the near-field and propagation behavior of the electromagnetic energy scattered at 1.56 μm by dielectric arrays of silicon nitride nanopillars with chiral α1-Vogel spiral geometry. In particular, we experimentally study the spatial evolution of scattered radiation and demonstrate near-field coupling between adjacent nanopillars along the parastichies arms. Moreover, by measuring the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation at different heights from the array plane, we demonstrate a characteristic rotation of the scattered field pattern consistent with net transfer of orbital angular momentum in the Fresnel zone, within a few micrometers from the plane of the array. Our experimental results agree with the simulations we performed and may be of interest to nanophotonics applications.

  17. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-09-11

    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  18. Randomized Algorithms for Tracking Distributed Count, Frequencies, and Ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Zengfeng; Yi, Ke; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    $-approximation of their sum $n=\\sum_i n_i$ continuously at all times, using minimum communication. While the deterministic communication complexity of the problem is $\\Theta(k/\\eps \\cdot \\log N)$, where $N$ is the final value of $n$ when the tracking finishes, we show that with randomization, the communication cost can......We show that randomization can lead to significant improvements for a few fundamental problems in distributed tracking. Our basis is the {\\em count-tracking} problem, where there are $k$ players, each holding a counter $n_i$ that gets incremented over time, and the goal is to track an $\\eps...

  19. Randomized algorithms for tracking distributed count, frequencies, and ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengfeng, Huang; Ke, Yi; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    of their sum n=∑ini continuously at all times, using minimum communication. While the deterministic communication complexity of the problem is θ(k/ε • log N), where N is the final value of n when the tracking finishes, we show that with randomization, the communication cost can be reduced to θ(√k/ε • log N......We show that randomization can lead to significant improvements for a few fundamental problems in distributed tracking. Our basis is the count-tracking problem, where there are k players, each holding a counter ni that gets incremented over time, and the goal is to track an ∑-approximation...

  20. Target Tracking Using SePDAF under Ambiguous Angles for Distributed Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed array radar can improve radar detection capability and measurement accuracy. However, it will suffer cyclic ambiguity in its angle estimates according to the spatial Nyquist sampling theorem since the large sparse array is undersampling. Consequently, the state estimation accuracy and track validity probability degrades when the ambiguous angles are directly used for target tracking. This paper proposes a second probability data association filter (SePDAF-based tracking method for distributed array radar. Firstly, the target motion model and radar measurement model is built. Secondly, the fusion result of each radar’s estimation is employed to the extended Kalman filter (EKF to finish the first filtering. Thirdly, taking this result as prior knowledge, and associating with the array-processed ambiguous angles, the SePDAF is applied to accomplish the second filtering, and then achieving a high accuracy and stable trajectory with relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, the azimuth filtering accuracy will be promoted dramatically and the position filtering accuracy will also improve. Finally, simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Target Tracking Using SePDAF under Ambiguous Angles for Distributed Array Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Teng; Zhang, Honggang; Zeng, Tao; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Quanhua; Zheng, Le

    2016-01-01

    Distributed array radar can improve radar detection capability and measurement accuracy. However, it will suffer cyclic ambiguity in its angle estimates according to the spatial Nyquist sampling theorem since the large sparse array is undersampling. Consequently, the state estimation accuracy and track validity probability degrades when the ambiguous angles are directly used for target tracking. This paper proposes a second probability data association filter (SePDAF)-based tracking method for distributed array radar. Firstly, the target motion model and radar measurement model is built. Secondly, the fusion result of each radar’s estimation is employed to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to finish the first filtering. Thirdly, taking this result as prior knowledge, and associating with the array-processed ambiguous angles, the SePDAF is applied to accomplish the second filtering, and then achieving a high accuracy and stable trajectory with relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, the azimuth filtering accuracy will be promoted dramatically and the position filtering accuracy will also improve. Finally, simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27618058

  2. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  3. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...... require complex algorithms to schedule what parts of obtained content to forward to other peers. Random Linear Network Coding can greatly simplify these algorithm by removing the need for coordination between the distributing nodes. In this paper we propose and evaluate the structure of the BRONCO peer-to-peer....... Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of different parameters and suggest a suitable trade-off between CPU utilization and network overhead. Within the limitations of the used test environment, we have shown that networkc coding is usable in peer-assisted content distribution and we suggest further...

  4. Magnetic Flux Distribution of Linear Machines with Novel Three-Dimensional Hybrid Magnet Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Yan, Liang; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Shaoping

    2017-11-18

    The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear machine with hybrid permanent magnet arrays and multiple movers, which could be employed for either actuation or sensing technology. The hybrid magnet array produces flux distribution on both sides of windings, and thus helps to increase the signal strength in the windings. The multiple movers are important for airspace technology, because they can improve the system's redundancy and reliability. The proposed design concept is presented, and the governing equations are obtained based on source free property and Maxwell equations. The magnetic field distribution in the linear machine is thus analytically formulated by using Bessel functions and harmonic expansion of magnetization vector. Numerical simulation is then conducted to validate the analytical solutions of the magnetic flux field. It is proved that the analytical model agrees with the numerical results well. Therefore, it can be utilized for the formulation of signal or force output subsequently, depending on its particular implementation.

  5. Statistical properties of photon modes in random arrays of ZnO nano-needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minz, Christoph; Leipold, David; Runge, Erich [Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Localization of electromagnetic waves in random media received renewed interest in the last years. Recent ultrafast optical experiments indicate the existence of highly localized photon modes in a system of homogeneous, randomly distributed, vertically aligned ZnO nano-needles. In particular, hot spots in the spatial distribution of the second harmonic generation (SHG) were found. In this work, we discuss the optical near field, which we obtain from full 3D solutions of Maxwell's equations of a model system in time domain. The spatial distribution of the electric near-field and the squared electric near-field intensity are investigated with statistical methods. The results are compared to the experimental findings. We thank Manfred Maschek, Slawa Schmidt, Martin Silies and Christoph Lienau from the Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg as well as Takashi Yatsui, Kokoro Kitamura and Motoichi Ohtsu from the University of Tokyo for sharing their experimental data with us prior to publication.

  6. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

    2013-10-08

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  7. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  8. Stable switching of resistive random access memory on the nanotip array electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Kun-Tong

    2016-09-13

    The formation/rupture of conducting filaments (CFs) in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) materials tune the electrical conductivities non-volatilely and are largely affected by its material composition [1], internal configurations [2] and external environments [3,4]. Therefore, controlling repetitive formation/rupture of CF as well as the spatial uniformity of formed CF are fundamentally important for improving the resistive switching (RS) performance. In this context, we have shown that by adding a field initiator, typically a textured electrode, both performance and switching uniformity of ReRAMs can be improved dramatically [5]. In addition, despite its promising characteristics, the scalable fabrication and structural homogeneity of such nanostructured electrodes are still lacking or unattainable, making miniaturization of ReRAM devices an exceeding challenge. Here, we employ nanostructured electrode (nanotip arrays, extremely uniform) formed spontaneously via a self-organized process to improve the ZnO ReRAM switching characteristics.

  9. Reconstruction of the near-field distribution in an X-ray waveguide array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi; Melchior, Lars; Peng, Jichang; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan; Salditt, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Iterative phase retrieval has been used to reconstruct the near-field distribution behind tailored X-ray waveguide arrays, by inversion of the measured far-field pattern recorded under fully coherent conditions. It is thereby shown that multi-waveguide interference can be exploited to control the near-field distribution behind the waveguide exit. This can, for example, serve to create a secondary quasi-focal spot outside the waveguide structure. For this proof of concept, an array of seven planar Ni/C waveguides are used, with precisely varied guiding layer thickness and cladding layer thickness, as fabricated by high-precision magnetron sputtering systems. The controlled thickness variations in the range of 0.2 nm results in a desired phase shift of the different waveguide beams. Two kinds of samples, a one-dimensional waveguide array and periodic waveguide multilayers, were fabricated, each consisting of seven C layers as guiding layers and eight Ni layers as cladding layers. These are shown to yield distinctly different near-field patterns.

  10. Marcinkiewicz-type strong law of large numbers for double arrays of pairwise independent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dug Hun Hong

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Let {Xij} be a double sequence of pairwise independent random variables. If P{|Xmn|≥t}≤P{|X|≥t} for all nonnegative real numbers t and E|X|p(log+|X|3<∞, for 1array of random variables under the conditions E|X|p(log+|X|r+1<∞,E|X|p(log+|X|r−1<∞, respectively, thus, extending Choi and Sung's result [1] of the one-dimensional case.

  11. Random matrix approach to the distribution of genomic distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Nikita; Zograf, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The cycle graph introduced by Bafna and Pevzner is an important tool for evaluating the distance between two genomes, that is, the minimal number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. We interpret this distance in topological terms and relate it to the random matrix theory. Namely, the number of genomes at a given 2-break distance from a fixed one (the Hultman number) is represented by a coefficient in the genus expansion of a matrix integral over the space of complex matrices with the Gaussian measure. We study generating functions for the Hultman numbers and prove that the two-break distance distribution is asymptotically normal.

  12. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  13. Thin-film resistance temperature detector array for the measurement of temperature distribution inside a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Hyun, Jaeyub; Doh, Il; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-02-01

    A thin-film resistance temperature detector (RTD) array is proposed to measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom. HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) is a non-invasive treatment method using focused ultrasound to heat up a localized region, so it is important to measure the temperature distribution without affecting the ultrasonic field and heat conduction. The present 25 µm thick PI (polyimide) film is transparent not only to an ultrasonic field, because its thickness is much smaller than the wavelength of ultrasound, but also to heat conduction, owing to its negligible thermal mass compared to the phantom. A total of 33 RTDs consisting of Pt resistors and interconnection lines were patterned on a PI substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, and a polymer phantom was fabricated with the film at the center. The expanded uncertainty of the RTDs was 0.8 K. In the experimental study using a 1 MHz HIFU transducer, the maximum temperature inside the phantom was measured as 70.1 °C just after a HIFU excitation of 6.4 W for 180 s. The time responses of the RTDs at different positions also showed the residual heat transfer inside the phantom after HIFU excitation. HIFU results with the phantom showed that a thin-film RTD array can measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom.

  14. Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...... of wave spreading becomes wider, the wave run-up at some points around the cylinders is found to increase. This suggests that multi-directional wave run-up tends to be larger than unidirectional wave run-up. In addition, the wave directionality has a significant influence on the transverse force...

  15. Localizing Near and Far Field Acoustic Sources with Distributed Microhone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of acoustic source localization using distributed microphone arrays. Time differences of arrival (TDOAs) are estimated using a recently proposed method based on joint direction of arrival (DOA) and range estimation. The TDOAs are used to estimate the location...... on joint DOA and pitch estimation, using synthesized harmonic signals with varying source position. Results show a decrease in the error of the estimated position when joint DOA and range estimation is used for TDOA estimation, compared to the GCC-PHAT and joint DOA and pitch methods....

  16. A distributed monitoring system for photovoltaic arrays based on a two-level wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, F. P.; Chen, Z. C.; Zhou, H. F.; Wu, L. J.; Lin, P. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a distributed on-line monitoring system based on a two-level wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed for real time status monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to support the fine management and maintenance of PV power plants. The system includes the sensing nodes installed on PV modules (PVM), sensing and routing nodes installed on combiner boxes of PV sub-arrays (PVA), a sink node and a data management centre (DMC) running on a host computer. The first level WSN is implemented by the low-cost wireless transceiver nRF24L01, and it is used to achieve single hop communication between the PVM nodes and their corresponding PVA nodes. The second level WSN is realized by the CC2530 based ZigBee network for multi-hop communication among PVA nodes and the sink node. The PVM nodes are used to monitor the PVM working voltage and backplane temperature, and they send the acquired data to their PVA node via the nRF24L01 based first level WSN. The PVA nodes are used to monitor the array voltage, PV string current and environment irradiance, and they send the acquired and received data to the DMC via the ZigBee based second level WSN. The DMC is designed using the MATLAB GUIDE and MySQL database. Laboratory experiment results show that the system can effectively acquire, display, store and manage the operating and environment parameters of PVA in real time.

  17. Maximum-likelihood methods for array processing based on time-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Mu, Weifeng; Amin, Moeness G.

    1999-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel time-frequency maximum likelihood (t-f ML) method for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for non- stationary signals, and compares this method with conventional maximum likelihood DOA estimation techniques. Time-frequency distributions localize the signal power in the time-frequency domain, and as such enhance the effective SNR, leading to improved DOA estimation. The localization of signals with different t-f signatures permits the division of the time-frequency domain into smaller regions, each contains fewer signals than those incident on the array. The reduction of the number of signals within different time-frequency regions not only reduces the required number of sensors, but also decreases the computational load in multi- dimensional optimizations. Compared to the recently proposed time- frequency MUSIC (t-f MUSIC), the proposed t-f ML method can be applied in coherent environments, without the need to perform any type of preprocessing that is subject to both array geometry and array aperture.

  18. Weight Distributions for Turbo Codes Using Random and Nonrandom Permutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-04-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of the constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as p 2N, where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are "semirandom" permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  19. Energy distribution design on the photovoltaic cell array of the SSPS-OMEGA concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Fan, Guanheng; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Solar energy collection and conversion is of great significance to the power transmission of the Space Solar Power Station (SSPS), and has influences on the overall system, technologically and economically. For the proposed SSPS-OMEGA concept, the original conceptual design had non-uniform energy distribution and excessive energy density in local areas, which would cause decreases in its optical and electric performance. Aiming at this point, firstly, this paper evaluates the optical performance of the OMEGA concept via ray trace technique. Secondly, the generatrix geometry design of the photovoltaic (PV) cell array based on Bézier curve is carried out to obtain optimal optical performance available for efficient response to sunrays. After that numerical examples achieve good collection efficiency and suitable energy distribution. Finally, modular construction for the main concentrator and its influence on optical performance are investigated. Moreover, the effect of the orbital motion and tracking error are analyzed to provide reference for the realization of the OMEGA.

  20. Flow distributions and discharge coefficient effects for jet array impingement with initial crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Isoda, Y.

    1982-01-01

    To model the impingement cooled mid-chord region of gas turbine airfoils in cases where an initial crossflow is present, the paper presents experimentally determined flow distributions for jet arrays with ten spanwise rows of holes, which range from uniform to highly nonuniform. The jet flow after impingement is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the impingement surface. The streamwise distributions and crossflow velocities are presented for ratios of the initial crossflow rate to the total jet flow rate ranging from zero to unity. For crossflow to jet velocity ratios greater than a value somewhat less than unity, jet orifice discharge coefficients do not remain constant, but decrease significantly, showing a secondary dependence on z/d, where z is the channel height and d is the jet hole diameter.

  1. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  2. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M Collins, Leslie; G Newell, Richard

    2016-12-06

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  3. Magnetic Flux Distribution of Linear Machines with Novel Three-Dimensional Hybrid Magnet Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear machine with hybrid permanent magnet arrays and multiple movers, which could be employed for either actuation or sensing technology. The hybrid magnet array produces flux distribution on both sides of windings, and thus helps to increase the signal strength in the windings. The multiple movers are important for airspace technology, because they can improve the system’s redundancy and reliability. The proposed design concept is presented, and the governing equations are obtained based on source free property and Maxwell equations. The magnetic field distribution in the linear machine is thus analytically formulated by using Bessel functions and harmonic expansion of magnetization vector. Numerical simulation is then conducted to validate the analytical solutions of the magnetic flux field. It is proved that the analytical model agrees with the numerical results well. Therefore, it can be utilized for the formulation of signal or force output subsequently, depending on its particular implementation.

  4. Nonvolatile Resistance Random Access Memory Devices Based on ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM device based on ZnO nanorod arrays has been fabricated and characterized. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes using a hydrothermal process/ chemical bath deposition (CBD. It can be found the Ag/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confined on the surface of the ZnO NRs, giving rise to the formation of straight and extensible conducting path along each ZnO NR. Furthermore, superior stability in resistive switching characteristics was also observed. Both growing times and annealing times were investigated and annealing was done in oxygen for 3, 6 and 9 minutes at different temperatures. For ZnO nanorods that had been annealed for 6 minutes the forming voltage was about 6.06V, the Set voltage was about 3.25V and the Reset voltage was -2.78V. The original resistance was 7×106Ω. The resistance in the low-resistance state was 108Ω and in the high-resistance state was 2016Ω, the resistance ratio was 18.7.

  5. Fitting and Analyzing Randomly Censored Geometric Extreme Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yameen Danish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Bayesian analysis of two-parameter geometric extreme exponential distribution with randomly censored data. The continuous conjugate prior of the scale and shape parameters of the model does not exist while computing the Bayes estimates, it is assumed that the scale and shape parameters have independent gamma priors. It is seen that the closed-form expressions for the Bayes estimators are not possible; we suggest the Lindley’s approximation to obtain the Bayes estimates. However, the Bayesian credible intervals cannot be constructed while using this method, we propose Gibbs sampling to obtain the Bayes estimates and also to construct the Bayesian credible intervals. Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to observe the behavior of the Bayes estimators and also to compare with the maximum likelihood estimators. One real data analysis is performed for illustration.

  6. The rising power of random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Ye, Jun; Xu, Jiangming; Zhang, Hanwei; Huang, Long; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong

    2018-01-01

    Random distributed feedback fiber lasers (RDFFL) are now attracting more and more attentions for their unique cavity-free, mode-free and structural simplicity features and broadband application potentials in many fields, such as long distance sensing, speck free imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion as well as new pump source. In this talk, we will review the recent research progresses on high power RDFFLs. We have achieved (1) More than 400 W RDFFL with nearly Gaussian beam profile based on crucial employment of fiber mismatching architecture. (2) High power RDFFL with specialized optical property that include: high power narrow-band RDFFL, hundred-watt level linearly-polarized RDFFL, hundred-watt level high-order RDFFL. (3) Power enhancements of RDFFL to record kilowatt level are demonstrated with the aid of fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) with different pump schemes.

  7. Stability of modulation transfer function calibration of surface profilometers using binary pseudo-random gratings and arrays with nonideal groove shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik H.; Cambie, Rossana; Marchesini, Stefano; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitry L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2010-03-31

    The major problem of measurement of a power spectral density (PSD) distribution of surface heights with surface profilometers arises due to the unknown Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the instruments, which tends to distort the PSD at higher spatial frequencies. The special mathematical properties of binary pseudo-random patterns make them an ideal basis for developing MTF calibration test surfaces. Two-dimensional binary pseudo-random arrays (BPRAs) have been fabricated and used for the MTF calibration of the MicroMap{trademark}-570 interferometric microscope with all available objectives. An investigation into the effects of fabrication imperfections on the quality of the MTF calibration and a procedure for accounting for such imperfections are presented.

  8. Jet array impingement flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics. Effects of initial crossflow and nonuniform array geometry. [gas turbine engine component cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Su, C. C.; Isoda, Y.; Tseng, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the heat transfer surface. The configurations considered are intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The effects of an initial crossflow which approaches the array through an upstream extension of the channel are considered. Flow distributions as well as heat transfer coefficients and adiabatic wall temperatures resolved to one streamwise hole spacing were measured as a function of the initial crossflow rate and temperature relative to the jet flow rate and temperature. Both Nusselt number profiles and dimensionless adiabatic wall temperature (effectiveness) profiles are presented and discussed. Special test results which show a significant reduction of jet orifice discharge coefficients owing to the effect of a confined crossflow are also presented, along with a flow distribution model which incorporates those effects. A nonuniform array flow distribution model is developed and validated.

  9. Water turbidity optical meter using optical fiber array for topographical distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Yeoh, Stephenie

    2017-06-01

    This work is presenting an analysis study for using optical fiber array as turbidity meter and topographical distribution. Although many studies have been figure out of utilizing optical fibers as sensors for turbidity measurements, still the topographical map of suspended particles in water as rare as expected among all of works in literatures in this scope. The effect of suspended particles are highly affect the water quality which varies according to the source of these particles. A two dimensional array of optical fibers in a 1 litter rectangular plastic container with 2 cm cladding off sensing portion prepared to point out 632.8 nm laser power at each fiber location at the container center. The overall output map of the optical power were found in an inhomogeneous distribution such that the top to down layers of a present water sample show different magnitudes. Each sample prepared by mixing a distilled water with large grains sand, small grains sand, glucose and salt. All with different amount of concentration which measured by refractometer and turbidity meter. The measurements were done in different times i.e. from 10 min to 60 min. This is to let the heavy particles to move down and accumulate at the bottom of the container. The results were as expected which had a gradually topographical map from low power at top layers into high power at bottom layers. There are many applications can be implemented of this study such as transport vehicles fuel meter, to measure the purity of tanks, and monitoring the fluids quality in pipes.

  10. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with regularly varying jump size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rackauskas, Alfredas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the asymptotic distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with a regularly varying jump size distribution. This problem is motivated by a long-standing problem on change point detection for epidemic alternatives. It turns out that the limit distribution...... of the maximum increment of the random walk is one of the classical extreme value distributions, the Fréchet distribution. We prove the results in the general framework of point processes and for jump sizes taking values in a separable Banach space...

  11. Investigation on fabrication process of dissolving microneedle arrays to improve effective needle drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Yao, Gangtao; Dong, Pin; Gong, Zihua; Li, Ge; Zhang, Kejian; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-01-23

    The dissolving microneedle array (DMNA) offers a novel potential approach for transdermal delivery of biological macromolecular drugs and vaccines, because it can be as efficient as hypodermic injection and as safe and patient compliant as conventional transdermal delivery. However, effective needle drug distribution is the main challenge for clinical application of DMNA. This study focused on the mechanism and control of drug diffusion inside DMNA during the fabrication process in order to improve the drug delivery efficiency. The needle drug loading proportion (NDP) in DMNAs was measured to determine the influences of drug concentration gradient, needle drying step, excipients, and solvent of the base solution on drug diffusion and distribution. The results showed that the evaporation of base solvent was the key factor determining NDP. Slow evaporation of water from the base led to gradual increase of viscosity, and an approximate drug concentration equilibrium was built between the needle and base portions, resulting in NDP as low as about 6%. When highly volatile ethanol was used as the base solvent, the viscosity in the base rose quickly, resulting in NDP more than 90%. Ethanol as base solvent did not impact the insertion capability of DMNAs, but greatly increased the in vitro drug release and transdermal delivery from DMNAs. Furthermore, the drug diffusion process during DMNA fabrication was thoroughly investigated for the first time, and the outcomes can be applied to most two-step molding processes and optimization of the DMNA fabrication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating array sensor for furnace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Sai Prasad, R. L. N.; Sen Gupta, D.; Sai Shankar, M.; Srimannarayana, K.; Ravinder Reddy, P.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of the temperature profile in high temperature boilers is presented. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λ B1 =1545.8 nm, λ B2 =1547 nm, λ B3 =1550.8 nm, λ B4 =1555.5 nm at 30 °C) written in the hydrogen-loaded fiber in line. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube using the rigid probe technique for avoiding micro cracks. The spatial distribution of the temperature profile inside a prototype boiler was measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor, and the results are presented. Further, the finite element simulation has been carried out by using ANSYS R11 software to predict temperature contours in the boiler, and the experimental and predicted results were found to be closely matching.

  13. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert

    2017-02-01

    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.

  14. CONVERGENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL PARTS OF THE RANDOM VARIABLES TO THE TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu

    2013-01-01

    Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda...

  15. Random Access Performance of Distributed Sensors Attacked by Unknown Jammers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae-Kyo; Wui, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Dongwoo

    2017-11-18

    In this paper, we model and investigate the random access (RA) performance of sensor nodes (SN) in a wireless sensor network (WSN). In the WSN, a central head sensor (HS) collects the information from distributed SNs, and jammers disturb the information transmission primarily by generating interference. In this paper, two jamming attacks are considered: power and code jamming. Power jammers (if they are friendly jammers) generate noises and, as a result, degrade the quality of the signal from SNs. Power jamming is equally harmful to all the SNs that are accessing HS and simply induces denial of service (DoS) without any need to hack HS or SNs. On the other hand, code jammers mimic legitimate SNs by sending fake signals and thus need to know certain system parameters that are used by the legitimate SNs. As a result of code jamming, HS falsely allocates radio resources to SNs. The code jamming hence increases the failure probability in sending the information messages, as well as misleads the usage of radio resources. In this paper, we present the probabilities of successful preamble transmission with power ramping according to the jammer types and provide the resulting throughput and delay of information transmission by SNs, respectively. The effect of two jamming attacks on the RA performances is compared with numerical investigation. The results show that, compared to RA without jammers, power and code jamming degrade the throughput by up to 30.3% and 40.5%, respectively, while the delay performance by up to 40.1% and 65.6%, respectively.

  16. Random Access Performance of Distributed Sensors Attacked by Unknown Jammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyo Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we model and investigate the random access (RA performance of sensor nodes (SN in a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the WSN, a central head sensor (HS collects the information from distributed SNs, and jammers disturb the information transmission primarily by generating interference. In this paper, two jamming attacks are considered: power and code jamming. Power jammers (if they are friendly jammers generate noises and, as a result, degrade the quality of the signal from SNs. Power jamming is equally harmful to all the SNs that are accessing HS and simply induces denial of service (DoS without any need to hack HS or SNs. On the other hand, code jammers mimic legitimate SNs by sending fake signals and thus need to know certain system parameters that are used by the legitimate SNs. As a result of code jamming, HS falsely allocates radio resources to SNs. The code jamming hence increases the failure probability in sending the information messages, as well as misleads the usage of radio resources. In this paper, we present the probabilities of successful preamble transmission with power ramping according to the jammer types and provide the resulting throughput and delay of information transmission by SNs, respectively. The effect of two jamming attacks on the RA performances is compared with numerical investigation. The results show that, compared to RA without jammers, power and code jamming degrade the throughput by up to 30.3% and 40.5%, respectively, while the delay performance by up to 40.1% and 65.6%, respectively.

  17. Examination of measurement and its method of compensation of the sensitivity distribution using phased array coil for body scan

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, T; Iizuka, A; Taniguchi, Y; Ishikuro, A; Hongo, T; Inoue, H; Ogura, A

    2003-01-01

    The influence on the quality of images by measurement of a sensitivity distribution and the use of a sensitivity compensation filter was considered using an opposite-type phased array coil and volume-type phased array coil. With the opposite-type phased array coil, the relation between coil interval and filter was investigated for the image intensity correction (IIC) filter, surface coil intensity correction (SCIC) filter (GE), and the Normalize filter (SIEMENS). The SCIC filter and Normalize filter showed distance dependability over the coil interval of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity was observed, and the existence of an optimal coil interval was suggested. Moreover, with the IIC filter, distance dependability over a coil interval was small, and the decrease in contrast with use was remarkable. On the other hand, with the volume-type phased array coil, the overlap of an array element was investigated to determine the influence it had on sensitivity distribution. Although the value stabilized in t...

  18. Compressing Sensing Based Source Localization for Controlled Acoustic Signals Using Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the accuracy of sound source localization in noisy and reverberant environments, this paper proposes an adaptive sound source localization method based on distributed microphone arrays. Since sound sources lie at a few points in the discrete spatial domain, our method can exploit this inherent sparsity to convert the localization problem into a sparse recovery problem based on the compressive sensing (CS theory. In this method, a two-step discrete cosine transform- (DCT- based feature extraction approach is utilized to cover both short-time and long-time properties of acoustic signals and reduce the dimensions of the sparse model. In addition, an online dictionary learning (DL method is used to adjust the dictionary for matching the changes of audio signals, and then the sparse solution could better represent location estimations. Moreover, we propose an improved block-sparse reconstruction algorithm using approximate l0 norm minimization to enhance reconstruction performance for sparse signals in low signal-noise ratio (SNR conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation results and experimental results where substantial improvement for localization performance can be obtained in the noisy and reverberant conditions.

  19. Distributed Array of Polymeric Piezo-nanowires through Hard-Templating Method into Porous Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina CAUDA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the preparation of ferroelectric polymeric nanowires through hard-templating strategy. Wet-impregnation of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-tri fluoro ethylene [P(VDF TrFE] was performed into commercially available porous Anodic Alumina Membrane (AAM. The polymeric nanowires show a diameter ranging from 144 to 166 nm, a length of tenth of micron and a high filling ratio of the alumina pores. X-ray diffraction pattern and infrared spectroscopy show the crystallization of both polymers into the ferroelectric β phase. In addition, Curie temperature (Tc tests show an increase to higher Tc for the PVDF-TrFE polymeric nanowires with respect to the bulk polymeric material, thus revealing the importance of confined crystallization into mono-dimensional structures. A piezoelectric behavior was also observed by a voltage generation upon mechanical pressure, without pre-poling or mechanically orienting the polymer. These crystalline piezoelectric nanowires distributed in a vertical array would potentially address applications like mechanical pressure sensors, e.g., in robotics.

  20. Synchronization in Array of Coupled Neural Networks with Unbounded Distributed Delay and Limited Transmission Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates global synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks with time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. In the coupled neural networks, limited transmission efficiency between coupled nodes, which makes the model more practical, is considered. Based on a novel integral inequality and the Lyapunov functional method, sufficient synchronization criteria are derived. The derived synchronization criteria are formulated by linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be easily verified by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. It is displayed that, when some of the transmission efficiencies are limited, the dynamics of the synchronized state are different from those of the isolated node. Furthermore, the transmission efficiency and inner coupling matrices between nodes play important roles in the final synchronized state. The derivative of the time-varying delay can be any given value, and the time-varying delay can be unbounded. The outer-coupling matrices can be symmetric or asymmetric. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  1. Performance evaluation of a conformal thermal monitoring sheet sensor array for measurement of surface temperature distributions during superficial hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, P; Juang, T; Gaeta, C; Stauffer, P R

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a novel conformal thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) sensor array with differential thermal sensitivity for measuring temperature distributions over large surface areas. Performance of the sensor array is evaluated in terms of thermal accuracy, mechanical stability and conformity to contoured surfaces, probe self-heating under irradiation from microwave and ultrasound hyperthermia sources, and electromagnetic field perturbation. A prototype with 4 x 4 array of fiber-optic sensors embedded between two flexible and thermally conducting polyimide films was developed as an alternative to the standard 1-2 mm diameter plastic catheter-based probes used in clinical hyperthermia. Computed tomography images and bending tests were performed to evaluate the conformability and mechanical stability respectively. Irradiation and thermal barrier tests were conducted and thermal response of the prototype was compared with round cross-sectional clinical probes. Bending and conformity tests demonstrated higher flexibility, dimensional stability and close conformity to human torso. Minimal perturbation of microwave fields and low probe self-heating was observed when irradiated with 915 MHz microwave and 3.4 MHz ultrasound sources. The transient and steady state thermal responses of the TMS array were superior compared to the clinical probes. A conformal TMS sensor array with improved thermal sensitivity and dimensional stability was investigated for real-time skin temperature monitoring. This fixed-geometry, body-conforming array of thermal sensors allows fast and accurate characterization of two-dimensional temperature distributions over large surface areas. The prototype TMS demonstrates significant advantages over clinical probes for characterizing skin temperature distributions during hyperthermia treatments of superficial tissue disease.

  2. CONVERGENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL PARTS OF THE RANDOM VARIABLES TO THE TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.

  3. Algorithm for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Єременко

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Method for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law has been proposed. The praxis of using proposed method for generation pseudo-random series with anti-modal and approximate to Gaussian distribution law has been investigated.

  4. Evaluating the Use of Random Distribution Theory to Introduce Statistical Inference Concepts to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bootstrapping methods and random distribution methods are increasingly recommended as better approaches for teaching students about statistical inference in introductory-level statistics courses. The authors examined the effect of teaching undergraduate business statistics students using random distribution and bootstrapping simulations. It is the…

  5. Beamforming in sparse, random, 3D array antennas with fluctuating element locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lager, Ioan E.; Bosma, Sjoerd; Bruinsma, Wessel P.; Hes, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the fluctuations in the locations of elementary radiators on the radiation properties of three dimensional(3D) array antennas is studied. The principal radiation features (sidelobes level, beam squint) are examined based on illustrative examples. Some atypical behaviours, that are

  6. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  7. Distribution of local density of states in superstatistical random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: a_y_abul_magd@hotmail.com

    2007-07-02

    We expose an interesting connection between the distribution of local spectral density of states arising in the theory of disordered systems and the notion of superstatistics introduced by Beck and Cohen and recently incorporated in random matrix theory. The latter represents the matrix-element joint probability density function as an average of the corresponding quantity in the standard random-matrix theory over a distribution of level densities. We show that this distribution is in reasonable agreement with the numerical calculation for a disordered wire, which suggests to use the results of theory of disordered conductors in estimating the parameter distribution of the superstatistical random-matrix ensemble.

  8. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aluguri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  9. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluguri, R.; Kumar, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  10. Modeling and understanding of effects of randomness in arrays of resonant meta-atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Albooyeh, Mohammad; Alitalo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this review presentation we will discuss approaches to modeling and understanding electromagnetic properties of 2D and 3D lattices of small resonant particles (meta-atoms) in transition from regular (periodic) to random (amorphous) states. Nanostructured metasurfaces (2D) and metamaterials (3D......) are arrangements of optically small but resonant particles (meta-atoms). We will present our results on analytical modeling of metasurfaces with periodical and random arrangements of electrically and magnetically resonant meta-atoms with identical or random sizes, both for the normal and oblique-angle excitations......) of the arrangements of meta-atoms....

  11. Plasma sheath effects and voltage distributions of large high-power satellite solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the floating voltage configuration of a large array in orbit is needed in order to estimate various plasma-interaction effects. The equilibrium configuration of array voltages relative to space depends on the sheath structure. The latter dependence for an exposed array is examined in the light of two finite-sheath effects. One effect is that electron currents may be seriously underestimated. The other is that a potential barrier for electrons can occur, restricting electron currents. A conducting surface is assumed on the basis of a conductivity argument. Finite-sheath effects are investigated. The results of assuming thin-sheath and thick-sheath limits on the floating configuration of a linearly connected array are studied. Sheath thickness and parasitic power leakage are estimated. Numerically computed fields using a 3-D code are displayed in the thick-sheath limit.

  12. Limit distributions for queues and random rooted trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Takács

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper several limit theorems are proved for the fluctuations of the queue size during the initial busy period of a queuing process with one server. These theorems are used to find the solutions of various problems connected with the heights and widths of random rooted trees.

  13. Stimulated luminescence emission from localized recombination in randomly distributed defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Guralnik, Benny; Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer

    2012-01-01

    results in a highly asymmetric TL peak; this peak can be understood to derive from a continuum of several first-order TL peaks. Our model also shows an extended power law behaviour for OSL (or prompt luminescence), which is expected from localized recombination mechanisms in materials with random...

  14. Ambient Vehicular Noise recorded on a 2D Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Array :Applications to Permafrost Thaw Detection and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Martin, E. R.; Ekblaw, I.; Ulrich, C.; James, S. R.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a recently developed technique that allows the spatially dense ( 1m) continuous recording of seismic signals on long strands of commercial fiber optic cables. The availability of continuous recording on dense arrays offers unique possibilities for long-term timelapse monitoring of environmental processes in arctic environments. In the absence of a repeatable semi-permanent seismic source, the use of ambient surface wave noise from infrastructure use (e.g. moving vehicles) for seismic imaging allows tomographic monitoring of evolving subsurface systems. Challenges in such scenarios include (1) the processing requirements for dense (1000+ channel) arrays recording weeks to months of seismic data, (2) appropriate methods to retrieve empirical noise correlation functions (NCFs) in environments with non-optimal array geometries and both coherent as well as incoherent noise, and (3) semi-automated approaches to invert timelapse NCFs for near-surface soil properties.We present an exploratory study of data from a sparse 2D DAS array acquisition on 4000 linear meters of trenched fiber deployed in 10 crossing profiles. The dataset, collected during July and August of 2016, covers a zone of permafrost undergoing a controlled thaw induced by an array of resistive heaters. The site, located near a heavily used road, has a high level of infrastructure noise but exhibits distance-dependent variation in both noise amplitude and spectrum. We apply seismic interferometry to retrieve the empirical NCF across array subsections, and use collocated geophone and broadband sensors to measure the NCF against the true impulse response function of the medium. We demonstrate that the combination of vehicle tracking and data windowing allows improved reconstruction of stable NCFs appropriate for dispersion analysis and inversion. We also show both spatial and temporal patterns of background noise at the site using 2D beamforming and spectral analysis. Our

  15. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Variations in upper ocean water hydrography, planktonic production, pelagic-benthic coupling and sediment carbon cycling are all influenced by sea ice and temperature changes. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators have been re-occupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a "Distributed Biological Observatory" (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a

  16. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  17. Electrospun dye-doped fiber networks: lasing emission from randomly distributed cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krammer, Sarah; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer fiber networks fabricated with electrospinning exhibit comb-like laser emission. We identify randomly distributed ring resonators being responsible for lasing emission by making use of spatially resolved spectroscopy. Numerical simulations confirm this result quantitatively....

  18. Sparse Maximum-Entropy Random Graphs with a Given Power-Law Degree Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoorn, Pim; Lippner, Gabor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-10-01

    Even though power-law or close-to-power-law degree distributions are ubiquitously observed in a great variety of large real networks, the mathematically satisfactory treatment of random power-law graphs satisfying basic statistical requirements of realism is still lacking. These requirements are: sparsity, exchangeability, projectivity, and unbiasedness. The last requirement states that entropy of the graph ensemble must be maximized under the degree distribution constraints. Here we prove that the hypersoft configuration model, belonging to the class of random graphs with latent hyperparameters, also known as inhomogeneous random graphs or W-random graphs, is an ensemble of random power-law graphs that are sparse, unbiased, and either exchangeable or projective. The proof of their unbiasedness relies on generalized graphons, and on mapping the problem of maximization of the normalized Gibbs entropy of a random graph ensemble, to the graphon entropy maximization problem, showing that the two entropies converge to each other in the large-graph limit.

  19. Measured Current Distribution Functions Describing an Array of High Voltage Needles Operating In the Avalanche and Streamer Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemlinger, Erik; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Ha, Su; Marin-Flores, Oscar; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    It is hypothesized that cold plasma processing of small oxygenated molecules present in bio-oil will reduce coking in a catalytic steam reformer. The cold plasma reactor will be placed upstream of the reformer and will consist of an array of needles held at a DC voltage in the 5-10 kV range. The distribution of current pulses on each needle will be measured for gas mixtures consisting of varying amounts of argon, water, methanol, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The small oxygenated hydrocarbon molecules from bio-oil can be reduced to hydrogen and synthesis gas by the catalytic steam reformer. However, the steam reforming of these oxygenated hydrocarbon molecules has a high tendency of coke formation. In this work, catalyst coking will be reduced by integrating the atmospheric pressure cold plasma reactor. Studying how distribution functions for elements in a small array (< 10 needles) ``interact'' will facilitate design of larger needle arrays that can be used for the commercial processing of biofuels.

  20. Computer simulation of random variables and vectors with arbitrary probability distribution laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, V. M.

    1981-01-01

    Assume that there is given an arbitrary n-dimensional probability distribution F. A recursive construction is found for a sequence of functions x sub 1 = f sub 1 (U sub 1, ..., U sub n), ..., x sub n = f sub n (U sub 1, ..., U sub n) such that if U sub 1, ..., U sub n are independent random variables having uniform distribution over the open interval (0,1), then the joint distribution of the variables x sub 1, ..., x sub n coincides with the distribution F. Since uniform independent random variables can be well simulated by means of a computer, this result allows one to simulate arbitrary n-random variables if their joint probability distribution is known.

  1. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  2. 50 nm AlxOy resistive random access memory array program bit error reduction and high temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Sheyang; Ogura Iwasaki, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In order to decrease program bit error rate (BER) of array-level operation in AlxOy resistive random access memory (ReRAM), program BERs are compared by using 4 × 4 basic set and reset with verify methods on multiple 1024-bit-pages in 50 nm, mega-bit class ReRAM arrays. Further, by using an optimized reset method, 8.5% total BER reduction is obtained after 104 write cycles due to avoiding under-reset or weak reset and ameliorating over-reset caused wear-out. Then, under-set and over-set are analyzed by tuning the set word line voltage (VWL) of ±0.1 V. Moderate set current shows the best total BER. Finally, 2000 write cycles are applied at 125 and 25 °C, respectively. Reset BER increases 28.5% at 125 °C whereas set BER has little difference, by using the optimized reset method. By applying write cycles over a 25 to 125 to 25 °C temperature variation, immediate reset BER change can be found after the temperature transition.

  3. Saddlepoint approximations for the sum of independent non-identically distributed binomial random variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Pelzer, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the sum of independent non-identically distributed binomial random variables. We examine the accuracy of the saddlepoint methods for a sum of 10 binomials with different sets of parameter values. The numerical results indicate that the

  4. Theoretical solutions for degree distribution of decreasing random birth-and-death networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Kui

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, theoretical solutions for degree distribution of decreasing random birth-and-death networks (0 probability generating function approach are employed. Then, based on the form of Poisson summation, we further confirm the tail characteristic of degree distribution is Poisson tail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify these results by comparing the theoretical solutions with computer simulations.

  5. Magnetic field alignment of randomly oriented, high aspect ratio silicon microwires into vertically oriented arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Joseph A; Sadtler, Bryce; Lewis, Nathan S

    2012-11-27

    External magnetic fields have been used to vertically align ensembles of silicon microwires coated with ferromagnetic nickel films. X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the degree of vertical orientation of the microwires. The degree of vertical alignment and the minimum field strength required for alignment were evaluated as a function of the wire length, coating thickness, magnetic history, and substrate surface properties. Nearly 100% of 100 μm long, 2 μm diameter, Si microwires that had been coated with 300 nm of Ni could be vertically aligned by a 300 G magnetic field. For wires ranging from 40 to 60 μm in length, as the length of the wire increased, a higher degree of alignment was observed at lower field strengths, consistent with an increase in the available magnetic torque. Microwires that had been exposed to a magnetic sweep up to 300 G remained magnetized and, therefore, aligned more readily during subsequent magnetic field alignment sweeps. Alignment of the Ni-coated Si microwires occurred at lower field strengths on hydrophilic Si substrates than on hydrophobic Si substrates. The magnetic field alignment approach provides a pathway for the directed assembly of solution-grown semiconductor wires into vertical arrays, with potential applications in solar cells as well as in other electronic devices that utilize nano- and microscale components as active elements.

  6. Exact Distributions of Finite Random Matrices and Their Applications to Spectrum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Tao, Xiaofeng; Patcharamaneepakorn, Piya

    2016-07-29

    The exact and simple distributions of finite random matrix theory (FRMT) are critically important for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we unify some existing distributions of the FRMT with the proposed coefficient matrices (vectors) and represent the distributions with the coefficient-based formulations. A coefficient reuse mechanism is studied, i.e., the same coefficient matrices (vectors) can be exploited to formulate different distributions. For instance, the same coefficient matrices can be used by the largest eigenvalue (LE) and the scaled largest eigenvalue (SLE); the same coefficient vectors can be used by the smallest eigenvalue (SE) and the Demmel condition number (DCN). A new and simple cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the DCN is also deduced. In particular, the dimension boundary between the infinite random matrix theory (IRMT) and the FRMT is initially defined. The dimension boundary provides a theoretical way to divide random matrices into infinite random matrices and finite random matrices. The FRMT-based spectrum sensing (SS) schemes are studied for CRNs. The SLE-based scheme can be considered as an asymptotically-optimal SS scheme when the dimension K is larger than two. Moreover, the standard condition number (SCN)-based scheme achieves the same sensing performance as the SLE-based scheme for dual covariance matrix K = 2 . The simulation results verify that the coefficient-based distributions can fit the empirical results very well, and the FRMT-based schemes outperform the IRMT-based schemes and the conventional SS schemes.

  7. Uniform areal-distribution of UV intensity by synchronizing signal-waveforms and position of a UV-LED array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Shimoyama, I.; Heo, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a theoretical approach to give an irradiated area a uniform distribution of LED light intensity by synchronizing the signal waveforms and position control of the LEDs. Although UV-LEDs have attracted considerable attention as alternative light sources for ultraviolet (UV) lithography in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, mainly because of their low cost and low power consumption, the realization of a uniform UV intensity over an area remains challenging. Here, we propose a method to achieve a uniform areal intensity within an irradiated area by synchronizing the signal waveform and position of a UV-LED array. To verify our theoretical calculation, we developed a system with a UV-LED array whose position is controlled by a linear actuator. The intensity of the UV-LED array is controlled by a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal, which is synchronized with the position of the linear actuator. Using this system, we fabricated 2D micropatterns and 3D microstructures with high uniformity in the irradiated area. The proposed method is expected to facilitate practical LED-based lithography in MEMS fabrication.

  8. High-power random distributed feedback fiber laser: From science to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xueyuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Naval Academy of Armament, Beijing 100161 (China); Zhang, Hanwei; Xiao, Hu; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A fiber laser based on random distributed feedback has attracted increasing attention in recent years, as it has become an important photonic device and has found wide applications in fiber communications or sensing. In this article, recent advances in high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser are reviewed, including the theoretical analyses, experimental approaches, discussion on the practical applications and outlook. It is found that a random distributed feedback fiber laser can not only act as an information photonics device, but also has the feasibility for high-efficiency/high-power generation, which makes it competitive with conventional high-power laser sources. In addition, high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser has been successfully applied for midinfrared lasing, frequency doubling to the visible and high-quality imaging. It is believed that the high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser could become a promising light source with simple and economic configurations. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Flexible resistive random access memory devices by using NiO x /GaN microdisk arrays fabricated on graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keundong; Park, Jong-woo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chung, Kunook; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Sangik; Yoon, Chansoo; Park, Bae Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-05-01

    We report flexible resistive random access memory (ReRAM) arrays fabricated by using NiO x /GaN microdisk arrays on graphene films. The ReRAM device was created from discrete GaN microdisk arrays grown on graphene films produced by chemical vapor deposition, followed by deposition of NiO x thin layers and Au metal contacts. The microdisk ReRAM arrays were transferred to flexible plastic substrates by a simple lift-off technique. The electrical and memory characteristics of the ReRAM devices were investigated under bending conditions. Resistive switching characteristics, including cumulative probability, endurance, and retention, were measured. After 1000 bending repetitions, no significant change in the device characteristics was observed. The flexible ReRAM devices, constructed by using only inorganic materials, operated reliably at temperatures as high as 180 °C.

  10. Random Regression Models Based On The Skew Elliptically Contoured Distribution Assumptions With Applications To Longitudinal Data *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shimin; Rao, Uma; Bartolucci, Alfred A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2011-01-01

    Bartolucci et al.(2003) extended the distribution assumption from the normal (Lyles et al., 2000) to the elliptical contoured distribution (ECD) for random regression models used in analysis of longitudinal data accounting for both undetectable values and informative drop-outs. In this paper, the random regression models are constructed on the multivariate skew ECD. A real data set is used to illustrate that the skew ECDs can fit some unimodal continuous data better than the Gaussian distributions or more general continuous symmetric distributions when the symmetric distribution assumption is violated. Also, a simulation study is done for illustrating the model fitness from a variety of skew ECDs. The software we used is SAS/STAT, V. 9.13. PMID:21637734

  11. Common-cavity ytterbium/Raman random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; He, Qiheng; Sun, Wei; Rao, Yunjiang

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, a common-cavity random distributed feedback fiber laser which can generate both 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The common cavity is based on the combination of the double-cladding ytterbium-doped fiber and the standard single mode fiber (SMF); a 1064 nm high-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating and the fiber flat-end are connected to the signal port of the pump combiner as the point reflectors. The generated 1064 nm random lasing can serve as the Raman pump in the SMF, thus 1115 nm random lasing could be stimulated with the hybrid ytterbium-Raman gain. The feedback for 1115 nm random lasing is the combination of flat-end fiber and random Rayleigh feedback. By controlling the value of flat-end fiber’s reflectivity to 0.002, stable 1.91 W of 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 3.72 W of 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing are generated successively. This work could provide a simple and cost-effective way to generate high-power random lasing.

  12. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting...... on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....

  13. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer Tiete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA. This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  14. Risk Assessment of Distribution Network Based on Random set Theory and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sh; Bai, C. X.; Liang, J.; Jiao, L.; Hou, Z.; Liu, B. Zh

    2017-05-01

    Considering the complexity and uncertainty of operating information in distribution network, this paper introduces the use of random set for risk assessment. The proposed method is based on the operating conditions defined in the random set framework to obtain the upper and lower cumulative probability functions of risk indices. Moreover, the sensitivity of risk indices can effectually reflect information about system reliability and operating conditions, and by use of these information the bottlenecks that suppress system reliability can be found. The analysis about a typical radial distribution network shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  15. Evaluation of probability distributions for concentration fluctuations in a building array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, G. C.; Andronopoulos, S.; Bartzis, J. G.

    2017-10-01

    The wide range of values observed in a measured concentration time series after the release of a dispersing airborne pollutant from a point source in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the hazard level associated with the peak values, demonstrate the necessity of predicting the concentration probability distribution. For this, statistical models describing the probability of occurrence are preferably employed. In this paper a concentration database pertaining to a field experiment of dispersion in an urban-like area (MUST experiment) from a continuously emitting source is used for the selection of the best performing statistical model between the Gamma and the Beta distributions. The skewness, the kurtosis as well as the inverses of the cumulative distribution function were compared between the two statistical models and the experiment. The evaluation is performed in the form of validation metrics such as the Fractional Bias (FB), the Normalized Mean Square Error and the factor-of-2 percentage. The Beta probability distribution agreed with the experimental results better than the Gamma probability distribution except for the 25th percentile. Also according to the significant tests using the BOOT software the Beta model presented FB and NMSE values that are statistical different than the ones of the Gamma model except the 75th percentiles and the FB of the 99th percentiles. The effect of the stability conditions and source heights on the performance of the statistical models is also examined. For both cases the performance of the Beta distribution was slightly better than that of the Gamma.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of 2x2 arrays of Lucite cone applicators in flat layered phantoms using Gaussian-beam-predicted and thermographically measured SAR distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietveld, P.J.M.; Lumori, M.L.D.; Zee, J. van der; Rhoon, G.C. van [University Hospital Rotterdam - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Subdivision of Hyperthermia, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lumori, M.L.D. [Vesalius College and Department of Electrical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    SAR distributions from four different E-field-orientated 2x2 arrays of incoherently driven Lucite cone applicators (LCAs) were investigated. The LCAs operated at 433 MHz with an aperture of 10.5cmx10.5cm each. Two techniques were used to obtain SAR distributions in flat layered phantoms: Gaussian beam (GB) predictions and thermographical (TG) imaging. The GB predictions showed that the effective field size of the different array configurations varied by up to 3%. The TG-measured SAR distribution showed significant deviations from the GB-predicted SAR distributions (maximum 34.6%). The difference between GB-predicted and TG-measured SAR levels (averaged per 10% GB-predicted SAR intervals) equalled less than 11.3% for the parallel E-field orientated array and respectively 15.1% for the clockwise-orientated array. When antennae in the clockwise-orientated array were more widely spread (array aperture 23cmx23cm) in order to diminish their mutual interactions, these differences decreased to 12.4%. However, the overall difference within the 50% SAR or higher range decreased from 14% to 9%. The results lead us to conclude that LCAs can be used clinically and their antenna interactions are not considered to be a problem under clinical conditions. (author)

  17. Insight on the silver catalyst distribution during silicon nanowire array formation: an X-ray reflectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremenak, Jesse W; Arendse, Christopher J; Cummings, Franscious R; Chen, Yiyao; Miceli, Paul F

    2017-12-14

    Although metal-catalysts are commonly used to create nanoscale materials at surfaces, little is quantitatively known or understood about the depth distribution profile of the catalyst during the growth process. Using X-ray reflectivity, we report the first quantitative investigation, with nanoscale resolution, of the Ag metal-catalyst depth distribution profile during metal-assisted chemical etch (MACE) growth of Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays on Si(100). Given the very low optical reflectivity of these nanowire arrays, specular reflection from these materials in the X-ray region is extremely challenging to measure because it probes interfaces on the nanoscale. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that with suitable investigation, X-ray specular reflection can be measured and utilized to obtain unique structural information about the composition profile of both Ag and Si. The measurements, which also include X-ray diffraction and complementary electron microscopy, reveal that the Ag nanoparticles distribute along the length of the nanowires upon etching with a Ag density that increases towards the etch front. The Ag nanoparticles coarsen with etch time, indicating a high mobility of Ag ions even though we also find that the Ag does not migrate from the SiNW region into the etch bath during etching. The Ag density gradient and the Ag mobility suggest the existence of a strong chemical force that attracts Ag towards the etch front. These results provide unique and important new insight into the growth process for creating SiNWs from wet chemical etching using metal-catalysts.

  18. Variance in multiplex suspension array assays: A distribution generation machine for multiplex counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Brian P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study attempted to replicate Luminex experimental results for large numbers of beads per classifier using multiplexed assays and routine instrument use conditions. Conclusion Using larger numbers of microspheres per classifier highlights a fundamental stochastic distribution of bead counts issue complicated by other factors. The more classifiers and the higher the count required per classifier there are, the more apparent the distribution of counts per classifier will be, and the more microspheres are required. Additional problems have been identified. Alternate methods of improving precision and reliability are recommended such as intraplexing and multi-well sample replicates to improve precision and confidence.

  19. Method and structure for skewed block-cyclic distribution of lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gunnels, John A [Brewster, NY

    2011-11-08

    A method and structure of distributing elements of an array of data in a computer memory to a specific processor of a multi-dimensional mesh of parallel processors includes designating a distribution of elements of at least a portion of the array to be executed by specific processors in the multi-dimensional mesh of parallel processors. The pattern of the designating includes a cyclical repetitive pattern of the parallel processor mesh, as modified to have a skew in at least one dimension so that both a row of data in the array and a column of data in the array map to respective contiguous groupings of the processors such that a dimension of the contiguous groupings is greater than one.

  20. Distribution of Schmidt-like eigenvalues for Gaussian ensembles of the random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Mauricio P.; Oshanin, Gleb

    2013-03-01

    We study the probability distribution function P(β)n(w) of the Schmidt-like random variable w = x21/(∑j = 1nx2j/n), where xj, (j = 1, 2, …, n), are unordered eigenvalues of a given n × n β-Gaussian random matrix, β being the Dyson symmetry index. This variable, by definition, can be considered as a measure of how any individual (randomly chosen) eigenvalue deviates from the arithmetic mean value of all eigenvalues of a given random matrix, and its distribution is calculated with respect to the ensemble of such β-Gaussian random matrices. We show that in the asymptotic limit n → ∞ and for arbitrary β the distribution P(β)n(w) converges to the Marčenko-Pastur form, i.e. is defined as P_{n}^{( \\beta )}(w) \\sim \\sqrt{(4 - w)/w} for w ∈ [0, 4] and equals zero outside of the support, despite the fact that formally w is defined on the interval [0, n]. Furthermore, for Gaussian unitary ensembles (β = 2) we present exact explicit expressions for P(β = 2)n(w) which are valid for arbitrary n and analyse their behaviour.

  1. Does mass azithromycin distribution impact child growth and nutrition in Niger? A cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use on animals demonstrates improved growth regardless of whether or not there is clinical evidence of infectious disease. Antibiotics used for trachoma control may play an unintended benefit of improving child growth.In this sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assess anthropometry of pre-school children in a community-randomized trial of mass oral azithromycin distributions for trachoma in Niger. We measured height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC in 12 communities randomized to receive annual mass azithromycin treatment of everyone versus 12 communities randomized to receive biannual mass azithromycin treatments for children, 3 years after the initial mass treatment. We collected measurements in 1,034 children aged 6-60 months of age.We found no difference in the prevalence of wasting among children in the 12 annually treated communities that received three mass azithromycin distributions compared to the 12 biannually treated communities that received six mass azithromycin distributions (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.53 to 1.49.We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stunting, underweight, and low MUAC of pre-school children in communities randomized to annual mass azithromycin treatment or biannual mass azithromycin treatment. The role of antibiotics on child growth and nutrition remains unclear, but larger studies and longitudinal trials may help determine any association.

  2. Distributed Max-SINR Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Heusdens, Richard

    2017-01-01

    -SINR) criterion is used with the primal-dual method of multipliers for distributed filtering. The paper investigates the convergence of the algorithm in both synchronous and asynchronous schemes, and also discusses some practical pros and cons. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by means...

  3. Simulation of Mean Flow and Turbulence over a 2D Building Array Using High-Resolution CFD and a Distributed Drag Force Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-16

    turbulence over a 2D building array using high- resolution CFD and a distributed drag force approach a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University...has been performed of the disturbed flow through and over a two- dimensional array of rectangular buildings immersed in a neutrally stratified deep...procedure. The predictive capabilities of the high- resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of urban flow are validated against a very

  4. Influence of aspect ratio and anisotropy distribution in ordered CoNi nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, W.O., E-mail: wrosa@cbpf.br [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007-Oviedo (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, R. Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 - 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vivas, L.G. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970-Campinas (Brazil); Asenjo, A.; Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The size effects on magnetic properties of nanowires arrays were studied varying the nanowires diameter and maintaining the same periodicity among them, for two different nominal compositions of Co and Ni in the alloy form. The competition among magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies changes drastically from smallest to biggest diameters altering the easy axis direction. In the case of 75% of Co in alloy, experimental values of the effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) vary from positive to negative depending on the diameter, which means a reversal of the easy axis direction. For 50% of Co the shape anisotropy dominates over the magnetocrystalline for all studied diameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered CoNi nanowire alloys have been produced by electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrolyte temperature ensures the deposition of CoNi alloys instead of Co and Ni segregated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A competition between shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies determines the direction of the easy magnetization axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of the effective anisotropy gives us information respect to the easy axis modification.

  5. N-point free energy distribution function in one dimensional random directed polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dotsenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explicit expression for the N-point free energy distribution function in one dimensional directed polymers in a random potential is derived in terms of the Bethe ansatz replica technique. The obtained result is equivalent to the one derived earlier by Prolhac and Spohn [J. Stat. Mech., 2011, P03020].

  6. Particle-size distribution and void fraction of geometric random packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when

  7. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  8. Is extrapair mating random? On the probability distribution of extrapair young in avian broods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, Jon E.; Korsten, Peter; Bouwman, Karen A.; Berg, Mathew L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A dichotomy in female extrapair copulation (EPC) behavior, with some females seeking EPC and others not, is inferred if the observed distribution of extrapair young (EPY) over broods differs from a random process on the level of individual offspring (binomial, hypergeometrical, or Poisson). A review

  9. Limiting distribution for the maximal standardized increment of a random walk

    OpenAIRE

    Kabluchko, Zakhar; Wang, Yizao

    2012-01-01

    Let $X_1,X_2,...$ be independent identically distributed random variables with $\\mathbb E X_k=0$, $\\mathrm{Var} X_k=1$. Suppose that $\\varphi(t):=\\log \\mathbb E e^{t X_k}-\\sigma_0$ and some $\\sigma_0>0$. Let $S_k=X_1+...+X_k$ and $S_0=0$. We are interested in the limiting distribution of the multiscale scan statistic $$ M_n=\\max_{0\\leq i 0$. We argue that our results cover most interesting distributions with light tails.

  10. Analyses of absorption distribution of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Han, Juhong; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-01-01

    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has been regarded as one of the most potential candidates to achieve high power performances of next generation. In this paper, we investigate the physical properties of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA) in this study. As the saturated concentration of a gain medium inside a vapor cell is extremely sensitive to the temperature, the populations of every energy-level of the atomic alkali are strongly relying on the vapor temperature. Thus, the absorption characteristics of a DPAL are mainly dominated by the temperature distribution. In this paper, the temperature, absorption, and lasing distributions in the cross-section of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a LDA are obtained by means of a complicated mathematic procedure. Based on the original end-pumped mode we constructed before, a novel one-direction side-pumped theoretical mode has been established to explore the distribution properties in the transverse section of a rubidium vapor cell by combining the procedures of heat transfer and laser kinetics together. It has been thought the results might be helpful for design of a side-pumped configuration in a high-powered DPAL.

  11. Thermodynamic method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a new method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault, suitable for use as initial conditions in a dynamic rupture simulation. The method employs concepts from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A pattern of fault slip is considered to be analogous to a micro-state of a thermodynamic system. The energy of the micro-state is taken to be the elastic energy stored in the surrounding medium. Then, the Boltzmann distribution gives the probability of a given pattern of fault slip and stress. We show how to decompose the system into independent degrees of freedom, which makes it computationally feasible to select a random state. However, due to the equipartition theorem, straightforward application of the Boltzmann distribution leads to a divergence which predicts infinite stress. To avoid equipartition, we show that the finite strength of the fault acts to restrict the possible states of the system. By analyzing a set of earthquake scaling relations, we derive a new formula for the expected power spectral density of the stress distribution, which allows us to construct a computer algorithm free of infinities. We then present a new technique for controlling the extent of the rupture by generating a random stress distribution thousands of times larger than the fault surface, and selecting a portion which, by chance, has a positive stress perturbation of the desired size. Finally, we present a new two-stage nucleation method that combines a small zone of forced rupture with a larger zone of reduced fracture energy.

  12. Inertial particles distribute in turbulence as Poissonian points with random intensity inducing clustering and supervoiding

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Lukas; Holzner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This work considers the distribution of inertial particles in turbulence using the point-particle approximation. We demonstrate that the random point process formed by the positions of particles in space is a Poisson point process with log-normal random intensity ("log Gaussian Cox process" or LGCP). The probability of having a finite number of particles in a small volume is given in terms of the characteristic function of a log-normal distribution. Corrections due to discreteness of the number of particles to the previously derived statistics of particle concentration in the continuum limit are provided. These are relevant for dealing with experimental or numerical data. The probability of having regions without particles, i.e. voids, is larger for inertial particles than for tracer particles where voids are distributed according to Poisson processes. Further, the probability of having large voids decays only log-normally with size. This shows that particles cluster, leaving voids behind. At scales where the...

  13. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method.

  14. Online distribution channel increases article usage on Mendeley: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul; Cockerill, Matthew; Toccalino, Danielle; Dziadyk, Devin Bissky; Rutledge, Alan; Shachak, Aviv; McIntyre, Roger S; Ravindran, Arun; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Prior research shows that article reader counts (i.e. saves) on the online reference manager, Mendeley, correlate to future citations. There are currently no evidenced-based distribution strategies that have been shown to increase article saves on Mendeley. We conducted a 4-week randomized controlled trial to examine how promotion of article links in a novel online cross-publisher distribution channel (TrendMD) affect article saves on Mendeley. Four hundred articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research were randomized to either the TrendMD arm (n = 200) or the control arm (n = 200) of the study. Our primary outcome compares the 4-week mean Mendeley saves of articles randomized to TrendMD versus control. Articles randomized to TrendMD showed a 77% increase in article saves on Mendeley relative to control. The difference in mean Mendeley saves for TrendMD articles versus control was 2.7, 95% CI (2.63, 2.77), and statistically significant (p distribution channel (TrendMD) enhances article saves on Mendeley. While replication and further study are needed, these data suggest that cross-publisher article recommendations via TrendMD may enhance citations of scholarly articles.

  15. A Permutation-Randomization Approach to Test the Spatial Distribution of Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, G; Gonthier, P

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial distribution of plant diseases requires the availability of trustworthy geostatistical methods. The mean distance tests (MDT) are here proposed as a series of permutation and randomization tests to assess the spatial distribution of plant diseases when the variable of phytopathological interest is categorical. A user-friendly software to perform the tests is provided. Estimates of power and type I error, obtained with Monte Carlo simulations, showed the reliability of the MDT (power > 0.80; type I error pathogens causing root rot on conifers was successfully performed by verifying the consistency between the MDT responses and previously published data. An application of the MDT was carried out to analyze the relation between the plantation density and the distribution of the infection of Gnomoniopsis castanea, an emerging fungal pathogen causing nut rot on sweet chestnut. Trees carrying nuts infected by the pathogen were randomly distributed in areas with different plantation densities, suggesting that the distribution of G. castanea was not related to the plantation density. The MDT could be used to analyze the spatial distribution of plant diseases both in agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  16. Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Statistically Equivalent Random Fiber Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the random fiber distribution of a fiber-reinforced composite is of great importance for studying the progressive failure behavior of the material on the micro scale. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for generating random representative volume elements (RVEs with statistical equivalent fiber distribution against the actual material microstructure. The realistic statistical data is utilized as inputs of the new method, which is archived through implementation of the probability equations. Extensive statistical analysis is conducted to examine the capability of the proposed method and to compare it with existing methods. It is found that the proposed method presents a good match with experimental results in all aspects including the nearest neighbor distance, nearest neighbor orientation, Ripley’s K function, and the radial distribution function. Finite element analysis is presented to predict the effective elastic properties of a carbon/epoxy composite, to validate the generated random representative volume elements, and to provide insights of the effect of fiber distribution on the elastic properties. The present algorithm is shown to be highly accurate and can be used to generate statistically equivalent RVEs for not only fiber-reinforced composites but also other materials such as foam materials and particle-reinforced composites.

  17. Random effects modeling of multiple binomial responses using the multivariate binomial logit-normal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coull, B A; Agresti, A

    2000-03-01

    The multivariate binomial logit-normal distribution is a mixture distribution for which, (i) conditional on a set of success probabilities and sample size indices, a vector of counts is independent binomial variates, and (ii) the vector of logits of the parameters has a multivariate normal distribution. We use this distribution to model multivariate binomial-type responses using a vector of random effects. The vector of logits of parameters has a mean that is a linear function of explanatory variables and has an unspecified or partly specified covariance matrix. The model generalizes and provides greater flexibility than the univariate model that uses a normal random effect to account for positive correlations in clustered data. The multivariate model is useful when different elements of the response vector refer to different characteristics, each of which may naturally have its own random effect. It is also useful for repeated binary measurement of a single response when there is a nonexchangeable association structure, such as one often expects with longitudinal data or when negative association exists for at least one pair of responses. We apply the model to an influenza study with repeated responses in which some pairs are negatively associated and to a developmental toxicity study with continuation-ratio logits applied to an ordinal response with clustered observations.

  18. Broadband supercontinuum light source seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Rao, Y. J.; Zhang, W. L.; Wu, H.; Zeng, X.

    2017-04-01

    A novel broadband light source based on supercontinuum (SC) generation seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser (RFL) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A half-opened fiber cavity formed by FBG and TrueWave fiber is used to generate random lasing and SC simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that RFL can be used as an effective pump for generation of SC. SC with 20-dB bandwidth of >250 nm was obtained. Such a broadband SC light source seeded by RFL may pave a way to generate high power broadband RFLs for use in optical sensing and measurement.

  19. On the Marginal Distribution of the Diagonal Blocks in a Blocked Wishart Random Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil B. Halvorsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a (m1+m2×(m1+m2 blocked Wishart random matrix with diagonal blocks of orders m1×m1 and m2×m2. The goal of the paper is to find the exact marginal distribution of the two diagonal blocks of A. We find an expression for this marginal density involving the matrix-variate generalized hypergeometric function. We became interested in this problem because of an application in spatial interpolation of random fields of positive definite matrices, where this result will be used for parameter estimation, using composite likelihood methods.

  20. Resonant Scattering of Acoustic Phonons by Randomly Distributed Two-Level Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanuma, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi

    1985-07-01

    A Green function formalism is developed for the resonant scattering of acoustic phonons by randomly distributed two-level systems. The randomness is treated by the coherent potential approximation. The theory reproduces the Jacobsen-Stevens dispersion law in the dense limit of the concentration of the two-level system and the results obtained so far by the average t-matrix approximation in the dilute limit. The gradual change of the character of the resonantly scattered phonons as the concentration is varied is investigated through the calculation of various quantities such as the phonon density of states, the neutron scattering cross sections and the sound velocity.

  1. Inertial particles distribute in turbulence as Poissonian points with random intensity inducing clustering and supervoiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Fouxon, Itzhak; Holzner, Markus

    2017-07-01

    This work considers the distribution of discrete inertial particles in turbulence. We demonstrate that even for weak inertia the distribution can be strongly different from the Poisson distribution that holds for tracers. We study the cases of weak inertia or strong gravity where single-valued particle flow holds in space. In these cases, the particles distribute over a random multifractal attractor in space. This attractor is characterized by fractal dimensions describing scaling exponents of moments of number of particles inside a ball with size much smaller than the viscous scale of turbulence. Previous studies used a continuum approach to the moments which requires having a large number of particles below the viscous scale. This condition often does not hold in practice; for instance, for water droplets in clouds there is typically one droplet per viscous scale. This condition is also hard to realize in numerical simulations. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by deriving the probability pl(k ) of having k particles in a ball of small radius l for which the continuum approximation may not hold. We demonstrate that the random point process formed by positions of particles' centers in space is a Poisson point process with log-normal random intensity (the so-called log Gaussian Cox process or LGCP). This gives pl(k ) in terms of the characteristic function of a log-normal distribution from which the moments are derived. This allows finding the correlation dimension relevant for statistics of particles' collisions. The case of zero number of particles provides the statistics of the size of voids—regions without particles—that were not studied previously. The probability of voids is increased compared to a random distribution of particles because preferential concentration of inertial particles implies voids in the deserted regions. Thus voids and preferential concentration are different reflections of the same phenomena. In the limit of tracers with zero

  2. Optimum signal input distribution design in the presence of random pointing jitter for intersatellite optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Tan, Liying; Shen, Tao

    2013-02-01

    Channel capacity is widely investigated for free space optical links to approach high-speed data-rate communication. Instead of traditional equiprobable binary symbol input distribution, an optimum input distribution is proposed with respect to channel capacity by maximizing mutual information for intersatellite optical communications in the presence of random pointing jitter. It is shown that the optimum input distribution varies with the variance of pointing jitter σ and laser beam divergence angle w0 and the normalized intensity threshold IT. For traditional normalized intensity threshold IT=0.5, the optimum input distribution ranges from about p(x=0)=0.52 for weak pointing jitter to about p(x=0)=0.24 for strong pointing jitter given the same laser beam divergence angle. The results obtained in this paper will be useful for intersatellite optical communication system design.

  3. Performance Analysis of 5G Transmission over Fading Channels with Random IG Distributed LOS Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jaksic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of the behavior of the radio propagation at mmWave bands is crucial to the development of transmission and reception algorithms of new 5G systems. In this study we will model 5G propagation in nondeterministic line-of-sight (LOS conditions, when the random nature of LOS component ratio will be observed as Inverse Gamma (IG distributed process. Closed-form expressions will be presented for the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of such random process. Further, closed-form expressions will be provided for important performance measures such as level crossing rate (LCR and average fade duration (AFD. Capitalizing on proposed expressions, LCR and AFD will be discussed in the function of transmission parameters.

  4. Crossing probability for directed polymers in random media. II. Exact tail of the distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Andrea; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    We study the probability p ≡ p(η)(t) that two directed polymers in a given random potential η and with fixed and nearby endpoints do not cross until time t. This probability is itself a random variable (over samples η), which, as we show, acquires a very broad probability distribution at large time. In particular, the moments of p are found to be dominated by atypical samples where p is of order unity. Building on a formula established by us in a previous work using nested Bethe ansatz and Macdonald process methods, we obtain analytically the leading large time behavior of all moments p(m) ≃ γ(m)/t. From this, we extract the exact tail ∼ρ(p)/t of the probability distribution of the noncrossing probability at large time. The exact formula is compared to numerical simulations, with excellent agreement.

  5. A trophallaxis inspired model for distributed transport between randomly interacting agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, Johannes; Mazza, Marco G; Katifori, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    A trophallaxis inspired model for distributed transport between randomly interacting agents Trophallaxis, the regurgitation and mouth to mouth transfer of liquid food between members of eusocial insect societies, is an important process that allows the fast and efficient dissemination of food in the colony. Trophallactic systems are typically treated as a network of agent interactions. This approach, though valuable, does not easily lend itself to analytic predictions. In this work we consider a simple trophallactic system of randomly interacting agents with finite carrying capacity, and calculate analytically and via a series of simulations the global food intake rate for the whole colony as well as observables describing how uniformly the food is distributed within the nest. Our work serves as a stepping stone to describing the collective properties of more complex trophallactic systems, such as those including division of labor between foragers and workers.

  6. Shear elastic modulus of magnetic gels with random distribution of magnetizable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, L. Yu; Zubarev, A. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic gels present new type of composite materials with rich set of uniquie physical properties, which find active applications in many industrial and bio-medical technologies. We present results of mathematically strict theoretical study of elastic modulus of these systems with randomly distributed magnetizable particles in an elastic medium. The results show that an external magnetic field can pronouncedly increase the shear modulus of these composites.

  7. Distributed Fusion Filtering in Networked Systems with Random Measurement Matrices and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Caballero-Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed fusion state estimation problem is addressed for sensor network systems with random state transition matrix and random measurement matrices, which provide a unified framework to consider some network-induced random phenomena. The process noise and all the sensor measurement noises are assumed to be one-step autocorrelated and different sensor noises are one-step cross-correlated; also, the process noise and each sensor measurement noise are two-step cross-correlated. These correlation assumptions cover many practical situations, where the classical independence hypothesis is not realistic. Using an innovation methodology, local least-squares linear filtering estimators are recursively obtained at each sensor. The distributed fusion method is then used to form the optimal matrix-weighted sum of these local filters according to the mean squared error criterion. A numerical simulation example shows the accuracy of the proposed distributed fusion filtering algorithm and illustrates some of the network-induced stochastic uncertainties that can be dealt with in the current system model, such as sensor gain degradation, missing measurements, and multiplicative noise.

  8. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum tunneling recombination in a system of randomly distributed trapped electrons and positive ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Kulp, Christopher; Chaney, Charity-Grace; Tachiya, M

    2017-09-13

    During the past 10 years, quantum tunneling has been established as one of the dominant mechanisms for recombination in random distributions of electrons and positive ions, and in many dosimetric materials. Specifically quantum tunneling has been shown to be closely associated with two important effects in luminescence materials, namely long term afterglow luminescence and anomalous fading. Two of the common assumptions of quantum tunneling models based on random distributions of electrons and positive ions are: (a) An electron tunnels from a donor to the nearest acceptor, and (b) the concentration of electrons is much lower than that of positive ions at all times during the tunneling process. This paper presents theoretical studies for arbitrary relative concentrations of electrons and positive ions in the solid. Two new differential equations are derived which describe the loss of charge in the solid by tunneling, and they are solved analytically. The analytical solution compares well with the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out in a random distribution of electrons and positive ions. Possible experimental implications of the model are discussed for tunneling phenomena in long term afterglow signals, and also for anomalous fading studies in feldspars and apatite samples.

  10. Non-random distribution of instability-associated chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints in human lymphoblastoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Stephen R. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Papworth, David [Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grosovsky, Andrew J. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)]. E-mail: Grosovsky@ucr.edu

    2006-08-30

    Genomic instability is observed in tumors and in a large fraction of the progeny surviving irradiation. One of the best-characterized phenotypic manifestations of genomic instability is delayed chromosome aberrations. Our working hypothesis for the current study was that if genomic instability is in part attributable to cis mechanisms, we should observe a non-random distribution of chromosomes or sites involved in instability-associated rearrangements, regardless of radiation quality, dose, or trans factor expression. We report here the karyotypic examination of 296 instability-associated chromosomal rearrangement breaksites (IACRB) from 118 unstable TK6 human B lymphoblast, and isogenic derivative, clones. When we tested whether IACRB were distributed across the chromosomes based on target size, a significant non-random distribution was evident (p < 0.00001), and three IACRB hotspots (chromosomes 11, 12, and 22) and one IACRB coldspot (chromosome 2) were identified. Statistical analysis at the chromosomal band-level identified four IACRB hotspots accounting for 20% of all instability-associated breaks, two of which account for over 14% of all IACRB. Further, analysis of independent clones provided evidence within 14 individual clones of IACRB clustering at the chromosomal band level, suggesting a predisposition for further breaks after an initial break at some chromosomal bands. All of these events, independently, or when taken together, were highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p < 0.000001). These IACRB band-level cluster hotspots were observed independent of radiation quality, dose, or cellular p53 status. The non-random distribution of instability-associated chromosomal rearrangements described here significantly differs from the distribution that was observed in a first-division post-irradiation metaphase analysis (p = 0.0004). Taken together, these results suggest that genomic instability may be in part driven by chromosomal cis mechanisms.

  11. Spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in the western part of Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai trough, there are three seismogenic zones of megathrust earthquakes (Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes). Lithospheric structures in and around these seismogenic zones are important for the studies on mutual interactions and synchronization of their fault ruptures. Recent studies on seismic wave scattering at high frequencies (>1Hz) make it possible to estimate 3D distributions of random inhomogeneities (or scattering coefficient) in the lithosphere, and clarified that random inhomogeneity is one of the important medium properties related to microseismicity and damaged structure near the fault zone [Asano & Hasegawa, 2004; Takahashi et al. 2009]. This study estimates the spatial distribution of the power spectral density function (PSDF) of random inhomogeneities the western part of Nankai subduction zone, and examines the relations with crustal velocity structure and seismic activity. Seismic waveform data used in this study are those recorded at seismic stations of Hi-net & F-net operated by NIED, and 160 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) deployed at Hyuga-nada region from Dec. 2008 to Jan. 2009. This OBS observation was conducted by JAMSTEC as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities is estimated by the inversion analysis of the peak delay time of small earthquakes [Takahashi et al. 2009], where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. We assumed the von Karman type functional form for the PSDF. Peak delay times are measured from root mean squared envelopes at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. Inversion result can be summarized as follows. Random inhomogeneities beneath the Quaternary volcanoes are characterized by strong inhomogeneities at small spatial scale (~ a few hundreds meter) and weak spectral gradient

  12. A Hardware Efficient Random Number Generator for Nonuniform Distributions with Arbitrary Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian de Schryver

    2012-01-01

    number generators is a very active research field. However, most state-of-the-art architectures are either tailored to specific distributions or use up a lot of hardware resources. At ReConFig 2010, we have presented a new design that saves up to 48% of area compared to state-of-the-art inversion-based implementation, usable for arbitrary distributions and precision. In this paper, we introduce a more flexible version together with a refined segmentation scheme that allows to further reduce the approximation error significantly. We provide a free software tool allowing users to implement their own distributions easily, and we have tested our random number generator thoroughly by statistic analysis and two application tests.

  13. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock (PHOENIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Privalle, Christopher T; Singer, Mervyn; Lorente, José A; Boehm, Erwin; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Darius, Harald; Ferrer, Ricard; Sirvent, Josep-Maria; Marx, Gernot; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene, against placebo in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study. Sixty-one participating ICUs in six European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and United Kingdom). All patients admitted with distributive shock, defined as the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, persisting norepinephrine dependence and evidence of organ dysfunction/hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients were randomized to receive 0.25 mL/kg/hr pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (20 mg Hb/kg/hr) or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 150 hours, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. The study was stopped after interim analysis showed higher mortality in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group and an increased prevalence of adverse events. At this time, 377 patients had been randomized to pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (n = 183) or placebo (n = 194). Age, gender, type of patient (medical/surgical), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were similar between groups. Twenty-eight-day mortality rate was 44.3% in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group versus 37.6% in the placebo group (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.85-1.95; p = 0.227). In patients with higher organ dysfunction scores (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment > 13), mortality rates were significantly higher in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group when compared with those in placebo-treated patients (60.9% vs 39.2%; p = 0.014). Survivors who received pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene had a longer vasopressor-free time (21.3 vs 19.7 d; p = 0.035). In this randomized, controlled phase III trial in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock

  14. High Density Arrayed Ni/NiO Core-shell Nanospheres Evenly Distributed on Graphene for Ultrahigh Performance Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanggang; Wang, Xiaobing; Hao, Jin; Han, Shuang; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2017-12-18

    A novel NiO/Ni/RGO three-dimensional core-shell architecture consisting of Ni nanoparticles as core, NiO as shell and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as conductivity layer, has been constructed by redox reactions with hydrothermal method and heat treatment. High density arrayed nickel nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) semi-coated by a 3 nm thick layer of NiO are evenly distributed on the surface of graphene. This elaborate design not only uses abundant NiO surfaces to provide a wealth of active sites, but also bridges electrochemical active NiO shell and graphene by Ni core to construct an interconnected 3D conductive network. Since both electrochemical activity and excellent conductivity are reserved in this Ni/NiO core-shell/graphene layer 3D structure, the as-prepared electrode material exhibits an extremely high specific capacitance (2048.3 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1) and excellent cycle stability (77.8% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles at current density of 50 A g-1). The novel method presented here is easy and effective and would provide reference for the preparation of other high performance supercapacitor electrodes.

  15. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  16. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  17. ERROR DISTRIBUTION EVALUATION OF THE THIRD VANISHING POINT BASED ON RANDOM STATISTICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available POS, integrated by GPS / INS (Inertial Navigation Systems, has allowed rapid and accurate determination of position and attitude of remote sensing equipment for MMS (Mobile Mapping Systems. However, not only does INS have system error, but also it is very expensive. Therefore, in this paper error distributions of vanishing points are studied and tested in order to substitute INS for MMS in some special land-based scene, such as ground façade where usually only two vanishing points can be detected. Thus, the traditional calibration approach based on three orthogonal vanishing points is being challenged. In this article, firstly, the line clusters, which parallel to each others in object space and correspond to the vanishing points, are detected based on RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus and parallelism geometric constraint. Secondly, condition adjustment with parameters is utilized to estimate nonlinear error equations of two vanishing points (VX, VY. How to set initial weights for the adjustment solution of single image vanishing points is presented. Solving vanishing points and estimating their error distributions base on iteration method with variable weights, co-factor matrix and error ellipse theory. Thirdly, under the condition of known error ellipses of two vanishing points (VX, VY and on the basis of the triangle geometric relationship of three vanishing points, the error distribution of the third vanishing point (VZ is calculated and evaluated by random statistical simulation with ignoring camera distortion. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods utilized for random statistical estimation are presented. Finally, experimental results of vanishing points coordinate and their error distributions are shown and analyzed.

  18. Complementarity between entanglement-assisted and quantum distributed random access code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Saha, Debashis; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Collaborative communication tasks such as random access codes (RACs) employing quantum resources have manifested great potential in enhancing information processing capabilities beyond the classical limitations. The two quantum variants of RACs, namely, quantum random access code (QRAC) and the entanglement-assisted random access code (EARAC), have demonstrated equal prowess for a number of tasks. However, there do exist specific cases where one outperforms the other. In this article, we study a family of 3 →1 distributed RACs [J. Bowles, N. Brunner, and M. Pawłowski, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022351 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022351] and present its general construction of both the QRAC and the EARAC. We demonstrate that, depending on the function of inputs that is sought, if QRAC achieves the maximal success probability then EARAC fails to do so and vice versa. Moreover, a tripartite Bell-type inequality associated with the EARAC variants reveals the genuine multipartite nonlocality exhibited by our protocol. We conclude with an experimental realization of the 3 →1 distributed QRAC that achieves higher success probabilities than the maximum possible with EARACs for a number of tasks.

  19. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  20. Reflection principles for biased random walks and application to escape time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantha, M.; Balakrishnan, V.

    1985-12-01

    We present a reflection principle for an arbitrary biased continuous time random walk (comprising both Markovian and non-Markovian processes) in the presence of a reflecting barrier on semi-infinite and finite chains. For biased walks in the presence of a reflecting barrier this principle (which cannot be derived from combinatorics) is completely different from its familiar form in the presence of an absorbing barrier. The result enables us to obtain closed-form solutions for the Laplace transform of the conditional probability for biased walks on finite chains for all three combinations of absorbing and reflecting barriers at the two ends. An important application of these solutions is the calculation of various first-passage-time and escape-time distributions. We obtain exact results for the characteristic functions of various kinds of escape time distributions for biased random walks on finite chains. For processes governed by a long-tailed event-time distribution we show that the mean time of escape from bounded regions diverges even in the presence of a bias—suggesting, in a sense, the absence of true long-range diffusion in such "frozen" processes.

  1. Pure random search for ambient sensor distribution optimisation in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P; Nugent, Chris D; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liming

    2011-01-01

    Smart homes are living spaces facilitated with technology to allow individuals to remain in their own homes for longer, rather than be institutionalised. Sensors are the fundamental physical layer with any smart home, as the data they generate is used to inform decision support systems, facilitating appropriate actuator actions. Positioning of sensors is therefore a fundamental characteristic of a smart home. Contemporary smart home sensor distribution is aligned to either a) a total coverage approach; b) a human assessment approach. These methods for sensor arrangement are not data driven strategies, are unempirical and frequently irrational. This Study hypothesised that sensor deployment directed by an optimisation method that utilises inhabitants' spatial frequency data as the search space, would produce more optimal sensor distributions vs. the current method of sensor deployment by engineers. Seven human engineers were tasked to create sensor distributions based on perceived utility for 9 deployment scenarios. A Pure Random Search (PRS) algorithm was then tasked to create matched sensor distributions. The PRS method produced superior distributions in 98.4% of test cases (n=64) against human engineer instructed deployments when the engineers had no access to the spatial frequency data, and in 92.0% of test cases (n=64) when engineers had full access to these data. These results thus confirmed the hypothesis.

  2. Distributed Detection of Randomly Located Targets in Mobility-Assisted Sensor Networks with Node Mobility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera SudharmanK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance gain achieved by adding mobile nodes to a stationary sensor network for target detection depends on factors such as the number of mobile nodes deployed, mobility patterns, speed and energy constraints of mobile nodes, and the nature of the target locations (deterministic or random. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed detection of a randomly located target by a hybrid sensor network. Specifically, we develop two decision-fusion architectures for detection where in the first one, impact of node mobility is taken into account for decisions updating at the fusion center, while in the second model the impact of node mobility is taken at the node level decision updating. The cost of deploying mobile nodes is analyzed in terms of the minimum fraction of mobile nodes required to achieve the desired performance level within a desired delay constraint. Moreover, we consider managing node mobility under given constraints.

  3. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  4. Combined antenna and localized plasmon resonance in Raman scattering from random arrays of silver-coated, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P; Duenas, J A; Boyle, M G; Doherty, M D; Bell, S E J; Kern, A M; Martin, O J F; Teh, A-S; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2011-02-09

    The electric field enhancement associated with detailed structure within novel optical antenna nanostructures is modeled using the surface integral equation technique in the context of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The antennae comprise random arrays of vertically aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes dressed with highly granular Ag. Different types of "hot-spot" underpinning the SERS are identified, but contrasting characteristics are revealed. Those at the outer edges of the Ag grains are antenna driven with field enhancement amplified in antenna antinodes while intergrain hotspots are largely independent of antenna activity. Hot-spots between the tops of antennae leaning towards each other also appear to benefit from antenna amplification.

  5. Simulation of the pressure field near a jet by randomly distributed vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y. T.; Liu, C. H.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Fluctuations of the pressure field in the vicinity of a jet are simulated numerically by a flow model consisting of axially symmetric vortex rings with viscous cores submerged in a uniform stream. The time interval between the shedding of successive vortices is taken to be a random variable with a probability distribution chosen to match that from experiments. It is found that up to 5 diameters downstream of the jet exit, statistics of the computed pressure field are in good agreement with experimental results. Statistical comparisons are provided for the overall sound pressure level, the peak amplitude, and the Strouhal number based on the peak frequency of the pressure signals.

  6. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the π and σ electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.

  7. Distribution of the phenotypic effects of random homologous recombination between two virus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Vuillaume

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recombination has an evident impact on virus evolution and emergence of new pathotypes, and has generated an immense literature. However, the distribution of phenotypic effects caused by genome-wide random homologous recombination has never been formally investigated. Previous data on the subject have promoted the implicit view that most viral recombinant genomes are likely to be deleterious or lethal if the nucleotide identity of parental sequences is below 90%. We decided to challenge this view by creating a bank of near-random recombinants between two viral species of the genus Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae exhibiting 82% nucleotide identity, and by testing infectivity and in planta accumulation of recombinant clones randomly extracted from this bank. The bank was created by DNA-shuffling-a technology initially applied to the random shuffling of individual genes, and here implemented for the first time to shuffle full-length viral genomes. Together with our previously described system allowing the direct cloning of full-length infectious geminivirus genomes, it provided a unique opportunity to generate hundreds of "mosaic" virus genomes, directly testable for infectivity. A subset of 47 randomly chosen recombinants was sequenced, individually inoculated into tomato plants, and compared with the parental viruses. Surprisingly, our results showed that all recombinants were infectious and accumulated at levels comparable or intermediate to that of the parental clones. This indicates that, in our experimental system, despite the fact that the parental genomes differ by nearly 20%, lethal and/or large deleterious effects of recombination are very rare, in striking contrast to the common view that has emerged from previous studies published on other viruses.

  8. Distributed Constrained Stochastic Subgradient Algorithms Based on Random Projection and Asynchronous Broadcast over Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a distributed constrained optimization problem over a time-varying network, where each agent only knows its own cost functions and its constraint set. However, the local constraint set may not be known in advance or consists of huge number of components in some applications. To deal with such cases, we propose a distributed stochastic subgradient algorithm over time-varying networks, where the estimate of each agent projects onto its constraint set by using random projection technique and the implement of information exchange between agents by employing asynchronous broadcast communication protocol. We show that our proposed algorithm is convergent with probability 1 by choosing suitable learning rate. For constant learning rate, we obtain an error bound, which is defined as the expected distance between the estimates of agent and the optimal solution. We also establish an asymptotic upper bound between the global objective function value at the average of the estimates and the optimal value.

  9. Two-Dimensional DOA and Polarization Estimation for a Mixture of Uncorrelated and Coherent Sources with Sparsely-Distributed Vector Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijian; Zhao, Pinjiao; Qu, Zhiyu

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents an L-shaped sparsely-distributed vector sensor (SD-VS) array with four different antenna compositions. With the proposed SD-VS array, a novel two-dimensional (2-D) direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization estimation method is proposed to handle the scenario where uncorrelated and coherent sources coexist. The uncorrelated and coherent sources are separated based on the moduli of the eigenvalues. For the uncorrelated sources, coarse estimates are acquired by extracting the DOA information embedded in the steering vectors from estimated array response matrix of the uncorrelated sources, and they serve as coarse references to disambiguate fine estimates with cyclical ambiguity obtained from the spatial phase factors. For the coherent sources, four Hankel matrices are constructed, with which the coherent sources are resolved in a similar way as for the uncorrelated sources. The proposed SD-VS array requires only two collocated antennas for each vector sensor, thus the mutual coupling effects across the collocated antennas are reduced greatly. Moreover, the inter-sensor spacings are allowed beyond a half-wavelength, which results in an extended array aperture. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and favorable performance of the proposed method.

  10. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  11. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  12. On the Distribution of Indefinite Quadratic Forms in Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-10-30

    © 2015 IEEE. In this work, we propose a unified approach to evaluating the CDF and PDF of indefinite quadratic forms in Gaussian random variables. Such a quantity appears in many applications in communications, signal processing, information theory, and adaptive filtering. For example, this quantity appears in the mean-square-error (MSE) analysis of the normalized least-meansquare (NLMS) adaptive algorithm, and SINR associated with each beam in beam forming applications. The trick of the proposed approach is to replace inequalities that appear in the CDF calculation with unit step functions and to use complex integral representation of the the unit step function. Complex integration allows us then to evaluate the CDF in closed form for the zero mean case and as a single dimensional integral for the non-zero mean case. Utilizing the saddle point technique allows us to closely approximate such integrals in non zero mean case. We demonstrate how our approach can be extended to other scenarios such as the joint distribution of quadratic forms and ratios of such forms, and to characterize quadratic forms in isotropic distributed random variables.We also evaluate the outage probability in multiuser beamforming using our approach to provide an application of indefinite forms in communications.

  13. Deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law on account of a random distribution of block sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibiryakov, B. P., E-mail: sibiryakovbp@ipgg.sbras.ru [Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper studies properties of a continuum with structure. The characteristic size of the structure governs the fact that difference relations are nonautomatically transformed into differential ones. It is impossible to consider an infinitesimal volume of a body, to which the major conservation laws could be applied, because the minimum representative volume of the body must contain at least a few elementary microstructures. The corresponding equations of motion are equations of infinite order, solutions of which include, along with usual sound waves, unusual waves with abnormally low velocities without a lower limit. It is shown that in such media weak perturbations can increase or decrease outside the limits. The number of complex roots of the corresponding dispersion equation, which can be interpreted as the number of unstable solutions, depends on the specific surface of cracks and is an almost linear dependence on a logarithmic scale, as in the seismological Gutenberg–Richter law. If the distance between one pore (crack) to another one is a random value with some distribution, we must write another dispersion equation and examine different scenarios depending on the statistical characteristics of the random distribution. In this case, there are sufficient deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law and this theoretical result corresponds to some field and laboratory observations.

  14. Distribution of the Height of Local Maxima of Gaussian Random Fields*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Schwartzman, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Let {f(t) : t ∈ T} be a smooth Gaussian random field over a parameter space T, where T may be a subset of Euclidean space or, more generally, a Riemannian manifold. We provide a general formula for the distribution of the height of a local maximum P{f(t0)>u∣t0 is a local maximum of f(t)} when f is non-stationary. Moreover, we establish asymptotic approximations for the overshoot distribution of a local maximum P{f(t0)>u+v∣t0 is a local maximum of f(t) and f(t0) > v} as v → ∞. Assuming further that f is isotropic, we apply techniques from random matrix theory related to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble to compute such conditional probabilities explicitly when T is Euclidean or a sphere of arbitrary dimension. Such calculations are motivated by the statistical problem of detecting peaks in the presence of smooth Gaussian noise. PMID:26478714

  15. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-05-19

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  16. Fabrication of a Flexible Array for Tactile Sensors with Microcantilevers and the Measurement of the Distribution of Normal and Shear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Daiki; Uematsu, Tatsuya; Sohgawa, Masayuki; Mito, Wataru; Kanashima, Takeshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Noma, Haruo

    2011-06-01

    A Tactile sensor system consisting of elements with three microcantilevers embedded in a cylindrical elastomer has been fabricated by micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. These sensor small size (3 ×4 mm2) chips are mounted on a flexible sheet, and thus the fabricated sensor array can be set even on a curved surface. In addition, the spacial distribution of normal and shear forces is obtained when two kinds of objects (an acrylic hemisphere and a brass cylinder) come in contact with the fabricated sensor shifted laterally. The distribution results appropriately reflect the surface shape of the object and give the behavior of the forces vector.

  17. Nonparametric estimation of the distribution of the autoregressive coefficient from panel random-coefficient AR(1) data

    OpenAIRE

    Leipus, Remigijus; Philippe, Anne; Pilipauskaitė, Vytautė; Surgailis, Donatas

    2015-01-01

    We discuss nonparametric estimation of the distribution function $G(x)$ of the autoregressive coefficient $a \\in (-1,1)$ from a panel of $N$ random-coefficient AR(1) data, each of length $n$, by the empirical distribution function of lag 1 sample autocorrelations of individual AR(1) processes. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the empirical distribution function and a class of kernel density estimators is established under some regularity conditions on $G(x)$ as $N$ and $n$ increase to ...

  18. A Chemical Reaction Network to Generate Random, Power-Law-Distributed Time Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Patrick; Schulze, Holger; Metzner, Claus

    2017-10-06

    In Lévy walks (LWs), particles move with a fixed speed along straight line segments and turn in new directions after random time intervals that are distributed according to a power law. Such LWs are thought to be an advantageous foraging and search strategy for organisms. While complex nervous systems are certainly capable of producing such behavior, it is not clear at present how single-cell organisms can generate the long-term correlated control signals required for a LW. Here, we construct a biochemical reaction system that generates long-time correlated concentration fluctuations of a signaling substance, with a tunable fractional exponent of the autocorrelation function. The network is based on well-known modules, and its basic function is highly robust with respect to the parameter settings.

  19. Discovery of Non-random Spatial Distribution of Impacts in the Stardust Cometary Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A J; Bastien, R K; Borg, J; Bridges, J; Brownlee, D E; Burchell, M J; Cheng, A F; Clark, B C; Djouadi, Z; Floss, C; Franchi, I; Gainsforth, Z; Graham, G; Green, S F; Heck, P R; Horanyi, M; Hoppe, P; Horz, F P; Huth, J; Kearsley, A; Leroux, H; Marhas, K; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Sandford, S A; See, T H; Stadermann, F J; Teslich, N E; Tsitrin, S; Warren, J L; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Zolensky, M E

    2007-04-06

    We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than {approx} 10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluated several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis was consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.

  20. The compaction of a random distribution of metal cylinders by the discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redanz, Pia; Fleck, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    The cold compaction of a 2D random distribution of metal circular cylinders has been investigated numerically by the discrete element method. Each cylindrical particle is located by a node at its centre and the plastic indentation of the contacts between neighbouring particles is represented by non...... takes place. leading to yield surfaces of similar shape but about half the size of that found for affine motion, as reported in [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 40 (1992) 1139 43 (1995) 1409; 47 (1999) 785]. An increase in the level of inter-particle friction leads to a reduction in the degree of local particle...... rearrangement: the relative displacement of particle centres in the network is more closely represented by affine motion for the case of sticking contacts than frictionless contacts. The discrete element calculations suggest that the yield surfaces for sticking contacts are similar in shape to those...

  1. A Random Forest approach to predict the spatial distribution of sediment pollution in an estuarine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Walsh

    Full Text Available Modeling the magnitude and distribution of sediment-bound pollutants in estuaries is often limited by incomplete knowledge of the site and inadequate sample density. To address these modeling limitations, a decision-support tool framework was conceived that predicts sediment contamination from the sub-estuary to broader estuary extent. For this study, a Random Forest (RF model was implemented to predict the distribution of a model contaminant, triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyphenol (TCS, in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. TCS is an unregulated contaminant used in many personal care products. The RF explanatory variables were associated with TCS transport and fate (proxies and direct and indirect environmental entry. The continuous RF TCS concentration predictions were discretized into three levels of contamination (low, medium, and high for three different quantile thresholds. The RF model explained 63% of the variance with a minimum number of variables. Total organic carbon (TOC (transport and fate proxy was a strong predictor of TCS contamination causing a mean squared error increase of 59% when compared to permutations of randomized values of TOC. Additionally, combined sewer overflow discharge (environmental entry and sand (transport and fate proxy were strong predictors. The discretization models identified a TCS area of greatest concern in the northern reach of Narragansett Bay (Providence River sub-estuary, which was validated with independent test samples. This decision-support tool performed well at the sub-estuary extent and provided the means to identify areas of concern and prioritize bay-wide sampling.

  2. Unexpected Effects of a System-Distributed Mobile Application in Maternity Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Womack, Jasmyne J; Rider, Heather A; Seehusen, Angela B; Conner, Stephen J; Lauters, Rebecca A; Hodge, Joshua A

    2017-09-01

    As pregnant mothers increasingly engage in shared decision making regarding prenatal decisions, such as induction of labor, the patient's level of activation may influence pregnancy outcomes. One potential tool to increase patient activation in the clinical setting is mobile applications. However, research is limited in comparing mobile apps with other modalities of patient education and engagement tools. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of a mobile app as a replacement for a spiral notebook guide as a patient education and engagement tool in the prenatal clinical setting. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Women's Health Clinic and Family Health Clinic of three hospitals. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to test intervention effects in the study sample of 205 patients. Mothers used a mobile app interface to more frequently record information about their pregnancy; however, across time, mothers using a mobile app reported a significant decrease in patient activation. The unexpected negative effects in the group of patients randomized to the mobile app prompt these authors to recommend that health systems pause before distributing their own version of mobile apps that may decrease patient activation. Mobile apps can be inherently empowering and engaging, but how a system encourages their use may ultimately determine their adoption and success.

  3. Internal wave generation by tidal flow over periodically and randomly distributed seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Comino, Eva; Swinney, Harry L.

    2017-06-01

    We examine numerically the conversion of barotropic tidal energy into internal waves by flow over an isolated seamount and over systems of periodically and randomly distributed 1100 m tall seamounts with Gaussian profiles. The simulations use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to calculate for an infinitely deep ocean the dependence of the energy conversion on seamount slope, seamount separation, tidal direction, and the size and aspect ratio of the simulation domain. For neighboring seamounts with a slope greater than the internal wave beam slope, wave interference reduces the conversion relative to that calculated for an isolated seamount, and relative to that predicted by linear theory for a seamount of slope less than the beam slope. The conversion by an individual seamount in a system of random seamounts separated by an average distance of 18 km is found to be suppressed by 16% relative to the conversion by an isolated seamount. This study provides insight into tidal conversion by ocean seamounts modeled as Gaussian mountains with slopes both smaller and larger than the beam slope. We conclude that the total energy conversion by all seamounts (peak height ≥1000 m) and knolls (peak height 500-1000 m), taking into account interference affects, is of the order of 1% of the total barotropic to baroclinic energy conversion in the oceans, which is about twice as large as previous estimates.

  4. Numerical simulation of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Stanciulescu, Ilinca

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a computational framework to simulate the mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber networks. A random walk algorithm is implemented to generate the synthetic fiber network in 2D used in simulations. The embedded fiber approach is then adopted to model the fibers as embedded truss elements in the ground matrix, which is essentially equivalent to the affine fiber kinematics. The fiber-matrix interaction is partially considered in the sense that the two material components deform together, but no relative movement is considered. A variational approach is carried out to derive the element residual and stiffness matrices for finite element method (FEM), in which material and geometric nonlinearities are both included. Using a data structure proposed to record the network geometric information, the fiber network is directly incorporated into the FEM simulation without significantly increasing the computational cost. A mesh sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of mesh size on various simulation results. The proposed method can be easily combined with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to include the influence of the stochastic nature of the network and capture the material behavior in an average sense. The computational framework proposed in this work goes midway between homogenizing the fiber network into the surrounding matrix and accounting for the fully coupled fiber-matrix interaction at the segment length scale, and can be used to study the connection between the microscopic structure and the macro-mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with a reasonable computational cost.

  5. Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Friederichs

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

  6. Strong Scalability Study of Distributed Memory Parallel Markov Random Fields Using Graph Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Colleen

    Research in material science is increasingly reliant on image-based data from experiments, demanding construction of new analysis tools that help scientists discover information from digital images. Because there is such a wide variety of materials and image modalities, detecting different compounds from imaged materials continues to be a challenging task. A vast collection of algorithms for filtering, image segmentation, and texture description have facilitated and improved accuracy for sample measurements (see Chapter 1 Introduction and Literature Review). Despite this, the community still lacks scalable, general purpose, easily configurable image analysis frameworks that allow pattern detection on different imaging modalities across multiple scales. The need for such a framework was the motivation behind the development of a distributed-memory parallel Markov Random Field based framework. Markov Random Field (MRF) algorithms provide the ability to explore contextual information about a given dataset. Given the complexity of such algorithms, however, they are limited by performance when running serial. Thus, running in some sort of parallel fashion is necessary. The effects are twofold. Not only does running the MRF algorithm in parallel provide the ability to run current datasets faster and more efficiently, it also provides the ability for datasets to continue to grow in size and still be able to be run with such frameworks. The variation of the Markov Random Field algorithm utilized in this study first oversegments the given input image and constructs a graph model based on photometric and geometric distances. Next, the resulting graph model is refactored specifically into the MRF model to target image segmentation. Finally, a distributed approach is used for the optimization process to obtain the best labeling for the graph, which is essentially the goal of using a MRF algorithm. Given the concept of using a distributed memory parallel framework, specifically

  7. Properties of thermoluminescence glow curves from tunneling recombination processes in random distributions of defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, George [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pagonis, Vasilis, E-mail: vpagonis@mcdaniel.edu [Physics Department, McDaniel College, Westminster, MD 21157 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Localized electronic recombination processes in donor–acceptor pairs of luminescent materials have been recently modeled using a new kinetic model based on tunneling. Within this model, recombination is assumed to take place via the excited state of the donor, and nearest-neighbor recombinations take place within a random distribution of centers. An approximate semi-analytical version of the model has been shown to simulate successfully thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TL and OSL), linearly modulated OSL (LM-OSL) and isothermal TL processes. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the geometrical properties of the TL glow curves obtained within three different published versions of the model. The dependence of the shape of the TL glow curves on the kinetic parameters of the model is examined by allowing simultaneous random variations of the parameters, within wide ranges of physically reasonable values covering several orders of magnitude. It is found that the TL glow curves can be characterized according to their shape factors μ{sub g}, as commonly done in TL theory of delocalized transitions. The values of the shape factor are found to depend rather weakly on the activation energy E and the frequency factor s, but they have a strong dependence on the parameter ρ′ which characterizes the concentration of acceptors in the model. It is also shown by simulation that both the variable heating rate and initial rise methods are applicable in this type of model and can yield the correct value of the activation energy E. However, the initial rise method of analysis for the semianalytical version of the model fails to yield the correct E value, since it underestimates the low temperature part of the TL glow curves. Two analytical expressions are given for the TL intensity, which can be used on an empirical basis for computerized glow curve deconvolution analysis (CGCD). - Highlights: • Detailed study of TL glow curves in a tunneling model for

  8. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...

  9. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-05-26

    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  10. Trophallaxis-inspired model for distributed transport between randomly interacting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwer, Johannes; Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Mazza, Marco G.; Katifori, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    Trophallaxis, the regurgitation and mouth to mouth transfer of liquid food between members of eusocial insect societies, is an important process that allows the fast and efficient dissemination of food in the colony. Trophallactic systems are typically treated as a network of agent interactions. This approach, though valuable, does not easily lend itself to analytic predictions. In this work we consider a simple trophallactic system of randomly interacting agents with finite carrying capacity, and calculate analytically and via a series of simulations the global food intake rate for the whole colony as well as observables describing how uniformly the food is distributed within the nest. Our model and predictions provide a useful benchmark to assess to what level the observed food uptake rates and efficiency in food distribution is due to stochastic effects or specific trophallactic strategies by the ant colony. Our work also serves as a stepping stone to describing the collective properties of more complex trophallactic systems, such as those including division of labor between foragers and workers.

  11. No evidence that mRNAs have lower folding free energies than random sequences with the same dinucleotide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Christopher; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates whether mRNA has a lower estimated folding free energy than random sequences. The free energy estimates are calculated by the mfold program for prediction of RNA secondary structures. For a set of 46 mRNAs it is shown that the predicted free energy is not significantly...... different from random sequences with the same dinucleotide distribution. For random sequences with the same mononucleotide distribution it has previously been shown that the native mRNA sequences have a lower predicted free energy, which indicates a more stable structure than random sequences. However......, dinucleotide content is important when assessing the significance of predicted free energy as the physical stability of RNA secondary structure is known to depend on dinucleotide base stacking energies. Even known RNA secondary structures, like tRNAs, can be shown to have predicted free energies...

  12. Polymeric microbead arrays for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason A.; Du, Xiaoguang; Grogan, Joseph M.; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2010-11-01

    Microbeads offer a convenient and efficient means of immobilizing biomolecules and capturing target molecules of interest in microfluidic immunoassay devices. In this study, hot embossing is used to form wells enabling the direct incorporation of a microbead array in a plastic substrate. We demonstrate two techniques to populate the well array with beads. In the first case, encoded beads with various functionalizations are distributed randomly among the wells and their position is registered by reading their encoding. Alternatively, beads are controllably placed at predetermined positions and decoding is not required. The random placement technique is demonstrated with two functionalized bead types that are distributed among the wells and then decoded to register their locations. The alternative, deliberate placement technique is demonstrated by controllably placing magnetic beads at selected locations in the array using a magnetic probe. As a proof of concept to illustrate the biosensing capability of the randomly assembled array, an on-chip, bead-based immunoassay is employed to detect the inflammatory protein Interleukin-8. The principle of the assay, however, can be extended to detect multiple targets simultaneously. Our method eliminates the need to interface silicon components with plastic devices to form microarrays containing individually addressable beads. This has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring.

  13. Optical key distribution system using atmospheric turbulence as the randomness generating function: classical optical protocol for information assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marvin D.; Bas, Christophe F.; Gervais, David; Renda, Priscilla F.; Townsend, Daniel; Rushanan, Joseph J.; Francoeur, Joe; Donnangelo, Nick; Stenner, Michael D.

    2013-05-01

    We describe an experimental laboratory system that generates and distributes random binary sequence bit streams between two optical terminals (labeled Alice and Bob). The random binary sequence is generated through probing the optical channel of a turbulent atmosphere between the two terminals with coincident laser beams. The two laser beams experience differential phase delays while propagating through the atmospheric optical channel. The differential phase delays are detected and sampled at each terminal to yield raw random bit streams. The random bit streams are processed to remove bit errors and, through privacy amplification, to yield a bit stream known only to Alice and Bob. The same chaotic physical mechanism that provides randomness also provides confidentiality. The laboratory system yielded secret key bit rates of a few bits/second. For external optical channels over longer channel lengths with atmospheric turbulence levels, secret bit rates of 10 s of bits/second are predicted.

  14. Radio Frequency Signal Reception Via Distributed Wirelessly Networked Sensors Under Random Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    array with % a desired aim point, then modifies element location in one dimension % while holding alpha (weight factor) constant. % % Array makeup ...1); beta=(1-average)*((average*(1-average)/variance)-1); fx =(gamma(alpha+beta)/(gamma(alpha)*gamma(beta)))*... (bins.^(alpha-1)).*((1-bins...beta-1)); stem(bins,histogram/max(histogram)) hold on plot(bins, fx /max( fx ),’r’) hold off xlabel(’Transmission Factor Bins’) ylabel(’Normalized

  15. Distribution of leakage currents in the cylindrical and conical sections of the magnetically insulated transmission line of the Angara-5-1 facility in experiments with wire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gribov, A. N.; Samokhin, A. A.; Shishlov, A. O., E-mail: Shishlov@triniti.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Current leakages in the magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) impose restrictions on the transmission of electromagnetic pulses to the load in high-power electrophysical facilities. The multimodule Angara-5-1 facility with an output electric power of up to 6 TW is considered. In this work, the experimental and calculated profiles of leakage currents in two sections of the line are compared when the eight-module facility is loaded by a wire array. The azimuthal distribution of the current in the cylindrical section of the MITL is also considered.

  16. A randomized controlled study for the treatment of acne vulgaris using high-intensity 414 nm solid state diode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Caerwyn; Harrison, Anna; Drew, Samantha; Whittall, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of acne vulgaris poses a challenge to the dermatologist, and the disease causes emotional anxiety for the patient. The treatment of acne vulgaris may be well-suited to home-use applications, where sufferers may be too embarrassed to seek medical treatment. This randomized controlled study is designed to quantify the effectiveness of using a blue light device in a therapy combined with proprietary creams, in the investigation of a self-treatment regimen. A total of 41 adults with mild-to-moderate facial inflammatory acne were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to combination blue light therapy (n = 26) or control (n = 15). Photography was used for qualitative assessment of lesion counts, at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. All subjects in the treatment cohort achieved a reduction in their inflammatory lesion counts after 12 weeks. The mean inflammatory lesion counts reduced by 50.02% in the treatment cohort, and increased by 2.45% in the control cohort. The reduction in inflammatory lesions was typically observable at week-3, and maximal between weeks 8 and 12. The treatment is free of pain and side-effects. The blue light device offers a valuable alternative to antibiotics and potentially irritating topical treatments. Blue light phototherapy, using a narrow-band LED light source, appears to be a safe and effective additional therapy for mild to moderate acne.

  17. The distribution of first hitting times of non-backtracking random walks on Erdős-Rényi networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, Ido; Biham, Ofer; Katzav, Eytan

    2017-05-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of first hitting times of non-backtracking random walks on finite Erdős-Rényi networks of N nodes. The walkers hop randomly between adjacent nodes on the network, without stepping back to the previous node, until they hit a node which they have already visited before or get trapped in a dead-end node. At this point, the path is terminated. The length, d, of the resulting path, is called the first hitting time. Using recursion equations, we obtain analytical results for the tail distribution of first hitting times, P(d > \\ell) , \\ell=0, 1, 2, \\dots , of non-backtracking random walks starting from a random initial node. It turns out that the distribution P(d > \\ell) is given by a product of a discrete Rayleigh distribution and an exponential distribution. We obtain analytical expressions for central measures (mean and median) and a dispersion measure (standard deviation) of this distribution. It is found that the paths of non-backtracking random walks, up to their termination at the first hitting time, are longer, on average, than those of the corresponding simple random walks. However, they are shorter than those of self avoiding walks on the same network, which terminate at the last hitting time. We obtain analytical results for the probabilities, p ret and p trap, that a path will terminate by retracing, namely stepping into an already visited node, or by trapping, namely entering a node of degree k  =  1, which has no exit link, respectively. It is shown that in dilute networks the dominant termination scenario is trapping while in dense networks most paths terminate by retracing. We obtain expressions for the conditional tail distributions of path lengths, P(d> \\ell \\vert ret) and P(d> \\ell \\vert {trap}) , for those paths which terminate by retracing or by trapping, respectively. We also study a class of generalized non-backtracking random walk models which not only avoid the backtracking step

  18. Random walk with nonuniform angular distribution biased by an external periodic pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Aranyak

    2016-11-01

    We studied the motion of a random walker in two dimensions with nonuniform angular distribution biased by an external periodic pulse. Here, we analytically calculated the mean square displacement (end-to-end distance of a walk after n time steps), without bias and with bias. We determined the average x-component of the final displacement of the walker. Interestingly, we noted that for a particular periodicity of the bias, this average x-component of the final displacement becomes approximately zero. The average y-component of the final displacement is found to be zero for any perodicity of the bias, and its reason can be attributed to the nature of the probability density function of the angle (subtended by the displacement vector with the x-axis). These analytical results are also supported by computer simulations. The present study may be thought of as a model for arresting the bacterial motion (along a preferred direction) by an external periodic bias. This article will be useful for undergraduate students of physics, statistics and biology as an example of an interdisciplinary approach to understand a way to control bacterial motion.

  19. Scaling characteristics of one-dimensional fractional diffusion processes in the presence of power-law distributed random noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α . We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.

  20. The Mean Distance to the nth Neighbour in a Uniform Distribution of Random Points: An Application of Probability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2008-01-01

    We study different ways of determining the mean distance (r[subscript n]) between a reference point and its nth neighbour among random points distributed with uniform density in a D-dimensional Euclidean space. First, we present a heuristic method; though this method provides only a crude mathematical result, it shows a simple way of estimating…

  1. Pin-photodiode array for the measurement of fan-beam energy and air kerma distributions of X-ray CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Aoyama, Takahiko; Kinomura, Yutaka; Ida, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masanao; Kameyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Yoshinori

    2016-07-01

    Patient dose estimation in X-ray computed tomography (CT) is generally performed by Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions within anthropomorphic or cylindrical phantoms. An accurate Monte Carlo simulation requires an understanding of the effects of the bow-tie filter equipped in a CT scanner, i.e. the change of X-ray energy and air kerma along the fan-beam arc of the CT scanner. To measure the effective energy and air kerma distributions, we devised a pin-photodiode array utilizing eight channels of X-ray sensors arranged at regular intervals along the fan-beam arc of the CT scanner. Each X-ray sensor consisted of two plate type of pin silicon photodiodes in tandem - front and rear photodiodes - and of a lead collimator, which only allowed X-rays to impinge vertically to the silicon surface of the photodiodes. The effective energy of the X-rays was calculated from the ratio of the output voltages of the photodiodes and the dose was calculated from the output voltage of the front photodiode using the energy and dose calibration curves respectively. The pin-photodiode array allowed the calculation of X-ray effective energies and relative doses, at eight points simultaneously along the fan-beam arc of a CT scanner during a single rotation of the scanner. The fan-beam energy and air kerma distributions of CT scanners can be effectively measured using this pin-photodiode array. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The distribution of first hitting times of random walks on directed Erdős-Rényi networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, Ido; Biham, Ofer; Katzav, Eytan

    2017-04-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of first hitting times of random walkers (RWs) on directed Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks. Starting from a random initial node, a random walker hops randomly along directed edges between adjacent nodes in the network. The path terminates either by the retracing scenario, when the walker enters a node which it has already visited before, or by the trapping scenario, when it becomes trapped in a dead-end node from which it cannot exit. The path length, namely the number of steps, d, pursued by the random walker from the initial node up to its termination, is called the first hitting time. Using recursion equations, we obtain analytical results for the tail distribution of first hitting times, P≤ft(d>\\ell \\right) . The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. It turns out that the distribution P≤ft(d>\\ell \\right) can be expressed as a product of an exponential distribution and a Rayleigh distribution. We obtain expressions for the mean, median and standard deviation of this distribution in terms of the network size and its mean degree. We also calculate the distribution of last hitting times, namely the path lengths of self-avoiding walks on directed ER networks, which do not retrace their paths. The last hitting times are found to be much longer than the first hitting times. The results are compared to those obtained for undirected ER networks. It is found that the first hitting times of RWs in a directed ER network are much longer than in the corresponding undirected network. This is due to the fact that RWs on directed networks do not exhibit the backtracking scenario, which is a dominant termination mechanism of RWs on undirected networks. It is shown that our approach also applies to a broader class of networks, referred to as semi-ER networks, in which the distribution of in-degrees is Poisson, while the out-degrees may follow any desired distribution with the same mean as

  3. Non-Convex Economic Dispatch of a Virtual Power Plant via a Distributed Randomized Gradient-Free Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic dispatch problem of a virtual power plant (VPP is becoming non-convex for distributed generators’ characteristics of valve-point loading effects, prohibited operating zones, and multiple fuel options. In this paper, the economic dispatch model of VPP is established and then solved by a distributed randomized gradient-free algorithm. To deal with the non-smooth objective function, its Gauss approximation is used to construct distributed randomized gradient-free oracles in optimization iterations. A projection operator is also introduced to solve the discontinuous variable space problem. An example simulation is implemented on a modified IEEE-34 bus test system, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm.

  4. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...... the theoretical absorption coefficient and the reverberation room measurement. The angle-weighted absorption coefficient, together with the size correction, agrees satisfactorily with the measured absorption data by the reverberation chamber method. At high frequencies and for large samples, the averaged...

  5. A Fast Reactive Power Optimization in Distribution Network Based on Large Random Matrix Theory and Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxing Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reactive power optimization method based on historical data is investigated to solve the dynamic reactive power optimization problem in distribution network. In order to reflect the variation of loads, network loads are represented in a form of random matrix. Load similarity (LS is defined to measure the degree of similarity between the loads in different days and the calculation method of the load similarity of load random matrix (LRM is presented. By calculating the load similarity between the forecasting random matrix and the random matrix of historical load, the historical reactive power optimization dispatching scheme that most matches the forecasting load can be found for reactive power control usage. The differences of daily load curves between working days and weekends in different seasons are considered in the proposed method. The proposed method is tested on a standard 14 nodes distribution network with three different types of load. The computational result demonstrates that the proposed method for reactive power optimization is fast, feasible and effective in distribution network.

  6. Spectral statistics and scattering resonances of complex primes arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren; Pinheiro, Felipe A.; Dal Negro, Luca

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a class of aperiodic arrays of electric dipoles generated from the distribution of prime numbers in complex quadratic fields (Eisenstein and Gaussian primes) as well as quaternion primes (Hurwitz and Lifschitz primes), and study the nature of their scattering resonances using the vectorial Green's matrix method. In these systems we demonstrate several distinctive spectral properties, such as the absence of level repulsion in the strongly scattering regime, critical statistics of level spacings, and the existence of critical modes, which are extended fractal modes with long lifetimes not supported by either random or periodic systems. Moreover, we show that one can predict important physical properties, such as the existence spectral gaps, by analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the Green's matrix of the arrays in the complex plane. Our results unveil the importance of aperiodic correlations in prime number arrays for the engineering of gapped photonic media that support far richer mode localization and spectral properties compared to usual periodic and random media.

  7. Number of traps and trap depth position on statistical distribution of random telegraph noise in scaled NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of random telegraph noise (RTN) amplitude distribution on the number of traps and trap depth position is investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation including random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a 30 nm NAND multi level flash memory. The ΔV th tail distribution becomes broad at fixed double traps, indicating that the number of traps greatly affects the worst RTN characteristics. It is also found that for both fixed single and fixed double traps, the ΔV th distribution in the lowest cell threshold voltage (V th) state shows the broadest distribution among all cell V th states. This is because the drain current flows at the channel surface in the lowest cell V th state, while at a high cell V th, it flows at the deeper position owing to the fringing coupling between the control gate (CG) and the channel. In this work, the ΔV th distribution with the number of traps following the Poisson distribution is also considered to cope with the variations in trap number. As a result, it is found that the number of traps is an important factor for understanding RTN characteristics. In addition, considering trap position in the tunnel oxide thickness direction is also an important factor.

  8. Optimal arrays for compressed sensing in snapshot-mode radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannjiang, Clara

    2013-11-01

    Context. Radio interferometry has always faced the problem of incomplete sampling of the Fourier plane. A possible remedy can be found in the promising new theory of compressed sensing (CS), which allows for the accurate recovery of sparse signals from sub-Nyquist sampling given certain measurement conditions. Aims: We provide an introductory assessment of optimal arrays for CS in snapshot-mode radio interferometry, using orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), a widely used CS recovery algorithm similar in some respects to CLEAN. We focus on comparing centrally condensed (specifically, Gaussian) arrays to uniform arrays, and randomized arrays to deterministic arrays such as the VLA. Methods: The theory of CS is grounded in a) sparse representation of signals and b) measurement matrices of low coherence. We calculate the mutual coherence of measurement matrices as a theoretical indicator of arrays' suitability for OMP, based on the recovery error bounds in Donoho et al. (2006, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 52, 1289). OMP reconstructions of both point and extended objects are also run from simulated incomplete data. Optimal arrays are considered for objects represented in 1) the natural pixel basis and 2) the block discrete cosine transform (BDCT). Results: We find that reconstructions of the pixel representation perform best with the uniform random array, while reconstructions of the BDCT representation perform best with normal random arrays. Slight randomization to the VLA also improves it dramatically for CS recovery with the pixel basis. Conclusions: In the pixel basis, array design for CS reflects known principles of array design for small numbers of antennas, namely of randomness and uniform distribution. Differing results with the BDCT, however, emphasize the need to study how sparsifying bases affect array design before CS can be optimized for radio interferometry.

  9. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  10. Investigation of the S(500) distribution for large air showers detected with the KASCADE-Grande array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, G., E-mail: toma@ik.fzk.d [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy) and Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Previous EAS investigations have shown that the charged particle density becomes independent of the primary mass at certain distances from the shower core and can be used as an estimator for the primary energy. In the context of the KASCADE-Grande experiment, the particular distance to shower core at which t his effect takes place is around 500 m, hence the study at this particular distance and the notation S(500) for the charged particle density. It has been shown that S(500) maps the primary energy. We present results of further investigations in this direction. An attenuation correction function can be derived from the S(500) attenuation with the EAS angle of incidence, allowing us to build an all event S(500) spectrum. In view of a future conversion of the recorded S(500) spectrum to the primary energy, based on simulations a calibration of the observed S(500) values with the primary energies has been worked out (in the energy range accessible to the KASCADE-Grande array, 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18}eV).

  11. Improvement of sampling strategies for randomly distributed hotspots in soil applying a computerized simulation considering the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Pick, Denis; Einax, Jürgen W

    2012-02-01

    The pollution of soil and environment as a result of human activity is a major problem. Nowadays, the determination of local contaminations is of interest for environmental remediation. These hotspots can have various toxic effects on plants, animals, humans, and the whole ecological system. However, economical and juridical consequences are also possible, e.g., high costs for remediation measures. In this study three sampling strategies (simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and systematic sampling) were applied on randomly distributed hotspot contaminations to prove their efficiency in term of finding hotspots. The results were used for the validation of a computerized simulation. This application can simulate the contamination on a field, the sampling pattern, and a virtual sampling. A constant hit rate showed that none of the sampling patterns could reach better results than others. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the results is described by confidence intervals. It is to be considered that the uncertainty during sampling is enormous and will decrease slightly, even the number of samples applied was increased to an unreasonable amount. It is hardly possible to identify the exact number of randomly distributed hotspot contaminations by statistical sampling. But a range of possible results could be calculated. Depending on various parameters such as shape and size of the area, number of hotspots, and sample quantity, optimal sampling strategies could be derived. Furthermore, an estimation of bias arising from sampling methodology is possible. The developed computerized simulation is an innovative tool for optimizing sampling strategies in terrestrial compartments for hotspot distributions.

  12. Seismic random noise attenuation by time-frequency peak filtering based on joint time-frequency distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Lin, Hong-bo; Li, Yue; Yang, Bao-jun

    2013-09-01

    Time-Frequency Peak Filtering (TFPF) is an effective method to eliminate pervasive random noise when seismic signals are analyzed. In conventional TFPF, the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) is used for estimating instantaneous frequency (IF), but is sensitive to noise interferences that mask the borderline between signal and noise and detract the energy concentration on the IF curve. This leads to the deviation of the peaks of the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution from the instantaneous frequency, which is the cause of undesirable lateral oscillations as well as of amplitude attenuation of the highly varying seismic signal, and ultimately of the biased seismic signal. With the purpose to overcome greatly these drawbacks and increase the signal-to-noise ratio, we propose in this paper a TFPF refinement that is based upon the joint time-frequency distribution (JTFD). The joint time-frequency distribution is obtained by the combination of the PWVD and smooth PWVD (SPWVD). First we use SPWVD to generate a broad time-frequency area of the signal. Then this area is filtered with a step function to remove some divergent time-frequency points. Finally, the joint time-frequency distribution JTFD is obtained from PWVD weighted by this filtered distribution. The objective pursued with all these operations is to reduce the effects of the interferences and enhance the energy concentration around the IF of the signal in the time-frequency domain. Experiments with synthetic and real seismic data demonstrate that TFPF based on the joint time-frequency distribution can effectively suppress strong random noise and preserve events of interest.

  13. Distribution of level spacing ratios using one-plus two-body random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Probability distribution (()) of the level spacing ratios has been introduced recently and is used to investigate many-body localization as well as to quantify the distance from integrability on finite size lattices. In this paper, we study the distribution of the ratio of consecutive level spacings using one-body ...

  14. The Effect of Distributed Practice in Undergraduate Statistics Homework Sets: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissinger, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Most homework sets in statistics courses are constructed so that students concentrate or "mass" their practice on a certain topic in one problem set. Distributed practice homework sets include review problems in each set so that practice on a topic is distributed across problem sets. There is a body of research that points to the…

  15. On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.

  16. Spectral shaping of a randomized PWM DC-DC converter using maximum entropy probability distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dove, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dove_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26566 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dove_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 SPECTRAL SHAPING OF A RANDOMIZED PWM DC... behind spectral shaping is to select a randomization technique with its associated PDF to analytically obtain a specified spectral profile [21]. The benefits of this idea comes in being able to achieve some level of controllability on the spectral content...

  17. Angular Distribution of Particles Emerging from a Diffusive Region and its Implications for the Fleck-Canfield Random Walk Algorithm for Implicit Monte Carlo Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M A

    2000-01-01

    We present various approximations for the angular distribution of particles emerging from an optically thick, purely isotropically scattering region into a vacuum. Our motivation is to use such a distribution for the Fleck-Canfield random walk method [1] for implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] radiation transport problems. We demonstrate that the cosine distribution recommended in the original random walk paper [1] is a poor approximation to the angular distribution predicted by transport theory. Then we examine other approximations that more closely match the transport angular distribution.

  18. Ultrasound therapy transducers with space-filling non-periodic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Balasundar I; Hall, Christopher S; Seip, Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Ultrasound transducers designed for therapeutic purposes such as tissue ablation, histotripsy, or drug delivery require large apertures for adequate spatial localization while providing sufficient power and steerability without the presence of secondary grating lobes. In addition, it is highly preferred to minimize the total number of channels and to maintain simplicity in electrical matching network design. To this end, we propose array designs that are both space-filling and non-periodic in the placement of the elements. Such array designs can be generated using the mathematical concept of non-periodic or aperiodic tiling (tessellation) and can lead to reduced grating lobes while maintaining full surface area coverage to deliver maximum power. For illustration, we designed two 2-D space-filling therapeutic arrays with 128 elements arranged on a spherical shell. One was based on the two-shape Penrose rhombus tiling, and the other was based on a single rectangular shape arranged non-periodically. The steerability performance of these arrays was studied using acoustic field simulations. For comparison, we also studied two other arrays, one with circular elements distributed randomly, and the other a periodic array with square elements. Results showed that the two space-filling non-periodic arrays were able to steer to treat a volume of 16 x 16 x 20 mm while ensuring that the grating lobes were under -10 dB compared with the main lobe. The rectangular non-periodic array was able to generate two and half times higher power than the random circles array. The rectangular array was then fabricated by patterning the array using laser scribing methods and its steerability performance was validated using hydrophone measurements. This work demonstrates that the concept of space-filling aperiodic/non-periodic tiling can be used to generate therapy arrays that are able to provide higher power for the same total transducer area compared with random arrays while maintaining

  19. Using random walk models to simulate the vertical distribution of particles in a turbulent water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre

    1997-01-01

    Random walk simulation has the potential to be an extremely powerful tool in the investigation of turbulence in environmental processes. However, care must be taken in applying such simulations to the motion of particles in turbulent marine systems where turbulent diffusivity is commonly spatiall...

  20. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  1. The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.

  2. Age and sex specific timing, frequency, and spatial distribu-tion of horseshoe crab spawning in Delaware Bay: Insights from a large-scale radio telemetry array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. SMITH, Lorne J. BROUSSEAU, Mary T. MANDT, Michael J. MILLARD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To study horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning behavior and migration over a large-spatial extent (>100 km, we arrayed fixed station radio receivers throughout Delaware Bay and deployed radio transmitters and archival tags on adult horseshoe crabs prior to their spawning season. We tagged and released 160 females and 60 males in 2004 and 217 females in 2005. The array covered approximately 140 km of shoreline. Recapture rates were >70% with multi-year recaptures. We categorized adult age by carapace wear. Older females tended to spawn earlier in the season and more frequently than young females, but those tendencies were more apparent in 2004 when spawning overall occurred earlier than in 2005 when spawning was delayed possibly due to decreased water temperatures. Timing of initial spawning within a year was correlated with water temperature. After adjusting for day of first spring tide, the day of first spawning was 4 days earlier for every 1 degree (°C rise in mean daily water temperature in May. Seventy nine % of spawning occurred during nighttime high tides. Fifty five % of spawning occurred within 3 d of a spring tide, which was slightly higher than the 47% expected if spawning was uniformly distributed regardless of tidal cycle. Within the same spawning season, males and females were observed spawning or intertidally resting at more than one beach separated by >5 km. Between years, most (77% did not return to spawn at the same beach. Probability of stranding was strongly age dependent for males and females with older adults experiencing higher stranding rates. Horseshoe crabs staging in the shallow waters east of the channel spawned exclusively along the eastern (NJ shoreline, but those staging west of the channel spawned throughout the bay. Overall, several insights emerged from the use of radio telemetry, which advances our understanding of horseshoe crab ecology and will be useful in conserving the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab

  3. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure under marginalization of the latter class.

  4. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure u...

  5. Are anesthesia start and end times randomly distributed? The influence of electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Litisha G; Nyland, Michael E; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Tighe, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    To perform a frequency analysis of start minute digits (SMD) and end minute digits (EMD) taken from the electronic, computer-assisted, and manual anesthesia billing-record systems. Retrospective cross-sectional review. University medical center. This cross-sectional review was conducted on billing records from a single healthcare institution over a 15-month period. A total of 30,738 cases were analyzed. For each record, the start time and end time were recorded. Distributions of SMD and EMD were tested against the null hypothesis of a frequency distribution equivalently spread between zero and nine. SMD and EMD aggregate distributions each differed from equivalency (P record, no differences were found between the recorded and expected equivalent distribution patterns for electronic anesthesia records for start minute (P records maintained nonequivalent distribution patterns for SMD and EMD (P record system, with automated time capture of events verified by the user, produces a more unified distribution of billing times than do more traditional methods of entering billing times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of randomness on the distribution of wealth: Some economic aspects of the Wright-Fisher diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleau, Nicolas; Chorro, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we consider some elementary and fair zero-sum games of chance in order to study the impact of random effects on the wealth distribution of N interacting players. Even if an exhaustive analytical study of such games between many players may be tricky, numerical experiments highlight interesting asymptotic properties. In particular, we emphasize that randomness plays a key role in concentrating wealth in the extreme, in the hands of a single player. From a mathematical perspective, we interestingly adopt some diffusion limits for small and high-frequency transactions which are otherwise extensively used in population genetics. Finally, the impact of small tax rates on the preceding dynamics is discussed for several regulation mechanisms. We show that taxation of income is not sufficient to overcome this extreme concentration process in contrast to the uniform taxation of capital which stabilizes the economy and prevents agents from being ruined.

  7. Random errors of oceanic monthly rainfall derived from SSM/I using probability distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alfred T. C.; Chiu, Long S.; Wilheit, Thomas T.

    1993-01-01

    Global averages and random errors associated with the monthly oceanic rain rates derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data using the technique developed by Wilheit et al. (1991) are computed. Accounting for the beam-filling bias, a global annual average rain rate of 1.26 m is computed. The error estimation scheme is based on the existence of independent (morning and afternoon) estimates of the monthly mean. Calculations show overall random errors of about 50-60 percent for each 5 deg x 5 deg box. The results are insensitive to different sampling strategy (odd and even days of the month). Comparison of the SSM/I estimates with raingage data collected at the Pacific atoll stations showed a low bias of about 8 percent, a correlation of 0.7, and an rms difference of 55 percent.

  8. On The Distribution Of Mixed Sum Of Independent Random Variables One Of Them Associated With Srivastava's Polynomials And H -Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jagdev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain the distribution of mixed sum of two independent random variables with different probability density functions. One with probability density function defined in finite range and the other with probability density function defined in infinite range and associated with product of Srivastava's polynomials and H-function. We use the Laplace transform and its inverse to obtain our main result. The result obtained here is quite general in nature and is capable of yielding a large number of corresponding new and known results merely by specializing the parameters involved therein. To illustrate, some special cases of our main result are also given.

  9. A Random Forest Approach to Predict the Spatial Distribution of Sediment Pollution in an Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling the magnitude and distribution of sediment-bound pollutants in estuaries is often limited by incomplete knowledge of the site and inadequate sample density. To address these modeling limitations, a decision-support tool framework was conceived that predicts sediment cont...

  10. Power-law distribution as a result of asynchronous random switching between Malthus and Verhulst kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygadło, Ryszard

    2008-02-01

    It is shown analytically that the flashing annihilation term of a Verhulst kinetic leads to the power-law distribution in the stationary state. For the frequency of switching slower than twice the free growth rate this provides the quasideterministic source of a Lévy noise at the macroscopic level.

  11. Exit times for a class of random walks: exact distribution results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    the exit possible has a Laplace transform which is a rational function. The expected exit time is also determined and the paper concludes with exact distribution results concerning exits from bounded intervals. The proofs use simple martingale techniques together with some classical expansions...

  12. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  13. An iterative fullwave simulation approach to multiple scattering in media with randomly distributed microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Lindsey, Brooks D.; Dayton, Paul A.; Pinton, Gianmarco; Muller, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA), such as microbubbles, enhance the scattering properties of blood, which is otherwise hypoechoic. The multiple scattering interactions of the acoustic field with UCA are poorly understood due to the complexity of the multiple scattering theories and the nonlinear microbubble response. The majority of bubble models describe the behavior of UCA as single, isolated microbubbles suspended in infinite medium. Multiple scattering models such as the independent scattering approximation can approximate phase velocity and attenuation for low scatterer volume fractions. However, all current models and simulation approaches only describe multiple scattering and nonlinear bubble dynamics separately. Here we present an approach that combines two existing models: (1) a full-wave model that describes nonlinear propagation and scattering interactions in a heterogeneous attenuating medium and (2) a Paul-Sarkar model that describes the nonlinear interactions between an acoustic field and microbubbles. These two models were solved numerically and combined with an iterative approach. The convergence of this combined model was explored in silico for 0.5 × 106 microbubbles ml-1, 1% and 2% bubble concentration by volume. The backscattering predicted by our modeling approach was verified experimentally with water tank measurements performed with a 128-element linear array transducer. An excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields is shown. Additionally, our model correctly predicts the phase velocity and attenuation measured using through transmission and predicted by the independent scattering approximation.

  14. A study into the distribution of gunshot residue particles in the random population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nick; Brown, Hayley; Cook, Michael; Redman, Kahlee; Condon, Tanith; Wrobel, Harald; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-05-01

    When considering the impact and value of gunshot residues (GSR) as forensic trace evidence, the likelihood of a suspect producing a positive GSR analysis result without having direct exposure to a firearm is a major consideration. Therefore, the random prevalence of GSR and 'GSR-like' residues in the wider population is a highly pertinent question when considering the probative value of such evidence. The random prevalence of GSR in two Australian jurisdictions - Victoria and South Australia - was assessed through the collection and analysis of GSR samples obtained from randomly selected members of the public. Volunteers were asked to declare any firearms use, hobbies or potential firearms exposure before allowing their hands to be sampled using aluminium GSR sample stubs coated in adhesive tape. A total of 289 samples, 120 from Victoria and 169 from South Australia were collected and analysed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). Across all samples, three 'characteristic' three-component Pb/Ba/Sb particles were detected from a single subject in South Australia, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 0.3%. Two-component 'consistent' particles were more prevalent, with Pb/Sb particles being the most frequently occurring, in 8% of samples, and in South Australia only. A number of samples, approximately 7%, showed populations of single element particles of Pb, Ba and Sb, which has the potential to generate a false positive for GSR if using a bulk analysis technique such as NAA or AAS. The prevalence of GSR or 'GSR like' particles in this study matches closely with similar surveys conducted in other jurisdictions. Such surveys are a useful foundation for the creation of a probabilistic method for the assessment of GSR evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase transitions of Ising mixed spin 1 and 3/2 with random crystal field distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; EL Falaki, M.; EL Yadari, M.; Benyoussef, A.; EL Kenz, A.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal and magnetic properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 in the presence of the random crystal field are studied within the mean field approach based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The model exhibits first, second order transitions, a tricritical point, triple point and an isolated critical end point. It is found that the system displays simple and double compensation temperatures, five topologies of the phase diagrams. A re-entrant phenomenon is also discussed and the thermal dependences of total magnetization according to extended Neel classification have been also given.

  16. Encounter distribution of two random walkers on a finite one-dimensional interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Schad, Michaela; Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael, E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee (UMR 7600), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75255 Paris Cedex (France)

    2011-09-30

    We analyse the first-passage properties of two random walkers confined to a finite one-dimensional domain. For the case of absorbing boundaries at the endpoints of the interval, we derive the probability that the two particles meet before either one of them becomes absorbed at one of the boundaries. For the case of reflecting boundaries, we obtain the mean first encounter time of the two particles. Our approach leads to closed-form expressions that are more easily tractable than a previously derived solution in terms of the Weierstrass' elliptic function. (paper)

  17. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Distributed Cloud Storage Solutions using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Toth, Tamas; Szabados, Aron

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage is usually considered within a cloud provider to ensure availability and reliability of the data. However, the user is still directly dependent on the quality of a single system. It is also entrusting the service provider with large amounts of private data, which may be accessed...... by a successful attack to that cloud system or even be inspected by government agencies in some countries. This paper advocates a general framework for network coding enabled distributed storage over multiple commercial cloud solutions, such as, Dropbox, Box, Skydrive, and Google Drive, as a way to address...... these reliability and privacy issues. By means of theoretical analysis and real– life implementations, we show not only that our framework constitutes a viable solution to increase the reliability of stored data and to ensure data privacy, but it also provides a way to reduce the storage costs and to increase...

  18. Random Acts of Violence? Examining Probabilistic Independence of the Temporal Distribution of Mass Killing Events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2017-12-01

    Recent mass killings, such as those in Newtown, Connecticut, and Aurora, Colorado, have brought new attention to mass killings in the United States. This article examines 323 mass killings taking place between January 1, 2006, and October 4, 2016, to assess how they are distributed over time. In particular, we find that they appear to be uniformly distributed over time, which suggests that their rate has remained stable over the past decade. Moreover, analysis of subsets of these mass killings sharing a common trait (e.g., family killings, public killings) suggests that they exhibit a memoryless property, suggesting that mass killing events within each category are random in the sense that the occurrence of a mass killing event does not signal whether another mass killing event is imminent. However, the same memoryless property is not found when combining all mass killings into a single analysis, consistent with earlier research that found evidence of a contagion effect among mass killing events. Because of the temporal randomness of public mass killings and the wide geographic area over which they can occur, these results imply that these events may be best addressed by systemic infrastructure-based interventions that deter such events, incorporate resiliency into the response system, or impede such events until law enforcement can respond when they do occur.

  19. Performance analysis of microphone array methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Gert; Sarradj, Ennes

    2017-08-01

    Microphone array methods aim at the characterization of multiple simultaneously operating sound sources. However, existing data processing algorithms have been shown to yield different results when applied to the same input data. The present paper introduces a method for estimating the reliability of such algorithms. Using Monte Carlo simulations, data sets with random variation of selected parameters are generated. Four different microphone array methods are applied to analyze the simulated data sets. The calculated results are compared with the expected outcome, and the dependency of the reliability on several parameters is quantified. It is shown not only that the performance of a method depends on the given source distribution, but also that the methods differ in terms of their sensitivity to imperfect input data.

  20. Percolation and lasing in real 3D crystals with inhomogeneous distributed random pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, Gennadiy, E-mail: gburlak@uaem.mx; Calderón-Segura, Yessica

    2014-11-15

    We systematically study the percolation phase transition in real 3D crystals where not only the state of pores but also their radius r and displacement s are random valued numbers. The mean values R=〈r〉 and S=〈s〉 emerge as additional spatial scales in such an extended network. This leads to variations of the threshold (critical) percolation probability p{sub C} and the percolation order parameter P that become to be the intricate functions of R and S. Our numerical simulations have shown that in such extended system the incipient spanning cluster can arise even for situations where for simple periodical system the percolation does not exist. We analyzed the validity of the nearest neighbor's approximation and found that such approximation is not valid for materials with large dispersivity of pores. The lasing of nanoemitters incorporated in such percolating spanning cluster is studied too. This effect can open interesting perspectives in modern nano- and micro-information technologies.

  1. NOSTRADAMUS Over the Horizon Radar - First sub-array experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillant, S.

    NOSTRADAMUS, which is a new concept of Over-the-Horizon Radar, is a monostatic system (i.e., with a single site for transmitting and receiving) with a transmitter associated to each aerial. The NOSTRADAMUS concept is also characterized by a surfacic array divided into independent subarrays with randomly distributed antennas. This paper discusses the operating principles of NOSTRADAMUS and describes first subarray experiments which verify these principles.

  2. Exact distributions of cover times for N independent random walkers in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-12-01

    We study the probability density function (PDF) of the cover time tc of a finite interval of size L by N independent one-dimensional Brownian motions, each with diffusion constant D . The cover time tc is the minimum time needed such that each point of the entire interval is visited by at least one of the N walkers. We derive exact results for the full PDF of tc for arbitrary N ≥1 for both reflecting and periodic boundary conditions. The PDFs depend explicitly on N and on the boundary conditions. In the limit of large N , we show that tc approaches its average value of ≈L2/(16 D lnN ) with fluctuations vanishing as 1 /(lnN) 2 . We also compute the centered and scaled limiting distributions for large N for both boundary conditions and show that they are given by nontrivial N independent scaling functions.

  3. Global synchronization of memristive neural networks subject to random disturbances via distributed pinning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyuan; Yang, Shaofu; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on global exponential synchronization of multiple memristive neural networks in the presence of external noise by means of two types of distributed pinning control. The multiple memristive neural networks are coupled in a general structure via a nonlinear function, which consists of a linear diffusive term and a discontinuous sign term. A pinning impulsive control law is introduced in the coupled system to synchronize all neural networks. Sufficient conditions are derived for ascertaining global exponential synchronization in mean square. In addition, a pinning adaptive control law is developed to achieve global exponential synchronization in mean square. Both pinning control laws utilize only partial state information received from the neighborhood of the controlled neural network. Simulation results are presented to substantiate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the nitric oxide scavenger pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasewitz, Gary T; Privalle, Christopher T; Imm, Amy; Steingrub, Jay S; Malcynski, John T; Balk, Robert A; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (PHP), in patients with distributive shock. Phase II multicenter, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study. Fifteen intensive care units in North America. Sixty-two patients with distributive shock, > or = 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and persistent catecholamine dependence despite adequate fluid resuscitation (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > or = 12). Patients were randomized to PHP at 0.25 mL/kg/hr (20 mg/kg/hr), or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 100 hrs, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. Because treatment could not be blinded, vasopressors and ventilatory support were weaned by protocol. Sixty-two patients were randomized to PHP (n = 33) or placebo (n = 29). Age, sex, etiology of shock (sepsis in 94%), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (33.1 +/- 8.3 vs. 30 +/- 7) were similar in PHP and placebo patients, respectively. Baseline plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were markedly elevated in both groups. PHP infusion increased systemic blood pressure within minutes. Overall 28-day mortality was similar (58% PHP vs. 59% placebo), but PHP survivors were weaned off vasopressors faster (13.7 +/- 8.2 vs. 26.3 +/- 21.4 hrs; p = .07) and spent less time on mechanical ventilation (10.4 +/- 10.2 vs. 17.4 +/- 9.9 days; p = .21). The risk ratio (PHP/placebo) for mortality was .79 (95% confidence interval, .39-1.59) when adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and etiology of sepsis. No excess medical interventions were noted with PHP use. PHP survivors left the intensive care unit earlier (13.6 +/- 8.6 vs. 17.9 +/- 8.2 days; p = .21) and more were discharged by day 28 (57.1 vs. 41.7%). PHP is a hemodynamically active nitric oxide scavenger. The role of PHP in distributive shock remains to be determined.

  5. Randomized Soil Survey of the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Rice Fields in Laos ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Langla, Sayan; Amornchai, Premjit; Sirisouk, Joy; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    Melioidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, where the causative organism (Burkholderia pseudomallei) is present in the soil. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), B. pseudomallei is a significant cause of sepsis around the capital, Vientiane, and has been isolated in soil near the city, adjacent to the Mekong River. We explored whether B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soil distant from the Mekong River, drawing three axes across northwest, northeast, and southern Laos to create nine sampling areas in six provinces. Within each sampling area, a random rice field site containing a grid of 100 sampling points each 5 m apart was selected. Soil was obtained from a depth of 30 cm and cultured for B. pseudomallei. Four of nine sites (44%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all three sites in Saravane Province, southern Laos. The highest isolation frequency was in east Saravane, where 94% of soil samples were B. pseudomallei positive with a geometric mean concentration of 464 CFU/g soil (95% confidence interval, 372 to 579 CFU/g soil; range, 25 to 10,850 CFU/g soil). At one site in northwest Laos (Luangnamtha), only one sample (1%) was positive for B. pseudomallei, at a concentration of 80 CFU/g soil. Therefore, B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soils beyond the immediate vicinity of the Mekong River, alerting physicians to the likelihood of melioidosis in these areas. Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity. PMID:21075883

  6. Probability distribution of intersymbol distances in random symbolic sequences: Applications to improving detection of keywords in texts and of amino acid clustering in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A; Carretero-Campos, Concepción; Coronado, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    Symbolic sequences have been extensively investigated in the past few years within the framework of statistical physics. Paradigmatic examples of such sequences are written texts, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein sequences. In these examples, the spatial distribution of a given symbol (a word, a DNA motif, an amino acid) is a key property usually related to the symbol importance in the sequence: The more uneven and far from random the symbol distribution, the higher the relevance of the symbol to the sequence. Thus, many techniques of analysis measure in some way the deviation of the symbol spatial distribution with respect to the random expectation. The problem is then to know the spatial distribution corresponding to randomness, which is typically considered to be either the geometric or the exponential distribution. However, these distributions are only valid for very large symbolic sequences and for many occurrences of the analyzed symbol. Here, we obtain analytically the exact, randomly expected spatial distribution valid for any sequence length and any symbol frequency, and we study its main properties. The knowledge of the distribution allows us to define a measure able to properly quantify the deviation from randomness of the symbol distribution, especially for short sequences and low symbol frequency. We apply the measure to the problem of keyword detection in written texts and to study amino acid clustering in protein sequences. In texts, we show how the results improve with respect to previous methods when short texts are analyzed. In proteins, which are typically short, we show how the measure quantifies unambiguously the amino acid clustering and characterize its spatial distribution.

  7. Non-random distribution of individual genetic diversity along an environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porlier, Mélody; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany

    2009-06-12

    Improving our knowledge of the links between ecology and evolution is especially critical in the actual context of global rapid environmental changes. A critical step in that direction is to quantify how variation in ecological factors linked to habitat modifications might shape observed levels of genetic variability in wild populations. Still, little is known on the factors affecting levels and distribution of genetic diversity at the individual level, despite its vital underlying role in evolutionary processes. In this study, we assessed the effects of habitat quality on population structure and individual genetic diversity of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along a gradient of agricultural intensification in southern Québec, Canada. Using a landscape genetics approach, we found that individual genetic diversity was greater in poorer quality habitats. This counter-intuitive result was partly explained by the settlement patterns of tree swallows across the landscape. Individuals of higher genetic diversity arrived earlier on their breeding grounds and settled in the first available habitats, which correspond to intensive cultures. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the effects of environmental variability on individual genetic diversity, and of integrating information on landscape structure when conducting such studies.

  8. Messaging to Increase Public Support for Naloxone Distribution Policies in the United States: Results from a Randomized Survey Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Bachhuber

    Full Text Available Barriers to public support for naloxone distribution include lack of knowledge, concerns about potential unintended consequences, and lack of sympathy for people at risk of overdose.A randomized survey experiment was conducted with a nationally-representative web-based survey research panel (GfK KnowledgePanel. Participants were randomly assigned to read different messages alone or in combination: 1 factual information about naloxone; 2 pre-emptive refutation of potential concerns about naloxone distribution; and 3 a sympathetic narrative about a mother whose daughter died of an opioid overdose. Participants were then asked if they support or oppose policies related to naloxone distribution. For each policy item, logistic regression models were used to test the effect of each message exposure compared with the no-exposure control group.The final sample consisted of 1,598 participants (completion rate: 72.6%. Factual information and the sympathetic narrative alone each led to higher support for training first responders to use naloxone, providing naloxone to friends and family members of people using opioids, and passing laws to protect people who administer naloxone. Participants receiving the combination of the sympathetic narrative and factual information, compared to factual information alone, were more likely to support all policies: providing naloxone to friends and family members (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.4 to 2.9], training first responders to use naloxone (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2 to 3.4], passing laws to protect people if they administer naloxone (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2], and passing laws to protect people if they call for medical help for an overdose (OR: 1.7 [95% CI: 1.2 to 2.5].All messages increased public support, but combining factual information and the sympathetic narrative was most effective. Public support for naloxone distribution can be improved through education and sympathetic portrayals of the population who stands to benefit

  9. The effect of the random distribution of electronic components in the output characteristics of the Howland current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Felipe, A.

    2013-04-01

    When a Howland source is designed, the components are chosen so that the designed source has the desired characteristics. However, the operational amplifier limitations and resistor tolerances causes undesired behaviours. This work proposes to take in account the influence of the random distribution of the commercial resistors in the Howland circuit over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The probability density function due to small changes over the resistors was calculated by using an analytical model. Results show that both output current and impedance are very sensitive to the resistor tolerances. It is shown that the output impedance is very dependent on the open-loop gain of the Opamp rather than the resistor tolerances, especially at higher frequencies. This might improve the implementations of real current source used in electrical bioimpedance.

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  11. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author) 17 refs.

  12. Non Random Distribution of DMD Deletion Breakpoints and Implication of Double Strand Breaks Repair and Replication Error Repair Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, Isabelle; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Deburgrave, Nathalie; Vasson, Aurélie; Nectoux, Juliette; Leturcq, France; Eymard, Bruno; Laforet, Pascal; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Mayer, Michèle; Tiffreau, Vincent; Desguerre, Isabelle; Boyer, François Constant; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Ferrer, Xavier; Wahbi, Karim; Becane, Henri-Marc; Claustres, Mireille; Chelly, Jamel; Cossee, Mireille

    2016-05-27

    Dystrophinopathies are mostly caused by copy number variations, especially deletions, in the dystrophin gene (DMD). Despite the large size of the gene, deletions do not occur randomly but mainly in two hot spots, the main one involving exons 45 to 55. The underlying mechanisms are complex and implicate two main mechanisms: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and micro-homology mediated replication-dependent recombination (MMRDR). Our goals were to assess the distribution of intronic breakpoints (BPs) in the genomic sequence of the main hot spot of deletions within DMD gene and to search for specific sequences at or near to BPs that might promote BP occurrence or be associated with DNA break repair. Using comparative genomic hybridization microarray, 57 deletions within the intron 44 to 55 region were mapped. Moreover, 21 junction fragments were sequenced to search for specific sequences. Non-randomly distributed BPs were found in introns 44, 47, 48, 49 and 53 and 50% of BPs clustered within genomic regions of less than 700bp. Repeated elements (REs), known to promote gene rearrangement via several mechanisms, were present in the vicinity of 90% of clustered BPs and less frequently (72%) close to scattered BPs, illustrating the important role of such elements in the occurrence of DMD deletions. Palindromic and TTTAAA sequences, which also promote DNA instability, were identified at fragment junctions in 20% and 5% of cases, respectively. Micro-homologies (76%) and insertions or deletions of small sequences were frequently found at BP junctions. Our results illustrate, in a large series of patients, the important role of RE and other genomic features in DNA breaks, and the involvement of different mechanisms in DMD gene deletions: Mainly replication error repair mechanisms, but also NHEJ and potentially aberrant firing of replication origins. A combination of these mechanisms may also be possible.

  13. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Jin; Xueyuan Du; Xiong Wang; Pu Zhou; Hanwei Zhang; Xiaolin Wang; Zejin Liu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153?nm with the output power exceeding 18?W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173?nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173?nm random distributed fe...

  14. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  15. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well

  16. Dense nanoimprinted silicon nanowire arrays with passivated axial p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, A.; Pacifici, D.; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of vertical arrays of silicon axial p-i-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) epitaxy. NW surface passivation with silicon dioxide shell is shown to enhance carrier recombination time, open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current density (JSC), and fill factor (FF). The photovoltaic performance of passivated individual NW and NW arrays was compared under 532 nm laser illumination with power density of ˜10 W/cm2. Higher values of VOC and FF in the NW arrays are explained by enhanced light trapping. In order to verify the effect of NW density on light absorption and hence on the photovoltaic performance of NW arrays, dense Si NW arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography to periodically arrange the gold seed particles prior to epitaxial growth. Compared to sparse NW arrays fabricated using VLS growth from randomly distributed gold seeds, the nanoimprinted NW array solar cells show a greatly increased peak external quantum efficiency of ˜8% and internal quantum efficiency of ˜90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying pitch (P) confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400-650 nm spectral range is calculated for a Si NW array with P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness.

  17. Preprocessing of 18F-DMFP-PET Data Based on Hidden Markov Random Fields and the Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Segovia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 18F-DMFP-PET is an emerging neuroimaging modality used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD that allows us to examine postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Like other neuroimaging modalities used for PD diagnosis, most of the total intensity of 18F-DMFP-PET images is concentrated in the striatum. However, other regions can also be useful for diagnostic purposes. An appropriate delimitation of the regions of interest contained in 18F-DMFP-PET data is crucial to improve the automatic diagnosis of PD. In this manuscript we propose a novel methodology to preprocess 18F-DMFP-PET data that improves the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis systems for PD. First, the data were segmented using an algorithm based on Hidden Markov Random Field. As a result, each neuroimage was divided into 4 maps according to the intensity and the neighborhood of the voxels. The maps were then individually normalized so that the shape of their histograms could be modeled by a Gaussian distribution with equal parameters for all the neuroimages. This approach was evaluated using a dataset with neuroimaging data from 87 parkinsonian patients. After these preprocessing steps, a Support Vector Machine classifier was used to separate idiopathic and non-idiopathic PD. Data preprocessed by the proposed method provided higher accuracy results than the ones preprocessed with previous approaches.

  18. The evolution of proteins from random amino acid sequences: II. Evidence from the statistical distributions of the lengths of modern protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H

    1994-04-01

    This paper continues an examination of the hypothesis that modern proteins evolved from random heteropeptide sequences. In support of the hypothesis, White and Jacobs (1993, J Mol Evol 36:79-95) have shown that any sequence chosen randomly from a large collection of nonhomologous proteins has a 90% or better chance of having a lengthwise distribution of amino acids that is indistinguishable from the random expectation regardless of amino acid type. The goal of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the random-origin hypothesis could explain the lengths of modern protein sequences without invoking specific mechanisms such as gene duplication or exon splicing. The sets of sequences examined were taken from the 1989 PIR database and consisted of 1,792 "super-family" proteins selected to have little sequence identity, 623 E. coli sequences, and 398 human sequences. The length distributions of the proteins could be described with high significance by either of two closely related probability density functions: The gamma distribution with parameter 2 or the distribution for the sum of two exponential random independent variables. A simple theory for the distributions was developed which assumes that (1) protoprotein sequences had exponentially distributed random independent lengths, (2) the length dependence of protein stability determined which of these protoproteins could fold into compact primitive proteins and thereby attain the potential for biochemical activity, (3) the useful protein sequences were preserved by the primitive genome, and (4) the resulting distribution of sequence lengths is reflected by modern proteins. The theory successfully predicts the two observed distributions which can be distinguished by the functional form of the dependence of protein stability on length. The theory leads to three interesting conclusions. First, it predicts that a tetra-nucleotide was the signal for primitive translation termination. This prediction is

  19. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  20. Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wik, L.; Olsen, J.A.; Persse, D.; Sterz, F.; Lozano Jr, M.; Brouwer, M.A.; Westfall, M.; Souders, C.M.; Malzer, R.; Grunsven, P.M. van; Travis, D.T.; Whitehead, A.; Herken, U.R.; Lerner, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare integrated automated load distributing band CPR (iA-CPR) with high-quality manual CPR (M-CPR) to determine equivalence, superiority, or inferiority in survival to hospital discharge. METHODS: Between March 5, 2009 and January 11, 2011 a randomized, unblinded, controlled group

  1. Evaluating effectiveness of down-sampling for stratified designs and unbalanced prevalence in Random Forest models of tree species distributions in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracy S. Frescino

    2012-01-01

    Random Forests is frequently used to model species distributions over large geographic areas. Complications arise when data used to train the models have been collected in stratified designs that involve different sampling intensity per stratum. The modeling process is further complicated if some of the target species are relatively rare on the landscape leading to an...

  2. Characterization of geometrical random uncertainty distribution for a group of patients in radiotherapy; Caracterizacion de la distribucion de incertidumbres geometricas aleatorias para un grupo de pacientes en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Montplet, C.; Jurado Bruggeman, D.

    2010-07-01

    Geometrical random uncertainty in radiotherapy is usually characterized by a unique value in each group of patients. We propose a novel approach based on a statistically accurate characterization of the uncertainty distribution, thus reducing the risk of obtaining potentially unsafe results in CT V-Pt margins or in the selection of correction protocols.

  3. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  4. Influence of a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern on Body Fat Distribution: Results of the PREDIMED-Canarias Intervention Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Díaz-Benítez, Elena María; Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Míguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2016-08-01

    To assess the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MeDiet) on anthropometric and body composition parameters in one of the centers of the PREDIMED randomized dietary trial. 351 Canarian free-living subjects aged 55 to 80 years, with type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 different dietary interventions: MeDiet + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet + nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts), or a control low-fat diet. Total energy intake was ad libitum. Measures included changes in anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]), body fat distribution, energy, and nutrient intake after 1 year. Body composition (percentage of total body fat [%TBF], total fat mass [TFM], free fat mass [FFM], percentage of truncal fat [%TrF], truncal fat mass [TrFM]) and total body water (TBW) were estimated by octapolar electrical impedance analysis. Paired t tests were conducted to assess within-group changes. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess the effect of the dietary intervention on the percentage change in anthropometric variables, body composition, and dietary intake profile. All pairwise comparisons that were statistically significant in ANOVA were subsequently adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg test, which penalizes for multiple comparisons. After 1 year of intervention, significant within-group reductions in all anthropometric variables were observed for the MeDiet + EVOO and the control group. The MeDiet + nuts group exhibited a significant reduction in WC and TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in %TBF and a reduction in TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in the percentage of total body fat and a reduction in TBW. However, we did not find any between-group significant difference in anthropometric or body composition changes. Mediterranean diets enriched with EVOO or specific mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts

  5. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Smith, Greg C; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  6. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Bock

    Full Text Available AIMS: We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. METHODS: This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019, as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6% reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042. No associated adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk population of adolescent males. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  7. Coordinating a multi-retailer decentralized distribution system with random demand based on buyback and compensation contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set up the coordinating mechanism for a decentralized distribution system consisting of a manufacturer and multiple independent retailers by means of contracts. It is in the two-stage supply chain system that all retailers sell an identical product made by the manufacturer and determine their order quantities which directly affect the expected profit of the supply chain with random demand. Design/methodology/approach: First comparison of the optimal order quantities in the centralized and decentralized system shows that the supply chain needs coordination. Then the coordination model is given based on buyback cost and compensation benefit. Finally the coordination mechanism is set up in which the manufacturer as the leader uses a buyback policy to incentive these retailers and the retailers pay profit returns to compensate the manufacturer. Findings: The results of a numerical example show that the perfect supply chain coordination and the flexible allocation of the profit can be achieved in the multi-retailer supply chain by the buyback and compensation contracts. Research limitations: The results based on assumptions might not completely hold in practice and the paper only focuses on studying a single product in two-stage supply chain. Practical implications: The coordination mechanism is applicable to a realistic supply chain under a private information setting and the research results is the foundation of further developing the coordination mechanism for a realistic multi-stage supply chain system with more products. Originality/value: This paper focused on studying the coordination mechanism for a decentralized multi-retailer supply chain by the joint application of the buyback and compensation contracts. Furthermore the perfect supply chain coordination and the flexible allocation of the profit are achieved.

  8. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  9. Critical side channel effects in random bit generation with multiple semiconductor lasers in a polarization-based quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju

    2017-08-21

    Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.

  10. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  11. Enhancing superconducting critical current by randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Thoutam, L. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Shen, B.; Pearson, J. E.; Divan, R.; Ocola, L. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.

    2016-01-01

    The key ingredient of high critical currents in a type-II superconductor is defect sites that pin vortices. Contrary to earlier understanding on nanopatterned artificial pinning, here we show unequivocally the advantages of a random pinscape over an ordered array in a wide magnetic field range. We reveal that the better performance of a random pinscape is due to the variation of its local density of pinning sites (LDOPS), which mitigates the motion of vortices. This is confirmed by achieving even higher enhancement of the critical current through a conformally mapped random pinscape, where the distribution of the LDOPS is further enlarged. The demonstrated key role of LDOPS in enhancing superconducting critical currents gets at the heart of random versus commensurate pinning. Our findings highlight the importance of random pinscapes in enhancing the superconducting critical currents of applied superconductors.

  12. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. A.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Eschenburg, V.; Lawrence, C. N.; Riley, C.; Summers, D. J.; Petravick, D. L.

    2002-08-01

    The next generation of high-energy physics experiments is expected to gather prodigious amounts of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that use recent developments in commodity hardware. We test redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high-energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) arrays prices now equal the cost per terabyte of million dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important. We also explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, hot pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and writable digital video disks (DVD-R) disks.

  13. Model-based clustering of DNA methylation array data: a recursive-partitioning algorithm for high-dimensional data arising as a mixture of beta distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiemels Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. One of the most commonly studied epigenetic alterations is cytosine methylation, which is a well recognized mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and often occurs at tumor suppressor gene loci in human cancer. Arrays are now being used to study DNA methylation at a large number of loci; for example, the Illumina GoldenGate platform assesses DNA methylation at 1505 loci associated with over 800 cancer-related genes. Model-based cluster analysis is often used to identify DNA methylation subgroups in data, but it is unclear how to cluster DNA methylation data from arrays in a scalable and reliable manner. Results We propose a novel model-based recursive-partitioning algorithm to navigate clusters in a beta mixture model. We present simulations that show that the method is more reliable than competing nonparametric clustering approaches, and is at least as reliable as conventional mixture model methods. We also show that our proposed method is more computationally efficient than conventional mixture model approaches. We demonstrate our method on the normal tissue samples and show that the clusters are associated with tissue type as well as age. Conclusion Our proposed recursively-partitioned mixture model is an effective and computationally efficient method for clustering DNA methylation data.

  14. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  15. Sequence correction of random coil chemical shifts: correlation between neighbor correction factors and changes in the Ramachandran distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2011-01-01

    . The contributions from the neighboring residues are typically removed by using neighbor correction factors determined based on each residue's effect on glycine chemical shifts. Due to its unusual conformational freedom, glycine may be particularly unrepresentative for the remaining residue types. In this study, we......Random coil chemical shifts are necessary for secondary chemical shift analysis, which is the main NMR method for identification of secondary structure in proteins. One of the largest challenges in the determination of random coil chemical shifts is accounting for the effect of neighboring residues...... use random coil peptides containing glutamine instead of glycine to determine the random coil chemical shifts and the neighbor correction factors. The resulting correction factors correlate to changes in the populations of the major wells in the Ramachandran plot, which demonstrates that changes...

  16. The As400 Power Control and Distribution Unit - A Modular and Flexible Unit With B2r Solar Array Regulation For High Power Leo Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Next to an outline of other power control and distribution functions this paper also includes a summary of the novel High Rate Diagnostics Mode that allows monitoring telemetry signals with a time resolution up to 200μs.

  17. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  18. Simulating Pre-Asymptotic, Non-Fickian Transport Although Doing Simple Random Walks - Supported By Empirical Pore-Scale Velocity Distributions and Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, S.; Jia, N.; Bijeljic, B.; Nowak, W.

    2016-12-01

    Pre-asymptotic characteristics are almost ubiquitous when analyzing solute transport processes in porous media. These pre-asymptotic aspects are caused by spatial coherence in the velocity field and by its heterogeneity. For the Lagrangian perspective of particle displacements, the causes of pre-asymptotic, non-Fickian transport are skewed velocity distribution, statistical dependencies between subsequent increments of particle positions (memory) and dependence between the x, y and z-components of particle increments. Valid simulation frameworks should account for these factors. We propose a particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulation technique that can use empirical pore-space velocity distributions as input, enforces memory between subsequent random walk steps, and considers cross dependence. Thus, it is able to simulate pre-asymptotic non-Fickian transport phenomena. Our PTRW framework contains an advection/dispersion term plus a diffusion term. The advection/dispersion term produces time-series of particle increments from the velocity CDFs. These time series are equipped with memory by enforcing that the CDF values of subsequent velocities change only slightly. The latter is achieved through a random walk on the axis of CDF values between 0 and 1. The virtual diffusion coefficient for that random walk is our only fitting parameter. Cross-dependence can be enforced by constraining the random walk to certain combinations of CDF values between the three velocity components in x, y and z. We will show that this modelling framework is capable of simulating non-Fickian transport by comparison with a pore-scale transport simulation and we analyze the approach to asymptotic behavior.

  19. Phased arrays '85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, M. R.

    1985-11-01

    The conference Phased Arrays '85 was held in Bedford, MA, on October 15-18, 1985. It is pointed out that the 15 years between the 1970 and 1985 conferences dedicated to phased array antennas have seen many technological advances. Attention is given to the principle of operation, monolithic phased arrays, active arrays of monopole elements, scan compensated active element patterns, microstrip arrays, time delay technologies for phased array systems, ferrite materials for mm-wave phase shifters, phase-only optimization of phased array excitation by B-quadratic programming, a nearly frequency-independent sidelobe suppression technique for phased arrays, and active impedance effects in low sidelobe and ultrawideband phased arrays.

  20. Training symmetry of weight distribution after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study comparing task-related reach, Bobath and feedback training approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, M H; Winzeler-Mercay, U; Radwan, S; Lee, L

    2002-09-01

    To determine (1) the most effective of three treatment approaches to retrain seated weight distribution long-term after stroke and (2) whether improvements could be generalized to weight distribution in standing. Inpatient rehabilitation unit. Forty asymmetrical acute stroke subjects were randomly allocated to one of four groups in this pilot study. Changes in weight distribution were compared between the 10 subjects of each of three treatment groups (task-specific reach, Bobath, or Balance Performance Monitor [BPM] feedback training) and a no specific treatment control group. One week of measurement only was followed by two weeks of daily training sessions with the treatment to which the subject was randomly allocated. Measurements were performed using the BPM daily before treatment sessions, two weeks after cessation of treatment and 12 weeks post study. Weight distribution was calculated in terms of mean balance (percentage of total body weight) or the mean of 300 balance points over a 30-s data run. In the short term, the Bobath approach was the most effective treatment for retraining sitting symmetry after stroke (p = 0.004). Training with the BPM and no training were also significant (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively) and task-specific reach training failed to reach significance (p = 0.26). At 12 weeks post study 83% of the BPM training group, 38% of the task-specific reach group, 29% of the Bobath group and 0% of the untrained group were found to be distributing their weight to both sides. Some generalization of symmetry training in sitting to standing was noted in the BPM training group which appeared to persist long term. Results should be treated with caution due to the small group sizes. However, these preliminary findings suggest that it might be possible to restore postural symmetry in sitting in the early stages of rehabilitation with therapy that focuses on creating an awareness of body position.

  1. Parallelization of a spatial random field characterization process using the Method of Anchored Distributions and the HTCondor high throughput computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Murillo, C. A.; Over, M. W.; Frystacky, H.; Ames, D. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A new software application called MAD# has been coupled with the HTCondor high throughput computing system to aid scientists and educators with the characterization of spatial random fields and enable understanding the spatial distribution of parameters used in hydrogeologic and related modeling. MAD# is an open source desktop software application used to characterize spatial random fields using direct and indirect information through Bayesian inverse modeling technique called the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD). MAD relates indirect information with a target spatial random field via a forward simulation model. MAD# executes inverse process running the forward model multiple times to transfer information from indirect information to the target variable. MAD# uses two parallelization profiles according to computational resources available: one computer with multiple cores and multiple computers - multiple cores through HTCondor. HTCondor is a system that manages a cluster of desktop computers for submits serial or parallel jobs using scheduling policies, resources monitoring, job queuing mechanism. This poster will show how MAD# reduces the time execution of the characterization of random fields using these two parallel approaches in different case studies. A test of the approach was conducted using 1D problem with 400 cells to characterize saturated conductivity, residual water content, and shape parameters of the Mualem-van Genuchten model in four materials via the HYDRUS model. The number of simulations evaluated in the inversion was 10 million. Using the one computer approach (eight cores) were evaluated 100,000 simulations in 12 hours (10 million - 1200 hours approximately). In the evaluation on HTCondor, 32 desktop computers (132 cores) were used, with a processing time of 60 hours non-continuous in five days. HTCondor reduced the processing time for uncertainty characterization by a factor of 20 (1200 hours reduced to 60 hours.)

  2. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  3. High prevalence of multidrug resistance and random distribution of mobile genetic elements among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) of the four major phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijavec, Matija; Starcic Erjavec, Marjanca; Ambrozic Avgustin, Jerneja; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Fruth, Angelika; Krizan-Hergouth, Veronika; Zgur-Bertok, Darja

    2006-08-01

    One hundred and ten UTI Escherichia coli strains, from Ljubljana, Slovenia, were analyzed for antibiotic resistances, mobile DNA elements, serotype, and phylogenetic origin. A high prevalence of drug resistance and multidrug resistance was found. Twenty-six percent of the isolates harbored a class 1 integron, while a majority of the strains (56%) harbored rep sequences characteristic of F-like plasmids. int as well as rep sequences were found to be distributed in a random manner among strains of the four major phylogenetic groups indicating that all groups have a similar tendency to acquire and maintain mobile genetic elements frequently associated with resistance determinants.

  4. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  5. Random or selective neuroanatomical connectivity. Study of the distribution of fibers over two populations of identified interneurons in cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkenoog, M.; van den Oever, M.C.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Wouterlood, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a neuroanatomical tracing method in a stereological approach to study the proportional distribution of fibers of a particular projection over two chemically different populations of neurons. The fiber projection from the presubiculum to the medial division of the entorhinal cortex of the

  6. Clustering, Randomness, and Regularity: Spatial Distributions and Human Performance on the Traveling Salesperson Problem and Minimum Spanning Tree Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Matthew J.; Preiss, Kym; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated human performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MST-P) in regards to a factor that has previously received little attention within the literature: the spatial distributions of TSP and MST-P stimuli. First, we describe a method for quantifying the relative degree of…

  7. Efficient implementation of multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanot, Gyan V [Princeton, NJ; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2012-01-10

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  8. Dense nanoimprinted silicon nanowire arrays with passivated axial p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, A.; Pacifici, D. [Department of Physics and School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Davydov, A. V. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-03-28

    We report on the fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of vertical arrays of silicon axial p-i-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) epitaxy. NW surface passivation with silicon dioxide shell is shown to enhance carrier recombination time, open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), and fill factor (FF). The photovoltaic performance of passivated individual NW and NW arrays was compared under 532 nm laser illumination with power density of ∼10 W/cm{sup 2}. Higher values of V{sub OC} and FF in the NW arrays are explained by enhanced light trapping. In order to verify the effect of NW density on light absorption and hence on the photovoltaic performance of NW arrays, dense Si NW arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography to periodically arrange the gold seed particles prior to epitaxial growth. Compared to sparse NW arrays fabricated using VLS growth from randomly distributed gold seeds, the nanoimprinted NW array solar cells show a greatly increased peak external quantum efficiency of ∼8% and internal quantum efficiency of ∼90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying pitch (P) confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400–650 nm spectral range is calculated for a Si NW array with P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness.

  9. The relationship between multilevel models and non-parametric multilevel mixture models: Discrete approximation of intraclass correlation, random coefficient distributions, and residual heteroscedasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K

    2016-11-01

    Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoxi; Du, Xueyuan; Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zejin

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153 nm with the output power exceeding 18 W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173 nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173 nm random distributed feedback fiber laser as pump laser is a feasible and promising scheme to achieve high-power emission of long-wavelength Tm-doped fiber laser. The output power of this Tm-doped fiber laser could be further improved by optimizing the length of active fiber, reflectivity of FBGs, increasing optical efficiency of pump laser and using better temperature management. We also compared the operation of 2153 nm Tm-doped fiber lasers pumped with 793 nm laser diodes, and the maximum output powers were limited to ~2 W by strong amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic oscillation in the range of 1900-2000 nm.

  12. Maxima of Skew Elliptical Triangular Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Hashorva, Enkelejd; Ling, Chengxiu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the componentwise maxima for two bivariate skew elliptical triangular arrays with components given in terms of skew transformations of bivariate spherical random vectors. We find the weak limit of the normalized maxima for both cases that the random radius pertaining to the elliptical random vectors is either in the Gumbel or in the Weibull max-domain of attractions.

  13. Preparation of well-distributed titania nanopillar arrays on Ti6Al4V surface by induction heating for enhancing osteogenic differentiation of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Jun; Bai, Han-Ying; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Xu, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Han; Chen, Xin; Lu, Yu-Peng; Zhang, Yi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Great effort has recently been devoted to the preparation of nanoscale surfaces on titanium-based implants to achieve clinically fast osteoinduction and osseointegration, which relies on the unique characteristics of the nanostructure. In this work, we used induction heating treatment (IHT) as a rapid oxidation method to fabricate a porous nanoscale oxide layer on the Ti6Al4V surface for better medical application. Well-distributed vertical nanopillars were yielded by IHT for 20–35 s on the alloy surface. The composition of the oxides contained rutile/anatase TiO2 and a small amount of Al2O3 between the TiO2 grain boundaries (GBs). This technology resulted in a reduction and subsequent increase of surface roughness of 26–32 nm when upregulating the heating time, followed by the successive enhancement of the thickness, wettability and adhesion strength of the oxidation layer to the matrix. The surface hardness also distinctly rose to 554 HV in the IHT-35 s group compared with the 350 HV of bare Ti6Al4V. The massive small-angle GBs in the bare alloy promoted the formation of nanosized oxide crystallites. The grain refinement and deformation texture reduction further improved the mechanical properties of the matrix after IHT. Moreover, in vitro experiments on a mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) culture derived from human bone marrow for 1–7 days indicated that the nanoscale layers did not cause cytotoxicity, and facilitated cell differentiation in osteoblasts by enhancing the gene and osteogenesis-related protein expressions after 1–3 weeks of culturing. The increase of the IHT time slightly advanced the BMSC proliferation and differentiation, especially during long-term culture. Our findings provide strong evidence that IHT oxidation technology is a novel nanosurface modification technology, which is potentially promising for further clinical development.

  14. Integrated infrared array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of integrated infrared (IR) array technology is presented. Although the array pixel formats are smaller, and the readout noise of IR arrays is larger than the corresponding values achieved with optical charge-coupled-device silicon technology, substantial progress is being made in IR technology. Both existing IR arrays and those being developed are described. Examples of astronomical images are given which illustrate the potential of integrated IR arrays for scientific investigations.

  15. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Village-Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Distribution of Zinc for Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L.; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. Methods We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health–facility only. Children’s caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children’s age. Results There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46–0.99), but not presenting at clinic. Conclusions In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829

  17. Village-randomized clinical trial of home distribution of zinc for treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Western kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. METHODS: We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. RESULTS: There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed, 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001. There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6% and comparison villages (58.8%. Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%. There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, but not presenting at clinic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  18. Receiver architecture of the thousand-element array (THEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.W.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smolders, A.B.; Gunst, A.W.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a new international radio-telescope SKA (Square Kilometre Array), an outdoor phasedarray prototype, the THousand Element Array (THEA), is being developed at NFRA. THEA is a phased array with 1024 active elements distributed on a regular grid over a surface of

  19. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  20. Non-Random Distribution of 5S rDNA Sites and Its Association with 45S rDNA in Plant Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Fernando; Guerra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    5S and 45S rDNA sites are the best mapped chromosome regions in eukaryotic chromosomes. In this work, a database was built gathering information about the position and number of 5S rDNA sites in 784 plant species, aiming to identify patterns of distribution along the chromosomes and its correlation with the position of 45S rDNA sites. Data revealed that in most karyotypes (54.5%, including polyploids) two 5S rDNA sites (a single pair) are present, with 58.7% of all sites occurring in the short arm, mainly in the proximal region. In karyotypes of angiosperms with only 1 pair of sites (single sites) they are mostly found in the proximal region (52.0%), whereas in karyotypes with multiple sites the location varies according to the average chromosome size. Karyotypes with multiple sites and small chromosomes (sites, while medium-sized (between 3 and 6 µm) and large chromosomes (>6 µm) more commonly show terminal or interstitial sites. In species with holokinetic chromosomes, the modal value of sites per karyotype was also 2, but they were found mainly in a terminal position. Adjacent 5S and 45S rDNA sites were often found in the short arm, reflecting the preferential distribution of both sites in this arm. The high frequency of genera with at least 1 species with adjacent 5S and 45S sites reveals that this association appeared several times during angiosperm evolution, but it has been maintained only rarely as the dominant array in plant genera. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effects of plasma sheath on solar power satellite array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the plasma sheath and equilibrium voltage distribution of a high-power solar array governs various kinds of plasma-interaction phenomena and array losses. Sheath effects of a linearly-connected array are investigated for GEO. Although the array may be large, the thin-sheath-limit analysis may be invalid, necessitating numerical methods. Three-dimensional computer calculations show that potential barriers and over-lapping sheaths can occur, i.e., structures not predictable under the thin-sheath-limit analysis, but nevertheless controlling the distribution of plasma currents impacting on the array.

  2. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  3. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  4. Non-random geographic distribution of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in the Greater Pittsburgh Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jacqueline F; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Geskin, Jacob Z; Akilov, Oleg E; Geskin, Larisa J

    2014-07-15

    Environmental hazards may play a role in the etiology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Some studies have found an increased incidence of CTCL among workers in chemical science, transportation, and manufacturing industries, but other studies have not. This discrepancy may be attributable to population migration, complicating accurate assessment of lifetime exposures. The Pittsburgh population has very low migration rates and most CTCL patients seen at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Cutaneous Lymphoma Center are life-long local residents. The Greater Pittsburgh Area used to be an industrial hub. There are residential communities positioned within close proximity to inactive industrial sites that continue to contain pollutants. To determine whether CTCL patients' residences cluster within specific Pittsburgh regions, in particular, those with high levels of environmental pollutants. Our study included patients diagnosed with CTCL at the UPMC Cutaneous Lymphoma Center between 2000 and 2012. We mapped the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates of patients' residences at diagnosis, superfund sites, toxic release inventory sites, particular matter levels, and dermatologists' offices using ArcMap 10.1. We then performed a SaTScan analysis using zip codes to assess for geographic clustering of patients' residences in the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area. We assessed for a correlation between case distribution and both environmental hazards sites and dermatologist density in the area. We identified 274 patients with CTCL in the Greater Pittsburgh area. We identified a statistically significant geographic cluster (pPittsburgh and the site of the region's only CTCL clinic. We observed no relationship between the locations of superfund sites, toxic release inventory sites, or particular matter levels and CTCL case distribution. Our findings do not support an association between exposure to environmental toxins and CTCL. CTCL cases clustered in

  5. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of spectral linear statistics on random matrices beyond the large deviation function—Wigner time delay in multichannel disordered wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, Aurélien; Texier, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    An invariant ensemble of N × N random matrices can be characterised by a joint distribution for eigenvalues P({λ }1,\\cdots ,{λ }N). The distribution of linear statistics, i.e. of quantities of the form L=(1/N){\\sum }if({λ }i) where f(x) is a given function, appears in many physical problems. In the N\\to ∞ limit, L scales as L˜ {N}η , where the scaling exponent η depends on the ensemble and the function f(x). Its distribution can be written in the form {P}N(s={N}-η L)≃ {A}N,β (s)\\exp \\{-(β {N}2/2){{Φ }}(s)\\}, where β \\in \\{1,2,4\\} is the Dyson index. The Coulomb gas technique naturally provides the large deviation function {{Φ }}(s), which can be efficiently obtained thanks to a ‘thermodynamic identity’ introduced earlier. We conjecture the pre-exponential function {A}N,β (s). We check our conjecture on several well controlled cases within the Laguerre and the Jacobi ensembles. Then we apply our main result to a situation where the large deviation function has no minimum (and L has infinite moments): this arises in the statistical analysis of the Wigner time delay for semi-infinite multichannel disordered wires (Laguerre ensemble). The statistical analysis of the Wigner time delay then crucially depends on the pre-exponential function {A}N,β (s), which ensures the decay of the distribution for large argument.

  7. Computer Modelling and Simulation of Solar PV Array Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Nalin Kumar

    2003-02-01

    the mismatches due to manufacturer's tolerances in cell characteristics, shadowing, soiling and aging of solar cells. The current-voltage curves and the values of energy yield characterized by maximum-power points and fill factors for these arrays were also obtained. Two different mathematical models, one for smaller size arrays and the other for the larger size arrays, were developed. The first model takes account of the partial differential equations with boundary value conditions, whereas the second one involves the simple linear programming concept. Based on the initial information on the values of short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of thirty-six single-crystalline silicon solar cells provided by a manufacturer, the values of these parameters for up to 14,400 solar cells were generated randomly. Thus, the investigations were done for three different cases of array sizes, i.e., (6 x 6), (36 x 8) and (720 x 20), for each configuration. The operational lifetimes of different interconnected solar PV arrays and the improvement in their life properties through different interconnection and modularized configurations were investigated using a reliability-index model. Under normal conditions, the efficiency of a solar cell degrades in an exponential manner, and its operational life above a lowest admissible efficiency may be considered as the upper bound of its lifetime. Under field conditions, the solar cell may fail any time due to environmental stresses, or it may function up to the end of its expected lifetime. In view of this, the lifetime of a solar cell in an array was represented by an exponentially distributed random variable. At any instant of time t, this random variable was considered to have two states: (i) the cell functioned till time t, or (ii) the cell failed within time t. It was considered that the functioning of the solar cell included its operation at an efficiency decaying with time under normal conditions. It was assumed that the

  8. Study of the plasma interference with high voltage electrode array for space power application

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Minoru; Tanaka, Koji; Sasaki, Susumu; Odawara, Osamu; 岩佐 稔; 田中 孝治; 佐々木 進; 小田原 修

    2005-01-01

    We are studying the problems associated with high voltage power systems in space. Especially we are interested in the potential distribution of the solar array that is resistant to the electrical discharge. We have carried out experiments on the interaction between the high voltage solar array and the ambient plasma. In the experiment, an array of electrodes distributed on the insulation panel was used to simulate the inter-connectors of the solar array. An electrode array without the insulat...

  9. Distribution Rules for Array Database Queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. van Ballegooij; R. Cornacchia (Roberto); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractNon-trivial retrieval applications involve complex computations on large multi-dimensional datasets. These should, in principle, benefit from the use of relational database technology. However, expressing such problems in terms of relational queries is difficult and timeconsuming. Even

  10. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  11. Clocked combustor can array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  12. Simulated near-field mapping of ripple pattern supported metal nanoparticles arrays for SERS optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Mahima; Bhatnagar, Mukul; Ranjan, Mukesh; Mukherjee, Subroto; Nath, Rabinder; Mitra, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    An analytical model has been developed using a modified Yamaguchi model along with the wavelength dependent plasmon line-width correction. The model has been used to calculate the near-field response of random nanoparticles on the plane surface, elongated and spherical silver nanoparticle arrays supported on ion beam produced ripple patterned templates. The calculated near-field mapping for elongated nanoparticles arrays on the ripple patterned surface shows maximum number of hot-spots with a higher near-field enhancement (NFE) as compared to the spherical nanoparticle arrays and randomly distributed nanoparticles on the plane surface. The results from the simulations show a similar trend for the NFE when compared to the far field reflection spectra. The nature of the wavelength dependent NFE is also found to be in agreement with the observed experimental results from surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The calculated and the measured optical response unambiguously reveal the importance of interparticle gap and ordering, where a high intensity Raman signal is obtained for ordered elongated nanoparticles arrays case as against non-ordered and the aligned configuration of spherical nanoparticles on the rippled surface.

  13. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  14. Thermophotovoltaic Array Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SBurger; E Brown; K Rahner; L Danielson; J Openlander; J Vell; D Siganporia

    2004-07-29

    A systematic approach to thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array design and fabrication was used to optimize the performance of a 192-cell TPV array. The systematic approach began with cell selection criteria that ranked cells and then matched cell characteristics to maximize power output. Following cell selection, optimization continued with an array packaging design and fabrication techniques that introduced negligible electrical interconnect resistance and minimal parasitic losses while maintaining original cell electrical performance. This paper describes the cell selection and packaging aspects of array optimization as applied to fabrication of a 192-cell array.

  15. Enhanced focus steering abilities of multi-element therapeutic arrays operating in nonlinear regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuldashev, P., E-mail: petr@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Ilyin, S. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, L. [Andreyev Acoustics Institute, 4 Schvernik Str., 117036 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, O.; Khokhlova, V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40" t" h, Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Kreider, W. [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40" t" h, Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Steering abilities of a typical HIFU therapeutic array operated in linear and nonlinear regimes were compared using numerical simulation with the 3D Westervelt equation. The array included 256 elements of 1.2 MHz frequency and 6.6 mm diameter distributed in a quasi-random pattern over a spherical shell with a 130 mm aperture and a focal length of 120 mm. In the case of linear focusing, thermal effects are proportional to the intensity level and the criterion for safe array operation is that the intensity in the grating lobes should be less than 10% of the intensity in the main focus. In the case of nonlinear focusing, the heating effect is no longer proportional to intensity; therefore the heat deposition rate was chosen as the relevant metric, using the same 10% threshold for the secondary lobe in comparison with the focal maximum. When steering the focus, the same linearly predicted intensity level at the main focus was maintained by increasing the array power. Numerical simulations of the acoustic field were performed for nonlinear propagation both in water and in tissue. It was shown that for shock-forming conditions in the main focus, the steering range of safe electronic focusing is larger than that for linear propagation conditions. Nonlinear sonication regimes therefore can be used to enlarge tissue volumes that can be sonicated using electronic steering of the focus of HIFU arrays.

  16. An MF/HF radio array for radio and radar imaging of the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, Brett; Gustavsson, Bjorn; Belyey, Vasyl; Bullett, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    The Aguadilla Radio Array will be installed at the Interamerican University Aguadilla Campus, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The array is intended for broad-band medium and high-frequency (MF/HF, roughly 2 to 25 MHz) radio and bistatic radar observations of the ionosphere. The main array consists of 20 antenna elements, arranged in a semi-random pattern providing a good distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. A relocatable 6-element array is also being developed, in which each element consists of a crossed pair of active electric dipoles and all associated electronics for phase-coherent radio measurements. A primary scientific goal of the array is to create images of the region of ionospheric radio emissions stimulated by the new Arecibo Observatory high-power high-frequency radio transmitter. A second primary goal is the study of ionospheric structure and dynamics via coherent radar imaging of the ionosphere in collaboration with the University of Colorado / NOAA Versatile Interferometric Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), located at the USGS San Juan Observatory in Cayey, Puerto Rico. In addition to ionospheric research in collaboration with the Cayey and Arecibo Observatories, the goals of the project include the development of radio sounding, polarization, interferometry, and imaging techniques, and training of students at the university and high school levels.

  17. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2001-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  18. High-Resolution Arrayed-Waveguide-Gratings in Astronomy: Design and Fabrication Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stoll

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive design of a folded-architecture arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG-device, targeted at applications as integrated photonic spectrographs (IPS in near-infrared astronomy, is presented. The AWG structure is designed for the astronomical H-band (1500 nm–1800 nm with a theoretical maximum resolving power R = 60,000 at 1630 nm. The geometry of the device is optimized for a compact structure with a footprint of 5.5 cm × 3.93 cm on SiO 2 platform. To evaluate the fabrication challenges of such high-resolution AWGs, effects of random perturbations of the effective refractive index (RI distribution in the free propagation region (FPR, as well as small variations of the array waveguide optical lengths are numerically investigated. The results of the investigation show a dramatic degradation of the point spread function (PSF for a random effective RI distribution with variance values above ∼ 10 - 4 for both the FPR and the waveguide array. Based on the results, requirements on the fabrication technology for high-resolution AWG-based spectrographs are given in the end.

  19. GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures) applied to optimization of petroleum products distribution in pipeline networks; GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptative Search Procedures) aplicado ao 'scheduling' de redes de distribuicao de petroleo e derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Viviane Cristhyne Bini; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos de; Yamamoto, Lia [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and scheduling of the pipeline network operations aim the most efficient use of the resources resulting in a better performance of the network. A petroleum distribution pipeline network is composed by refineries, sources and/or storage parks, connected by a set of pipelines, which operate the transportation of petroleum and derivatives among adjacent areas. In real scenes, this problem is considered a combinatorial problem, which has difficult solution, which makes necessary methodologies of the resolution that present low computational time. This work aims to get solutions that attempt the demands and minimize the number of batch fragmentations on the sent operations of products for the pipelines in a simplified model of a real network, through by application of the local search metaheuristic GRASP. GRASP does not depend of solutions of previous iterations and works in a random way so it allows the search for the solution in an ampler and diversified search space. GRASP utilization does not demand complex calculation, even the construction stage that requires more computational effort, which provides relative rapidity in the attainment of good solutions. GRASP application on the scheduling of the operations of this network presented feasible solutions in a low computational time. (author)

  20. Poisson distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The random variable X taking values 0,1,2,…,x,… with probabilities pλ(x) = e−λλx/x!, where λ∈R0+ is called a Poisson variable, and its distribution a Poisson distribution, with parameter λ. The Poisson distribution with parameter λ can be obtained as the limit, as n → ∞ and p → 0 in such a way that

  1. Lead chalcogenides based IR photosensitive array detectors with coordinate addressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranov, G. A.; Novoselov, S. K.; Stepanov, R. M.; Doon, A. Z.; Pashkevich, A. V.; Ivanov, A. I.; Nemchuk, I. K.; Nesterov, V. K.; Skoriukin, V. E.

    1992-12-01

    Coordinate addressed photodetector arrays based on thin films of lead chalcogenides and operating in different wavebands of the infrared spectral regions are described. The arrays feature high sensitivity, close to BLIP mode, wide dynamic range, and low heat dissipation. Their advantages include random access, element block selection, image scaling, and on chip data encoding. Different design configurations with elements from 128 by 128 to 512 by 512 are discussed and experimental parameters and characteristics of the experimental arrays are presented.

  2. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chervenak, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Wollack, Ed

    2003-02-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorn-coupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of ~10-17 W/√Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below 1fW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity. We also present a design and preliminary results for an enhanced-dynamic-range transition edge sensor suitable for broadband ultralow-background detectors.

  3. Mapping the distributions of C3 and C4 grasses in the mixed-grass prairies of southwest Oklahoma using the Random Forest classification algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; de Beurs, Kirsten M.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a new method to map the distributions of C3 and C4 grasses at 30 m resolution and over a 25-year period of time (1988-2013) by combining the Random Forest (RF) classification algorithm and patch stable areas identified using the spatial pattern analysis software FRAGSTATS. Predictor variables for RF classifications consisted of ten spectral variables, four soil edaphic variables and three topographic variables. We provided a confidence score in terms of obtaining pure land cover at each pixel location by retrieving the classification tree votes. Classification accuracy assessments and predictor variable importance evaluations were conducted based on a repeated stratified sampling approach. Results show that patch stable areas obtained from larger patches are more appropriate to be used as sample data pools to train and validate RF classifiers for historical land cover mapping purposes and it is more reasonable to use patch stable areas as sample pools to map land cover in a year closer to the present rather than years further back in time. The percentage of obtained high confidence prediction pixels across the study area ranges from 71.18% in 1988 to 73.48% in 2013. The repeated stratified sampling approach is necessary in terms of reducing the positive bias in the estimated classification accuracy caused by the possible selections of training and validation pixels from the same patch stable areas. The RF classification algorithm was able to identify the important environmental factors affecting the distributions of C3 and C4 grasses in our study area such as elevation, soil pH, soil organic matter and soil texture.

  4. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  5. Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erliandri, Indri; Fu, Haiqing; Nakano, Megumi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Miga, Karen H; Liskovykh, Mikhail; Earnshaw, William C; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Aladjem, Mirit I; Larionov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    In human chromosomes, centromeric regions comprise megabase-size arrays of 171 bp alpha-satellite DNA monomers. The large distances spanned by these arrays preclude their replication from external sites and imply that the repetitive monomers contain replication origins. However, replication within these arrays has not previously been profiled and the role of alpha-satellite DNA in initiation of DNA replication has not yet been demonstrated. Here, replication of alpha-satellite DNA in endogenous human centromeric regions and in de novo formed Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) was analyzed. We showed that alpha-satellite monomers could function as origins of DNA replication and that replication of alphoid arrays organized into centrochromatin occurred earlier than those organized into heterochromatin. The distribution of inter-origin distances within centromeric alphoid arrays was comparable to the distribution of inter-origin distances on randomly selected non-centromeric chromosomal regions. Depletion of CENP-B, a kinetochore protein that binds directly to a 17 bp CENP-B box motif common to alpha-satellite DNA, resulted in enrichment of alpha-satellite sequences for proteins of the ORC complex, suggesting that CENP-B may have a role in regulating the replication of centromeric regions. Mapping of replication initiation sites in the HAC revealed that replication preferentially initiated in transcriptionally active regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  7. Mapping Spatial Distribution of Larch Plantations from Multi-Seasonal Landsat-8 OLI Imagery and Multi-Scale Textures Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about spatial distribution of plantation forests is critical for forest management, monitoring programs and functional assessment. This study demonstrates the potential of multi-seasonal (spring, summer, autumn and winter Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager imageries with random forests (RF modeling to map larch plantations (LP in a typical plantation forest landscape in North China. The spectral bands and two types of textures were applied for creating 675 input variables of RF. An accuracy of 92.7% for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.834, was attained using the RF model. A RF-based importance assessment reveals that the spectral bands and bivariate textural features calculated by pseudo-cross variogram (PC strongly promoted forest class-separability, whereas the univariate textural features influenced weakly. A feature selection strategy eliminated 93% of variables, and then a subset of the 47 most essential variables was generated. In this subset, PC texture derived from summer and winter appeared the most frequently, suggesting that this variability in growing peak season and non-growing season can effectively enhance forest class-separability. A RF classifier applied to the subset led to 91.9% accuracy for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.829. This study provides an insight into approaches for discriminating plantation forests with phenological behaviors.

  8. Photo-thermal study of a layer of randomly distributed gold nanoparticles: from nano-localization to macro-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Luigia; Palermo, Giovanna; Veltri, Alessandro; Cataldi, Ugo; Bürgi, Thomas; Ritacco, Tiziana; Giocondo, Michele; Umeton, Cesare; De Luca, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    We present an experimental characterization and a comprehensive theoretical modeling of macroscopic plasmonic heat production that takes place in a single layer of small gold nanoparticles (GNPs), randomly distributed on a glass substrate, covered with different host media and acted on by a resonant radiation. We have performed a detailed experimental study of the temperature variations of three different systems, obtained by varying the density of nanoparticles. Due to the macroscopic dimension of the spot size, the used laser irradiates a huge number of nanoparticles, inducing a broad thermo-plasmonic effect that modifies the thermal conductivity of the entire system; starting from the state of art, we have implemented a simple model that enables to evaluate the resulting new thermal conductivity. We have also extended our theoretical approach to the macroscale, including an analysis of the effects predicted for different NP densities and laser spot size values, as well as for different values of the laser intensity, which can be as low as 0.05 W cm-2 . Theoretically predicted temperature variations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  9. Analysis of 18F-DMFP-PET data using Hidden Markov Random Field and the Gaussian distribution to assist the diagnosis of Parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Fermín.; Salas-Gonzalez, Diego; Górriz, Juan M.; Ramírez, Javier; Martínez-Murcia, Francisco J.

    2017-03-01

    18F-DMFP-PET is a neuroimaging modality that allows us to analyze the striatal dopamine. Thus, it is recently emerging as an effective tool to assist the diagnosis of Parkinsonism and differentiate among parkinsonian syndromes. However the analysis of these data, which require specific preprocessing methods, is still poorly covered. In this work we demonstrate a novel methodology based on Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and the Gaussian distribution to preprocess 18F-DMFP-PET data. First, we performed a selection of voxels based on the analysis of the histogram in order to remove low-signal regions and regions outside the brain. Specifically, we modeled the histogram of intensities of a neuroimage with a mixture of two Gaussians and then, using a HMRF algorithm the voxels corresponding to the low-intensity Gaussian were discarded. This procedure is similar to the tissue segmentation usually applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging data. Secondly, the intensity of the selected voxels was scaled so that the Gaussian that models the histogram for each neuroimage has same mean and standard deviation. This step made comparable the data from different patients, without removing the characteristic patterns of each patient's disorder. The proposed approach was evaluated using a computer system based on statistical classification that separated the neuroimages according to the parkinsonian variant they represented. The proposed approach achieved higher accuracy rates than standard approaches for voxel selection (based on atlases) and intensity normalization (based on the global mean).

  10. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  11. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program.We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer children from the control group

  12. Dynamically Reconfigurable Microphone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Static + 2 Wireless Using only a standard computer sound card, a robot is limited to binaural inputs. Even when using wireless microphones, the audio...Abstract—Robotic sound localization has traditionally been restricted to either on-robot microphone arrays or embedded microphones in aware...a microphone array has a significant impact on the mathematics of sound source localization. Arrays, for instance, are commonly designed to

  13. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  14. Integrated Avalanche Photodiode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2017-04-18

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  15. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  16. Eigenbeamforming array systems for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    D study aims at enhancing the performance of uniform circular ar- rays, and to a lesser extent, spherical arrays, for two- and three-dimensional localization problems, respectively. These array geometries allow to perform eigenbeamforming, beamforming based on the decomposition of the sound field......Microphone array technology has been widely used for the localization of sound sources. In particular, beamforming is a well-established signal processing method that maps the position of acoustic sources by steering the array transducers toward different directions electronically. The present Ph...... scatterer is recommended instead. A better visualization in the entire frequency range can be achieved with deconvo- lution methods, as they allow the recovery of the sound source distribution from a given beamformed map. Three efficient methods based on spectral procedures, originally conceived for planar...

  17. Coded SQUID arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, M.; Weenink, J.; Weenink, J.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    2001-01-01

    We report on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system to read out large arrays of cryogenic detectors. In order to reduce the number of SQUIDs required for an array of these detectors, we used code-division multiplexing. This simplifies the electronics because of a significantly

  18. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  19. The influence of random element displacement on DOA estimates obtained with (Khatri-Rao-)root-MUSIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-11-11

    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case.

  20. The Influence of Random Element Displacement on DOA Estimates Obtained with (Khatri–Rao-)Root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case. PMID:25393783

  1. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schillinger

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology. This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  2. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Claudia; Petrich, Annett; Lux, Renate; Riep, Birgit; Kikhney, Judith; Friedmann, Anton; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Göbel, Ulf B; Daims, Holger; Moter, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology). This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia) were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm) with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  3. Programmable disorder in random DNA tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-03-01

    Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network—random loops, mazes and trees—on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution. Using simple molecular building blocks and robust experimental conditions, we demonstrate control of a wide range of properties of the random networks, including the branching rules, the growth directions, the proximity between adjacent networks and the size distribution. Much as combinatorial approaches for generating random one-dimensional chains of polymers have been used to revolutionize chemical synthesis and the selection of functional nucleic acids, our strategy extends these principles to random two-dimensional networks of molecules and creates new opportunities for fabricating more complex molecular devices that are organized by DNA nanostructures.

  4. Development of spatial pulse diagnostic apparatus with magnetic sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.D. [Life Science Institute, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.W. [Life Science Institute, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.W. [Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, M.C. [Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.S. [Life Science Institute, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, D.G. [Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.S. [Life Science Institute, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of) and Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sslee@sangji.ac.kr

    2007-03-15

    We studied the development of spatial pulse diagnostic apparatus with magnetic sensor array using giant magnetoresistance (GMR)/spin valves (SV). Magnetic field distributions for the permanent magnet of 10 arrays using the finite element method (FEM) in a sensing surface were simulated. The characteristics of GMR/SV sensor array consisted of the boundary limit of the sensing magnetic fields and the sensitivity of {delta}MR/{delta}H below 20 Oe and 1%/Oe, respectively.

  5. A submillimeter VLBI array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintroub, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: jweintroub@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    A VLBI array operating at {lambda} 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm is being designed using existing submillimeter telescopes as ad-hoc stations. Initial three station {lambda} = 1.3 mm observations of SgrA* and other AGN have produced remarkable results, which are reported by Doeleman elsewhere in this proceedings. Future observations are planned with an enhanced array which has longer baselines, more stations, and greater sensitivity. At {lambda} = 0.8 mm and on the long baselines, the array will have about a 20 {mu}as angular resolution which equals the diameter of the event horizon of the massive black hole in SgrA*. Candidate single dish facilities include the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) in Mexico, ASTE and APEX in Chile, and the IRAM 30 m in Spain; interferometers include the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) in California, IRAM PdB Interferometer in France, and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. I will discuss the techniques we have developed for phasing interferometric arrays to act as single VLBI station. A strategy for detection of short (10s) time-scale source variability using VLBI closure phase will be described.

  6. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  7. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  8. Probability: Developing Student Intuition with a 20 by 20 Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan W.; Bany, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    A random arrangement of two contrasting colors in a 20x20 array is used to facilitate students' understanding of the notions of randomness, independence, and long-run frequency. It can also be used to test some prevalent errors in probabilistic reasoning. Three activities are described. (MNS)

  9. Application of convex optimization to acoustical array signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R.; Chen, Ching-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that optimum weighting coefficients and inverse filters for microphone arrays can be accomplished, with the aid of a systematic methodology of mathematical programming. Both far-field and near-field array problems are formulated in terms of convex optimization formalism. Three application examples, including data-independent far-field array design, nearfield array design, and pressure field interpolation, are presented. In far-field array design, array coefficients are optimized to tradeoff Directivity Index for White Noise Gain or the coefficient norm, while in nearfield array convex optimization is applied to design Equivalent Source Method-based Nearfield Acoustical Holography. Numerical examples are given for designing a far-field two-dimensional random array comprised of thirty microphones. For far-field arrays, five design approaches, including a Delay-And-Sum beamformer, a Super Directivity Array, three optimal arrays designed using ℓ1,ℓ2, and ℓ∞-norms, are compared. Numerical and experimental results have shown that sufficiently high White Noise Gain was crucial to robust performance of array against sensor mismatch and noise. For nearfield arrays, inverse filters were designed in light of Equivalent Source Method and convex optimization to reconstruct the velocity field on a baffled spherical piston source. The proposed nearfield design is benchmarked by those designed using Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Tikhonov Regularization. Compressive Sampling and convex optimization is applied to pressure field reconstruction, source separation and modal analysis with satisfactory performance in both near-field and far-field microphone arrays.

  10. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  11. Design of Infrasonic Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blandford, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Infrasound Experts Group of the Geneva Conference on Disarmament Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban has recommended an infrasound array design consisting of four elements, with three elements...

  12. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  13. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  14. The retinal readout array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litke, Alan; Meister, Markus

    1991-12-01

    We have fabricated and tested a set of electrode arrays for the study of information processing in the retina. Live retinal tissue is placed on top of an array with the output neurons directly above the electrodes. Absorption of light by the photoreceptor cells leads to the generation of electrical pulses in the output neurons. These pulses, in turn, produce voltage signals on the electrodes which are recorded simultaneously by external electronics. Thus, for the first time, the spatial and temporal firing patterns of a large set of retinal nerve cells can be studied. The arrays are fabricated on quartz wafers coated with a transparent conducting layer of indium tin oxide. The electrodes are electroplated with platinum black. Polyimide is used for insulation. The fabrication and properties of these arrays, and illustrative results with retinal tissue, are described.

  15. The Effect of a Vegetarian vs Conventional Hypocaloric Diabetic Diet on Thigh Adipose Tissue Distribution in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Klementova, Marta; Herynek, Vit; Skoch, Antonin; Herynek, Stepan; Hill, Martin; Mari, Andrea; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the effects of a vegetarian and a conventional diet on thigh adipose tissue distribution in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventy-four subjects with T2D were randomly assigned to either follow a vegetarian diet (V, n = 37) or a control group who followed an isocaloric conventional anti-diabetic diet (C, n = 37). Both diets were calorie restricted (-500 kcal/day). To measure insulin sensitivity, the hyperinsulinemic (1 mU.kg(-1).min(-1)) isoglycemic clamp was conducted. β-Cell function was assessed using a mathematical model after a test meal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh was performed. All subjects were examined at 0, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance and a multivariate regression model. Greater reduction was observed in total leg area in V (-13.6 cm(2) [95% confidence interval [CI], -14.2 to -12.9] in V vs -9.9 cm(2) [95% CI, -10.6 to -9.2] in C; Gxt p vegetarian diet (-0.82 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.55] cm(2) in V vs -0.44 [95% CI, -0.78 to +0.02] cm(2) in C; Gxt, p = 0.04). The reduction in intramuscular fat tended to be greater in response to a vegetarian diet (-1.78 [95% CI, -2.26 to -1.27] cm(2) in V vs -0.57 [95% CI, -1.06 to -0.09] cm(2) in C; Gxt, p = 0.12). Changes in subcutaneous and subfascial fat correlated with changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and β-cell insulin sensitivity. After adjustment for changes in body mass index (BMI), correlations remained significant for changes in fasting plasma glucose and β-cell insulin sensitivity and with changes in triglycerides. Our data indicate the importance of both subcutaneous and subfascial fat in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolism. BMI , body mass index; C , control group; FPG , fasting plasma glucose; Gxt , interaction between group and time; HbA1c , glycated hemoglobin; MCR , metabolic clearance rate of glucose; OPLS , orthogonal projections to

  16. Optimal stimulus and noise distributions for information transmission via suprathreshold stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-06-01

    Suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) is a form of noise-enhanced signal transmission that occurs in a parallel array of independently noisy identical threshold nonlinearities, including model neurons. Unlike most forms of stochastic resonance, the output response to suprathreshold random input signals of arbitrary magnitude is improved by the presence of even small amounts of noise. In this paper, the information transmission performance of SSR in the limit of a large array size is considered. Using a relationship between Shannon’s mutual information and Fisher information, a sufficient condition for optimality, i.e., channel capacity, is derived. It is shown that capacity is achieved when the signal distribution is Jeffrey’s prior, as formed from the noise distribution, or when the noise distribution depends on the signal distribution via a cosine relationship. These results provide theoretical verification and justification for previous work in both computational neuroscience and electronics.

  17. Statistical Characterization of the State-of-Health of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Weibull Distribution Function—A Consideration of Random Effect Model in Charge Capacity Decay Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu I. Ossai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective prognosis of lithium-ion batteries involves the inclusion of the influences of uncertainties that can be incorporated through random effect parameters in a nonlinear mixed effect degradation model framework. This study is geared towards the estimation of the reliability of lithium-ion batteries, using parametric effects determination involving uncertainty, using a multiphase decay patterned sigmoidal model, experimental data and the Weibull distribution function. The random effect model, which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE and Stochastic Approximation Expectation Maximization (SAEM algorithm to predict the parametric values, was found to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL to an accuracy of more than 98%. The State-of-Health (SOH of the batteries was estimated using the Weibull distribution function, which is found to be an appropriate formulation to use.

  18. Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2000-01-01

    interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...

  19. Scanning strategies for imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Attila

    2008-07-01

    Large-format (sub)millimeter wavelength imaging arrays are best operated in scanning observing modes rather than traditional position-switched (chopped) modes. The choice of observing mode is critical for isolating source signals from various types of noise interference, especially for ground-based instrumentation operating under a bright atmosphere. Ideal observing strategies can combat 1/f noise, resist instrumental defects, sensitively recover emission on large scales, and provide an even field coverage - all under feasible requirements of telescope movement. This work aims to guide the design of observing patterns that maximize scientific returns. It also compares some of the popular choices of observing modes for (sub)millimeter imaging, such as random, Lissajous, billiard, spiral, On-The-Fly (OTF), DREAM, chopped and stare patterns. Many of the conclusions are also applicable other imaging applications and imaging in one dimension (e.g. spectroscopic observations).

  20. Scanning Anode Field Emission Characterisation of Carbon Nanotube emitter arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhanu, S.; Gröning, O.; Chen, Z.; Merikhi, J.; Bachmann, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Scanning anode field emission microscopy (SAFEM) was used to characterise carbon nanotube (CNT) emitter arrays produced within Philips CediX-Technotubes' activities. Four different samples were investigated and compared. The field enhancement distributions were determined and the local field

  1. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  2. Low Sidelobe Sparse Concentric Ring Arrays Optimization Using Modified GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-song Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the peak sidelobe level (PSLL of sparse concentric ring arrays, this paper presents an optimization method of grid ring radii of these arrays. The proposed method is based on modified real genetic algorithm (MGA; it makes grid ring radii as optimal variables and makes elements more reasonably distributed on the array aperture. Also, it can improve the PSLL of the sparse concentric ring arrays and can meanwhile control the computational cost. The simulated results confirming the efficiency and the robustness of the algorithm are provided at last.

  3. Research in large adaptive antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, R. S.; Dzekov, T.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of microwave holographic imaging of targets near the earth using a large random conformal array on the earth's surface and illumination by a CW source on a geostationary satellite is investigated. A geometrical formulation for the illuminator-target-array relationship is applied to the calculation of signal levels resulting from L-band illumination supplied by a satellite similar to ATS-6. The relations between direct and reflected signals are analyzed and the composite resultant signal seen at each antenna element is described. Processing techniques for developing directional beam formation as well as SNR enhancement are developed. The angular resolution and focusing characteristics of a large array covering an approximately circular area on the ground are determined. The necessary relations are developed between the achievable SNR and the size and number of elements in the array. Numerical results are presented for possible air traffic surveillance system. Finally, a simple phase correlation experiment is defined that can establish how large an array may be constructed.

  4. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...

  5. Maximum Likelihood Deconvolution of Beamformed Images with Signal-Dependent Speckle Fluctuations from Gaussian Random Fields: With Application to Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita D. Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide area acoustic remote sensing often involves the use of coherent receiver arrays to determine the spatial distribution of sources and scatterers at any instant. The resulting acoustic intensity images are typically corrupted by signal-dependent noise from Gaussian random field fluctuations arising from the central limit theorem and have a spatial resolution that depends on the incident direction, sensing array aperture and wavelength. Here, we use the maximum likelihood method to deconvolve the intensity distribution measured on a coherent line array assuming a discrete angular distribution of incident plane waves. Instantaneous wide area population density images of fish aggregations measured with Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS are deconvolved to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach in improving angular resolution over conventional planewave beamforming.

  6. Directivity of Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakova, A. A.; Gorobets, N. N.; Katrich, V. A.; Lyashchenko, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Theoretical investigation of directive gains of linear and planar antenna arrays depending on the distance between radiators and wavelength. Design/methodology/approach: Computing methods in applied mathematics in MathCad were used to calculate the twofold integrals of the radiation pattern over power throughout the whole space observed, defining the directivity in the most general terms. Patterns of radiators, i. e. elements of antenna arrays, are specified by mathematical models. The calculation accounts for the subintegral fast oscillating function. Findings: Calculations and analysis of a directive gain according to the number of radiators and distances between them in fractions of wavelength are made. It is shown that at the ratio of distance between radiators to wave-length being d/λ =0.5 the directivity of array of isotropic radiators is 1.5N², N - number of radiators. When increasing the d/λ to 0.65÷0.97 the directivity increases according to the law close to the linear one up to the maximum possible value for the specified number of radiators. With the increase of d/λ to the values greater than one, the directivity is significantly reduced (the “blinding” effect of non-phased antenna arrays) and its dependence with the growth of d/λ is decaying and oscillating in character. By that, the transfer function of antenna arrays has some vital difference from the transfer function of continuous antennas. Conclusions: Antenna arrays distort the waveform and spectrum of radiated and received signals as a result of irregular changes of their directivity depending on wavelength. The detected “blinding” effect of non-phased antenna arrays of large electrical dimensions must be taken into account in wideband and superwideband radio-electronics systems, especially in radio astronomy, telecommunications systems and superwideband radar.

  7. Matrix and discrepancy view of generalized random and quasirandom graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolla Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss how graph based matrices are capable to find classification of the graph vertices with small within- and between-cluster discrepancies. The structural eigenvalues together with the corresponding spectral subspaces of the normalized modularity matrix are used to find a block-structure in the graph. The notions are extended to rectangular arrays of nonnegative entries and to directed graphs. We also investigate relations between spectral properties, multiway discrepancies, and degree distribution of generalized random graphs. These properties are regarded as generalized quasirandom properties, and we conjecture and partly prove that they are also equivalent for certain deterministic graph sequences, irrespective of stochastic models.

  8. Wireless Sensor Array Network DoA Estimation from Compressed Array Data via Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yin, Ming; Luo, Ji-An; Wang, Yingguan; Bao, Ming; Hu, Yu-Hen; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-23

    A compressive sensing joint sparse representation direction of arrival estimation (CSJSR-DoA) approach is proposed for wireless sensor array networks (WSAN). By exploiting the joint spatial and spectral correlations of acoustic sensor array data, the CSJSR-DoA approach provides reliable DoA estimation using randomly-sampled acoustic sensor data. Since random sampling is performed at remote sensor arrays, less data need to be transmitted over lossy wireless channels to the fusion center (FC), and the expensive source coding operation at sensor nodes can be avoided. To investigate the spatial sparsity, an upper bound of the coherence of incoming sensor signals is derived assuming a linear sensor array configuration. This bound provides a theoretical constraint on the angular separation of acoustic sources to ensure the spatial sparsity of the received acoustic sensor array signals. The Cram e ´ r-Rao bound of the CSJSR-DoA estimator that quantifies the theoretical DoA estimation performance is also derived. The potential performance of the CSJSR-DoA approach is validated using both simulations and field experiments on a prototype WSAN platform. Compared to existing compressive sensing-based DoA estimation methods, the CSJSR-DoA approach shows significant performance improvement.

  9. Space-time Coordinated Distributed Sensing Algorithms for Resource Efficient Narrowband Target Localization and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Phoha; John Koch; Eric Grele; Christopher Griffin; Bharat Madan

    2005-01-01

    Distributed sensing has been used for enhancing signal to noise ratios for space-time localization and tracking of remote objects using phased array antennas, sonar, and radio signals. The use of these technologies in identifying mobile targets in a field, emitting acoustic signals, using a network of low-cost narrow band acoustic micro-sensing devices randomly dispersed over the region of interest, presents unique challenges. The effects of wind, turbulence, and temperature gradients and oth...

  10. Bimodal random crystal field distribution effects on the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Ali, E-mail: ayigit80@karatekin.edu.tr [Cank Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Karatekin University, Department of Physics, 18100 Cank Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I (Turkey); Albayrak, Erhan [Erciyes University, Department of Physics, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    The effects of bimodal random crystal field on the phase diagrams and magnetization curves of ferrimagnetic mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model are examined by using the effective field theory with correlations for honeycomb lattice. The phase diagrams are obtained on the ({Delta},kT/|J|), ({Delta},T{sub comp}) and (p,kT/|J|) planes for given values of p and {Delta}, respectively. The model exhibits only the second-order phase transitions as in the Blume-Capel model with constant crystal fields. In addition, it was found that the model presents one or two compensation temperatures for appropriate values of random crystal field for given probability in contrast to constant crystal field case. Therefore, it is shown that the random crystal field considerably affects the thermal variations of net and sublattice magnetizations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 BC model with random crystal field was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective-field theory with correlations was used in obtaining the critical temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase diagrams of the model were shown for various planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Randomness of the crystal field leads to emergence the compensation temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that the model exhibits only second-order phase transitions.

  11. The Very Large Ecological Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. P.; Dawson, T. E.; Thompson, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climatic change and variability is expected to alter the boundary conditions to which ecosystems and landscapes are subject. Unambiguously identifying how these changes alter the biophysics of ecosystems or the phenology or behavior of individual organisms, however, remains challenging due to the complexity and heterogeneity of real landscapes. One of the aims of the Very Large Ecological Array (VeLEA) - a landscape-scale distributed wireless environmental monitoring system under deployment at the University of California, Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (Mount Hamilton Range, Santa Clara County, California) - is to allow a sufficiently fine-resolution understanding of spatial and temporal variability in the landscape that such changes can be reliably quantified. The VeLEA is structured around two wireless mesh radio networks, with solar-powered nodes spaced by up to 2 miles. This allows widely distributed arrays of instrumentation to be deployed over hundreds to thousands of hectares. The first network supports ten weather stations (recording barometric pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, rainfall, total solar radiation and leaf wetness), along with sixty nodes measuring humidity and air temperature at 1m above ground. Future deployments will extend the network to include soil moisture, soil temperature, piezometric head and streamflow across the site. The second network supports an array of 10 networked cameras providing real-time viewing and time-lapse recording of animal behavior, vegetation phenology and aquatic variability. An important goal of the VeLEA project is to optimize the deployment of wireless nodes with respect to spatial and temporal variation at the site. Preliminary data obtained from the initial deployments are being used to characterize spatial and temporal variability across the site and to investigate mechanistic and statistical methods for interpolating and up-scaling that data. Observing and characterizing such spatio

  12. Efficient Array Design for Sonotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ergun, Arif S.; Barnes, Stephen; Ming Lu, X.; Ferrara, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    New linear multi-row, multi-frequency arrays have been designed, constructed and tested as fully operational ultrasound probes to produce confocal imaging and therapeutic acoustic intensities with a standard commercial ultrasound imaging system. The triple-array probes and imaging system produce high quality B-mode images with a center row imaging array at 5.3 MHz, and sufficient acoustic power with dual therapeutic arrays to produce mild hyperthermia at 1.54 MHz. The therapeutic array pair i...

  13. Compressive Sensing for Millimeter Wave Antenna Array Diagnosis

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2016-12-19

    The radiation pattern of an antenna array depends on the excitation weights and the geometry of the array. Due to wind and atmospheric conditions, outdoor millimeter wave antenna elements are subject to full or partial blockages from a plethora of particles like dirt, salt, ice, and water droplets. Handheld devices are also subject to blockages from random finger placement and/or finger prints. These blockages cause absorption and scattering to the signal incident on the array, and change the array geometry. This distorts the far-field radiation pattern of the array leading to an increase in the sidelobe level and decrease in gain. This paper studies the effects of blockages on the far-field radiation pattern of linear arrays and proposes two array diagnosis techniques for millimeter wave antenna arrays. The proposed techniques jointly estimate the locations of the blocked antennas and the induced attenuation and phase shifts. Numerical results show that the proposed techniques provide satisfactory results in terms of fault detection with reduced number of measurements (diagnosis time) provided that the number of blockages is small compared to the array size.

  14. Phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    The problem of recoverable image resolution is investigated for the case where an imaging array is used which array has an optical transfer function that may be described as consisting of islands of nonzero value in a sea of zero values. Can the missing spatial frequency information can be provided--can, in effect, a form of (interpolative) super resolution. The CLEAN algorithm used by radio astronomers suggests that this should be possible. The results developed here indicate that this can be done, with no significant price in terms of signal-to-noise ratio to be paid, and further show that a nonlinear algorithm, like CLEAN, is not required. The results show that the feasibility of doing this depends on the angular size of the object being imaged. We find that its size must be less than the inverse of the largest gap between islands in the array's optical transfer function.

  15. Analysis of the modal behavior of an antiguide diode laser array with Talbot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, P.D.; van Eijk, Pieter D.; Reglat, Muriel; Vassilief, Georges; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Driessen, A.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    An analysis of the filtering of the array modes in a resonant optical waveguide (ROW) array of antiguides by a diffractive spatial filter (a Talbot filter) is presented. A dispersion relation is derived for the array modes, allowing the calculation of the field distribution. The filtering is

  16. Dipole source localisation using bio-mimetic flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Bruinink, C.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Flow sensor arrays can be used to extract spatio-temporal flow signatures rather than average or local flow quantities. We look at the equivalent of a fish lateral-line sensor array in air and assess the ability of our artificial hairs flow-sensor arrays to detect flow velocity distributions

  17. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  18. Solar array welding developement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes parallel gap welding as used for joining solar cells to the cell interconnect system. Sample preparation, weldable cell parameter evaluation, bond scheduling, bond strength evaluation, and bonding and thermal shock tests are described. A range of weld schedule parameters - voltage, time, and force - can be identified for various cell/interconnect designs that will provide adequate bond strengths and acceptably small electrical degradation. Automation of solar array welding operations to a significant degree has been achieved in Europe and will be receiving increased attention in the U.S. to reduce solar array fabrication costs.

  19. Quantum random walks circuits with photonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Matthews, Jonathan; Politi, Alberto; Lobino, Mirko; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Ismail, N.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Bromberg, Yaron; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    Arrays of 21 evanescently coupled waveguides are fabricated to implement quantum random walks and a generalised form of two-photon non-classical interference, which observed via two photon correlation.

  20. Networked Rectenna Array for Smart Material Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart material actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. Networked rectenna patch array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is adopted for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. The PAD circuit is imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array. The thin-film microcircuit embodiment of PAD circuit adds insignificant amount of rigidity to membrane flexibility. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a few nodal elements were made for laboratory testing. The networked actuators were tested to correlate the network coupling effect, power allocation and distribution, and response time. The features of preliminary design are 16-channel computer control of actuators by a PCI board and the compensator for a power failure or leakage of one or more rectennas.

  1. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  2. TANGO Array. 2. Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P. E-mail: pablo.bauleo@colostate.edu; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A

    2004-01-11

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of {approx}60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as {approx}4 deg. . The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  3. TANGO Array.. 2. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10 14 to 10 18 eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of ˜60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as ˜4°. The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  4. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  5. The Feasibility of Monitoring Continuous Wave Sources with Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claassen, J.P.; Elbring, G.; Ladd, M.

    1999-03-15

    This paper identifies and explores the technical requirements and issues associated with remotely monitoring continuous wave (CW) sources with seismic arrays. Potential approaches to this monitoring problem will be suggested and partially evaluated to expose the monitoring challenges which arise when realistic local geologies and cultural noise sources are considered. The selective directionality and the adaptive noise cancellation properties of arrays are required to observe weak signals while suppressing a colored background punctuated with an unknown distribution of point and sometimes distributive sources. The array is also required to characterize the emitters and propagation environment so as to properly focus on the CW sources of interest while suppressing the remaining emitters. The proper application of arrays requires an appreciation of the complexity of propagation in a non-homogeneous earth. The heterogeneity often limits the available spatial coherence and therefore the size of the army. This adversely impacts the array gain and the array's ability to carefully resolve various emitters. Arrays must also contend with multipath induced by the source and the heterogeneous earth. If the array is to focus on an emitter and realize an enhancement in the signal to noise ratio, methods must be sought to coherently add the desired signal components while suppressing interference which may be correlated with the desired signal. The impact of these and other issues on army design and processing are described and discussed.

  6. Ablation dynamics in coiled wire-array Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Harvey-Thompson, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Knapp, P. F.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Blesener, K. S.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, 439 Rhodes Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Experiments to study the ablation dynamics of coiled wire arrays were performed on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College, and on the COBRA generator at Cornell University's Laboratory of Plasma Studies (1 MA, 100 ns). The MAGPIE generator was used to drive coiled wires in an inverse array configuration to study the distribution of ablated plasma. Using interferometry to study the plasma distribution during the ablation phase, absolute quantitative measurements of electron line density demonstrated very high density contrasts between coiled ablation streams and inter-stream regions many millimetres from the wire. The measured density contrasts for a coiled array were many times greater than that observed for a conventional array with straight wires, indicating that a much greater axial modulation of the ablated plasma may be responsible for the unique implosion dynamics of coiled arrays. Experiments on the COBRA generator were used to study the complex redirection of plasma around a coiled wire that gives rise to the ablation structure exhibited by coiled arrays. Observations of this complex 3D plasma structure were used to validate the current model of coiled array ablation dynamics [Hall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 065003 (2008)], demonstrating irrefutably that plasma flow from the wires behaves as predicted. Coiled wires were observed to ablate and implode in the same manner on both machines, indicating that current rise time should not be an issue for the scaling of coiled arrays to larger machines with fast current rise times.

  7. Distribution of Constituents and Metabolites of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) into Serum, Blood Cells, and Synovial Fluid of Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülek, Melanie; Seefried, Lothar; Genest, Franca; Högger, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The present randomized controlled study aimed to investigate the in vivo distribution of constituents or metabolites of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol®. Thirty-three patients with severe osteoarthritis scheduled for a knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either 200 mg per day Pycnogenol® (P+) or no treatment (Co) over three weeks before surgery. Serum, blood cells, and synovial fluid samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Considerable interindividual differences were observed indicating pronounced variability of the polyphenol pharmacokinetics. Notably, the highest polyphenol concentrations were not detected in serum. Catechin and taxifolin primarily resided within the blood cells while the microbial catechin metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone, ferulic, and caffeic acid were mainly present in synovial fluid samples. Taxifolin was detected in serum and synovial fluid exclusively in the P+ group. Likewise, no ferulic acid was found in serum samples of the Co group. Calculating ratios of analyte distribution in individual patients revealed a simultaneous presence of some polyphenols in serum, blood cells, and/or synovial fluid only in the P+ group. This is the first evidence that polyphenols distribute into the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis which supports rationalizing the results of clinical efficacy studies. PMID:28452960

  8. Analysis of the Radiation Mechanisms in and Design of Tightly-Coupled Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, Terry Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design well-tuned, wideband elements for thin planar or cylindrically conformal arrays of balanced elements fed over ground. These arrays have closely spaced elements to achieve wide bandwidths through mutual coupling. This dissertation develops two wideband designs in infinite, semi-infinite, and finite array configurations. The infinite array is best for element tuning. This research advances a concept of a distributed, parallel capacitance between eleme...

  9. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  10. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  11. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  12. A random matrix/transition state theory for the probability distribution of state-specific unimolecular decay rates: Generalization to include total angular momentum conservation and other dynamical symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.; Miller, W.H.; Moore, C.B. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Polik, W.F. (Department of Chemistry, Hope College, Holland, Michigan 49423 (United States))

    1993-07-15

    A previously developed random matrix/transition state theory (RM/TST) model for the probability distribution of state-specific unimolecular decay rates has been generalized to incorporate total angular momentum conservation and other dynamical symmetries. The model is made into a predictive theory by using a semiclassical method to determine the transmission probabilities of a nonseparable rovibrational Hamiltonian at the transition state. The overall theory gives a good description of the state-specific rates for the D[sub 2]CO[r arrow]D[sub 2]+CO unimolecular decay; in particular, it describes the dependence of the distribution of rates on total angular momentum [ital J]. Comparison of the experimental values with results of the RM/TST theory suggests that there is mixing among the rovibrational states.

  13. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  14. Recurrent Memory Array Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rocki, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The following report introduces ideas augmenting standard Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture with multiple memory cells per hidden unit in order to improve its generalization capabilities. It considers both deterministic and stochastic variants of memory operation. It is shown that the nondeterministic Array-LSTM approach improves state-of-the-art performance on character level text prediction achieving 1.402 BPC on enwik8 dataset. Furthermore, this report estabilishes baseline neural...

  15. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  16. Solar array construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    An interconnect tab on each cell of a first set of circular solar cells connects that cell in series with an adjacent cell in the set. This set of cells is arranged in alternate columns and rows of an array and a second set of similar cells is arranged in the remaining alternate columns and rows of the array. Three interconnect tabs on each solar cell of the said second set are employed to connect the cells of the second set to one another, in series and to connect the cells of the second set to those of the first set in parallel. Some tabs (making parallel connections) connect the same surface regions of adjacent cells to one another and others (making series connections) connect a surface region of one cell to the opposite surface region of an adjacent cell; however, the tabs are so positioned that the array may be easily assembled by depositing the cells in a certain sequence and in proper orientation.

  17. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  18. Hydrostar Thermal and Structural Deformation Analyses of Antenna Array Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Hope, Drew J.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed Hydrostar mission used a large orbiting antenna array to demonstrate synthetic aperture technology in space while obtaining global soil moisture data. In order to produce accurate data, the array was required to remain as close as possible to its perfectly aligned placement while undergoing the mechanical and thermal stresses induced by orbital changes. Thermal and structural analyses for a design concept of this antenna array were performed. The thermal analysis included orbital radiation calculations, as well as parametric studies of orbit altitude, material properties and coating types. The thermal results included predicted thermal distributions over the array for several cases. The structural analysis provided thermally-driven deflections based on these cases, as well as based on a 1-g inertial load. In order to minimize the deflections of the array in orbit, the use of XN70, a carbon-reinforced polycyanate composite, was recommended.

  19. Photonic Doppler velocimetry lens array probe incorporating stereo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert M.; Kaufman, Morris I.

    2015-09-01

    A probe including a multiple lens array is disclosed to measure velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the moving surface is reflected back from the surface and is Doppler shifted, collected into the array, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to the multiple lens array. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays to establish many measurement points at numerous different locations. One or more lens groups may be replaced with imaging lenses so a stereo image of the moving surface can be recorded. Imaging a portion of the surface during initial travel can determine whether the surface is breaking up.

  20. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  1. Ultrasound Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE Imaging with Transducer Arrays and Adaptive Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenging problem of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE imaging with adaptive transducer arrays. In NDE applications, most materials like concrete, stainless steel and carbon-reinforced composites used extensively in industries and civil engineering exhibit heterogeneous internal structure. When inspected using ultrasound, the signals from defects are significantly corrupted by the echoes form randomly distributed scatterers, even defects that are much larger than these random reflectors are difficult to detect with the conventional delay-and-sum operation. We propose to apply adaptive beamforming to the received data samples to reduce the interference and clutter noise. Beamforming is to manipulate the array beam pattern by appropriately weighting the per-element delayed data samples prior to summing them. The adaptive weights are computed from the statistical analysis of the data samples. This delay-weight-and-sum process can be explained as applying a lateral spatial filter to the signals across the probe aperture. Simulations show that the clutter noise is reduced by more than 30 dB and the lateral resolution is enhanced simultaneously when adaptive beamforming is applied. In experiments inspecting a steel block with side-drilled holes, good quantitative agreement with simulation results is demonstrated.

  2. Ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging with transducer arrays and adaptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging with adaptive transducer arrays. In NDE applications, most materials like concrete, stainless steel and carbon-reinforced composites used extensively in industries and civil engineering exhibit heterogeneous internal structure. When inspected using ultrasound, the signals from defects are significantly corrupted by the echoes form randomly distributed scatterers, even defects that are much larger than these random reflectors are difficult to detect with the conventional delay-and-sum operation. We propose to apply adaptive beamforming to the received data samples to reduce the interference and clutter noise. Beamforming is to manipulate the array beam pattern by appropriately weighting the per-element delayed data samples prior to summing them. The adaptive weights are computed from the statistical analysis of the data samples. This delay-weight-and-sum process can be explained as applying a lateral spatial filter to the signals across the probe aperture. Simulations show that the clutter noise is reduced by more than 30 dB and the lateral resolution is enhanced simultaneously when adaptive beamforming is applied. In experiments inspecting a steel block with side-drilled holes, good quantitative agreement with simulation results is demonstrated.

  3. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    influences the outcome of ecological processes. For instance, interactions between predator species and their prey can have widely different population impacts in different landscapes. At the very largest scales, the position and sizes of the entire range of species also follow characteristic patterns......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  4. Impact of the β-Lactam Resistance Modifier (−-Epicatechin Gallate on the Non-Random Distribution of Phospholipids across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenol (−-epicatechin gallate (ECg inserts into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and reversibly abrogates resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. ECg elicits an increase in MRSA cell size and induces thickened cell walls. As ECg partially delocalizes penicillin-binding protein PBP2 from the septal division site, reduces PBP2 and PBP2a complexation and induces CM remodelling, we examined the impact of ECg membrane intercalation on phospholipid distribution across the CM and determined if ECg affects the equatorial, orthogonal mode of division. The major phospholipids of the staphylococcal CM, lysylphosphatidylglycerol (LPG, phosphatidylglycerol (PG, and cardiolipin (CL, were distributed in highly asymmetric fashion; 95%–97% of LPG was associated with the inner leaflet whereas PG (~90% and CL (~80% were found predominantly in the outer leaflet. ECg elicited small, significant changes in LPG distribution. Atomic force microscopy established that ECg-exposed cells divided in similar fashion to control bacteria, with a thickened band of encircling peptidoglycan representing the most recent plane of cell division, less distinct ribs indicative of previous sites of orthogonal division and concentric rings and “knobbles” representing stages of peptidoglycan remodelling during the cell cycle. Preservation of staphylococcal membrane lipid asymmetry and mode of division in sequential orthogonal planes appear key features of ECg-induced stress.

  5. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  6. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  7. Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are 1) the fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, 2) spatial beam forming, and 3) optical beam splitting techniques. Two novel optical beam forming approaches, i.e., the spatial beam forming with a 'smart pixel' spatial light modulator (SLM) and the optical beam splitting approaches are conceived with integrated quasi-optical components. Also presented are the transmit and receive array architectures with the new SLM.

  8. A new air-Cherenkov array at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Hart, S P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Potter, D; Pryke, C L; Rochester, K; Schwarz, R; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    VULCAN comprises a 9 element array of air-Cherenkov radiation detectors established at the South Pole. VULCAN operates in coincidence with the air-shower array SPASE-2 and the two Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Arrays, AMANDA A and B, supplementing the data gathered by these instruments with a measurement of the lateral distribution of air-Cherenkov light from extensive air-showers. An overview of the aims and methods of the whole coincidence experiment (SPASE-2, VULCAN and AMANDA) can be found in an accompanying paper (Dickinson et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (1999), to be published).

  9. Update-in-Place Analysis for True Multidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicative languages have been proposed for defining algorithms for parallel architectures because they are implicitly parallel and lack side effects. However, straightforward implementations of applicative-language compilers may induce large amounts of copying to preserve program semantics. The unnecessary copying of data can increase both the execution time and the memory requirements of an application. To eliminate the unnecessary copying of data, the Sisal compiler uses both build-in-place and update-in-place analyses. These optimizations remove unnecessary array copy operations through compile-time analysis. Both build-in-place and update-in-place are based on hierarchical ragged arrays, i.e., the vector-of-vectors array model. Although this array model is convenient for certain applications, many optimizations are precluded, e.g., vectorization. To compensate for this deficiency, new languages, such as Sisal 2.0, have extended array models that allow for both high-level array operations to be performed and efficient implementations to be devised. In this article, we introduce a new method to perform update-in-place analysis that is applicable to arrays stored either in hierarchical or in contiguous storage. Consequently, the array model that is appropriate for an application can be selected without the loss of performance. Moreover, our analysis is more amenable for distributed memory and large software systems.

  10. UAVSAR Phased Array Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Zawadzki, Mark; Sadowy, Greg; Oakes, Eric; Brown, Kyle; Hodges, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a patch antenna array for an L-band repeat-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) instrument that is to be flown on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The antenna operates at a center frequency of 1.2575 GHz and with a bandwidth of 80 MHz, consistent with a number of radar instruments that JPL has previously flown. The antenna is designed to radiate orthogonal linear polarizations in order to facilitate fully-polarimetric measurements. Beam-pointing requirements for repeat-pass SAR interferometry necessitate electronic scanning in azimuth over a range of -20degrees in order to compensate for aircraft yaw. Beam-steering is accomplished by transmit/receive (T/R) modules and a beamforming network implemented in a stripline circuit board. This paper, while providing an overview of phased array architecture, focuses on the electromagnetic design of the antenna tiles and associated interconnects. An important aspect of the design of this antenna is that it has an amplitude taper of 10dB in the elevation direction. This is to reduce multipath reflections from the wing that would otherwise be detrimental to interferometric radar measurements. This taper is provided by coupling networks in the interconnect circuits as opposed to attenuating the output of the T/R modules. Details are given of material choices and fabrication techniques that meet the demanding environmental conditions that the antenna must operate in. Predicted array performance is reported in terms of co-polarized and crosspolarized far-field antenna patterns, and also in terms of active reflection coefficient.

  11. Sudoku Inspired Designs for Radar Waveforms and Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis D. Bufler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudoku puzzles, often seen in magazines and newspapers, are logic-based challenges where each entry within the puzzle is comprised of symbols adhering to row, column and box constraints. Previously, we had investigated their potential in frequency-hopped waveforms to achieve desirable radar ambiguity functions and compared them with random, as well as the more familiar Costas sequences. This paper further examines the properties of Sudoku codes in more detail through computational search and analysis. We examine the co-hit and cross-hit arrays, defined as the correlation between two sequences, to quickly and efficiently evaluate numerous Sudoku puzzles. Additionally, we investigate the use of Sudoku puzzles for antenna applications, including array interleaving, array thinning and random element spacing.

  12. Design to improve photoelectric efficiency for photovoltaic cell array for laser power beaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic cell (PV) array is a photovoltaic conversion device for laser power beaming, and uneven distribution of laser beam energy will have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency of PV array. In order to improve the photovoltaic efficiency under uneven laser irradiation, an optimized and efficient parallel-series PV array is designed. Based on the mathematical model and MATLB/Simulink simulation model of PV array , the influencing factors of photovoltaic efficiency are analyzed, and the concept and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency of parallel-series PV array are proposed. Finally, compared with typical PV array, the effects improving efficiency of optimized array is simulated and analyzed. The simulation results show that under uneven laser irradiation, the optimized parallel-series PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency.

  13. A Distributed Python HPC Framework: ODIN, PyTrilinos, & Seamless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Robert [Enthought, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-11-23

    Under this grant, three significant software packages were developed or improved, all with the goal of improving the ease-of-use of HPC libraries. The first component is a Python package, named DistArray (originally named Odin), that provides a high-level interface to distributed array computing. This interface is based on the popular and widely used NumPy package and is integrated with the IPython project for enhanced interactive parallel distributed computing. The second Python package is the Distributed Array Protocol (DAP) that enables separate distributed array libraries to share arrays efficiently without copying or sending messages. If a distributed array library supports the DAP, it is then automatically able to communicate with any other library that also supports the protocol. This protocol allows DistArray to communicate with the Trilinos library via PyTrilinos, which was also enhanced during this project. A third package, PyTrilinos, was extended to support distributed structured arrays (in addition to the unstructured arrays of its original design), allow more flexible distributed arrays (i.e., the restriction to double precision data was lifted), and implement the DAP. DAP support includes both exporting the protocol so that external packages can use distributed Trilinos data structures, and importing the protocol so that PyTrilinos can work with distributed data from external packages.

  14. Electromagnetic enhancement of ordered silver nanorod arrays evaluated by discrete dipole approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoke Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement factor (EF of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS from two-dimensional (2D hexagonal silver nanorod (AgNR arrays were investigated in terms of electromagnetic (EM mechanism by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA method. The dependence of EF on several parameters, i.e., structure, length, excitation wavelength, incident angle and polarization, and gap size has been investigated. “Hotspots” were found distributed in the gaps between adjacent nanorods. Simulations of AgNR arrays of different lengths revealed that increasing the rod length from 374 to 937 nm (aspect ratio from 2.0 to 5.0 generated more “hotspots” but not necessarily increased EF under both 514 and 532 nm excitation. A narrow lateral gap (in the incident plane was found to result in strong EF, while the dependence of EF on the diagonal gap (out of the incident plane showed an oscillating behavior. The EF of the array was highly dependent on the angle and polarization of the incident light. The structure of AgNR and the excitation wavelength were also found to affect the EF. The EF of random arrays was stronger than that of an ordered one with the same average gap of 21 nm, which could be explained by the exponential dependence of EF on the lateral gap size. Our results also suggested that absorption rather than extinction or scattering could be a good indicator of EM enhancement. It is expected that the understanding of the dependence of local field enhancement on the structure of the nanoarrays and incident excitations will shine light on the optimal design of efficient SERS substrates and improved performance.

  15. A Lambda Calculus for Transfinite Arrays: Unifying Arrays and Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkarovs, Artjoms; Scholz, Sven-Bodo

    2017-01-01

    Array programming languages allow for concise and generic formulations of numerical algorithms, thereby providing a huge potential for program optimisation such as fusion, parallelisation, etc. One of the restrictions that these languages typically have is that the number of elements in every array has to be finite. This means that implementing streaming algorithms in such languages requires new types of data structures, with operations that are not immediately compatible with existing array ...

  16. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  17. Large Deviations for Random Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Heitsch, Christine

    2008-08-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures.

  18. Understanding of increased diffuse scattering in regular arrays of fluctuating resonant particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Petrov, Mihail; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the analytical and numerical approaches to modeling electromagnetic properties of geometrically regular subwavelength 2D arrays of random resonant plasmonic particles. Amorphous metamaterials and metasurfaces attract interest of the scientific community due to...

  19. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  20. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  1. A 45-MHz array for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.; Reyes, F.; Aparici, J.; Bitran, M.; Alvarez, H.; Olmos, F.

    1984-11-01

    The instrumentation of a 45-MHz radiotelescope is described and some preliminary observational results are discussed. The telescope is a rectangular filled array of 528 full-wavelength dipoles distributed in six groups and connected to a Butler matrix. The beams are 2.4 deg x 4.6 deg and they are separated by 1.8 deg in declinations. The effective area of the array is 9650 sq m and the system has a noise temperature of about 600 K which should allow a maximum sensitivity on the order of a few Jy. Results from preliminary observations using the device indicate that strong sources can be detected with an accuracy of + or - 1 min. A theoretical N-S power diagram is compared with observational results.

  2. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  3. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  4. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  5. Compact dynamic microfluidic iris array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmle, Christina; Doering, Christoph; Steuer, Anna; Fouckhardt, Henning

    2011-09-01

    A dynamic microfluidic iris is realized. Light attenuation is achieved by absorption of an opaque liquid (e.g. black ink). The adjustment of the iris diameter is achieved by fluid displacement via a transparent elastomer (silicone) half-sphere. This silicone calotte is hydraulically pressed against a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate as the bottom window, such that the opaque liquid is squeezed away, this way opening the iris. With this approach a dynamic range of more than 60 dB can be achieved with response times in the ms to s regime. The design allows the realization of a single iris as well as an iris array. So far the master for the molded silicone structure was fabricated by precision mechanics. The aperture diameter was changed continuously from 0 to 8 mm for a single iris and 0 to 4 mm in case of a 3 x 3 iris array. Moreover, an iris array was combined with a PMMA lens array into a compact module, the distance of both arrays equaling the focal length of the lenses. This way e.g. spatial frequency filter arrays can be realized. The possibility to extend the iris array concept to an array with many elements is demonstrated. Such arrays could be applied e.g. in light-field cameras.

  6. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, W.J. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Cox, D.D. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Martz, H.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica{reg_sign} computer programs which are provided.

  7. Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.

  8. Causal Associations of Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution With Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke Subtypes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Caroline E; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Palmer, Tom M; White, Jon; Prieto-Merino, David; Zabaneh, Delilah; Engmann, Jorgen E L; Shah, Tina; Wong, Andrew; Warren, Helen R; McLachlan, Stela; Trompet, Stella; Moldovan, Max; Morris, Richard W; Sofat, Reecha; Kumari, Meena; Hyppönen, Elina; Jefferis, Barbara J; Gaunt, Tom R; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Zhou, Ang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Mutsert, Renée de; Noordam, Raymond; Caulfield, Mark J; Jukema, J Wouter; Worrall, Bradford B; Munroe, Patricia B; Menon, Usha; Power, Chris; Kuh, Diana; Lawlor, Debbie A; Humphries, Steve E; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Sattar, Naveed; Kivimaki, Mika; Price, Jacqueline F; Davey Smith, George; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon D; Holmes, Michael V; Casas, Juan P

    2017-06-13

    The implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease etiology remain unclear. In this article, we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index [WHRadjBMI]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with cardiometabolic disease. Ninety-seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI and 49 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with coronary heart disease (CHD) data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics; combined total 66 842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12 389 ischemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes mellitus from DIAGRAM (Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis; 34 840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; 213 500 participants) consortia. Primary outcomes were CHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and major stroke subtypes; secondary analyses included 18 cardiometabolic traits. Each one standard deviation (SD) higher WHRadjBMI (1 SD≈0.08 U) associated with a 48% excess risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] for CHD, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.71), similar to findings for BMI (1 SD≈4.6 kg/m2; OR for CHD, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.22-1.52). Only WHRadjBMI increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70). For type 2 diabetes mellitus, both measures had large effects: OR, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42) and OR, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.41-2.78) per 1 SD higher WHRadjBMI and BMI, respectively. Both WHRadjBMI and BMI were associated with higher left ventricular hypertrophy, glycemic traits, interleukin 6, and circulating lipids. WHRadjBMI was also associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (39%; 95% CI, 9%-77% per 1 SD). Both general and central adiposity have causal effects on CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus

  9. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  10. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random

  11. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  12. The effect of permodified cyclodextrins encapsulation on the photophysical properties of a polyfluorene with randomly distributed electron-donor and rotaxane electron-acceptor units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica Farcas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis as well as the optical, electrochemical and morphological properties of two polyrotaxanes (4a and 4b, which consist of electron-accepting 9,9-dicyanomethylenefluorene 1 as an inclusion complex in persilylated β- or γ-cyclodextrin (TMS-β-CD, TMS-γ-CD (1a, 1b and methyltriphenylamine as an electron-donating molecule. They are statistically distributed into the conjugated chains of 9,9-dioctylfluorene 3 and compared with those of the corresponding non-rotaxane 4 counterpart. Rotaxane formation results in improvements of the solubility, the thermal stability, and the photophysical properties. Polyrotaxanes 4a and 4b exhibited slightly red-shifted absorption bands with respect to the non-rotaxane 4 counterpart. The fluorescence lifetimes of polyrotaxanes follow a mono-exponential decay with a value of τ = 1.14 ns compared with the non-rotaxane, where a bi-exponential decay composed of a main component with a relative short time of τ1 = 0.88 (57.08% and a minor component with a longer lifetime of τ2 = 1.56 ns (42.92% were determined. The optical and electrochemical band gaps (ΔEg as well as the ionization potential and electronic affinity characterized by smaller values compared to the values of any of the constituents. AFM reveals that the film surface of 4a and 4b displays a granular morphology with a lower dispersity supported by a smaller roughness exponent compared with the non-rotaxane counterpart.

  13. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  14. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cellular imaging using random metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taehwang; Lee, Wonju; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    We have studied fluorescence cellular imaging with randomly distributed localized near-field induced by silver nano-islands. For the fabrication of nano-islands, a 10-nm silver thin film evaporated on a BK7 glass substrate with an adhesion layer of 2-nm thick chromium. Micrometer sized silver square pattern was defined using e-beam lithography and then the film was annealed at 200°C. Raw images were restored using electric field distribution produced on the surface of random nano-islands. Nano-islands were modeled from SEM images. 488-nm p-polarized light source was set to be incident at 60°. Simulation results show that localized electric fields were created among nano-islands and that their average size was found to be 135 nm. The feasibility was tested using conventional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy while the angle of incidence was adjusted to maximize field enhancement. Mouse microphage cells were cultured on nano-islands, and actin filaments were selectively stained with FITC-conjugated phalloidin. Acquired images were deconvolved based on linear imaging theory, in which molecular distribution was sampled by randomly distributed localized near-field and blurred by point spread function of far-field optics. The optimum fluorophore distribution was probabilistically estimated by repetitively matching a raw image. The deconvolved images are estimated to have a resolution in the range of 100-150 nm largely determined by the size of localized near-fields. We also discuss and compare the results with images acquired with periodic nano-aperture arrays in various optical configurations to excite localized plasmonic fields and to produce super-resolved molecular images.

  15. Exploring plasmonic coupling in hole-cap arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasmonic coupling between gold caps and holes in thin films was investigated experimentally and through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD calculations. Sparse colloidal lithography combined with a novel thermal treatment was used to control the vertical spacing between caps and hole arrays and compared to separated arrays of holes or caps. Optical spectroscopy and FDTD simulations reveal strong coupling between the gold caps and both Bloch Wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP modes and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR-type resonances in hole arrays when they are in close proximity. The interesting and complex coupling between caps and hole arrays reveals the details of the field distribution for these simple to fabricate structures.

  16. Exploring plasmonic coupling in hole-cap arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M; Frederiksen, Maj; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2015-01-01

    The plasmonic coupling between gold caps and holes in thin films was investigated experimentally and through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. Sparse colloidal lithography combined with a novel thermal treatment was used to control the vertical spacing between caps and hole arrays and compared to separated arrays of holes or caps. Optical spectroscopy and FDTD simulations reveal strong coupling between the gold caps and both Bloch Wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP) modes and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-type resonances in hole arrays when they are in close proximity. The interesting and complex coupling between caps and hole arrays reveals the details of the field distribution for these simple to fabricate structures.

  17. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Symmetrization of binary random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Abram; Mallows, Colin L.; Shepp, Larry A.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Vardi, Yehuda

    1999-01-01

    A random variable [math] is called an independent symmetrizer of a given random variable [math] if (a) it is independent of [math] and (b) the distribution of [math] is symmetric about [math] . In cases where the distribution of [math] is symmetric about its mean, it is easy to see that the constant random variable [math] is a minimum-variance independent symmetrizer. Taking [math] to have the same distribution as [math] clearly produces a symmetric sum, but it may not be of minimum variance....

  19. Frequency Diverse Array Receiver Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-29

    2009. DSP /SPE 2009. IEEE 13th, pp. 446 –450, Jan. 2009. 60 [19] Fuhrmann, D.R. and Browning, J.P. and Rangaswamy, M., “Adapting a MIMO/phased-array...Diverse Array Radar,” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2010. [25] D. Glass, “ Matlab 4-d visualization technique.” Personal

  20. The NOAA TOGA antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Aeronomy Laboratory recently installed a 100 x 100 meter array antenna with limited beam steering on Christmas Island as a part of the TOGA (Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere) program. The array and the associated beam steering and indicating hardware are described.

  1. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wi...

  2. SAMICS marketing and distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A SAMICS (Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards) was formulated as a computer simulation model. Given a proper description of the manufacturing technology as input, this model computes the manufacturing price of solar arrays for a broad range of production levels. This report presents a model for computing these marketing and distribution costs, the end point of the model being the loading dock of the final manufacturer.

  3. Mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects for longitudinal-competing risks data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Wang, Min; Liu, Guangying; Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that there is strong relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in AIDS studies. However, the relationship between them changes during the course of treatment and may vary among individuals. During treatments, some individuals may experience terminal events such as death. Because the terminal event may be related to the individual's viral load measurements, the terminal mechanism is non-ignorable. Furthermore, there exists competing risks from multiple types of events, such as AIDS-related death and other death. Most joint models for the analysis of longitudinal-survival data developed in literatures have focused on constant coefficients and assume symmetric distribution for the endpoints, which does not meet the needs for investigating the nature of varying relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in practice. We develop a mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects to deal with varying relationship between the two endpoints for longitudinal-competing risks survival data. A fully Bayesian inference procedure is established to estimate parameters in the joint model. The proposed method is applied to a multicenter AIDS cohort study. Various scenarios-based potential models that account for partial data features are compared. Some interesting findings are presented.

  4. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  5. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  6. Lasing action in gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Pang; Sou, Kuok-Pan; Chen, Chieh-Han; Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Huang, Ji-Kai; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2012-05-21

    We report the observation of lasing action from an optically pumped gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays. The nanorods were fabricated from a GaN substrate by patterned etching, followed by epitaxial regrowth. The nanorods were arranged in a 12-fold symmetric quasicrystal pattern. The regrowth grew hexagonal crystalline facets and core-shell multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on nanorods. Under optical pumping, multiple lasing peaks resembling random lasing were observed. The lasing was identified to be from the emission of MQWs on the nanorod sidewalls. The resonant spectrum and mode field of the 12-fold symmetric photonic quasicrystal nanorod arrays is discussed.

  7. Redundancy and Aging of Efficient Multidimensional MDS-Parity Protected Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Suayb S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of redundancy on the aging of an efficient Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) parity--protected distributed storage system that consists of multidimensional arrays of storage units is explored. In light of the experimental evidences and survey data, this paper develops generalized expressions for the reliability of array storage systems based on more realistic time to failure distributions such as Weibull. For instance, a distributed disk array system is considered in which the array...

  8. Planning a Global Array of Broadband Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Keith D.; Ammon, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    A diverse group of more than 70 seismologists met for 2 days in Raleigh, N.C., to report on recent innovations in seismic array methods and to discuss the future of seismic arrays in global seismology. The workshop was sponsored by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), with U.S. National Science Foundation funding. Participants included representatives of existing array research groups in Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, Norway, and the United States, with individuals from academia, government, and industry. The workshop was organized by the authors of this meeting report, Pablo Ampeuro (California Institute of Technology), and Colleen Dalton (Boston University), along with IRIS staff support.

  9. Application of conformal map theory for design of 2-D ultrasonic array structure for NDT imaging application: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Sivaram N; Jackson, Joseph C; Dziewierz, Jerzy; O'Leary, Richard; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasonic phased arrays are becoming increasingly popular in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Sparse array element configurations are required to fully exploit the potential benefits of 2-D phased arrays. This paper applies the conformal mapping technique as a means of designing sparse 2-D array layouts for NDE applications. Modeling using both Huygens' field prediction theory and 2-D fast Fourier transformation is employed to study the resulting new structure. A conformal power map was used that, for fixed beam width, was shown in simulations to have a greater contrast than rectangular or random arrays. A prototype aperiodic 2-D array configuration for direct contact operation in steel, with operational frequency ~3 MHz, was designed using the array design principle described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate a working sparse-array transducer capable of performing volumetric imaging.

  10. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  11. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  12. Offering an Array of Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

  13. Efficient array design for sonotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ergun, Arif S.; Barnes, Stephen; Lu, X. Ming; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2008-07-01

    New linear multi-row, multi-frequency arrays have been designed, constructed and tested as fully operational ultrasound probes to produce confocal imaging and therapeutic acoustic intensities with a standard commercial ultrasound imaging system. The triple-array probes and imaging system produce high quality B-mode images with a center row imaging array at 5.3 MHz and sufficient acoustic power with dual therapeutic arrays to produce mild hyperthermia at 1.54 MHz. The therapeutic array pair in the first probe design (termed G3) utilizes a high bandwidth and peak pressure, suitable for mechanical therapies. The second multi-array design (termed G4) has a redesigned therapeutic array pair which is optimized for a high time-averaged power output suitable for mild hyperthermia applications. The 'thermal therapy' design produces more than 4 W of acoustic power from the low-frequency arrays with only a 10.5 °C internal rise in temperature after 100 s of continuous use with an unmodified conventional imaging system or substantially longer operation at lower acoustic power. The low-frequency arrays in both probe designs were examined and contrasted for real power transfer efficiency with a KLM model which includes all lossy contributions in the power delivery path from system transmitters to the tissue load. Laboratory verification was successfully performed for the KLM-derived estimates of transducer parallel model acoustic resistance and dissipation resistance, which are the critical design factors for acoustic power output and undesired internal heating, respectively.

  14. Efficient array design for sonotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Douglas N; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Ergun, Arif S; Barnes, Stephen [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc., Imaging and Visualization, 755 College Road East, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Lu, X Ming [Siemens Medical Solutions, 22010 SE 51st Street, Issaquah, Washington 98029-7298 (United States)], E-mail: dnstephens@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: kwferrara@ucdavis.edu

    2008-07-21

    New linear multi-row, multi-frequency arrays have been designed, constructed and tested as fully operational ultrasound probes to produce confocal imaging and therapeutic acoustic intensities with a standard commercial ultrasound imaging system. The triple-array probes and imaging system produce high quality B-mode images with a center row imaging array at 5.3 MHz and sufficient acoustic power with dual therapeutic arrays to produce mild hyperthermia at 1.54 MHz. The therapeutic array pair in the first probe design (termed G3) utilizes a high bandwidth and peak pressure, suitable for mechanical therapies. The second multi-array design (termed G4) has a redesigned therapeutic array pair which is optimized for a high time-averaged power output suitable for mild hyperthermia applications. The 'thermal therapy' design produces more than 4 W of acoustic power from the low-frequency arrays with only a 10.5 deg. C internal rise in temperature after 100 s of continuous use with an unmodified conventional imaging system or substantially longer operation at lower acoustic power. The low-frequency arrays in both probe designs were examined and contrasted for real power transfer efficiency with a KLM model which includes all lossy contributions in the power delivery path from system transmitters to the tissue load. Laboratory verification was successfully performed for the KLM-derived estimates of transducer parallel model acoustic resistance and dissipation resistance, which are the critical design factors for acoustic power output and undesired internal heating, respectively.

  15. Systolic array architecture for convolutional decoding algorithms: Viterbi algorithm and stack algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    New results on efficient forms of decoding convolutional codes based on Viterbi and stack algorithms using systolic array architecture are presented. Some theoretical aspects of systolic arrays are also investigated. First, systolic array implementation of Viterbi algorithm is considered, and various properties of convolutional codes are derived. A technique called strongly connected trellis decoding is introduced to increase the efficient utilization of all the systolic array processors. The issues dealing with the composite branch metric generation, survivor updating, overall system architecture, throughput rate, and computations overhead ratio are also investigated. Second, the existing stack algorithm is modified and restated in a more concise version so that it can be efficiently implemented by a special type of systolic array called systolic priority queue. Three general schemes of systolic priority queue based on random access memory, shift register, and ripple register are proposed. Finally, a systematic approach is presented to design systolic arrays for certain general classes of recursively formulated algorithms.

  16. Impact of Vehicular Array Position on Urban MIMO Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Squires

    2011-01-01

    vehicle can differ significantly. Specifically, shadowing from the vehicle combined with the directionality of the side-mounted array elements affects the angular distribution and powers of the received multipath components, affecting the achievable diversity and channel capacity. This can have significant impact on system performance and should be considered when designing and analyzing vehicular-based signalling techniques.

  17. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  18. Broadband phased-arrays antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, L.

    1984-09-01

    The actual jamming-to-signal ratio achieved in an electronic countermeasures (ECM) system depends on the effective radiated power (ERP) directed toward the radar by the ECM system. The required ERP may be obtained in a phase-steered array using a variety of transmit-subsystem hardware configurations. Here, tradeoff criteria to aid in the selection of an optimal architecture are discussed. Such selection is based on minimizing the array size, backscattering cross selection, and overall system complexity. Functional elements of typical phased arrays and their principal components are descried.

  19. Pulse Dispersion in Phased Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Haupt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phased array antennas cause pulse dispersion when receiving or transmitting wideband signals, because phase shifting the signals does not align the pulse envelopes from the elements. This paper presents two forms of pulse dispersion that occur in a phased array antenna. The first results from the separation distance between the transmit and receive antennas and impacts the definition of far field in the time domain. The second is a function of beam scanning and array size. Time delay units placed at the element and/or subarrays limit the pulse dispersion.

  20. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  1. Antenna arrays a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of antenna array topics that are becoming increasingly important in wireless applications, particularly in design and computer modeling. Signal processing and numerical modeling algorithms are explored, and MATLAB computer codes are provided for many of the design examples. Pictures of antenna arrays and components provided by industry and government sources are presented with explanations of how they work. Antenna Arrays is a valuable reference for practicing engineers and scientists in wireless communications, radar, and remote sensing, and an excellent textbook for advanced antenna courses.

  2. Fatigue durability under random cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, S. S.; Struzhanov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Methods for predicting the durability of metals have been developed while taking into account the effect of random loads acting during the service life of structures. Methods of the theory of functions of random variables are applied. Normal distribution and the Rayleigh distribution are used to estimate the random loads from the experimental histogram. A numerical example illustrates the influence of the statistical parameters of the load distribution on the predicted number of cycles before failure.

  3. Design And Performance Of 44,100 SNP Genotyping Array For Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To document genome-wide allelic variation within and between the different subpopulations of both O. sativa and O. rufipogon, we developed an Affymetrix custom genotyping array containing 44,100 SNPs well distributed across the 400Mb rice genome. The SNPs on this array were selected from the MBML-in...

  4. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  5. Critical currents in quasiperiodic pinning arrays: chains and Penrose lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Vyacheslav; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2005-10-21

    We study the critical depinning current Jc versus the applied magnetic flux Phi, for quasiperiodic (QP) chains and 2D arrays of pinning centers placed on the nodes of a fivefold Penrose lattice. In QP chains, the peaks in Jc(Phi) are determined by a sequence of harmonics of the long and short segments of the chain. The critical current Jc(Phi) has a remarkable self-similarity. In 2D QP pinning arrays, we predict analytically and numerically the main features of Jc(Phi), and demonstrate that the Penrose lattice of pinning sites provides an enormous enhancement of Jc(Phi), even compared to triangular and random pinning site arrays. This huge increase in Jc(Phi) could be useful for applications.

  6. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  7. Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyong

    This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the

  8. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  9. Monolithic phased arrays - Recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Joseph A.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in monolithic phased array technology defined as a solid state array based on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits are reviewed focusing on analytical and experimental work to improve array performance and reliability while reducing the cost. Monolithic array technology is equally applicable to communications and radar systems. In radar applications both transmit and receive functions at the elemental level require a transmit/receive module's physical size to be compatible with 1/2 wave length element spacing. For communication applications, separate aperture are used for transmit and receive to ensure sufficient isolation for full duplex operation. Radar transmitter chains are capable of operating with a saturated power output stage which helps to increase efficiency and minimize DC power. Communication systems place severe linearity constraints on the transmitters and receivers which requires the power amplifier to operate in an ultra-linear fashion.

  10. Thermopile Area Array Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA/JPL thermopile detector linear arrays, wire bonded to Black Forest Engineering (BFE) CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs), have been utilized in NASA...

  11. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  12. Integrated Spatial Filter Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated Spatial...

  13. Biologically Assembled Quantum Electronic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Salve Regina, 2010. N. Seeman, James W. Canary 50th Birthday Symposium, New York, 2010. N. Seeman, CNIC 2010, Havana , 2010. N. Seeman, Kavli Prize Lecture...electron tunneling steps in the current-voltage characteristics of linear arrays of gold nanopaarticles assembled by 2D DNA scaffolding. In the...nanomechanical devices (1999). In conjunction with the Kiehl laboratory, the Seeman laboratory was involved in organizing gold nanoparticles in 2D arrays

  14. Random matrix theory and multivariate statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Garcia, Jose A.; Jáimez, Ramon Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Some tools and ideas are interchanged between random matrix theory and multivariate statistics. In the context of the random matrix theory, classes of spherical and generalised Wishart random matrix ensemble, containing as particular cases the classical random matrix ensembles, are proposed. Some properties of these classes of ensemble are analysed. In addition, the random matrix ensemble approach is extended and a unified theory proposed for the study of distributions for real normed divisio...

  15. Setting up of holographic optical tweezer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Tata, B. V. R.; Ravindran, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    Optical tweezers use tightly focused laser beams to hold and move microscopic objects in a solvent. However, many applications require simultaneous control over multitude of particles, positioning them in 3D space at desired locations with desired symmetry, which is made possible by the use of holographic optical tweezers using the technique of beam shaping and holography. We have designed and developed a holographic optical tweezer set-up using a phase only liquid crystal, reflective spatial light modulator. We employ the technique of phase modulation to modulate the phase of the beam by generating holograms using Random Superposition (RS) and weighted Gerchberg Saxton algorithm (WGS) algorithm for generating desired patterns of light at the trapping plane. A 4×4 array of beams with square symmetry was generated using WGS algorithm and trapped polystyrene particles of size 1.2 micron in a 4×4 two dimensional array. There were uniformity issues among the trap intensities, as we move away from the zeroth order spot. This was corrected by taking into account diffraction effects due to the pixelated nature of SLM modulating the intensity of the trap spots and the ghost order suppression by spatial disorder.

  16. Design and Experimentation of Piezoelectric Crystal Sensor Array for Grain Cleaning Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ni, Jun; Mao, Hanping; Pang, Fangrong; Zhu, Yan; Yao, Xia; Tian, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and reliability for detection of grains cleaning loss, a piezoelectric crystal sensor array was proposed in full width of distribution to realize the online multipoints detection...

  17. Backward Surface Wave Propagation and Radiation along a One-Dimensional Folded Cylindrical Helix Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation along a closely spaced folded cylindrical helix (FCH array is investigated for the purpose of designing compact array for energy transport and antenna radiation. It is found that the height of this surface wave guiding structure can be decreased from 0.24λ0 to 0.06λ0 by replacing the monopole element with the FCH. Both the propagation constant and the mode distribution of the dominant wave mechanism are extracted by ESPRIT algorithm, which indicates that a backward propagating surface wave is supported by the array structure. A compact backfire FCH antenna array is designed and measured based on the identified dominant wave mechanism.

  18. Low-carbon benefit analysis on DG penetration distribution system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GE, Shaoyun; XU, Li; LIU, Hong; FANG, Jian

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper proposes a pseudo-sequential Monte Carlo simulation method for the low-carbon benefit evaluation of distribution system including distributed wind turbines, solar array and battery energy storage systems...

  19. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trucco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  20. Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Rudnick, Thomas Jeffery

    2005-07-05

    A sensor array is configured based upon capacitive sensor techniques to measure stresses at various positions in a sheet simultaneously and allow a stress map to be obtained in near real-time. The device consists of single capacitive elements applied in a one or two dimensional array to measure the distribution of stresses across a mat surface in real-time as a function of position for manufacturing and test applications. In-plane and normal stresses in rolling bodies such as tires may thus be monitored.