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Sample records for randomly assign apparent

  1. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  2. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  3. A Search for Alternatives to Random Assignment to Treatment Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    In a public school setting administrators are frequently under local pressure to make a new project service available to all eligible children. However, comparable control groups for project evaluation are often absent, and although random assignment to treatment groups remains the most systematic method of providing controls, this is not often…

  4. Sequential multiple assignment randomization trials with enrichment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Zeng, Donglin

    2017-06-01

    Sequential multiple assignment randomization trial (SMART) is a powerful design to study Dynamic Treatment Regimes (DTRs) and allows causal comparisons of DTRs. To handle practical challenges of SMART, we propose a SMART with Enrichment (SMARTER) design, which performs stage-wise enrichment for SMART. SMARTER can improve design efficiency, shorten the recruitment period, and partially reduce trial duration to make SMART more practical with limited time and resource. Specifically, at each subsequent stage of a SMART, we enrich the study sample with new patients who have received previous stages' treatments in a naturalistic fashion without randomization, and only randomize them among the current stage treatment options. One extreme case of the SMARTER is to synthesize separate independent single-stage randomized trials with patients who have received previous stage treatments. We show data from SMARTER allows for unbiased estimation of DTRs as SMART does under certain assumptions. Furthermore, we show analytically that the efficiency gain of the new design over SMART can be significant especially when the dropout rate is high. Lastly, extensive simulation studies are performed to demonstrate performance of SMARTER design, and sample size estimation in a scenario informed by real data from a SMART study is presented. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Apparent scale correlations in a random multifractal process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleve, Jochen; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Greiner, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We discuss various properties of a homogeneous random multifractal process, which are related to the issue of scale correlations. By design, the process has no built-in scale correlations. However, when it comes to observables like breakdown coefficients, which are based on a coarse......-graining of the multifractal field, scale correlations do appear. In the log-normal limit of the model process, the conditional distributions and moments of breakdown coefficients reproduce the observations made in fully developed small-scale turbulence. These findings help to understand several puzzling empirical details...

  6. Randomized Assignments for Barter Exchanges: Fairness vs Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Wenyi; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil

    2015-01-01

    often restrict the maximum allowed cycle-length of the exchange and for randomized algorithms, this imposes constraints of the cycle-length of every realized exchange in their decomposition. We prove that standard fairness properties such as envy-freeness or symmetry are incompatible with even...... the weakest notion of economic efficiency in this setting. On the plus side, we adapt some well-known matching mechanisms to incorporate the restricted cycle constraint and evaluate their performance experimentally on instances of the kidney exchange problem, showing tradeoffs between fairness and efficiency....

  7. Algorithm for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Єременко

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Method for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law has been proposed. The praxis of using proposed method for generation pseudo-random series with anti-modal and approximate to Gaussian distribution law has been investigated.

  8. The unexpected increase of clotrimazole apparent solubility using randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, Bénédicte; Gallard, Jean-François; Iorga, Bogdan I; Gueutin, Claire; Ponchel, Gilles; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2015-02-01

    Clotrimazole (CTZ) and cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes having improved apparent water solubility were obtained from phase solubility diagrams. β-CD (1.5% w/w) and hydroxypropyl-β-CD (40% w/w) offered poor CTZ solubility enhancements (12 and 384 times, respectively). Unexpectedly, the apparent solubility of CTZ was 9980 times increased from 0.4 µg.mL(-1) (1.42 μM) without CD to 4.89 mg.mL(-1) (14.9 mM) using randomly-methylated β-CD (Me-β-CD) (40% w/w). This is the highest apparent CTZ solubility improvement ever reported in the literature using conventional CDs. Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H-NMR) coupled with two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) experiments and molecular docking calculations showed that the highest interactions with Me-β-CD were reported for CTZ two phenyl groups. A lower interaction was reported for chlorophenyl, while imidazole had the weakest interaction with Me-β-CD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Prediction of Acoustically Induced Random Vibration Response of Satellite Equipments with Proposed Asymptotic Apparent Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shigemasa; Shi, Qinzhong

    Acoustically induced random vibration of satellite equipment mounted on honeycomb panels is a critical design consideration in satellite equipment development. Prediction of this random vibration is performed in the early stage of satellite design to specify the design limit value of random vibration excitation for satellite equipment. Various prediction methods for response prediction using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) have been developed: (i) NASA Lewis method, (ii) point-mass impedance method, and (iii) area-coupling impedance method. However, the first method has limited accuracy for heavy and concentrated equipment, the second one often overestimates, and the third one requires a detailed parameter. A new method combining the asymptotic apparent mass of specific equipment with NASA Lewis method is proposed herein. This proposed method takes the elastic behavior of satellite equipment rather than a rigid mass. The acoustic excitation experiments for nine real satellites (404 equipments in all) were conducted to compare existing methods to the proposed method statistically. Results show that the proposed method provides the most accurate prediction in the important frequency range.

  10. Evidence of deterministic components in the apparent randomness of GRBs: clues of a chaotic dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G; Rosa, R; Beskin, G; Karpov, S; Romano, L; Guarnieri, A; Bartolini, C; Bedogni, R

    2011-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit a vast range of extremely complex temporal structures with a typical variability time-scale significantly short - as fast as milliseconds. This work aims to investigate the apparent randomness of the GRB time profiles making extensive use of nonlinear techniques combining the advanced spectral method of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) with the classical tools provided by the Chaos Theory. Despite their morphological complexity, we detect evidence of a non stochastic short-term variability during the overall burst duration - seemingly consistent with a chaotic behavior. The phase space portrait of such variability shows the existence of a well-defined strange attractor underlying the erratic prompt emission structures. This scenario can shed new light on the ultra-relativistic processes believed to take place in GRB explosions and usually associated with the birth of a fast-spinning magnetar or accretion of matter onto a newly formed black hole.

  11. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  12. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  14. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  15. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  16. It Takes Two Shining Lights to Brighten the Room: Peer Effects with Random Roommate Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Pu, Shi

    2017-01-01

    We used housing assignment data from a college in China to investigate peer effects on college grades. Study results provided some evidence for peer effects in college housing units. First, peer effects through means occurred during both fall and spring semester of the first year in college, with estimated effect much larger than that in previous…

  17. Similar cardiometabolic effects of high- and moderate-intensity training among apparently healthy inactive adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Téllez-T, Luis Andrés; Camelo-Prieto, Diana; Hernández-Quiñonez, Paula Andrea; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-05-30

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and exercise training is an important factor in the treatment and prevention of the clinical components of MetS. The aim was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training and steady-state moderate-intensity training on clinical components of MetS in healthy physically inactive adults. Twenty adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate-intensity continuous training [MCT group; 60-80% heart rate reserve (HRR)] or high-intensity interval training (HIT group; 4 × 4 min at 85-95% peak HRR interspersed with 4 min of active rest at 65% peak HRR). We used the revised International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS. A MetS Z-score was calculated for each individual and each component of the MetS. In intent-to-treat analyses, the changes in MetS Z-score were 1.546 (1.575) in the MCT group and -1.249 (1.629) in the HIT group (between-groups difference, P =  0.001). The average number of cardiometabolic risk factors changed in the MCT group (-0.133, P = 0.040) but not in the HIT group (0.018, P = 0.294), with no difference between groups (P = 0.277). Among apparently healthy physically inactive adults, HIT and MCT offer similar cardiometabolic protection against single MetS risk factors but differ in their effect on average risk factors per subject. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02738385 registered on March 23, 2016.

  18. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzheng; Lv, Jun; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling), dietary intake and tobacco use. Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  19. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  20. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  1. Communication interventions for minimally verbal children with autism: a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device (SGD) in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. A total of 61 minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a SGD for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of 2 stages. In stage 1, all children received 2 sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (by increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child's early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were the total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better posttreatment outcomes. Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children's response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information-Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Communication Interventions for Minimally Verbal Children With Autism: Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. Method Sixty-one minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a speech-generating device (SGD) for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of two stages. In Stage 1 all children received two sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child’s early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Results Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better post-treatment outcomes. Conclusion Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children’s response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information—Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. PMID:24839882

  3. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  4. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Terwilliger, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzheng Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. STUDY POPULATION: Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. MEASUREMENT: Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling, dietary intake and tobacco use. RESULTS: Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. CONCLUSION: Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  7. Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Lindsay M; Engel, Roger M; Lystad, Reidar P; Brown, Benjamin T

    2017-03-14

    Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the proportion of articles containing data on adverse events associated with SMT that were indexed in MEDLINE and/or EMBASE and the proportion of those that included adverse event-related words in their title or abstract. A sample of 140 RCT articles previously identified as containing data on adverse events associated with SMT was used. Articles were checked to determine if: (1) they had been indexed with relevant terms describing adverse events in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; and (2) they mentioned adverse events (or any related terms) in the title or abstract. Of the 140 papers, 91% were MEDLINE records, 85% were EMBASE records, 81% were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, and 4% were not in either database. Only 19% mentioned adverse event-related text words in the title or abstract. There was no significant difference between MEDLINE and EMBASE records in the proportion of available papers (p = 0.078). Of the 113 papers that were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, only 3% had adverse event-related indexing terms assigned to them in both databases, while 81% were not assigned an adverse event-related indexing term in either database. While there was effective indexing of RCTs involving SMT in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, there was a failure of allocation of adverse event indexing terms in both databases. We

  8. Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Gorrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT. During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the proportion of articles containing data on adverse events associated with SMT that were indexed in MEDLINE and/or EMBASE and the proportion of those that included adverse event-related words in their title or abstract. Methods A sample of 140 RCT articles previously identified as containing data on adverse events associated with SMT was used. Articles were checked to determine if: (1 they had been indexed with relevant terms describing adverse events in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; and (2 they mentioned adverse events (or any related terms in the title or abstract. Results Of the 140 papers, 91% were MEDLINE records, 85% were EMBASE records, 81% were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, and 4% were not in either database. Only 19% mentioned adverse event-related text words in the title or abstract. There was no significant difference between MEDLINE and EMBASE records in the proportion of available papers (p = 0.078. Of the 113 papers that were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, only 3% had adverse event-related indexing terms assigned to them in both databases, while 81% were not assigned an adverse event-related indexing term in either database. Conclusions While there was effective indexing of RCTs involving SMT in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, there was a failure of

  9. Teaching reading to children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinical trial with random assignment to different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Laura A; Sefcik, Angela M; Cutting, Laurie E; Rimrodt, Sheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with a cognitive profile that includes visual-spatial perception deficits and a high incidence of reading disability. There is a paucity of information about how this cognitively complex population responds to mainstream reading interventions. The clinical trial goals were to determine whether children and adolescents with NF1 and reading deficits (NF+RD) benefit from mainstream remedial reading programs and whether responsiveness varies with differences in program-related visual-spatial demands. Forty-nine participants (28 males, 21 females; aged 8-14y) with either NF+RD (n=17, 11 males, six females) or idiopathic reading deficit (IRD) (n=32, 17 males, 15 females) were randomly assigned to intensive remedial teaching using one of two multisensory reading programs: one with greater kinesthetic demands and the other with greater visual-spatial demands. Two control groups - wait-list IRD (n=14, 11 males, three females) and typically developing readers (n=26, 13 males, 13 females) - received no treatment. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA analyses compared each group's growth in reading achievement from pre- to post-testing. Treated groups showed significant growth whereas untreated groups did not. Comparing treated groups, the IRD group responded equally well to both interventions, whereas the NF+RD group showed a better response to the more kinesthetic approach. Results suggest that multisensory remedial reading teaching that emphasizes kinesthetic demands more than visual-spatial demands is suitable for students with NF+RD. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Peripheral Defocus and Myopia Progression in Myopic Children Randomly Assigned to Wear Single Vision and Progressive Addition Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, David A.; Barr, Christopher D.; Mutti, Donald O.; Zadnik, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of progressive addition lenses (PALs) and single vision lenses (SVLs) on peripheral defocus in myopic children, and to compare the effect of myopic versus hyperopic peripheral defocus on foveal myopia progression. Methods. Eighty-four myopic children aged 6 to 11 years with spherical equivalent (SE) cycloplegic autorefraction between −0.75 diopters (D) and −4.50 D were randomly assigned to wear SVLs or PALs. Aberrometry measurements of the eye and spectacles were made centrally, 30° nasally, temporally, and superiorly, and 20° inferiorly on the retina using a Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System for Vision Research (COAS-VR). The association between peripheral defocus and the 1-year change in central myopia was investigated. Results. SVLs caused a hyperopic shift in peripheral defocus at all locations (all P ≤ 0.0003). PALs caused a myopic shift in peripheral defocus in three of four locations measured (all P ≤ 0.01) with the greatest shift superiorly due to the PAL addition (−1.04 ± 0.30 D). Superior retinal defocus when wearing either SVLs or PALs was associated with the 1-year change in central myopia. The adjusted 1-year change in central SE myopia was −0.38 D for children with absolute superior myopic defocus (n = 67) and −0.65 D for children with absolute superior hyperopic defocus (n = 17; difference = 0.27 D; P = 0.002). Conclusions. PALs caused a myopic shift in peripheral defocus. Superior myopic defocus was associated with less central myopia progression. These data support the continued investigation of optical designs that result in peripheral myopic defocus as a potential way to slow myopia progression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00335049.) PMID:23838771

  11. The Effects of Therapist Competence in Assigning Homework in Cognitive Therapy with Cluster C Personality Disorders: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C.; Svartberg, Martin; McCullough, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Therapist competence in assigning homework was used to predict mid- and posttreatment outcome for patients with Cluster C personality disorders in cognitive therapy (CT). Twenty-five patients that underwent 40 sessions of CT were taken from a randomized controlled trial (Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). Therapist competence in assigning…

  12. Assignment refusal and its relation to outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy and Fluvoxamine in treatment-resistant patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes H; van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2015-03-30

    The effectiveness of Fluvoxamine was compared to that of Cognitive Therapy (CT) in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 48 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who were treatment-resistant to a previous behavior therapy (BT). A considerable amount of patients did not comply with the assigned treatment and switched treatments. The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics predictive of assignment compliance and to study whether these characteristics were related to outcome. A logistic model, based on psychological and social patient characteristics, in addition to or in interaction with the assignment, was used for the explanation of compliance with treatment assignment. Especially patients who have a higher score on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) tend to comply with the effective Fluvoxamine treatment. The same set of variables was related to both compliance and outcome of therapy received. Therefore, the logistic model of compliance could be used to reduce the positive bias of As-Treated analysis (AT). The difference between the results of Fluvoxamine and Cognitive Therapy remained statistically significant after correcting for the positive bias as the result of assignment refusal and after applying the assumption that two drop-out patients needed imputation of lesser results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

  14. Apparently conclusive meta-analyses may be inconclusive--Trial sequential analysis adjustment of random error risk due to repetitive testing of accumulating data in apparently conclusive neonatal meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Thorlund, Kristian; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Random error may cause misleading evidence in meta-analyses. The required number of participants in a meta-analysis (i.e. information size) should be at least as large as an adequately powered single trial. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) may reduce risk of random errors due...

  15. Soft-assignment random-forest with an application to discriminative representation of human actions in videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The bag-of-features model is a distinctive and robust approach to detect human actions in videos. The discriminative power of this model relies heavily on the quantization of the video features into visual words. The quantization determines how well the visual words describe the human action. Random

  16. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations

    OpenAIRE

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential, intervention or treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level DTR, the intervention or treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including based on aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that comprise it. Cluster-randomized sequentia...

  17. A Randomized Trial to Measure the Efficacy of Applying Task Oriented Role Assignment to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-06

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL W ING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANOUMFORSGVT ATTN: MAJ CARRIE LITKE-WAGER...Author Litke· Wager, Carrie 0-4/Major 959/CSPS/ 59MDW/SGVT b. Mu, Thornton 0-5/LTC MCH E-ZDP-N SA MMC c. Delaney, Heather 0-4/ MAJ MCHE-ZDP-N SA MMC d...78234-2715 15 June 2016 Maj Carrie Litke-Wager, MD Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board A Randomized Trial to Measure the

  18. Strategy-Proof Stochastic Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Erdil, A.

    2013-01-01

    I study strategy-proof assignment mechanisms where the agents reveal their preference rankings over the available objects. A stochastic mechanism returns lotteries over deterministic assignments, and mechanisms are compared according to first-order stochastic dominance. I show that non-wasteful strategy-proof mechanisms are not dominated by strategy-proof mechanisms, however nonwastefulness is highly restrictive when the mechanism involves randomization. In fact, the Random Priority mechanism...

  19. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  20. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  1. Apparent Superluminal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, A. D.; Lande, A.; Lautrup, B.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: The apparent superluminal propagation of electromagnetic signals seen in recent experiments is shown to be the result of simple and robust properties of relativistic field equations. Although the wave front of a signal passing through a classically forbidden region can never move faster

  2. Remembering apparent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment systematically investigates the role of narrative templates (Wertsch, 2002) in remembering. To stimulate the construction of a diversity of narratives I used Heider and Simmel’s (1944) celebrated “apparent behavior” film, in which geometric shapes moving around a screen...

  3. Apparent Superluminal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, A D; Lande, A.; Lautrup, B.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: The apparent superluminal propagation of electromagnetic signals seen in recent experiments is shown to be the result of simple and robust properties of relativistic field equations. Although the wave front of a signal passing through a classically forbidden region can never move faster than light, an attenuated replica of the signal is reproduced ``instantaneously'' on the other side of the barrier. The reconstructed signal, causally connected to the forerunner rather than the bulk...

  4. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  5. Assignment refusal and its relation to outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy and Fluvoxamine in treatment-resistant patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, J.A.; Smit, J.H.; van Oppen, P.C.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Fluvoxamine was compared to that of Cognitive Therapy (CT) in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 48 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who were treatment-resistant to a previous behavior therapy (BT). A considerable amount of patients did not comply

  6. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  7. Coping and health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer randomly assigned to hormonal medication or close monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather J; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Headley, Betty C; Gardiner, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma and its treatment have been associated with adverse effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Individual differences in appraisal and coping have been suggested to mediate these HRQoL outcomes. A randomized trial of 65 men with non-localized prostate cancer compared several treatments and tested associations between appraisal, coping, and HRQoL. These patients, and 16 community volunteers matched for age and general health, undertook psychosocial assessments before treatment and after 6 months of treatment. Compared with baseline assessments, men on hormonal treatments reported impaired sexual function. Groups did not differ on emotional distress, existential satisfaction, subjective cognitive function, physical symptoms, or social and role functioning. For individuals, hormonal treatments were more frequently associated with decreased sexual, social and role functioning, but were also associated with improved physical symptoms. In hierarchical regression analysis, HRQoL was lower for men who had more comorbid illnesses, a history of neurological dysfunction, higher threat appraisals, or higher use of coping strategies at baseline. These results showed that pharmacological hormonal ablation for prostate cancer can improve or decrease HRQoL in different domains. HRQoL in men with prostate cancer was associated more strongly with appraisal and coping than with medical variables. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...

  9. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  10. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  11. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  12. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  13. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  14. Assignment Tracking Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy

    2016-01-01

    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  15. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  16. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonati, Leo H

    2009-10-01

    In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS.

  17. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  18. Attention enhances apparent perceptual organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Antoine; Liu, Sirui; Kimchi, Ruth; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-28

    Perceptual organization and selective attention are two crucial processes that influence how we perceive visual information. The former structures complex visual inputs into coherent units, whereas the later selects relevant information. Attention and perceptual organization can modulate each other, affecting visual processing and performance in various tasks and conditions. Here, we tested whether attention can alter the way multiple elements appear to be perceptually organized. We manipulated covert spatial attention using a rapid serial visual presentation task, and measured perceptual organization of two multielements arrays organized by luminance similarity as rows or columns, at both the attended and unattended locations. We found that the apparent perceptual organization of the multielement arrays is intensified when attended and attenuated when unattended. We ruled out response bias as an alternative explanation. These findings reveal that attention enhances the appearance of perceptual organization, a midlevel vision process, altering the way we perceive our visual environment.

  19. Antibiogram of Klebsiella Pneumoniae urinary isolates of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand (1,000) urine samples from apparently healthy subjects were cultured for Klebsiella pneumoniae and its antibiotic susceptibility profile to commonly used antimicrobial drugs was determined. The study was conducted in two randomly selected local government areas within Osogbo metropolis. The occurrence ...

  20. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  1. Apparent Bicarbonate Space in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio A. Repetto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount needed to change the concentration of a solute requires the knowledge of its volume of distribution in the solution. Electrolytes that do not participate in active metabolic reactions have a fixed volume of distribution that corresponds to the volume of water in which they solubilize. Bicarbonate infusion is used to correct hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Its volume of distribution (bicarbonate space changes with its participation in the blood buffer systems. In other words, it is not a fixed physical volume, like that of other solutes. In this paper, we shall review experimental studies that supported evidence for this knowledge and analyze the basic hypothesis to explain the phenomena. Since we have not found clinical studies in children, we shall report our experience in a group of patients with metabolic acidosis treated with bicarbonate infusion in whom apparent bicarbonate space was measured and compared with data in adults from the literature. Guidelines for amount of bicarbonate needed to increase its concentration according to baseline bicarbonate concentration will be suggested.

  2. Interactive Assignments for Online Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Students can experience first hand through interactive assignments what is involved in teaching an online course. Most students develop a whole new appreciation for the student learning process. Faculty are beginning to realize that online instruction is more than a series of readings posted to a course management system. This paper summarizes the faculty member's instructional strategies involved when creating student interaction assignments. The paper also summarizes the assignments, discussion board, and trends in education from the student's perspective. In summary, it concludes with the faculty's overall perspective concerning these assignments and how the assignments could be more effective for the student.

  3. Studying the cosmological apparent horizon with quasistatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cosmological apparent horizon. So in §4 we shall employ them to study the unified first law on the apparent horizon. In cosmology, scalar-type perturbations are of particu- lar interest, especially on the apparent horizon. The equation of motion for scalar fields will be discussed in §5 with the quasistatic coordinates, which ...

  4. The bicriterion multimodal assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...

  5. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  6. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  7. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of oral vitamin E on serum lipid profile of Apparently Healthy. Nigerians in Benin City. Methods: Fifty eight apparently healthy non-smoking males aged 30 - 59 years were randomly selected from Benin metropolis and were divided in three groups. The effect of oral vitamin E (a potent.

  8. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of oral vitamin E on serum lipid profile of Apparently Healthy Nigerians in Benin City Methods: Fifty eight apparently healthy non-smoking males aged 30 - 59 years were randomly selected from Benin metropolis and were divided in three groups. The effect of oral vitamin E (a potent ...

  9. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  10. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  11. Active learning in pre-class assignments: Exploring the use of interactive simulations to enhance reading assignments

    CERN Document Server

    Stang, Jared B; Perez, Sarah; Ives, Joss; Roll, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Pre-class reading assignments help prepare students for active classes by providing a first exposure to the terms and concepts to be used during class. We investigate if the use of inquiry-oriented PhET-based activities in conjunction with pre-class reading assignments can improve both the preparation of students for in-class learning and student attitudes towards and engagement with pre-class assignments. Over three course modules covering different topics, students were assigned randomly to complete either a textbook-only pre-class assignment or both a textbook pre-class assignment and a PhET-based activity. The assignments helped prepare students for class, as measured by performance on the pre-class quiz relative to a beginning-of-semester pre-test, but no evidence for increased learning due the PhET activity was observed. Students rated the assignments which included PhET as more enjoyable and, for the topic latest in the semester, reported engaging more with the assignments when PhET was included.

  12. Wilcox Group Apparent Thickness, Gulf Coast (wlcxthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Apparent Wilcox Group thickness maps are contoured from location and top information derived from the Petroleum Information (PI) Wells database. The Wilcox...

  13. Alternative Assignment Incentive Pay Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    300 dollars there was a 52% increase in applications and a 115 % increase in fill rates. This is extremely important to the Navy because it “suggest...Congress.” E-mail to Michael.T.Jones@navy.mil. 01 April 2005. 7. Nimon , W. R. and Hall, D. R. “An Experimental Analysis of the Relative Efficiency of...Scores (60 + 55 = 115 ). Accordingly, Bidder 1 is assigned to Job 1, Bidder 2 is unassigned, and Bidder 3 is assigned to Job 2. Payout in the

  14. Apparent Thermal Conductivity Of Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical model of apparent or effective thermal conductivity between two successive layers of multilayer thermal insulation (MLI) offers potential for optimizing performance of insulation. One gains understanding of how each physical mechanism contributes to overall flow of heat through MLI blanket. Model helps analyze engineering tradeoffs among such parameters as number of layers, thicknesses of gaps between layers, types of spacers placed in gaps, weight, overall thickness, and effects of foregoing on apparent thermal conductivity through blanket.

  15. A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, M; Castillo-Duran, C; Lara, X; Codoceo, J; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E

    1997-12-01

    Apparently healthy preschool children (46 boys, 52 girls) aged 27-50 mo from low socioeconomic conditions who attended daycare centers in Santiago participated in a 14-mo long double-blind zinc supplementation trial. Unlike most previous studies, no additional inclusion criteria such as short stature or slow growth rate were considered. Subjects were pair matched according to sex and age and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the supplemented group, which received 10 mg Zn/d, and the placebo group. Selected anthropometric, clinical, dietary, biochemical, and functional indexes were determined at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 14 mo of intervention. Actual dietary zinc intake was 66% of the recommended dietary allowance. Height gain after 14 mo was on average 0.5 cm higher in the supplemented group (P = 0.10). The response, however, was different between sexes. Boys from the supplemented group gained 0.9 cm more than those in the placebo group (P = 0.045). No effect was seen in girls. Although no significant differences were observed in the rest of the variables studied, trends (0.05 < P < 0.10) in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group for increased midarm muscle area in boys, improved response to tuberculin, and reduced rates of parasite reinfestation were noted. We conclude that in preschool children of low socioeconomic status, zinc is a limiting factor in the expression of growth potential.

  16. Effects and cost of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in members of the Japanese maritime self-defense force: Preliminary report of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, alternate-day treatment assignment clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ogura, Masatsune; Fujimoto, Eita; Shono, Satoshi; Okuda, Eriya

    2004-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) account for at least half of all acute illnesses. Specific antiviral therapy has not been developed against most respiratory viruses thought to cause URTIs. The pharmacologic action of glycyrrhizin has been shown to produce anti-inflammatory activity, modulation of the immune system, inhibition of virus growth, and inactivation of viruses. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability, efficacy, and cost of glycyrrhizin in improving the severity and duration of signs and symptoms of URTIs. The primary end point was tolerability, and the secondary and points included improvement in signs and symptoms of URTI and cost. Members of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (SDF) treated for URTIs from January 2002 to May 2002 in the SDF Etajima Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan) were eligible for this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, alternate-day treatment assignment study. All patients in this study fulfilled the following enrollment criteria: admitted to the hospital on the first arrival day as an outpatient; fever (body temperature women; mean [SD] age, 25.2 [1.5] years) were assigned to the glycyrrhizin group and 269 patients (24 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 22.6 [0.9] years) were assigned to the control group. The 2 groups were similar in terms of baseline characteristics. The mean duration of hospitalization was shorter (P = 0.01), the mean maximum body temperature 24 to 48 hours after admission was less (P = 0.05), and the cost of therapy (P = 0.03) was less in the glycyrrhizin group than the control group. No AEs were reported. In this study of hospitalized patients with URTIs, glycyrrhizin therapy was associated with a shorter hospitalization, lower-grade fever, and lower cost of therapy compared with controls, showing that it may be beneficial to patients with URTIs without acute bacterial infections.

  17. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  18. Who benefits from homework assignments?

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Using Dutch data on pupils in elementary school this paper is the first empirical study that analyzes whether assigning homework has an heterogeneous impact on pupil achievement. Addressing potential biases that arise from unobserved school quality, pupil selection by exploiting different methods, I find that the test score gap is larger in classes where everybody gets homework than in classes where nobody gets homework. More precisely pupils belonging to the upper part of the so...

  19. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , who did not have symptoms or signs of anaemia. Methods: One hundred and seventy apparently ... Results: Mean PCV for males was 0.374± 0.032 and for females was 0.326± 0.036.The prevalence of anaemia in the study population was ...

  20. Apparent superluminal behavior in wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, AD; Lande, A; Lautrup, B

    2001-01-01

    The apparent superluminal propagation of electromagnetic signals seen in recent experiments is shown to be the result of simple and robust properties of relativistic field equations. Although the wave front of a signal passing through a classically forbidden region can never move faster than light,

  1. Apparent directional selection by biased pleiotropic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-07-01

    Pleiotropic effects of deleterious mutations are considered to be among the factors responsible for genetic constraints on evolution by long-term directional selection acting on a quantitative trait. If pleiotropic phenotypic effects are biased in a particular direction, mutations generate apparent directional selection, which refers to the covariance between fitness and the trait owing to a linear association between the number of mutations possessed by individuals and the genotypic values of the trait. The present analysis has shown how the equilibrium mean value of the trait is determined by a balance between directional selection and biased pleiotropic mutations. Assuming that genes act additively both on the trait and on fitness, the total variance-standardized directional selection gradient was decomposed into apparent and true components. Experimental data on mutation bias from the bristle traits of Drosophila and life history traits of Daphnia suggest that apparent selection explains a small but significant fraction of directional selection pressure that is observed in nature; the data suggest that changes induced in a trait by biased pleiotropic mutation (i.e., by apparent directional selection) are easily compensated for by (true) directional selection.

  2. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from apparently Healthy Sheep and Goats. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from ...

  3. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a direct relationship between health and social position, especially between anaemia, level of education and social development. I t has been reported that apparently healthy, fully ambulatory individuals could have low haematocrit. In the recent past, there have been attempts at correlating the ...

  4. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  5. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  6. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  7. Apparent life threatening events (ALTE): diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Manuel Toro-Monjaraz; Eduardo Cázares-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTE) are a form of clinical presen- tation of various problems or diseases in children under one year of age. A frequency of 0.6/1000 newborns is estimated. In Mexico, there is no known incidence, systematic approach or guidelines for hospital discharge, so we performed a literature review. Its etiology may be gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine or-idiopathic. The detailed history and physical examination provide an outline t...

  8. Conflicting HLA assignment by three different typing methods due to the apparent loss of heterozygosity in the MHC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, T; Impola, U; Niittyvuopio, R; Kuittinen, O; Kaare, A; Rimpiläinen, J; Volin, L; Peräsaari, J; Jaatinen, T; Lauronen, J; Saarinen, T; Juvonen, E; Partanen, J; Koskela, S

    2016-05-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported to cause false human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous typing results in pre-transplant patients suffering from haematological malignancies, who in fact are HLA heterozygous. This poses a challenge for histocompatibility testing, as a stem cell graft from a genuinely HLA homozygous donor to a mistyped patient may lead to acute life-threatening graft-vs-host disease. LOH in the HLA region on chromosome 6 is known to be quite common in solid tumours, helping malignant cells to escape T-cell surveillance, but the incidence in haematological malignancies is less well known and the estimates vary. Here we report LOH in the HLA region of five patients with haematological malignancy. We found considerable differences in sensitivity between the three different HLA typing methods used in our laboratory: SSP was clearly the most sensitive method for detecting the lost haplotype, followed by rSSO, while SBT was the least sensitive technique. A subsequent, retrospective genotyping of 65 HLA homozygous haematological patients by SSP method showed no mistyped LOH cases in our laboratory in the past 10 years. The frequency of HLA homozygosity was found to be similar between haematological patients and control groups. It is important for an HLA laboratory to be aware of the differences in various HLA typing techniques' sensitivity for detecting an under-represented haplotype between HLA typing techniques when genotyping patients with haematological diseases. It is advisable for HLA laboratories to have at least two different methods with different sensitivities in their repertoire to be able to retype samples when a false homozygous result is suspected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  10. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  11. Apparent life threatening events (ALTE: diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Manuel Toro-Monjaraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTE are a form of clinical presen- tation of various problems or diseases in children under one year of age. A frequency of 0.6/1000 newborns is estimated. In Mexico, there is no known incidence, systematic approach or guidelines for hospital discharge, so we performed a literature review. Its etiology may be gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine or-idiopathic. The detailed history and physical examination provide an outline to select the laboratory and imaging studies to perform.

  12. Noncommutative FRW Apparent Horizon and Hawking Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhallouf, H.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2017-11-01

    In the context of noncommutative (NCG) gauge gravity, and using a cosmic time power law formula for the scale factor, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) like metric is obtained. Within the fermions tunneling effect approach and depending on the various intervals of the power parameter, expressions of the apparent horizon are also derived. It is shown that in some regions of the parameter space, a pure NCG trapped horizon does exist leading to new interpretation of the role played by the noncommutativity of the space-time.

  13. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  14. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  15. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  16. Apparent cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Lawrence H.; Heinesen, Asta; Wiltshire, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Parameters that quantify the acceleration of cosmic expansion are conventionally determined within the standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, which fixes spatial curvature to be homogeneous. Generic averages of Einstein's equations in inhomogeneous cosmology lead to models with non-rigidly evolving average spatial curvature, and different parametrizations of apparent cosmic acceleration. The timescape cosmology is a viable example of such a model without dark energy. Using the largest available supernova data set, the JLA catalogue, we find that the timescape model fits the luminosity distance-redshift data with a likelihood that is statistically indistinguishable from the standard spatially flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology by Bayesian comparison. In the timescape case cosmic acceleration is non-zero but has a marginal amplitude, with best-fitting apparent deceleration parameter, q_{0}=-0.043^{+0.004}_{-0.000}. Systematic issues regarding standardization of supernova light curves are analysed. Cuts of data at the statistical homogeneity scale affect light-curve parameter fits independent of cosmology. A cosmological model dependence of empirical changes to the mean colour parameter is also found. Irrespective of which model ultimately fits better, we argue that as a competitive model with a non-FLRW expansion history, the timescape model may prove a useful diagnostic tool for disentangling selection effects and astrophysical systematics from the underlying expansion history.

  17. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  18. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  19. Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.

  20. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  1. Apparent skepticism: capital punishment and medical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1993-01-01

    In recent cases on the constitutionality of sentencing to death criminals who were younger than 18 years of age at the time of their crimes or who are mentally retarded, the US Supreme Court has rejected medical evidence that such persons categorically possess diminished culpability. Rather, the Court has accepted the public's "apparent skepticism" of such a scientific consensus in upholding the execution of capital offenders who are 16 years of age or older. The 1952 English case of Craig and Bentley sparked discussion of similar issues in the United Kingdom and contributed to the abolition of capital punishment for murder in that country. US courts should have more deference for such medical evidence, despite perceived widespread resistance to the conclusions of researchers that adolescents and mentally retarded persons categorically lack sufficient maturity, judgment, and deliberation to receive capital punishment and that they are not deterred from murder by the threat of execution.

  2. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  3. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings (1.06±0.01g) was evaluated at 0 to 100 %. Eleven dry ... The feeding experiment was carried out in 40 L plastic tanks in triplicate treatments using randomized block design.

  4. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  5. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  6. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  8. Library-Based Assignments That Enrich the Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the benefits of library work (and some cautions) before describing four assignments that exploit library resources: a business report assignment; a professional journal assignment; a style manual format assignment; and an international business communication assignment. (SG)

  9. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  10. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products encoded in. MTB. These domain assignments have been made using a compendium of sequence and structural ...

  11. The Assessment of Students by Formal Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Michael

    New Zealand universities have been examining the possibilities of abolishing end-of-year examinations and placing more importance on coursework. This monograph offers the alternative of assessing students by formal assignments. The formal assignment system has 4 essential characteristics which distinguish it from other methods of assessment. (1) A…

  12. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  13. Integrating Online Assignments Checking in Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundak, David; Shacham, Miri; Herscovitz, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Web technology offers lecturers the option of checking students' assignments online. Several systems have evolved to deliver personal assignments to each student in a multi-participant course. These systems provide students with immediate feedback, allowing them to correct erroneous answers and referring them to relevant literary sources that can…

  14. Assigning Elementary Pupils to Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Examines variation in the methods used to assign students to classrooms and teachers in a small but highly diversified sample of elementary schools. Gives explicit attention to parental influence on pupil assignments as well as to effects of having an unusually incompetent or excellent teacher at a particular grade level. (NH)

  15. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  16. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  17. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  18. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business groups remained intact across various diplomas and large focus areas, which would act as a pivot for the major group assignments, were forged using scenarios from three core courses. Each general topic thus included at least three separate yet complementary portfolio assignments that differed in genre, ...

  19. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem is given. Here our algorithm outperforms all...

  20. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-12-01

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo OWEN

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  4. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Balearic workers apparently healthy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Angel Arturo; Angullo Martínez, Escarlata; Román Rodríguez, Miguel; Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Tomás Salvá, Matías; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is well known in the general population. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of unknown major cardiovascular risk factors, in an apparently healthy Balearic working population. data were obtained to 3,035 people randomly selected and with unknown previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. To compare proportions we used the χ2 test and the t-Student test for comparison of means. the prevalence of unknown hypertension in men was 20.6%, hypercholesterolemia 11.6%and 2.6% diabetes. The prevalence of unknown hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in women were 8.3,5.4 and 0.8%, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors except low HDL-cholesterol were more prevalent in men. 14.4%of men and 5.5% of women met metabolic syndrome. there is a very high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the working population considered theoretically healthy. This highlights the important role in this field from the occupational health units to make them emerge.

  5. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  6. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  7. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M

    2002-05-01

    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  9. Economic benefit assignment in environmental cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a dirty product which has the potential to offer sales promotion services to other clean products in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model economic benefit assignment (eba) for apportionment of direct waste costs where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other clean products of the same company, which proposes that benefiting products should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost of the polluting product...

  10. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  11. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  12. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  13. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Bouras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area.

  14. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  15. Assignment of fields from particles to mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics there have been many attempts to combine the power of a fixed mesh on which to carry out spatial calculations with that of a set of particles that moves following the velocity field. These ideas indeed go back to Particle-in-Cell methods, proposed about 60 years ago. Of course, some procedure is needed to transfer field information between particles and mesh. There are many possible choices for this "assignment", or "projection". Several requirements may guide this choice. Two well-known ones are conservativity and stability, which apply to volume integrals of the fields. An additional one is here considered: preservation of information. This means that mesh interpolation, followed by mesh assignment, should leave the field values invariant. The resulting methods are termed "mass" assignments due to their strong similarities with the Finite Element Method. We test several procedures, including the well-known FLIP, on three scenarios: simple 1D convection, 2D convection of Zales...

  16. Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy Adults in Aba Metropolis, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile pattern of apparently healthy adults in Aba metropolis and hence, identify the possible contributions of hyper lipidaemia in the ever increasing cardiovascular risk burden in our society. Subjects for this study were apparently healthy adult respondents who met the ...

  17. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences ... Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy ...

  18. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  19. Manganese Oxidation State Assignment for Manganese Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Nathan J; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2016-04-06

    The oxidation state assignment of the manganese ions present in the superoxidized manganese (III/IV) catalase active site is determined by comparing experimental and broken symmetry density functional theory calculated (14)N, (17)O, and (1)H hyperfine couplings. Experimental results have been interpreted to indicate that the substrate water is coordinated to the Mn(III) ion. However, by calculating hyperfine couplings for both scenarios we show that water is coordinated to the Mn(IV) ion and that the assigned oxidation states of the two manganese ions present in the site are the opposite of that previously proposed based on experimental measurements alone.

  20. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  1. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  2. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).

  3. No Apparent Influence of Reward upon Visual Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeland Loew Rogers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of detecting and exploiting a variety of environmental regularities, including stimulus-stimulus contingencies (e.g., visual statistical learning and stimulus-reward contingencies. However, the relationship between these two types of learning is poorly understood. In two experiments, we sought evidence that the occurrence of rewarding events enhances or impairs visual statistical learning. Across all of our attempts to find such evidence, we employed a training stage during which we grouped shapes into triplets and presented triplets one shape at a time in an undifferentiated stream. Participants subsequently performed a surprise recognition task in which they were tested on their knowledge of the underlying structure of the triplets. Unbeknownst to participants, triplets were also assigned no-, low-, or high-reward status. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants viewed shape streams while low and high rewards were randomly given, presented as low- and high-pitched tones played through headphones. Rewards were always given on the third shape of a triplet (Experiment 1A or the first shape of a triplet (Experiment 1B, and high- and low-reward sounds were always consistently paired with the same triplets. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, except that participants were required to learn value associations of a subset of shapes before viewing the shape stream. Across all experiments, we observed significant visual statistical learning effects, but the strength of learning did not differ amongst no-, low-, or high-reward conditions for any of the experiments. Thus, our experiments failed to find any influence of rewards on statistical learning, implying that visual statistical learning may be unaffected by the occurrence of reward. The system that detects basic stimulus-stimulus regularities may operate independently of the system that detects reward contingencies.

  4. 48 CFR 208.7002 - Assignment authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities concerned. (b) Under the Integrated Materiel Management Program, assignments are made by the... Secretary of Defense (Logistics); (2) To GSA, through agreement with GSA, by the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Logistics); (3) Outside the contiguous United States, by the Unified Commanders; and (4) For...

  5. Assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti-Spaccamela, A.; Rutten, C.; van der Ster, S.L.; Wiese, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines such that the tasks on each machine can be feasibly scheduled. Despite its importance for modern real-time systems, this problem has not been studied before. We present a polynomial-time algorithm which approximates the problem

  6. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  7. A Generalized Assignment Heuristic for Vehicle Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    operating costs included in objective (1) of (VRP). This kind of parametric analysis would be useful, for example, in evaluating vehicle acquisition decisions...of solution qcuality and runnina time for the five methods. In terms of solution cualit -i, the Fisher-Jaikumar generalized assignment method clearly

  8. Credit assignment during movement reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    We often need to learn how to move based on a single performance measure that reflects the overall success of our movements. However, movements have many properties, such as their trajectories, speeds and timing of end-points, thus the brain needs to decide which properties of movements should be improved; it needs to solve the credit assignment problem. Currently, little is known about how humans solve credit assignment problems in the context of reinforcement learning. Here we tested how human participants solve such problems during a trajectory-learning task. Without an explicitly-defined target movement, participants made hand reaches and received monetary rewards as feedback on a trial-by-trial basis. The curvature and direction of the attempted reach trajectories determined the monetary rewards received in a manner that can be manipulated experimentally. Based on the history of action-reward pairs, participants quickly solved the credit assignment problem and learned the implicit payoff function. A Bayesian credit-assignment model with built-in forgetting accurately predicts their trial-by-trial learning.

  9. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  10. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... land mobile radio operations. (b) Changes in the TV Table of Allotments or Digital Television Table of..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator...

  11. Training the American Businessman for Foreign Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.; Harris, Dorothy L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a program in cross cultural training for the American businessman about to go on foreign assignment which should increase employee effectiveness when serving outside one's own country or when working with minority groups within the United States." (Author/DR)

  12. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  13. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv genome has facilitated deeper insights into the biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products ...

  14. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  15. School Assignment, School Choice and Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Simon; Briggs, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the chances of poor and non-poor children getting places in good schools, analysing the relationship between poverty, location and school assignment. Our dataset allows us to measure location and distance very precisely. The simple unconditional difference in probabilities of attending a good school is substantial. We run an analysis…

  16. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  17. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  18. Politics, Internet Assignments, and Civic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Vaughn

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor of American government fights the apathy and cynicism of college students toward politics by using the Internet to help students more fairly appraise the workings of the American political system. One assignment has students research and manage a particular public policy initiative through visits to Web sites…

  19. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... 2450 and 2500 MHz are also shared with other communication services and exclusive channel assignments... Emerging Technologies licensee in accordance with § 74.690 or § 78.40. Licensees declining relocation may...

  20. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  1. Incentivized optimal advert assignment via utility decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, F.; Key, P.; Walton, N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a large-scale Ad-auction where adverts are assigned over a potentially infinite number of searches. We capture the intrinsic asymmetries in information between advertisers, the advert platform and the space of searches: advertisers know and can optimize the average performance of their

  2. Semi-infinite assignment and transportation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaqu´ın; Llorca, Navidad; Tijs, Stef; Goberna, Miguel A.; López, Marco A.

    2001-01-01

    Games corresponding to semi-infinite transportation and related assignment situations are studied. In a semi-infinite transportation situation, one aims at maximizing the profit from the transportation of a certain good from a finite number of suppliers to an infinite number of demanders. An

  3. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  4. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  5. On the expected number of assignments in reduced matrices for the linear assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.; Dorhout, B.

    1989-01-01

    A linear n × n assignment problem is considered for which the elements of the cost matrix are sampled from a continuous probability distribution. Based on the zero entries of the reduced matrix the expectation of the maximum number of initial assignments is determined for general n, as well as an

  6. Stereospecific assignment of the asparagine and glutamine sidechain amide protons in proteins from chemical shift analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsch, Tobias; Schneider, Philipp; Kieninger, Bärbel; Donaubauer, Harald; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert, E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB). For a separation of the chemical shifts of the two amide resonance lines with differences ≥0.40 ppm for asparagine and differences ≥0.42 ppm for glutamine, the downfield shifted resonance lines can be assigned to H{sup δ21} and H{sup ε21}, respectively, at a confidence level >95%. A classifier derived from UASCB can also be used to correct the BMRB data. The program tool AssignmentChecker implemented in AUREMOL calculates the Bayesian probability for a given stereospecific assignment and automatically corrects the assignments for a given list of chemical shifts.

  7. A tracked approach for automated NMR assignments in proteins (TATAPRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, H.S.; Sahu, S.C.; Chary, K.V.R.; Govil, Girjesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2000-06-15

    experimental data on a calcium binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (Eh-CaBP, 15 kDa) having substantial internal sequence homology and using published data on four other proteins in the molecular weight range of 18-42 kDa. In all the cases, nearly complete sequence specific resonance assignments (> 95%) are obtained. Furthermore, the reliability of the program has been tested by deleting sets of chemical shifts randomly from the master{sub l}ist created for the test proteins.

  8. 75 FR 55352 - Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... of the Secretary Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 5-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division. 1. Purpose. To delegate authorities and assign responsibilities to the...

  9. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  10. Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) using Branch and Bound Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuthairah Syed-Abdullah, Sharifah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Mauziah Benjamin, Aida; Wibowo, Antoni; Ku-Mahamud, Ku-Ruhana

    2018-01-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) has been a very popular problem to be solved among researchers due to its practical applications. Several variants of QAP have been proposed by researchers in the past in order to reflect the real situations of QAP. One of the real problems of QAP is related with facilities which are required to be assigned to certain locations due to its function. In solving this problem, a fixed assignment has to be made thus allowing for the complexity of the problem to be reduced. Hence, this study introduces Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) with the objective to minimize the assignment cost between the facility and location. This assignment takes into account the flow and distance between facility and location. QAPFA represents the real-world situation of the problem especially in dealing with specific requirement of some facilities to specific locations. Dataset of QAPFA is introduced and is solved using branch and bound approach. As for validation, the results of QAPFA are compared with QAP in terms of objective function and running time. The computational results show that the solution quality of QAPFA is lower when compared with the QAP, while the running time for QAPFA is lower than the QAP. Since the complexity of the problem is reduced by fixing the assignment, thus there is possibility that QAPFA has lower quality than QAP due to the fixed assignment. Nevertheless, in terms of running time QAPFA is better than QAP. It can be concluded that this problem reflect the real problem and practical to be used.

  11. Gender Assignment in Danish, Swedish and Norwegian: A Comparison of the Status of Assignment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kilarski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with gender assignment of English loanwords in Danish, Swedish and Norwegian. The following assignment criteria have been analysed: semantic (animate, mass, phonological (number of syllables, homonymy, and morphological (inflection, suffixation, deverbal monosyllables, compounds. Common gender in Danish and Swedish and masculine in Norwegian are overrepresented in comparison with the native lexicon. This is confirmed by discriminant function analysis, which shows that neuter nouns in the three languages and feminine nouns in Norwegian show fewer characteristic features. This analysis has also been used to measure the degree of regularity based on the postulated criteria: the percentage of correctly classified cases (from 67% in Swedish to 68% in Norwegian and 72% in Danish suggests only a partial regularity in gender assignment. The stronger pull of common or masculine gender is reflected in the contribution of selected assignment rules, particularly in the assignment of animates, where common or masculine nouns constitute 96% of assigned nouns. As regards phonological rules, monosyllables show a slightly better correlation with neuter gender, particularly in Danish. Homonymy is significant for nouns of both genders in Danish, while in Swedish and Norwegian nouns with a native neuter or feminine homonym are more likely to be assigned common or masculine gender. Likewise, most inflectional and derivational assignment rules contribute to the assignment of common or masculine genders, with the exception of zero plurals, Swedish n-plurals, suffixes such as -ment, -ery, deverbal monosyllables in Danish and Norwegian, and compounds whose base appears in the corpus with n. gender. Discriminant function analysis shows that plural inflection has the greatest discriminant power among the postulated criteria. Finally, it is suggested that these tendencies may indicate an ongoing expansion of common and masculine genders in the three

  12. Assignments, Details, and Transfers: Overseas Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-30

    contract will be served regardless of the prescribed tour length. This includes soldiers assigned to Technical Assistance Field Teams ( TAFTS ). r...PUERTO RICO (except as indicated) 36 24 2 Ponce (Ft Allen) and Isabela, Yauco, Cagus, Juana Diaz 36 18 Vieques Island NA 12 QATAR 24 12 40 AR 614–30...55AR 614–30 • 30 August 2001 TAADS The Army Authorization Document System TAFT Technical Assistance Field Team TAT turnaround time TDA table of

  13. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...

  14. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen

    2011-05-01

    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  15. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall.

  16. A comparison of concentration measurement techniques for the estimation of the apparent mass diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Pereira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we compare two different techniques to measure the concentration of saline solutions for the identification of the apparent mass diffusion coefficient in soils saturated with distilled water. They are the radiation measurement technique and the electrical conductivity measurement technique. These techniques are compared in terms of measured quantities, sensitivity coefficients with respect to unknown parameters and the determinant of the information matrix. The apparent mass diffusion coefficient is estimated by utilizing simulated measurements containing random errors. The Levenberg-Marquardt method of minimization of the least-squares norm is used as the parameter estimation procedure. The effects of the volume of saline solution injected into the column devised for the experiments on the accuracy of the estimated parameters are also addressed in this article.

  17. Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System - Tactical / Operational Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Reporting data store for the Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (ACT). ACT automates the assignment and tracking of correspondence processing within the...

  18. A combined strategy for solving quadratic assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyaningsih, Faiz

    2017-08-01

    The quadratic assignment problem is a combinatorial problem of deciding the placement of facilities in specified locations in such a way as to minimize a nonconvex objective function expressed in terms of flow between facilities, and distance between location. Due to the non-convexity nature of the problem, therefore to get a `good' starting point is necessary in order to obtain a better optimal solution. In this paper we propose a combined strategy (random point strategy to get initial starting point and then use forward exchange strategy and backward exchange strategy to get `optimal' solution). As a computational experience we've solved the problem of Esc 16b, Esc 16c and Esc 16h from QAPLIB. Finally, we present a comparative study between Combined Strategy and Data -Guided Lexisearch Algorithm. The computational study shows the effectiveness of our proposed combined strategy.

  19. Game theoretic target assignment approach in ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.

  20. Optimisation of timetable-based, stochastic transit assignment models based on MSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr

    2006-01-01

    Public transport assignment models have increased in complexity in order to describe passengers' route choices as detailed and correctly as possible. Important trends in the development are (1) timetable-based assignment, (2) inclusion of feeder modes, (3) use of stochastic components to describe...... differences in passengers' preferences within and between purposes and classes (random coefficients), as well as to describe non-explained variation within a utility theory framework, and (4) consideration of capacity problems at coach level, system level and terminal level. In the Copenhagen-Ringsted Model...... (CRM), such a large-scale transit assignment model was developed and estimated. The Stochastic User Equilibrium problem was solved by the Method of Successive Averages (MSA). However, the model suffered from very large calculation times. The paper focuses on how to optimise transit assignment models...

  1. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Observations of apparent superslow wave propagation in solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, J. O.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Baes, M.; Wright, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Phase mixing of standing continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in atmospheric magnetic structures such as coronal arcades can create the apparent effect of a wave propagating across the magnetic field. Aims: We observe a prominence with SDO/AIA on 2015 March 15 and find the presence of oscillatory motion. We aim to demonstrate that interpreting this motion as a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) wave is faulty. We also connect the decrease of the apparent velocity over time with the phase mixing process, which depends on the curvature of the magnetic field lines. Methods: By measuring the displacement of the prominence at different heights to calculate the apparent velocity, we show that the propagation slows down over time, in accordance with the theoretical work of Kaneko et al. We also show that this propagation speed drops below what is to be expected for even slow MHD waves for those circumstances. We use a modified Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model to calculate the curvature of the magnetic field and fit our observations accordingly. Results: Measuring three of the apparent waves, we get apparent velocities of 14, 8, and 4 km s-1. Fitting a simple model for the magnetic field configuration, we obtain that the filament is located 103 Mm below the magnetic centre. We also obtain that the scale of the magnetic field strength in the vertical direction plays no role in the concept of apparent superslow waves and that the moment of excitation of the waves happened roughly one oscillation period before the end of the eruption that excited the oscillation. Conclusions: Some of the observed phase velocities are lower than expected for slow modes for the circumstances, showing that they rather fit with the concept of apparent superslow propagation. A fit with our magnetic field model allows for inferring the magnetic geometry of the prominence. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  4. Characteristic ratio assignment in fractional order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Haeri, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the characteristic ratios and generalized time constant are defined for all-pole commensurate fractional order systems. The sufficient condition for stability of these systems in terms of their characteristic ratios is obtained. Also an analytical approach for characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) to have a non-overshooting fast closed loop step response is introduced. The proposed CRA method is then employed to design a fractional order controller. Computer simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the CRA based designed fractional order controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  6. Optimization of demand assigned SCPC satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, E.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates various system aspects and price tradeoffs involved in providing cost-effective Demand Assignment (DA) satellite channel service. Those network characteristics which significantly affect the ultimate cost-based decision are discussed. The number of stations participating in the DA or PA system, the number of satellite channels, and the traffic are kept parametric within expected limits, covering most of the present and future applications. In particular, the interrelationships between the network requirements (e.g., grade of service) and network elements, and the impacts of different blocking assignment allocations on the number of modems in the network is examined. A cost model is then derived that allows the evaluation and comparison of both DA and PA networks. Absolute and differential costing of PA and DA networks is permitted using economic quantities available to the system planner. These include modem cost, satellite channel cost, network size, and defined efficiency factors. Based on the differential cost comparisons for several DA and PA network strategies, tradeoffs have been derived to aid the system designer in configuring the most cost-effective DA network.

  7. The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and objectives: Over the last few decades, congenital anomalies of the urogenital system have increased globally as a consequence of advanced maternal age at pregnancy and developments in assisted reproductive techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of apparent congenital ...

  8. A Non-Mainstream Viewpoint on Apparent Superluminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The group velocity of light in material around the AGN jet is acquiescently one (c as a unit), but this is only a hypothesis. Here, we re-derive apparent superluminal and Doppler formulas for the general case (it is assumed that the group velocity of light in the uniform and isotropic medium around a jet (a beaming ...

  9. A Non-Mainstream Viewpoint on Apparent Superluminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The group velocity of light in material around the AGN jet is acquiescently one ( as a unit), but this is only a hypothesis. Here, we re-derive apparent superluminal and Doppler formulas for the general case (it is assumed that the group velocity of light in the uniform and isotropic medium around a jet (a ...

  10. On the apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Plewa, G.; Spalinski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient

  11. Sonography in chronic distension of the abdomen and apparent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    abdominal distension. Histopathology is mandatory in ovarian tumours. Key words: Sonography, abdominal distension, apparent pregnancy. Introduction. The differential diagnoses of chronic distension of the abdomen include abdominal tumours, obesity,. Cushing's syndrome and pseudo pregnancy. Each of these can be ...

  12. Measurement of the specific and the apparent molar volumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to understand the extent to which the acids can disturb the structure of the solvent as well as affect the micellar characteristics. The specific volumes were obtained by fitting the measured viscosity data to the Einstein equation while the apparent molar volumes were obtained using the pycnometric method.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and National Hospital Complex, in Bloemfontein. Women of all ages. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in evaluating response of carcinoma of the cervix treated with chemoradiotherapy. A le Roux, F Gebremariam, W Harmse. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free ...

  14. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in faecal samples of apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in faeces of apparently healthy individual volunteers was investigated. Faecal samples were collected from 216 individuals comprising 138 adults (70 males and 68 females) and 78 children aged between 4 months and 42 years (mean age was 30.2 months). Individuals on ...

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Sur- face antigen among apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Sur- face antigen among apparently healthy primary school pupils in. Batagarawa Local Government area of Katsina State, Nigeria. Accepted: 2017. Habibu B. Department of Paediatrics,. General Hospital Katsina, Nigeria. Email: as.sheik@yahoo.com. Belonwu R, Ibrahim M.

  16. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    apparent phenomenal descriptive methods. 1. Introduction. In binary system the rotational period of components and its orbital period usually show a synchronous phenomenon. This is the secular evolutional result arising from tidal friction in binary systems. Investigation of this synchronous phenomenon is very meaningful ...

  17. Eudynamis Minima, an apparently new Cuckoo from Southwestern New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Only an adult male of this apparently new form of the genus Eudynamis has been collected near Bivak Island, in the Noord River, Southwestern New Guinea, at 9 January 1910 by the members of the last Lorentz-expedition to the snowy mountains. (Coll. Lorentz n°. 508). The plumage is black, glossed with

  18. Visualizing apparent personality analysis with deep residual networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gü ç lü tü rk, Y.; Gü ç lü , U.; Pé rez, M.; Escalante, H.J.; Baró , X.; Guyon, I.; Andujar, C.; Jacques, J.; Madadi, M.; Escalera, S.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lier, R.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Automatic prediction of personality traits is a subjective task that has recently received much attention. Specifically, automatic apparent personality trait prediction from multimodal data has emerged as a hot topic within the filed of computer vision and, more particularly, the so called "looking

  19. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in evaluating response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can be used as a reliable detector of response of carcinoma of the cervix treated with chemoradiotherapy, compared with conventional. T2-weighted MRI. Design.

  20. Haematological profile of apparently healthy term babies aged one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of haematological parameters are often required to assist with diagnosis and monitoring. Objective: To determine the haematological indices of apparently healthy term babies on the first day, third day and sixth week of life. Method: A longitudinal survey of the haematological parameters of ...

  1. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.

  2. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Surface antigen among apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Surface antigen among apparently healthy primary school pupils in Batagarawa Local Government area of Katsina State, Nigeria. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  3. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your ...

  4. Occurrence of helminths and coccidia in apparently healthy free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoparasites are among important causes of mortality and reduced productivity in village chickens. This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal helminths and coccidia in apparently healthy free range local chickens slaughtered at Morogoro live bird market so as to establish the magnitude of the ...

  5. Hjertestop associeret med syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard-Nielsen, Anne; Laugesen, Esben; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is an unknown complication to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME). This case report describes a young woman admitted with hypo-kalaemia and hypertension. Concentrations of both P-renin and P-aldosterone were low and urinary steroid metabolites revealed...

  6. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  7. Sonographic assessment of the portal vein diameter in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study found the mean values of PV diameter in apparently healthy adults in our environment to be 9.60 ±. 1.41mm and that PV diameter ... Keywords: Portal vein diameter, sonography, Nigerian population, healthy adults. ... architecture that leads to enlargement of extrahepatic and intrahepatic portal ...

  8. Evaluation of in vivo techniques for the determination of apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three in vivo techniques were evaluated in terms of their suitability for determination of the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of protein sources for piglets. The techniques were: ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA), cannulation at the distal ileum and a slaughter technique. A standard diet and three diets in which 20% of ...

  9. Flipping about the Sun and Its Pattern of Apparent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Crystal M.; Pattee, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Arts integration has shown to enhance student comprehension, retention, and engagement, while connecting to rich science content. The integration of the Next Generation Science Standards and the National Arts Standards into a first grade lesson illustrated how the arts enhanced the students' understandings of the sun's apparent motion during the…

  10. The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-07-01

    Objective: To determine the birth weight of apparently healthy newborns delivered at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004. The criteria were booked mothers, mothers with regular menstrual ...

  11. Growth response and apparent nutrient digestibility of weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the growth response and apparent nutrient digestibility of weaner rabbits fed with diets containing bamboo leaf meal (BLM). Eighty weaner rabbits were allotted into four dietary treatment groups of twenty rabbits each. The dietary treatment groups consisted of four rations ...

  12. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at room ...

  13. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) ...

  14. Apparent Barrier Height in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L.; Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt

    1996-01-01

    The apparent barrier height phi(ap), that is, the rate of change of the logarithm of the conductance with tip-sample separation in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), has been measured for Ni, Pt, and Au single crystal surfaces. The results show that phi(ap) is constant until point contact is ...

  15. The influence of sex on the haematological values of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from fifty apparently healthy adult Sahel goats, twenty five each of male and female in Maiduguri to assess the influence of sex on their haematology. The red blood cell (RBC) counts, white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), platelet counts, ...

  16. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  17. INDEXING WORKSHOP: HOW TO ASSIGN KEYWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-09-01

    You have heard about issues surrounding indexing and retrieval of nuclear records and automation and micrographics of these records. Now we are going to get each of you involved in indexing and assigning keywords. The first part of this hands-on workshop will be a very basic, elementary step-by-step introduction, concentrating on how to assign keywords. It is a workshop for beginners, People who have never done it before. It is planned to demonstrate what an analyst has to do to index and assign keywords to a document. Then I will take some pages of a report and demonstrate how I choose keywords for it. Then each of you will have a chance to do the same thing with similar pages from another report. Then we will discuss the variations ln the keywords you individually assigned. There are many systems that can be used. In this particular workshop we will cover only a system of building your own keyword listing as you index your documents. We will be discussing keywords or descriptors or subject words, but first I want to point out a few other critical points about indexing. When developing an indexing project the most important thing to do first lS decide what elements you want to retrieve by. Whether you go into a large computer retrieval system or a small three-by-five card system, you have to decide in advance what you want to retrieve. Then you can go on from there. If you only need to search by equipment number or by purchase order or by contract number, then you can use a very simple retrieval system. But if you want to be able to retrieve a record by any combination of elements, then you have to consistently input these into your system. For example, if you want to be able to ask for the drawings of the piping in the secondary cooling system, level 3, manufactured by a certain vendor, then you must have put the information into the index by a retrieval file point, in advance. I want to stress that the time spent in deciding what has to be retrievable is never

  18. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20,533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art.

  19. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  20. Apparent Attenuation at High Frequencies in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    Accurately simulating strong motions for seismic hazard analysis requires accurate 3D models of crustal structure. At low frequencies (job of accounting 3D elastic scattering on wavefield amplitudes. At higher frequencies, however, anelastic attenuation becomes more important, and the elastic scattering depends on unresolved small-scale heterogeneities, giving rise to a complex apparent attenuation structure that depends on both position and frequency. We place constraints on this structure in the band 1-10 Hz through the analysis of earthquake waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). We localize signals in frequency and time using wavelet transforms, and we account for source structure and geometrical spreading by referencing the spectral amplitudes to values computed from synthetic seismograms. Inversions of large datasets recover an attenuation structure that, when averaged laterally and over frequency, is generally consistent with the tomographic study of Hauksson & Shearer (2006). In particular, we find that the apparent quality factor for P waves (QP) is less than the apparent quality factor for S waves (QS), in contradiction with the classical relation QP 2QS that has been used for most wavefield modeling at low frequencies. The data are consistent with QP anomalies being strongest in the low-Q, near-surface waveguide, suggesting that strong scattering from small-scale heterogeneities may play a role in explaining this discrepancy. The data also require that the apparent attenuation be strongly frequency dependent across the 1-10 Hz band. We use 3D tomographic inversions conditioned on the 3D velocity models to test the hypothesis that the lateral variations in apparent attenuation structure are strongly correlated with velocity variations.

  1. Yield-aware mask assignment using positive semi-definite relaxation in LELECUT triple patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Yukihide; Kodama, Chikaaki; Matsui, Tomomi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    LELECUT type triple patterning lithography is one of the most promising techniques in the next generation lithography. To prevent yield loss caused by overlay error, LELECUT mask assignment which is tolerant to overlay error is desired. In this paper, we propose a method that obtains an LELECUT assignment which is tolerant to overlay error. The proposed method uses positive semide_nite relaxation and randomized rounding technique. In our method, the cost function that takes the length of boundary of features determined by the cut mask into account is introduced.

  2. A code reviewer assignment model incorporating the competence differences and participant preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A good assignment of code reviewers can effectively utilize the intellectual resources, assure code quality and improve programmers’ skills in software development. However, little research on reviewer assignment of code review has been found. In this study, a code reviewer assignment model is created based on participants’ preference to reviewing assignment. With a constraint of the smallest size of a review group, the model is optimized to maximize review outcomes and avoid the negative impact of “mutual admiration society”. This study shows that the reviewer assignment strategies incorporating either the reviewers’ preferences or the authors’ preferences get much improvement than a random assignment. The strategy incorporating authors’ preference makes higher improvement than that incorporating reviewers’ preference. However, when the reviewers’ and authors’ preference matrixes are merged, the improvement becomes moderate. The study indicates that the majority of the participants have a strong wish to work with reviewers and authors having highest competence. If we want to satisfy the preference of both reviewers and authors at the same time, the overall improvement of learning outcomes may be not the best.

  3. An Accurate and Impartial Expert Assignment Method for Scientific Project Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an expert assignment method for scientific project review that considers both accuracy and impartiality. As impartial and accurate peer review is extremely important to ensure the quality and feasibility of scientific projects, enhanced methods for managing the process are needed. Design/methodology/approach: To ensure both accuracy and impartiality, we design four criteria, the reviewers’ fitness degree, research intensity, academic association, and potential conflict of interest, to express the characteristics of an appropriate peer review expert. We first formalize the expert assignment problem as an optimization problem based on the designed criteria, and then propose a randomized algorithm to solve the expert assignment problem of identifying reviewer adequacy. Findings: Simulation results show that the proposed method is quite accurate and impartial during expert assignment. Research limitations: Although the criteria used in this paper can properly show the characteristics of a good and appropriate peer review expert, more criteria/conditions can be included in the proposed scheme to further enhance accuracy and impartiality of the expert assignment. Practical implications: The proposed method can help project funding agencies (e.g. the National Natural Science Foundation of China find better experts for project peer review. Originality/value: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication that proposes an algorithm that applies an impartial approach to the project review expert assignment process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  5. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-08-19

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  6. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehwa Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. An addendum on sensitivity analysis of the optimal assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, A.

    2006-01-01

    We point out that sensitivity results for the linear assignment problem can be produced by a shortest path based approach in a straightforward manner and as efficient as finding an optimal solution. Keywords: Assignment; Sensitivity analysis

  8. Efficient Mechanisms to Allocate Assignment Incentives in the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nimon, R. W; Hall, Ricky D; Zaki, Hossam

    2005-01-01

    .... All assignments, however, may not necessarily be voluntary. These assignments (jobs) have been labeled as "hard to fill" by Navy leadership, and the Navy has implemented market-based, cash stipends to attract Sailors to these jobs...

  9. The Apparent Velocity and Acceleration of Relativistically Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Berlet, Austen; Chishtie, Farrukh; Houde, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Although special relativity limits the actual velocity of a particle to $c$, the velocity of light, the observed velocity need not be the same as the actual velocity as the observer is only aware of the position of a particle at the time in the past when it emits the detected signal. We consider the apparent speed and acceleration of a particle in two cases, one when the particle is moving with a constant speed and the other when it is moving with a constant acceleration. One curious feature of our results is that in both cases, if the actual velocity of the particle approaches $c$, then the apparent velocity approaches infinity when it is moving toward the observer and $c/2$ when it is moving away from the observer.

  10. Variation of the apparent viscosity of thickened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Mark; Hanson, Ben; Smith, Christina H

    2011-01-01

    In dysphagia care, thickening powders are widely added to drinks to slow their flow speed by increasing their viscosity. Current practice relies on subjective evaluation of viscosity using verbal descriptors. Several brands of thickener are available, with differences in constituent ingredients and instructions for use. Some thickened fluids have previously been shown to exhibit time-varying non-Newtonian flow behaviour, which may complicate attempts at subjective viscosity judgement. The aims were to quantify the apparent viscosity over time produced by thickeners having a range of constituent ingredients, and to relate the results to clinical practice. A comparative evaluation of currently available thickener products, including two which have recently been reformulated, was performed. Their subjective compliance to the National Descriptors standards was assessed, and their apparent viscosity was measured using a rheometer at shear rates representative of situations from slow tipping in a beaker (0.1 s⁻¹) to a fast swallow (100 s⁻¹). Testing was performed repeatedly up to 3 h from mixing. When mixed with water, it was found that most products compared well with subjective National Descriptors at three thickness levels. The fluids were all highly non-Newtonian; their apparent viscosity was strongly dependent on the rate of testing, typically decreasing by a factor of almost 100 as shear rate increased. All fluids showed some change in viscosity with time from mixing; this varied between products from -34% to 37% in the tests. This magnitude was less than the difference between thickness levels specified by the National Descriptors. The apparent viscosity of thickened fluids depends strongly on the shear rate at which it is examined. This inherent behaviour is likely to hinder subjective evaluation of viscosity. If quantitative measures of viscosity are required (for example, for standardization purposes), they must therefore be qualified with information of

  11. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG. It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  12. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of audio vs. written feedback on clinical assignments of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Annette M; Mundy, Cynthia; Joshua, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored using audio recordings as method of feedback for weekly clinical assignments of nursing students. Feedback that provides students with insight into their performance is an essential component of nursing education. Audio methods have been used to communicate feedback on written assignments in other disciplines, but this method has not been reported in the nursing literature. A survey and VARK questionnaire were completed by eight nursing students. Each student had randomly received written and audio feedback during an eight-week period. There were no differences between written and audio methods. Students perceived audio as the most personal, easy to understand, and positive method. Only one student expressed a preference for written feedback.There was no difference in instructor time. Audio feedback is an innovative method of feedback for clinical assignments of 'Net Generation' nursing students.

  14. 46 CFR 67.237 - Requirements for assignments of mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for assignments of mortgages. 67.237... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.237 Requirements for assignments of mortgages. An assignment of...

  15. Solving the k-cardinality assignment problem by transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, A.

    2004-01-01

    The k-cardinality Linear Assignment Problem (k-LAP) with k a given integer is a generalization of the linear assignment problem: one wants to assign k rows (a free choice out of more rows) to k columns (a free choice out of more columns) minimizing the sum of the corresponding costs. For this

  16. Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

  17. 75 FR 55354 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 3-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Employee Benefits Security Administration. 1. Purpose. To delegate authority and assign responsibilities for the administration of the...

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient threshold for delineation of ischemic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, Archana; Campbell, Bruce C V; Straka, Matus; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Bammer, Roland; Kemp, Stephanie M; Albers, Gregory W; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2015-04-01

    MRI-based selection of patients for acute stroke interventions requires rapid accurate estimation of the infarct core on diffusion-weighted MRI. Typically used manual methods to delineate restricted diffusion lesions are subjective and time consuming. These limitations would be overcome by a fully automated method that can rapidly and objectively delineate the ischemic core. An automated method would require predefined criteria to identify the ischemic core. The aim of this study is to determine apparent diffusion coefficient-based criteria that can be implemented in a fully automated software solution for identification of the ischemic core. Imaging data from patients enrolled in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) study who had early revascularization following intravenous thrombolysis were included. The patients' baseline restricted diffusion and 30-day T2 -weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions were manually delineated after coregistration. Parts of the restricted diffusion lesion that corresponded with 30-day infarct were considered ischemic core, whereas parts that corresponded with normal brain parenchyma at 30 days were considered noncore. The optimal apparent diffusion coefficient threshold to discriminate core from noncore voxels was determined by voxel-based receiver operating characteristics analysis using the Youden index. 51,045 diffusion positive voxels from 14 patients who met eligibility criteria were analyzed. The mean DWI lesion volume was 24 (± 23) ml. Of this, 18 (± 22) ml was ischemic core and 3 (± 5) ml was noncore. The remainder corresponded to preexisting gliosis, cerebrospinal fluid, or was lost to postinfarct atrophy. The apparent diffusion coefficient of core was lower than that of noncore voxels (P core was an apparent diffusion coefficient ≤ 620 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s (sensitivity 69% and specificity 78%). Our data suggest that the ischemic core can be identified

  19. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  20. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-10-07

    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  1. Increasing Independent Seatwork: Breaking Large Assignments into Smaller Assignments and Teaching a Student with Retardation to Recruit Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Monica A.; Cox, Elizabeth A.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2003-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of a multicomponent intervention on independent seatwork and student-teacher interactions in a student with mild mental retardation. During the intervention phase, long assignments were changed to multiple, briefer assignments. After completing each brief assignment, the student recruited social…

  2. SAGA: rapid automatic mainchain NMR assignment for large proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, Gordon M., E-mail: gcrippen@umich.ed [University of Michigan, College of Pharmacy (United States); Rousaki, Aikaterini [University of Michigan, LSA Biophysics (United States); Revington, Matthew [University of Windsor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Canada); Zhang Yongbo [Northwestern University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology (United States); Zuiderweg, Erik R. P., E-mail: zuiderwe@umich.ed [University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we describe a new algorithm for automatically determining the mainchain sequential assignment of NMR spectra for proteins. Using only the customary triple resonance experiments, assignments can be quickly found for not only small proteins having rather complete data, but also for large proteins, even when only half the residues can be assigned. The result of the calculation is not the single best assignment according to some criterion, but rather a large number of satisfactory assignments that are summarized in such a way as to help the user identify portions of the sequence that are assigned with confidence, vs. other portions where the assignment has some correlated alternatives. Thus very imperfect initial data can be used to suggest future experiments.

  3. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nitrogen (N and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acids (AA and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05 the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg, fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05 the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  4. Automated sequence-specific protein NMR assignment using the memetic algorithm MATCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Jochen [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biophysik (Switzerland); Herrmann, Torsten [Universite de Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB-Lyon 1 (France); Wuethrich, Kurt [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biophysik (Switzerland)], E-mail: wuthrich@mol.biol.ethz.ch

    2008-07-15

    MATCH (Memetic Algorithm and Combinatorial Optimization Heuristics) is a new memetic algorithm for automated sequence-specific polypeptide backbone NMR assignment of proteins. MATCH employs local optimization for tracing partial sequence-specific assignments within a global, population-based search environment, where the simultaneous application of local and global optimization heuristics guarantees high efficiency and robustness. MATCH thus makes combined use of the two predominant concepts in use for automated NMR assignment of proteins. Dynamic transition and inherent mutation are new techniques that enable automatic adaptation to variable quality of the experimental input data. The concept of dynamic transition is incorporated in all major building blocks of the algorithm, where it enables switching between local and global optimization heuristics at any time during the assignment process. Inherent mutation restricts the intrinsically required randomness of the evolutionary algorithm to those regions of the conformation space that are compatible with the experimental input data. Using intact and artificially deteriorated APSY-NMR input data of proteins, MATCH performed sequence-specific resonance assignment with high efficiency and robustness.

  5. Likelihood of being seen within emergency departments’ assigned urgency times for poisoned and injured individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Rosenthal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine the likelihood of injured or poisoned patients in special populations, such as those patients that are elderly and self-injurious, being seen within an emergency department’s triage nurse assigned urgency. Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2007 was utilized in this study. Multi-level models and multivariate linear regression models were used; patient age, sex, reported pain levels, wait time, and injury type were examined as potential predictors of being seen within assigned urgency. From a random sample across all US Emergency Departments, 5616 patients nested in 312 hospital emergency departments were included into the study. Typically, approximately 1 in 5 emergency department patients were not seen within their triage nurse assigned urgencies. The typical patient in the average hospital had an 81% likelihood of being seen within their assigned urgency. P atients who were oldest [odds ratio (OR=0.0990] and had self-inflicted injuries (vs assault OR=1.246 and OR=1.596 had the least likelihood to be seen within their assigned urgencies. As actual wait-time increased for patients, they were less likely to be seen within their assigned urgencies. The most powerful predictors of the study’s outcome were injury type and age, indicating that patients from special populations such as the elderly or those with injuries resulting from deliberate self-harm are less likely to be actually priority patients independent of triage nurse assigned urgencies.

  6. Effects of Mild Curvature on ANCOVA and Randomized Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Alan J.; Potter, Nina Salcedo

    The type I error control and power of a number of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and randomized block (RB) designs with curvilinear data were studied for tests of the additive treatment effect and interaction. For tests of additive effects, the analysis was also conducted using systematic assignment to treatments and using random assignment with…

  7. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  8. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as ?an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing?. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common ca...

  9. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Magd A.; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is delivered through a didactic, blended learning, and mixed models. Students are supposed to construct an answerable question in PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework, acquire evidence through search of literature, appraise evidence, apply it to the clinical case scenario, and assess the evidence in relation to clinical context. Yet these teaching models have limitations especially those related to group work, for example, handling uncooperative students, students who fail to contribute, students who domineer, students who have personal conflict, their impact upon progress of their groups, and inconsistent individual acquisition of required skills. At Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, we designed a novel undergraduate pediatric EBM assignment online system to overcome shortcomings of previous didactic method and aimed to assess its effectiveness by prospective follow-up during academic years 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. The novel web-based online interactive system was tailored to provide sequential single and group assignments for each student. Single assignment addressed a specific case scenario question, while group assignment was teamwork that addressed different questions of same case scenario. Assignment comprised scholar content and skills. We objectively analyzed students’ performance by criterion-based assessment and subjectively by anonymous student questionnaire. A total of 2879 were enrolled in 5th year Pediatrics Course consecutively, of them 2779 (96.5%) logged in and 2554 (88.7%) submitted their work. They were randomly assigned to 292 groups. A total of 2277 (89.15%) achieved ≥80% of total mark (4/5), of them 717 (28.1%) achieved a full mark. A total of 2178 (85.27%) and 2359 (92.36%) made evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in single and group assignment, respectively (P < 0.001). A total of 1102 (43.1%) answered student questionnaire

  10. Slope failure analysis using the random material point method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The random material point method (RMPM), which combines random field theory and the material point method (MPM), is proposed. It differs from the random finite-element method (RFEM), by assigning random field (cell) values to material points that are free to move relative to the computational grid

  11. Effects of Functional Oils on Coccidiosis and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A. E.; Eyng, C.; Torrent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of functional oils (Essential, Oligo Basics Agroind. Ltda) on performance response of chickens challenged with coccidiosis and the determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), the coefficients of protein and ether extract digestibility and intestinal morphology of broilers fed with diets containing Essential. In Exp. 1, a completely randomized design (CRD) was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion with coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) challenged birds and two different inclusion rates of Essential (1.5 kg/ton and 2 kg/ton) with coccidiosis-challenged and non-challenged birds for each inclusion rate, using 10 replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. After 7 d of coccidiosis challenge, the livability was approximately 10% lower (pcoccidiosis challenge and during the first 7 d post infection. In Exp. 2, a CRD was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion and one diet with inclusion of Essential (1.5 kg/ton), using nine replications and 33 chicks per pen. The diets with Essential yielded approximately 4% higher AME (p = 0.003) and AMEn (p = 0.001). Essential supplementation increased villus height in the jejunum on d 14 (pcoccidiosis in supplemented birds. PMID:25050040

  12. The concept of apparent polarizability for calculating the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by porous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, C.; Adler, G.

    2017-04-01

    In the current study, the electromagnetic properties of porous aerosol particles are calculated in two ways. In the first, a porous target input file is generated by carving out voids in an otherwise homogeneous particle, and the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is used to compute the extinction efficiency of the particle assuming that the voids are near vacuum dielectrics and assuming random particle orientation. In the second, an effective medium approximation (EMA) style approach is employed in which an apparent polarizability of the voids is defined based on the well-known solution to the problem in classical electrostatics of a spherical cavity within a dielectric. It is found that for porous particles with smaller overall diameter with respect to the wavelength of incident radiation, describing the voids as near vacuum dielectrics within the DDA sufficiently reproduces measured values of extinction efficiency, whereas for porous particles with moderate to larger overall diameters with respect to the wavelength of the radiation, the apparent polarizability EMA approach better reproduces the measured values of extinction efficiency.

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Toshiki; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2012-06-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. • Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen • There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor • ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer.

  14. A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Qualizza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara.

  15. An apparent permeability model of shale gas under formation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shanshan

    2017-08-01

    There are various types of pores in shale, mainly consisting of nanopores and micropores, causing flow regime variations and apparent permeability changes during the development of the reservoir. In this paper, a Knudsen number calculation model is proposed with the actual conditions of gas in a shale reservoir. Then, based on the distribution of pores in shale, an apparent permeability model is established using hydrodynamics, and a calculation method is put forward for the actual permeability of a reservoir. Finally, the Knudsen number model and the permeability correction coefficient model are used to analyze the flow regime and permeability correction coefficients in pores during the development of the shale gas reservoir. Results show that with a decreasing of pressure, the Knudsen number increases, the flow regime changes from continuous flow and slip flow to transition flow or free molecular flow. When the Knudsen number is Kn > 0.1, and with a further increasing of Kn, gas molecule slippage greatly intensifies and the permeability correction coefficient K app/Kd significantly increases. While the Knudsen number increases, the permeability correction coefficient significantly increases in the micropores and the small pores, but this does not appear in the macropores and the mesopores. These results can be used to guide flow regime analysis and production forecasting in shale gas reservoirs.

  16. Fractional time-dependent apparent viscosity model for semisolid foodstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Chen, Wen; Sun, HongGuang

    2017-10-01

    The difficulty in the description of thixotropic behaviors in semisolid foodstuffs is the time dependent nature of apparent viscosity under constant shear rate. In this study, we propose a novel theoretical model via fractional derivative to address the high demand by industries. The present model adopts the critical parameter of fractional derivative order α to describe the corresponding time-dependent thixotropic behavior. More interestingly, the parameter α provides a quantitative insight into discriminating foodstuffs. With the re-exploration of three groups of experimental data (tehineh, balangu, and natillas), the proposed methodology is validated in good applicability and efficiency. The results show that the present fractional apparent viscosity model performs successfully for tested foodstuffs in the shear rate range of 50-150 s^{ - 1}. The fractional order α decreases with the increase of temperature at low temperature, below 50 °C, but increases with growing shear rate. While the ideal initial viscosity k decreases with the increase of temperature, shear rate, and ingredient content. It is observed that the magnitude of α is capable of characterizing the thixotropy of semisolid foodstuffs.

  17. Apparent effect of ascorbic acid medication on semen metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W A; Harden, T E; Dawson, E B

    1979-10-01

    The apparent effect of ascorbic acid therapy for nonspecific spermagglutination on semen levels of ascorbic acid as well as macro- and micrometals was determined in 20 men (ages 25 to 38). Pretreatment diagnosis was based on infertility and relatively low ratings in sperm density, motility, motility index, and semen volume, and were associated with large numbers of abnormal sperm, sperm precursors, and leukocytes. The pretreatment levels of ascorbic acid, sodium, iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, lead, magnesium, and copper were measured in each patient's semen and compared with levels following 60 days of dietary vitamin C supplementation (1.0 gm/day). Analysis of the vitamin C preparation prescribed revealed that each subject was given an impure ascorbic acid medication to supplement a normal diet. Therefore, the significant increases in levels of ascorbic acid and metals in semen following therapy could not be attributed to ascorbic acid alone, nor, similarly, the improved physical parameters of each subject's semen following therapy; no apparent spermagglutination and restored fertility may be due to the interaction of ascorbic acid with cations found in semen.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  19. From "apparent death" to "birth asphyxia": a history of blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2017-11-08

    Since the sixteenth century, competition between midwives and surgeons has created a culture of blame around the difficult delivery. In the late seventeenth century, 100 years before oxygen was discovered, researchers associated "apparent death of the newborn" with impaired respiratory function of the placenta. The diagnosis "birth asphyxia" replaced the term "apparent death of the newborn" during the mass phobia of being buried alive in the eighteenth century. This shifted the interpretation from unavoidable fate to a preventable condition. Although the semantic inaccuracy ("pulselessness") was debated, "asphyxia" was not scientifically defined until 1992. From 1792 the diagnosis was based on a lack of oxygen. "Blue" and "white" asphyxia were perceived as different disorders in the eighteenth, and as different grades of the same disorder in the nineteenth century. In 1862, William Little linked birth asphyxia with cerebral palsy, and although never confirmed, his hypothesis was accepted by scientists and the public. Fetal well-being was assessed by auscultating heart beats since 1822, and continuous electronic fetal monitoring was introduced in the 1960s without scientific assessment. It neither diminished the incidence of birth asphyxia nor of cerebral palsy, but rather raised the rate of cesarean sections and litigation against obstetricians and midwives.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 8 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.238.

  20. Reconciling Apparent Conflicts between Mitochondrial and Nuclear Phylogenies in African Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; David, Victor A.; Zhao, Kai; Stephens, Robert M.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Roca, Alfred L.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation strategies for African elephants would be advanced by resolution of conflicting claims that they comprise one, two, three or four taxonomic groups, and by development of genetic markers that establish more incisively the provenance of confiscated ivory. We addressed these related issues by genotyping 555 elephants from across Africa with microsatellite markers, developing a method to identify those loci most effective at geographic assignment of elephants (or their ivory), and conducting novel analyses of continent-wide datasets of mitochondrial DNA. Results showed that nuclear genetic diversity was partitioned into two clusters, corresponding to African forest elephants (99.5% Cluster-1) and African savanna elephants (99.4% Cluster-2). Hybrid individuals were rare. In a comparison of basal forest “F” and savanna “S” mtDNA clade distributions to nuclear DNA partitions, forest elephant nuclear genotypes occurred only in populations in which S clade mtDNA was absent, suggesting that nuclear partitioning corresponds to the presence or absence of S clade mtDNA. We reanalyzed African elephant mtDNA sequences from 81 locales spanning the continent and discovered that S clade mtDNA was completely absent among elephants at all 30 sampled tropical forest locales. The distribution of savanna nuclear DNA and S clade mtDNA corresponded closely to range boundaries traditionally ascribed to the savanna elephant species based on habitat and morphology. Further, a reanalysis of nuclear genetic assignment results suggested that West African elephants do not comprise a distinct third species. Finally, we show that some DNA markers will be more useful than others for determining the geographic origins of illegal ivory. These findings resolve the apparent incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear genetic patterns that has confounded the taxonomy of African elephants, affirm the limitations of using mtDNA patterns to infer elephant systematics or population structure

  1. Reconciling apparent conflicts between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies in African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Ishida

    Full Text Available Conservation strategies for African elephants would be advanced by resolution of conflicting claims that they comprise one, two, three or four taxonomic groups, and by development of genetic markers that establish more incisively the provenance of confiscated ivory. We addressed these related issues by genotyping 555 elephants from across Africa with microsatellite markers, developing a method to identify those loci most effective at geographic assignment of elephants (or their ivory, and conducting novel analyses of continent-wide datasets of mitochondrial DNA. Results showed that nuclear genetic diversity was partitioned into two clusters, corresponding to African forest elephants (99.5% Cluster-1 and African savanna elephants (99.4% Cluster-2. Hybrid individuals were rare. In a comparison of basal forest "F" and savanna "S" mtDNA clade distributions to nuclear DNA partitions, forest elephant nuclear genotypes occurred only in populations in which S clade mtDNA was absent, suggesting that nuclear partitioning corresponds to the presence or absence of S clade mtDNA. We reanalyzed African elephant mtDNA sequences from 81 locales spanning the continent and discovered that S clade mtDNA was completely absent among elephants at all 30 sampled tropical forest locales. The distribution of savanna nuclear DNA and S clade mtDNA corresponded closely to range boundaries traditionally ascribed to the savanna elephant species based on habitat and morphology. Further, a reanalysis of nuclear genetic assignment results suggested that West African elephants do not comprise a distinct third species. Finally, we show that some DNA markers will be more useful than others for determining the geographic origins of illegal ivory. These findings resolve the apparent incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear genetic patterns that has confounded the taxonomy of African elephants, affirm the limitations of using mtDNA patterns to infer elephant systematics or population

  2. Delay functions in trip assignment for transport planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lee Vien

    2017-10-01

    In transportation planning process, volume-delay and turn-penalty functions are the functions needed in traffic assignment to determine travel time on road network links. Volume-delay function is the delay function describing speed-flow relationship while turn-penalty function is the delay function associated to making a turn at intersection. The volume-delay function used in this study is the revised Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function with the constant parameters, α and β values of 0.8298 and 3.361 while the turn-penalty functions for signalized intersection were developed based on uniform, random and overflow delay models. Parameters such as green time, cycle time and saturation flow were used in the development of turn-penalty functions. In order to assess the accuracy of the delay functions, road network in areas of Nibong Tebal, Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak was developed and modelled using transportation demand forecasting software. In order to calibrate the models, phase times and traffic volumes at fourteen signalised intersections within the study area were collected during morning and evening peak hours. The prediction of assigned volumes using the revised BPR function and the developed turn-penalty functions show close agreement to actual recorded traffic volume with the lowest percentage of accuracy, 80.08% and the highest, 93.04% for the morning peak model. As for the evening peak model, they were 75.59% and 95.33% respectively for lowest and highest percentage of accuracy. As for the yield left-turn lanes, the lowest percentage of accuracy obtained for the morning and evening peak models were 60.94% and 69.74% respectively while the highest percentage of accuracy obtained for both models were 100%. Therefore, can be concluded that the development and utilisation of delay functions based on local road conditions are important as localised delay functions can produce better estimate of link travel times and hence better planning for future

  3. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  4. Apparent and microscopic dynamic contact angles in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takeshi; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-11-01

    An abundance of empirical correlations between a dynamic contact angle and a capillary number representing a translational velocity of a contact line have been provided for the last decades. The experimentally obtained dynamic contact angles are inevitably apparent contact angles but often undistinguished from microscopic contact angles formed right on the wall. As Bonn et al. ["Wetting and spreading," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 739-805 (2009)] pointed out, however, most of the experimental studies simply report values of angles recorded at some length scale which is quantitatively unknown. It is therefore hard to evaluate or judge the physical validity and the generality of the empirical correlations. The present study is an attempt to clear this clutter regarding the dynamic contact angle by measuring both the apparent and the microscopic dynamic contact angles from the identical data sets in a well-controlled manner, by means of numerical simulation. The numerical method was constructed so that it reproduced the fine details of the flow with a moving contact line predicted by molecular dynamics simulations [T. Qian, X. Wang, and P. Sheng, "Molecular hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in two-phase immiscible flows," Commun. Comput. Phys. 1, 1-52 (2006)]. We show that the microscopic contact angle as a function of the capillary number has the same form as Blake's molecular-kinetic model [T. Blake and J. Haynes, "Kinetics of liquid/liquid displacement," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 421-423 (1969)], regardless of the way the flow is driven, the channel width, the mechanical properties of the receding fluid, and the value of the equilibrium contact angle under the conditions where the Reynolds and capillary numbers are small. We have also found that the apparent contact angle obtained by the arc-fitting of the interface behaves surprisingly universally as claimed in experimental studies in the literature [e.g., X. Li et al., "An experimental study on dynamic pore

  5. Exploring the statistical and clinical impact of two interim analyses on the Phase II design with option for direct assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Edelman, Martin J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of Phase II clinical trials is to understand better a treatment's safety and efficacy to inform a Phase III go/no-go decision. Many Phase II designs have been proposed, incorporating randomization, interim analyses, adaptation, and patient selection. The Phase II design with an option for direct assignment (i.e. stop randomization and assign all patients to the experimental arm based on a single interim analysis (IA) at 50% accrual) was recently proposed [An et al., 2012]. We discuss this design in the context of existing designs, and extend it from a single-IA to a two-IA design. We compared the statistical properties and clinical relevance of the direct assignment design with two IA (DAD-2) versus a balanced randomized design with two IA (BRD-2) and a direct assignment design with one IA (DAD-1), over a range of response rate ratios (2.0-3.0). The DAD-2 has minimal loss in power (designs, the direct assignment design, especially with two IA, provides a middle ground with desirable statistical properties and likely appeal to both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Apparent Paradox in Verification of Rainfall Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciach, G. J.

    2009-05-01

    A problem that is a source of permanent cognitive confusion in comprehensive evaluations of different rainfall estimates is presented. The problem stems from the existence of two conditional biases (CB) inherent to the uncertainties of the estimates. The two CBs, called "CB type 1" and "CB type 2," are recognized by researchers familiar with the distribution-oriented framework for complete verification of hydrological and meteorological products. Although the mathematical definitions of the two CBs are clear, a reality check reveals that their meaningful interpretation is problematic. It can even result in self-contradictory conclusions suggesting both systematic overestimation and underestimation of strong rainfall by the same rainfall estimation products. A solution to this apparent paradox is discussed. This investigation is based on large data samples of different radar rainfall estimates and the corresponding highly accurate ground reference. Understanding the two CBs, their physical consequences and the fundamental inter-relations between them is essential for informed usage of these uncertainty characteristics.

  7. Laryngospasm With Apparent Aspiration During Sedation With Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Grindlay, Joanne; Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide and oxygen mixture has become increasingly popular for the procedural sedation and analgesia of children in the emergency department. In general, nitrous oxide is regarded as a very safe agent according to large case series. We report a case of single-agent nitrous oxide sedation of a child, complicated by laryngospasm and radiographically confirmed bilateral upper lobe pulmonary opacities. Although rarely reported with parenteral sedative agents, laryngospasm and apparent aspiration has not been previously reported in isolated nitrous oxide sedation. This case highlights that, similar to other sedative agents, nitrous oxide administration also needs to be conducted by staff and in settings in which airway emergencies can be appropriately managed. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Solving the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma of recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Liu, Jian-Guo; Medo, Matús; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-03-09

    Recommender systems use data on past user preferences to predict possible future likes and interests. A key challenge is that while the most useful individual recommendations are to be found among diverse niche objects, the most reliably accurate results are obtained by methods that recommend objects based on user or object similarity. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity and show how it can be used to resolve this apparent dilemma when combined in an elegant hybrid with an accuracy-focused algorithm. By tuning the hybrid appropriately we are able to obtain, without relying on any semantic or context-specific information, simultaneous gains in both accuracy and diversity of recommendations.

  9. [Myocardial biopsy in congestive myocardiopathies of apparently primary origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhour, J B; Petitier, H; De Lajartre, A Y; Almazor, M; Nicolas, G; Horeau, J

    1976-05-01

    38 patients with congestive cardiomyopathy of apparantly primary origin had a myocardial biopsy. The histology of the fragment of myocardium was studied both by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were compared with those from 3 "control" cases and with 16 cases of congestive asystole secondary to a known cause. The non-specific patternss which were observed were of 3 types: patterns of degeneration, pattern of hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Chronic alcholism had no modifying effect on the ultrastructure. Finally, the group in which the morphology was altered had a higher mortality, but the prognostic significance of the degree of severity of the morphological change must be treated with caution in each individual case.

  10. An introduction to the South Swedish Apparent Cleft (SSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Rosenkvist

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the South Swedish Apparent Cleft (SSAC is introduced, described and briefly discussed. The SSAC was first observed in the 1940s, and it has not yet been subject to any detailed linguistic analysis. The usage of the SSAC has been examined in a corpus study and via a questionnaire, and the results indicate, but do not confirm, that it truly is a specifically south Swedish syntactic construction. It appears in two main variants (with and without an adverbial expressing speaker attitude and it displays a number of interesting syntactic properties (the subject must be pronominal, direct objects are disallowed, etc. From a typological perspective, there seem to be equivalent constructions in at least Japanese (no da and English (it is that.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, T.; Oka, M.; Imon, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI in the cerebral white matter of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and age-matched normal subjects. In PSP, ADC in the prefrontal and precentral white matter was significantly higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The ADC did correlate with signal intensity. The distribution of the elevation of ADC may be the consequence of underlying pathological changes, such as neurofibrillary tangles or glial fibrillary tangles in the cortex. Our findings suggest that ADC measurement might be useful for demonstrating subtle neuropathological changes. (orig.)

  12. Plant-mediated 'apparent effects' between mycorrhiza and insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucy; Johnson, David

    2015-08-01

    Plants mediate indirect 'apparent' effects between above-ground herbivores and below-ground mutualistic mycorrhizal fungi. The herbivore-plant-mycorrhiza continuum is further complicated because signals produced by plants in response to herbivores can be transmitted to other plants via shared fungal networks below ground. Insect herbivores, such as aphids, probably affect the functioning of mycorrhizal fungi by changing the supply of recent photosynthate from plants to mycorrhizas, whereas there is evidence that mycorrhizas affect aphid fitness by changing plant signalling pathways, rather than only through improved nutrition. New knowledge of the transfer of signals through fungal networks between plant species means we now need a better understanding of how this process occurs in relation to the feeding preferences of herbivores to shape plant community composition and herbivore behaviour in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in apparent straightness of dot and line stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been made of anisotropic responses to contoured and noncontoured stimuli to obtain an insight into the way these stimuli are processed. For this purpose, eight subjects judged the alignment of minimally contoured (3 dot) and contoured (line) stimuli. Stimuli, presented to each eye separately, vertically subtended either 8 or 32 deg visual angle and were located 10 deg left, center, or 10 deg right in the visual field. Location-dependent deviations from physical straightness were larger for dot stimuli than for lines. The results were the same for the two eyes. In a second experiment, subjects judged the alignment of stimuli composed of different densities of dots. Apparent straightness for these stimuli was the same as for lines. The results are discussed in terms of alternative mechanisms for analysis of contoured and minimally contoured stimuli.

  14. Embrittlement and decrease of apparent strength in large-sized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The problem of scaling is of central importance in any physical theory. In the field of structural ... neering materials (e.g., the brittleness of Liberty ships as compared to the ductility of. Griffith's glass filaments). ... ity theory, the French scientist E Mariotte observed the random scatter of material proper- ties and shed new light ...

  15. Repeatability Measurements of Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Insulation (MLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, M.; Stubbs, D.; Ledeboer, K.; Ross, J.; Van Sciver, S.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    This report presents and discusses the results of repeatability experiments gathered from the multi-layer insulation thermal conductivity experiment (MIKE) for the measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation (MLI) at variable boundary temperatures. Our apparatus uses a calibrated thermal link between the lower temperature shield of a concentric cylinder insulation assembly and the cold head of a cryocooler to measure the heat leak. In addition, thermocouple readings are taken in-between the MLI layers. These measurements are part of a multi-phase NASA-Yetispace-FSU collaboration to better understand the repeatability of thermal conductivity measurements of MLI. NASA provided five 25 layer coupons and requested boundary temperatures of 20 K and 300 K. Yetispace provided ten 12-layer coupons and requested boundary temperatures of 77 K and 293 K. Test conditions must be met for a duration of four hours at a steady state variance of less than 0.1 K/hr on both cylinders. Temperatures from three Cernox® temperature sensors on each of the two cylinders are averaged to determine the boundary temperatures. A high vacuum, less than 10-5 torr, is maintained for the duration of testing. Layer density varied from 17.98 – 26.36 layers/cm for Yetispace coupons and 13.05 – 17.45 layers/cm for the NASA coupons. The average measured heat load for the Yetispace coupons was 2.40 W for phase-one and 2.92 W for phase-two. The average measured heat load for the NASA coupons was 1.10 W. This suggests there is still unknown variance of MLI performance. It has been concluded, variations in the insulation installation heavy effect the apparent thermal conductivity and are not solely dependent on layer density.

  16. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  17. The UNCITRAL Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, assignment of future receivables and Turkish law.

    OpenAIRE

    Akseli, N. Orkun

    2006-01-01

    The Assignment of receivables is an important financing technique the regulation of which varies from legal system to legal system. In December 2001, the Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade made by the United Nations Commission on International Trade (“the UNCITRAL Convention”)1 was adopted by the General Assembly2. The UNCITRAL Convention was prepared for the purposes of establishing a model for the modernisation of domestic assignment law and as a first substa...

  18. Effects of Higher and Lower Level Writing-To-Learn Assignments on Higher and Lower Level Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Pyun, Yea Seul

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined whether brief writing-to-learn assignments linked to lower and higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy affected performance differentially on examination performance in assessing these skill levels. Using a quasi-random design, 91 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class completed eight lower level and eight higher…

  19. Heuristic algorithms for a storage location assignment problem in a chaotic warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Sacramento; Pérez, Ángeles; Ballestín, Francisco; Lino, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of emerging technologies is revolutionizing warehouse management. These technologies facilitate working with complex and powerful warehouse management models in which products do not have assigned fixed locations (random storage). Random storage allows the utilization of the available space to be optimized. In this context, and motivated by a real problem, this article presents a model that looks for the optimal allocation of goods in order to maximize the storage space availability within the restrictions of the warehouse. For the proposed model a construction method, a local search algorithm and different metaheuristics have been developed. The introduced algorithms can also be used for other purposes such as to assess when and how it is convenient to perform relocation of stored items to improve the current level of storage space availability. Computational tests performed on a set of randomly generated and real warehouse instances show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Nutritional value of white lupins (Lupinus albus) for broilers: apparent metabolisable energy, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalle, C L; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of three cultivars (Promore, Kiev mutant and Ultra) of white lupins (Lupinus albus L.) for broilers. In experiment 1, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients of the three cultivars were determined. The cultivar effects were significant (P 0.05) between cultivars. The AME value of Ultra cultivar was lower (P 0.05) to those fed the maize-soybean meal diet. The performance of birds fed diets containing different cultivars of white lupins was similar (P > 0.05). Several digestive tract parameters were influenced by the dietary inclusion of white lupins. In particular, the relative liver weight and the relative empty weights of small intestine and caeca in birds fed diets containing white lupins were higher (P 0.05) were observed in the excreta quality scores between the birds fed the maize-soybean meal diet and those fed diets containing white lupins.

  1. The Eco-Sculpture Assignment: Using Art to Scaffold Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polegato, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    The Eco-Sculpture Assignment demonstrates that art may be used as a conduit to scaffold metacognition in marketing courses. Theoretical underpinnings are drawn from the literature on pedagogy used in general, marketing, and art education contexts. The assignment is described in detail, followed by examples of learner response that illustrate…

  2. A Poster Assignment Connects Information Literacy and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a poster assignment in a writing and information literacy course required for undergraduate Life Sciences and Environmental Biology majors with the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at McGill University. The assignment was introduced in response to weaknesses identified through course…

  3. 24 CFR 203.350 - Assignment of mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of mortgage. 203.350... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Assignment of Mortgage § 203.350...

  4. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model is proposed by modelling the weapon assignment problem as a multi-objective variation of the celebrated vehicle routing problem with time windows. A multi-objective, evolutionary metaheuristic for solving the vehicle routing problem with time windows is ...

  5. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low... same TV channel and the adjacent channel within whose licensed geographic boundaries the digital LPTV... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74...

  6. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the

  7. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  8. SKU assignment to unidirectional picking lines using correlations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clustering storage assignment policy was further expanded as three sequential steps ... determine the next SKU to assign to a cluster, had a risk of generating correlated couplets of SKUs instead of ..... an order picking system: an application to the food service industry, International Journal of Logistics. Research and ...

  9. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... Mateo (CA). [12] Hosein PA & Athans M, 1989, The dynamic weapon-target assignment problem, (Unpublished). Technical Report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (MA). [13] Huaiping C, Jingxu L, Yingwu C & Hao W, 2006, Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment ...

  10. Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses the income tax assignment in the Ethiopian Constitution to highlight some of these questions and concerns. There is ample evidence to show that the assignment formula adopted by the Constitution, indeed its predecessor - the 1992 law - was motivated by the desire to divide the power of taxation over ...

  11. Case Assignment in the Inalienable Possession Construction in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maling, Joan; Kim, Soowon

    1992-01-01

    Investigates principles for assigning case to the Noun Phrases (NP) in the Part-Whole Construction in Korean. It is shown that the case marking on the part-NP is a function of the case-assigning properties of the matrix verb, even when this is lexically governed. (41 references) (Author/LB)

  12. Determining Feasible Solutions of a Multicriteria Assignment Problem.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an important research tool in operations research as it applies to a particular structure of the multicriteria assignment problem. The paper addresses the problem of effectiveness of feasible solutions of a multicriteria assignment problem and this was done in two steps. In the first step, we determine ...

  13. 48 CFR 1442.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1442.202 Section 1442.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 1442.202 Assignment of contract administration. ...

  14. 48 CFR 1342.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1342.202 Section 1342.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Administration Services 1342.202 Assignment of contract administration. The designee authorized...

  15. Frequency assignment with minimum intermodulation noise for satellite SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y.-H.; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast, and effective procedure for quasi-optimum frequency assignment of equal carrier systems is given. The quality of assignments is marginally the same as published results. The computation time has been reduced greatly; a conservative estimate shows that the reduction factor can be greater than N/2.

  16. 14 CFR 1245.109 - Assignment of title to NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of title to NASA. 1245.109... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.109 Assignment of title to NASA. (a) The instrument of waiver set forth in § 1245.115(c) shall be voided by NASA with respect to the domestic title to...

  17. Key Issue: Teacher Hiring, Placement, and Assignment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Coggshall, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on teacher hiring and assignment tends to omit definitions of these key terms. An exception in Cohen-Vogel and Osborne-Lampkin (277), who define teacher assignment as "the reciprocal process between school management and teachers to guide decisions about who will teach, where they will teach, and what they will teach." But the…

  18. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  19. 76 FR 34658 - The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA.... ACTION: Further Notice of Inquiry. ] SUMMARY: Critical to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) is the continued performance of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions. The IANA functions have...

  20. Writing Assignments: What We Know We Don't Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, LynnDianne

    Questions raised by the misinterpretations evidenced in the final examination essays of a freshman English class should lead teachers to a new understanding of how the phrasing of writing assignments influences what students write. Some of the questions included: (1) How detailed must an assignment be to communicate its goals? (2) What type of…

  1. Scaffolding learners in designing investigation assignments for a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of scaffolding students who learned by designing assignments for a computer simulation on the physics topic of alternating circuits. We compared the students' assignments and the knowledge acquired in a scaffolded group (N=23) and a non-scaffolded group (N=19). The

  2. Challenging assignments and activating mood : the influence of goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Pater, I.E. de

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of induced goal orientation on individuals' positive- and negative-activating mood when taking part in high- or low-challenging assignments. Results indicated that performing a low-challenging assignment leads to a higher positive-activating mood with a performance-approach

  3. Challenging assignments and activating mood: the influence of goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Pater, I.E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of induced goal orientation on individuals' positive- and negative-activating mood when taking part in high- or low-challenging assignments. Results indicated that performing a low-challenging assignment leads to a higher positive-activating mood with a performance-approach

  4. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  5. 47 CFR 22.351 - Channel assignment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignment policy. 22.351 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.351 Channel assignment policy. The channels allocated for use in the Public Mobile Services are listed in the applicable...

  6. Text-Based Writing Assignments for College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Wang, Elaine; Correnti, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that cognitively demanding text-based writing assignments increase students' reading comprehension skills and analytic writing competencies. In this article, we describe the steps that upper-elementary grade teachers can take to develop cognitively demanding assignments that build these higher-level literacy skills and put students…

  7. 28 CFR 545.23 - Inmate work/program assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work/program assignment. 545.23 Section 545.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.23 Inmate work/program assignment...

  8. Graphical interpretation of Boolean operators for protein NMR assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, Dries; Dijkstra, Klaas; Hanoulle, Xavier; Lippens, Guy

    We have developed a graphics based algorithm for semi-automated protein NMR assignments. Using the basic sequential triple resonance assignment strategy, the method is inspired by the Boolean operators as it applies "AND"-, "OR"- and "NOT"-like operations on planes pulled out of the classical

  9. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  10. Conceptualizing Patient Barriers to Nonadherence with Homework Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Shinkfield, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    Nonadherence with homework assignments and, by implication, "barriers" to homework assignments are a frequent occurrence in the practice of standard cognitive therapy (Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1979). "Cognitive therapy of depression." New York: The Guilford Press). The clinical examples in this article illustrate some of…

  11. Chromobacterium violaceum associated with recurrent vaginal discharge among apparently healthy females in Ekpoma, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agwu Ezera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and two high vaginal swab samples of apparently healthy adult females with recurrent vaginal discharge were collected and analyzed at Searchlight Medical Diagnostic Centre, Ekpoma between July 2003 and August 2005. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of isolates were done using standard Microbiological techniques. Randomized Block Design and Completely Randomized Design at (α = 0.1 were used to test the statistical significance of results. While occupational distribution of isolates was not statistically significant, age and response of bacterial isolates to antibiotics used were statistically significant. Total number and percentage prevalence of bacteria isolated include: 297(42.4% Chromobacterium violaceum, 156 (22.2% Escherichia coli and 139 (19.8% Staphylococcus aureus. Chromobacterium violaceum was 81.8% sensitive to ofloxacin, and 12.8% to Ceftriazone. Escherichia coli and S. aureus were 70.5% and 71.9% sensitive to sparfloxacin respectively. Though source of infection of C. violaceum in Ekpoma was not very clear, soil and water contamination and other risk factors were hypothesized. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Surveillance with improved diagnostic facilities can increase awareness among health care providers on this form of infection. Appropriate systemic antimicrobial therapy to halt progression of infection is mandatory, even when the infection appears to be localized.

  12. Multiobjective Gate Assignment Based on Passenger Walking Distance and Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger walking distance is an important index of the airport service quality. How to shorten the walking distance and balance the airlines' service quality is the focus of much research on airport gate assignment problems. According to the problems of airport passenger service quality, an optimization gate assignment model is established. The gate assignment model is based on minimizing the total walking distance of all passengers and balancing the average walking distance of passengers among different airlines. Lingo is used in the simulation of a large airport gate assignment. Test results show that the optimization model can reduce the average walking distance of passenger effectively, improve the number of flights assigned to gate, balance airline service quality, and enhance the overall service level of airports and airlines. The model provides reference for the airport gate preassignment.

  13. Wavelength Assignment in Hybrid Quantum-Classical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A

    2018-02-22

    Optimal wavelength assignment in dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) systems that integrate both quantum and classical channels is studied. In such systems, weak quantum key distribution (QKD) signals travel alongside intense classical signals on the same fiber, where the former can be masked by the background noise induced by the latter. Here, we investigate how optimal wavelength assignment can mitigate this problem. We consider different DWDM structures and various sources of crosstalk and propose several near-optimal wavelength assignment methods that maximize the total secret key rate of the QKD channels. Our numerical results show that the optimum wavelength assignment pattern is commonly consisted of several interspersed quantum and classical bands. Using our proposed techniques, the total secret key rate of quantum channels can substantially be improved, as compared to conventional assignment methods, in the noise dominated regimes. Alternatively, we can maximize the number of QKD users supported under certain key rate constraints.

  14. Further steps in TANGO: improved taxonomic assignment in metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alemany, Daniel; Barré, Aurélien; Beretta, Stefano; Bonizzoni, Paola; Nikolski, Macha; Valiente, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    TANGO is one of the most accurate tools for the taxonomic assignment of sequence reads. However, because of the differences in the taxonomy structures, performing a taxonomic assignment on different reference taxonomies will produce divergent results. We have improved the TANGO pipeline to be able to perform the taxonomic assignment of a metagenomic sample using alternative reference taxonomies, coming from different sources. We highlight the novel pre-processing step, necessary to accomplish this task, and describe the improvements in the assignment process. We present the new TANGO pipeline in details, and, finally, we show its performance on four real metagenomic datasets and also on synthetic datasets. The new version of TANGO, including implementation improvements and novel developments to perform the assignment on different reference taxonomies, is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/taxoassignment/.

  15. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part III: effect of treatment assignment belief on sleep improvement in restless legs syndrome patients. A mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Director, Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: Two parallel-design, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials were conducted to study the safety and efficacy of vibratory stimulation (VS on restless legs syndrome (RLS patients (Part I of this series of articles. Pooled data from the two studies was retroactively analyzed to compare the relative effects of actual pad assignment with therapeutic pad assignment belief on sleep improvement for patients with RLS. Patients and methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with at least moderately severe RLS, as measured by a score of 15 points or greater on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment (patient-controlled vibration or sham (patient-controlled sound or light-emitting pads. Patients and clinicians were blinded to pad assignment. The pad was placed under the patient's legs while in bed at night and activated during an RLS episode. Improvements in Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (MOS-II scores from baseline to week 4 were examined as a function of pad assignment (independent variable and therapeutic pad assignment belief held by each patient (mediator variable through mediation analysis. Results: Therapeutic pad assignment belief influenced change in MOS-II scores more than actual pad assignment. Patients who believed they had been assigned a therapeutic pad had substantially greater sleep improvement than those who concluded the opposite. When a patient believed that a therapeutic pad had been assigned, sleep improvement was comparable in magnitude, independent of the type of pad assigned (vibrating or sham. Patients assigned vibrating pads believed that they had been assigned a therapeutic pad 2.6 times more frequently than patients assigned sham pads. Consequently, vibrating pads were more efficient at improving

  16. Apparent relations between planetary spin, orbit, and solar differential rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, R.

    2013-12-01

    A correlation is found between changes in Earth's length of day [LOD] and the spatio-temporal disposition of the planetary masses in the solar system, characterised by the z axis displacement of the centre of mass of the solar system [CMSS] with respect to the solar equatorial plane smoothed over a bi-decadal period. To test whether this apparent relation is coincidental, other planetary axial rotation rates and orbital periods are compared, and spin-orbit relations are found. Earth's axial angular momentum moment of inertia, and internal dynamics are considered in relation to the temporal displacement between the potential stimulus and the terrestrial response. The differential rotation rate of the Sun is considered in relation to the rotational and orbital periods of the Earth-Moon system and Venus and Mercury, and harmonic ratios are found. These suggest a physical coupling between the bodies of an as yet undetermined nature. Additional evidence for a resonant coupling is found in the relation of total solar irradiance (TSI) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) measurements to the resonant harmonic periods discovered.

  17. Apparent distance of sounds recorded in echoic and anechoic chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R A; Levy, E T; Neff, W D

    1980-11-01

    With miniature microphones inserted into the external ear canals of a model and the sound source 90 degrees to left of midline, low-pass, and broadband noise bursts were picked up and recorded on magnetic tape. The bursts were generated in two highly contrasting acoustic environments: an anechoic and an echoic chamber. The taped sounds were played back monaurally and binaurally via headphones to 16 listeners seated in an acoustically neutral setting. They were instructed to estimate the distance of the stimuli. Apparent distances of bursts recorded in the echoic or reverberant chamber far exceeded those recorded in the anechoic chamber. It mattered not whether the sounds were presented monaurally or binaurally. What did influence distance estimates dramatically was the frequency composition of the stimuli. Low-pass sounds recorded in either acoustic environment were consistently judged to be further removed than high-pass sounds recorded in the same setting. They were also more likely to appear from behind the listener. In our moment-to-moment transaction with the acoustic environment, distant sounds generally have less acoustic energy in the higher audio frequency. We suggest that this lifetime of auditory experience influenced our listeners' scale of relative distance.

  18. Apparent rotation properties of space debris extracted from photometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilha, Jiří; Pittet, Jean-Noël; Hamara, Michal; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about the rotation properties of space debris objects is essential for the active debris removal missions, accurate re-entry predictions and to investigate the long-term effects of the space environment on the attitude motion change. Different orbital regions and object's physical properties lead to different attitude states and their change over time. Since 2007 the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) performs photometric measurements of space debris objects. To June 2016 almost 2000 light curves of more than 400 individual objects have been acquired and processed. These objects are situated in all orbital regions, from low Earth orbit (LEO), via global navigation systems orbits and high eccentricity orbit (HEO), to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). All types of objects were observed including the non-functional spacecraft, rocket bodies, fragmentation debris and uncorrelated objects discovered during dedicated surveys. For data acquisition, we used the 1-meter Zimmerwald Laser and Astrometry Telescope (ZIMLAT) at the Swiss Optical Ground Station and Geodynamics Observatory Zimmerwald, Switzerland. We applied our own method of phase-diagram reconstruction to extract the apparent rotation period from the light curve. Presented is the AIUB's light curve database and the obtained rotation properties of space debris as a function of object type and orbit.

  19. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetius, A.; Ravenschlag, K.; Schubert, CJ

    2000-01-01

    A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments(1). Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles(2), radiotracer experiments(3) and stable carbon isotope data(4). But the elusi...... cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich sediments with extremely high rates of methane-based sulphate reduction, and apparently mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane.......A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments(1). Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles(2), radiotracer experiments(3) and stable carbon isotope data(4). But the elusive...... microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria(5-7). Here we provide microscopic...

  20. Clinically Apparent Arterial Thrombosis in Persons with Systemic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tsoukas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the incidence rate of clinically apparent arterial thrombotic events and associated comorbidities in patients with primary systemic vasculitis. Methods. Using large cohort administrative data from Quebec, Canada, we identified patients with vasculitis, including polyarteritis nodosa (PAN and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA. Incident acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs after the diagnosis of vasculitis were ascertained in the PAN and GPA group via billing and hospitalization data. These were compared to rates of a general population comparator group. The incidences of comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were also collected. Results. Among the 626 patients identified with vasculitis, 19.7% had PAN, 2.9% had Kawasaki disease, 23.8% had GPA, 52.4% had GCA, and 1.3% had Takayasu arteritis. The AMI rate was substantially higher in males aged 18–44 with PAN, with rates up to 268.1 events per 10,000 patient years [95% CI 67.1–1070.2], approximately 30 times that in the age- and sex-matched control group. The CVA rate was also substantially higher, particularly in adults aged 45–65. Patients with vasculitis had elevated incidences of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension versus the general population. Conclusion. Atherothrombotic rates were elevated in patients identified as having primary systemic vasculitis. While incident rates of cardiovascular comorbidities were also increased, the substantial elevation in AMIs seen in young adults suggests a disease-specific component which requires further investigation.

  1. Apparent diffusion profile estimation from high angular resolution diffusion images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Angelino, Elaine; Fitzgibbons, Shaun; Deriche, Rachid

    2006-03-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has recently been of great interest to characterize non-Gaussian diffusion process. In the white matter of the brain, this occurs when fiber bundles cross, kiss or diverge within the same voxel. One of the important goal is to better describe the apparent diffusion process in these multiple fiber regions, thus overcoming the limitations of classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this paper, we design the appropriate mathematical tools to describe noisy HARDI data. Using a meaningful modified spherical harmonics basis to capture the physical constraints of the problem, we propose a new regularization algorithm to estimate a smoother and closer diffusivity profile to the true diffusivities without noise. We exploit properties of the spherical harmonics to define a smoothing term based on the Laplace-Beltrami for functions defined on the unit sphere. An additional contribution of the paper is the derivation of the general transformation taking the spherical harmonics coefficients to the high order tensor independent elements. This allows the careful study of the state of the art high order anisotropy measures computed from either spherical harmonics or tensor coefficients. We analyze their ability to characterize the underlying diffusion process. We are able to recover voxels with isotropic, single fiber anisotropic and multiple fiber anisotropic diffusion. We test and validate the approach on diffusion profiles from synthetic data and from a biological rat phantom.

  2. Switch hitting in baseball: apparent rule-following, not matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T Mary

    2011-09-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule "bat opposite the pitcher," not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice.

  3. [Babinski and Chaddock signs without apparent pyramidal disfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Dib, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Gaspar

    2005-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to verify, in one hundred in-patients from the Serviço de Clínica Médica do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro who did not have a history of clinical symptoms of pyramidal disfunction, the presence of the Babinski and Chaddock signs. As a secondary objective, we looked for a prevalence of one of the signs over the other, and the influence of the head position regarding the obtained responses. The patients were examined while supine with their heads in three different positions. Out of the one hundred patients, ten of them (10%) showed hallux extension uni or bilateral. The Babinski sign was positive 18 times (40%), and the Chaddock sign was positive 27 times (60%). The Chaddock sign occurred more frequently than the Babinski sign, the abnormal reflex occurred twice as much on the left foot than the right, and apparently there was no interference regarding the head position in relation to the obtained results.

  4. Manipulated into giving: when parasitism drives apparent or incidental altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C Patrick; Jackson, Adam; Watson, Richard A

    2013-05-07

    Altruistic acts involve the actor donating fitness to beneficiaries at net cost to itself. In contrast, parasitic acts involve the actor extracting benefit from others at net cost to the donors. Both behaviours may have the same direct net-cost transferral of fitness from donor to beneficiary; the key difference between parasitism and altruism is thus who drives the interaction. Identifying the evolutionary driver is not always straightforward in practice, yet it is crucial in determining the conditions necessary to sustain such fitness exchange. Here, we put classical ecological competition into a novel game-theoretic framework in order to distinguish altruism from parasitism. The distinction depends on the type of interaction that beneficiaries have among themselves. When this is not costly, net-cost transferrals of fitness from the donor are strongly altruistic, and sustained only by indirect benefits to the donor from assortative mixing. When the interaction among beneficiaries is costly, however, net-cost transferrals of fitness from the donor are sustainable without assortative mixing. The donor is then forced into apparent or incidental altruism driven by parasitism from the beneficiary. We consider various scenarios in which direct and indirect fitness consequences of strong altruism may have different evolutionary drivers.

  5. Switch Hitting in Baseball: Apparent Rule-following, not Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T. Mary

    2011-01-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule “bat opposite the pitcher,” not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice. PMID:21909169

  6. Clinically Apparent Arterial Thrombosis in Persons with Systemic Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukas, Alexander; Bernatsky, Sasha; Joseph, Lawrence; Buckeridge, David L; Bélisle, Patrick; Pineau, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rate of clinically apparent arterial thrombotic events and associated comorbidities in patients with primary systemic vasculitis. Using large cohort administrative data from Quebec, Canada, we identified patients with vasculitis, including polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Incident acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) after the diagnosis of vasculitis were ascertained in the PAN and GPA group via billing and hospitalization data. These were compared to rates of a general population comparator group. The incidences of comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) were also collected. Among the 626 patients identified with vasculitis, 19.7% had PAN, 2.9% had Kawasaki disease, 23.8% had GPA, 52.4% had GCA, and 1.3% had Takayasu arteritis. The AMI rate was substantially higher in males aged 18-44 with PAN, with rates up to 268.1 events per 10,000 patient years [95% CI 67.1-1070.2], approximately 30 times that in the age- and sex-matched control group. The CVA rate was also substantially higher, particularly in adults aged 45-65. Patients with vasculitis had elevated incidences of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension versus the general population. Atherothrombotic rates were elevated in patients identified as having primary systemic vasculitis. While incident rates of cardiovascular comorbidities were also increased, the substantial elevation in AMIs seen in young adults suggests a disease-specific component which requires further investigation.

  7. Nephrotic Syndrome and Acute Renal Failure Apparently Induced by Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shou Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure apparently induced by sunitinib. A 67-year-old man with a history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma presented with progressive kidney dysfunction with proteinuria, general edema, and body weight gain of 21 kg after undergoing 3 weeks of sunitinib therapy. The patient had taken no other over-the-counter medications, and all other possible causes of nephrotic syndrome were excluded. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale score for this event was 6, indicating a high probability that the observed presentations were associated with use of the drug. However, despite the discontinuation of sunitinib, his condition deteriorated, and hemodialysis was initiated for respiratory distress. A renal biopsy was performed, which revealed ischemic acute tubular necrosis with minimal change nephropathy. In conclusion, nephrologists and oncologists should be aware that nephrotic syndrome with ischemic acute tubular necrosis is a possible adverse effect of sunitinib. For early diagnosis of this condition and to avoid renal damage, we recommend differential diagnosis of serum creatinine and proteinuria in patients undergoing sunitinib therapy.

  8. Two Qatari siblings with cystic fibrosis and apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Zahraldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF and apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME syndrome are both autosomal recessive disorders that result from mutations of specific identified genes for each condition. CF is caused by defects in the Cystic fibrosis trans membrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene which encodes for a protein that functions as a chloride channel and regulates the flow of other ions across the apical surface of epithelial cells. AME is due to the deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11βHSD2, which is responsible for the peripheral inactivation of cortisol to cortisone. Cortisol excess stimulates the mineralocoritoid receptors (MR resulting in intense sodium retention, hypokalemia and hypertension. We report on a consanguineous Arab family, in which two sibs inherited both CF and AME. Gene testing for AME revealed previously unreported mutation in the 11βHSD2 gene. This report draws attention to the importance of recognizing the possibility of two recessive disorders in the same child in complex consanguineous families. Moreover, it provides a unique opportunity to highlight the implications of the coexistence of two genetic disorders on patient care and genetic counseling of the family.

  9. Multichannel assignment using K-Means in cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Raul Marquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The developed scheme allows carrying out the assignment of several frequency channels (both contiguous and not contiguous available to the secondary users that require a higher bandwidth, under an environment of equality. Objective: The following paper develops a multichannel assignment which allows taking in a more efficient way the spectral opportunities in cognitive radio networks. Method: The developed assignment model is composed by the K-Means algorithm, which is in charged of carrying out the grouping of channels through clusters for the best parameters, and another algorithm in charge of establishing an equal criteria for all the secondary users that wish to transmit. The reached results were evaluated with experimental spectral occupancy data taken from the GSM frequency band. The developed model was compared with the MFA-CRN algorithm. Results: The obtained measurements correspond to the average bandwidth, the average delay, and the fairness calculation in the assignment of several channels. The developed assignment model shows an improvement in the assignment of a higher transmission average bandwidth for each secondary user while maintaining the fairness criteria in the channel assignments. Conclusion: Despite the increasing in the number of handoffs, it is also observed that metrics such as average bandwidth, average throughput and average delay are never negatively impacted by this increase in handoffs.

  10. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  11. Resonance assignment of the NMR spectra of disordered proteins using a multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yu; Fritzsching, Keith J.; Hong, Mei, E-mail: mhong@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-10-17

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm is introduced to predict the assignment of protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectra with partial resonance overlap and missing peaks due to broad linewidths, molecular motion, and low sensitivity. This non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) aims to identify all possible assignments that are consistent with the spectra and to compare the relative merit of these assignments. Our approach is modeled after the recently introduced Monte-Carlo simulated-annealing (MC/SA) protocol, with the key difference that NSGA-II simultaneously optimizes multiple assignment objectives instead of searching for possible assignments based on a single composite score. The multiple objectives include maximizing the number of consistently assigned peaks between multiple spectra (“good connections”), maximizing the number of used peaks, minimizing the number of inconsistently assigned peaks between spectra (“bad connections”), and minimizing the number of assigned peaks that have no matching peaks in the other spectra (“edges”). Using six SSNMR protein chemical shift datasets with varying levels of imperfection that was introduced by peak deletion, random chemical shift changes, and manual peak picking of spectra with moderately broad linewidths, we show that the NSGA-II algorithm produces a large number of valid and good assignments rapidly. For high-quality chemical shift peak lists, NSGA-II and MC/SA perform similarly well. However, when the peak lists contain many missing peaks that are uncorrelated between different spectra and have chemical shift deviations between spectra, the modified NSGA-II produces a larger number of valid solutions than MC/SA, and is more effective at distinguishing good from mediocre assignments by avoiding the hazard of suboptimal weighting factors for the various objectives. These two advantages, namely diversity and better evaluation, lead to a higher probability of predicting the correct

  12. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence......Using survey information about characteristics of personal contacts linked with administrative register information on employment status one year later, I show that unemployed survey respondents with many employed acquaintances have a higher job finding rate. Settlement in a socially deprived...

  13. Recruiting Participants for Large-Scale Random Assignment Experiments in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Gallagher, H. Alix; Murphy, Robert; Harris, Christopher; Kamdar, Danae; Trinidad, Gucci

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment is a key challenge for researchers conducting any large school-based study. Control is needed not only over the condition participants receive, but also over how the intervention is implemented, and may include restrictions in other areas of school and classroom functioning. We report here on our experiences in recruiting participants…

  14. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  15. 77 FR 5850 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... . Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above via TTY by calling the... Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs; Final Notice AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA... (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs. The Department has determined that it is in the public...

  16. 76 FR 43729 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... reminder of the importance of ensuring that the services provided to people who are out of work and... services and training provided under the Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs. Generally speaking...

  17. Optimal Design for Two-Level Random Assignment and Regression Discontinuity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher H.; Dye, Charles

    2016-01-01

    An important concern when planning research studies is to obtain maximum precision of an estimate of a treatment effect given a budget constraint. When research designs have a "multilevel" or "hierarchical" structure changes in sample size at different levels of the design will impact precision differently. Furthermore, there…

  18. 75 FR 69126 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Workforce Investment Act Random Assignment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... study, a consent form, a baseline information form (BIF), and a contact information form (CIF). WIA... collected on the CIF. 2. Two Follow-Up Surveys. Follow-up telephone surveys will be conducted with 6,000... enrollment forms (the consent form, the BIF, and the CIF) and the protocols for the site visits. A future...

  19. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  20. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing or Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05 in feed, dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001, meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  1. Apparent resistivity and spectral induced polarization in the submarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERCULES DE SOUZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few investigations have employed electrical methods in the submarine environment, which may be promising for mineral deposits or threatened by environmental problems. We have measured the electric field using both disk and bar electrodes in the sea water at three different levels: sea surface, seven meters deep, and sea bottom at a depth of ten meters, employing a 2 m spacing dipole-dipole array with 7 array spacings of investigation, and 13 values of frequencies at steps of (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.....10. The measurement allowed the analysis of the electric field as a function of frequency and spacing, and of the spectral induced polarization. Modelling and interpretation of the apparent resistivity yielded a good fit with previous drilling data. Analysis of the spectrum of the complex apparent resistivity and the comparison with equivalent circuits, provided information about the grain size, the mineral composition and the major induced polarization phenomenon occurring below the sea. Therefore the result of the present research show the feasibility of measuring the variation of seawater resistivity in situ, as well as the resistivity of sea bottom sediments.Relativamente poucas investigações têm empregado métodos elétricos no ambiente submarino, o qual pode ser promissor para depósitos minerais ou ameaçado por problemas ambientais. Nós medimos o campo elétrico usando eletrodos em forma de disco e de barra na água do mar, em três níveis distintos: superfície, sete metros de profundidade, e fundo do mar a dez metros de profundidade, empregando um dispositivo dipolo-dipolo com 2m de afastamento, 7 níveis de investigação e 13 valores de freqüência a intervalos de (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... 10. A medida permitiu a análise do campo elétrico como uma função de freqüência e afastamento, e da polarização induzida espectral. A modelagem e a interpretação da resistividade aparente se ajustaram bem

  2. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  3. Predicting difficult airway in apparently normal adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgoska, B; Netkovski, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the predicting tests for difficult airway and difficult intubation in apparently normal patients. We were using the literature about the specific tests for predicting difficult airway and single parameters that could be a significant test for prediction of difficult or impossible intubation. Clinical risk factors for difficult intubation in pediatric patients are related to the anatomic differences between pediatric patients and adults. Quantitative evaluation of difficult intubations could be realized using Cormack-Lehane (CL) scale and Mallampati score (without speaking--Mallampati test--and modified Mallampati test during speech). The Cormack-Lehane (CL) scale is a grading system commonly used to describe the view of the larynx during direct laryngoscopy. Grades 3 and 4, in which the glottis is not visualized, are considered difficult intubations. The Mallampati score, estimates the size of the tongue relative to the oral cavity and the ability to open the mouth. This system graded the patient (grades 1 to 4) based on the structures visible in the oropharynx with maximal mouth opening. Grade 3 or 4 suggests a significant chance that the patient will be difficult to intubate. Our results showed that 24 patients (20 adult patients and 4 pediatric patients), 3.2% from total of 750 involved in the study had difficult intubation (Mallampati grades 3 and 4). 35% of the patients had impaired glottis exposure (grades 3 and 4 of the Cormack-Lehane scale). We used only two criteria for describing both the visibility of the oropharyngeal structures and the quality of the laryngeal view. The effective and reliable prediction requires a combination of several parameters (BMI, head and neck movement, dentition status, upper lip bite test, interincisor gap and thyromental distance).

  4. Results of Screening of Apparently Healthy Senior and Geriatric Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Paepe, D; Marynissen, S; Smets, P; Van de Maele, I; Picavet, P; Duchateau, L; Daminet, S

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in health care of elderly dogs; however, scientific information about physical and laboratory examination findings in this age group is limited. To describe systolic blood pressure (SBP), and results of physical examination and laboratory tests in senior and geriatric dogs that were judged by the owner to be healthy. Hundred client-owned dogs. Dogs were prospectively recruited. Owners completed a questionnaire. SBP measurement, physical, orthopedic and neurologic examination, direct fundoscopy and Schirmer tear test were performed. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis were evaluated. Forty-one senior and 59 geriatric dogs were included. Mean SBP was 170 ± 38 mmHg, and 53 dogs had SBP > 160 mmHg. Thirty-nine animals were overweight. A heart murmur was detected in 22, severe calculus in 21 and 1 or more (sub)cutaneous masses in 56 dogs. Thirty-two dogs had increased serum creatinine, 29 hypophosphatemia, 27 increased ALP, 25 increased ALT, and 23 leukopenia. Crystalluria, mostly amorphous crystals, was commonly detected (62/96). Overt proteinuria and borderline proteinuria were detected in 13 and 18 of 97 dogs, respectively. Four dogs had a positive urine bacterial culture. Frequency of orthopedic problems, frequency of (sub)cutaneous masses, and platelet count were significantly higher in geriatric compared with senior dogs. Body temperature, hematocrit, serum albumin, and serum total thyroxine concentration were significantly lower in geriatric compared with senior dogs. Physical and laboratory abnormalities are common in apparently healthy elderly dogs. Veterinarians play a key role in implementing health screening and improving health care for elderly pets. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department.

  6. Complex aetiology of an apparently Mendelian form of Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetterberg Lennart

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental Retardation is a common heterogeneous neurodevelopment condition, which causes are still largely elusive. It has been suggested that half of the phenotypic variation of intelligence is explained by genetic variation. And genetic or inherited factors indeed account for most of the cases of mental retardation with an identifiable cause. However, only a few autosomal genes have been mapped and identified to date. In this report, the genetic causes for an apparently recessive form of mental retardation, in a large nordern swedish pedigree, are investigated. Methods After extensive evaluation of the patients, which ruled out recognizable patterns of malformation and excluded known causes of MR, a comprehensive genome-wide linkage analysis, with 500 microsatellite markers, was performed in 24 members of this family. Additionally, a genome-wide copy number analysis, using an affimetrix 250 K SNP chip, was performed in this pedigree. Results No significant LOD score was found with either parametric and non-parametric linkage analysis. The highest scores are located at chromosomes 13, 15 and 17. Genome-wide copy number analysis identified no clear cause for the disorder; but rather, several variants were present in the family members, irrespective of their affected status. Conclusion These results suggest that mental retardation in this family, unlikely what was expected, has a heterogeneous aetiology; and that several lower effect genes variants might be involved. To demonstrate such effects, our family may be too small. This study also indicates that the ascertainment of the cause of MR may be challenging, and that a complex aetiology may be present even within a pedigree, constituting an additional obstacle for genetic counselling. Variants in genes involved in molecular mechanisms of cellular plasticity, in genes involved in the development of underlying neural architectures, and in genes involved in neurodevelopment and in

  7. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E; Calhoun, DA

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires ≥4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify ‘apparent’ lack of control on ≥3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600 000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  8. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2... § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where an apparent owner of property subject to this... owner's last known address, written notice describing the property and the procedure for filing a claim...

  9. The Effectiveness of Incorporating Conceptual Writing Assignments into Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen; Murphy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the impact of conceptual writing assignments on student understanding of two physics concepts. Writing assignments covered the concepts of Newton's Third Law and the impulse-momentum relationship and were given to students in both high school and college level introductory physics classes. The students in these classes along with students in classes taught in an identical fashion by the same instructors without the addition of writing assignments were tested on their conceptual understanding of the two content areas. The results of this initial study indicate that the efficacy of this approach varied with topic. This study further indicates that students' benefit from the writing assignments was independent of their writing ability.

  10. Optimization of Fleet Assignment: A Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz OZDEMIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since poor fleet assignment can cause a great increase in costs for airline companies, asolution of the type ‘right fleet for the right flight’ would be very useful. In this paper, a fleetassignment model is set up using the data of the largest Airline Company in Turkey, TurkishAirlines. The aim of this model is to assign the most appropriate fleet type to flights whileminimizing the cost and determining the optimal number of aircraft grounded overnight at eachairport. We set up a model with constraints with thinking all airline operations and solve ourproblem using integer linear programming. Finally, we get an optimum solution which minimizesthe total cost while assigning the fleet type to the flight leg. Using optimization software (Lindo6.1, the solution to this problem generates a minimum daily cost of fleet assignment.

  11. Calibrated peer review assignments for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J.A.; Wang, V.Z.; Cervato, C.; Ridky, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review ??? (CPR), a web-based instructional tool developed as part of the National Science Foundation reform initiatives in undergraduate science education, allows instructors to incorporate multiple writing assignments in large courses without overwhelming the instructor. This study reports successful implementation of CPR in a large, introductory geology course and student learning of geoscience content. For each CPR assignment in this study, students studied web-based and paper resources, wrote an essay, and reviewed seven essays (three from the instructor, three from peers, and their own) on the topic. Although many students expressed negative attitudes and concerns, particularly about the peer review process of this innovative instructional approach, they also recognized the learning potential of completing CPR assignments. Comparing instruction on earthquakes and plate boundaries using a CPR assignment vs. an instructional video lecture and homework essay with extensive instructor feedback, students mastered more content via CPR instruction.

  12. 47 CFR 63.24 - Assignments and transfers of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF SERVICE BY..., is a sale of assets and shall be treated as an assignment, which requires prior Commission approval...

  13. Assigning strains to bacterial species via the internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bishop, Cynthia J; Aanensen, David M; Jordan, Gregory E; Kilian, Mogens; Hanage, William P; Spratt, Brian G

    2009-01-01

    .... The advantage of this approach (multilocus sequence analysis; MLSA) is that, for any group of related species, a strain database can be produced and combined with software that allows query strains to be assigned to species via the internet...

  14. Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez-Molins, M; Salido, M.A; Barber, F

    .... This paper is based on proportionally distributing operational buffers among the tasks. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment problem as a representative example of scheduling problems...

  15. A singular value sensitivity approach to robust eigenstructure assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1986-01-01

    A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows for the ......A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows...

  16. A parametric visualization software for the assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamanthou Charalampos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a parametric visualization software used to assist the teaching of the Network Primal Simplex Algorithm for the assignment problem (AP. The assignment problem is a special case of the balanced transportation problem. The main functions of the algorithm and design techniques are also presented. Through this process, we aim to underline the importance and necessity of using such educational methods in order to improve the teaching of Computer Algorithms.

  17. Neural Mechanisms of Credit Assignment in a Multicue Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Nils; Brown, Joshua W.; Rushworth, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In complex environments, many potential cues can guide a decision or be assigned responsibility for the outcome of the decision. We know little, however, about how humans and animals select relevant information sources that should guide behavior. We show that subjects solve this relevance selection and credit assignment problem by selecting one cue and its association with a particular outcome as the main focus of a hypothesis. To do this, we examined learning while using a task design that allowed us to estimate the focus of each subject's hypotheses on a trial-by-trial basis. When a prediction is confirmed by the outcome, then credit for the outcome is assigned to that cue rather than an alternative. Activity in medial frontal cortex is associated with the assignment of credit to the cue that is the main focus of the hypothesis. However, when the outcome disconfirms a prediction, the focus shifts between cues, and the credit for the outcome is assigned to an alternative cue. This process of reselection for credit assignment to an alternative cue is associated with lateral orbitofrontal cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Learners should infer which features of environments are predictive of significant events, such as rewards. This “credit assignment” problem is particularly challenging when any of several cues might be predictive. We show that human subjects solve the credit assignment problem by implicitly “hypothesizing” which cue is relevant for predicting subsequent outcomes, and then credit is assigned according to this hypothesis. This process is associated with a distinctive pattern of activity in a part of medial frontal cortex. By contrast, when unexpected outcomes occur, hypotheses are redirected toward alternative cues, and this process is associated with activity in lateral orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:26818500

  18. Firm Size, Productivity, and Manager Wages: A Job Assignment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grossmann, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Ability of managers and other nonproduction professionals is key for the productivity of firms. Hence, the assignment of heterogeneous nonproduction workers across firms determines the distribution of productivity. In turn, the transmission of productivity differences into profit differences -- resulting from product market competition -- determines firms' willingness to pay for higher managerial skills. This paper explores the equilibrium assignment of nonproduction workers across ex ante id...

  19. Effective Schools: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Beteille, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The literature on effective schools emphasizes the importance of a quality teaching force in improving educational outcomes for students. In this paper, we use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school's effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development and retention of its teachers. We ask whether effective schools systematically recruit more effective teachers; whether they assign teachers to students more effectively; whether they do a better job of helping ...

  20. Automated probabilistic method for assigning backbone resonances of (13C,15N)-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukin, Jonathan A. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Biological Sciences (United States); Gove, Andrew P.; Talukdar, Sarosh N. [Carnegie Mellon University, Robotics Institute (United States); Ho Chien [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Biological Sciences (United States)

    1997-02-15

    We present a computer algorithm for the automated assignment of polypeptide backbone and 13C{beta} resonances of a protein of known primary sequence. Input to the algorithm consists of cross peaks from several 3D NMR experiments: HNCA, HN(CA)CO, HN(CA)HA,HNCACB, COCAH, HCA(CO)N, HNCO, HN(CO)CA, HN(COCA)HA, and CBCA(CO)NH. Data from these experiments performed on glutamine-binding protein are analyzed statistically using Bayes' theorem to yield objective probability scoring functions for matching chemical shifts. Such scoring is used in the first stage of the algorithm to combine cross peaks from the first five experiments to form intraresidue segments of chemical shifts{l_brace}Ni,HiN,Ci{alpha},Ci{beta},C'i{r_brace}, while the latter five are combined into interresidue segments {l_brace}Ci{alpha},Ci{beta},C'i,Ni+1,HNi+1{r_brace}. Given a tentative assignment of segments,the second stage of the procedure calculates probability scores based on the likelihood of matching the chemical shifts of each segment with (i) overlapping segments; and (ii) chemical shift distributions of the underlying amino acid type (and secondary structure, if known). This joint probability is maximized by rearranging segments using a simulated annealing program,optimized for efficiency. The automated assignment program was tested using CBCANH and CBCA(CO)NH cross peaks of the two previously assigned proteins, calmodulin and CheA.The agreement between the results of our method and the published assignments was excellent. Our algorithm was also applied to the observed cross peaks of glutamine-binding protein of Escherichia coli, yielding an assignment in excellent agreement with that obtained by time-consuming, manual methods. The chemical shift assignment procedure described here should be most useful for NMR studies of large proteins, which are now feasible with the use of pulsed-field gradients and random partial deuteration of samples.

  1. NMR assignments of sparsely labeled proteins using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Chalmers, Gordon R; Moremen, Kelley W; Prestegard, James H

    2017-04-01

    Sparse isotopic labeling of proteins for NMR studies using single types of amino acid ((15)N or (13)C enriched) has several advantages. Resolution is enhanced by reducing numbers of resonances for large proteins, and isotopic labeling becomes economically feasible for glycoproteins that must be expressed in mammalian cells. However, without access to the traditional triple resonance strategies that require uniform isotopic labeling, NMR assignment of crosspeaks in heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra is challenging. We present an alternative strategy which combines readily accessible NMR data with known protein domain structures. Based on the structures, chemical shifts are predicted, NOE cross-peak lists are generated, and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) are calculated for each labeled site. Simulated data are then compared to measured values for a trial set of assignments and scored. A genetic algorithm uses the scores to search for an optimal pairing of HSQC crosspeaks with labeled sites. While none of the individual data types can give a definitive assignment for a particular site, their combination can in most cases. Four test proteins previously assigned using triple resonance methods and a sparsely labeled glycosylated protein, Robo1, previously assigned by manual analysis, are used to validate the method and develop a criterion for identifying sites assigned with high confidence.

  2. Patients' perspective on homework assignments in cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Lydia; Mrose, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Homework assignments are an indispensable part of cognitive-behavioural therapy. During the past two decades, a growing number of studies have shed light on its characteristics and effects. However, most studies primarily consider the therapists' view, and little is known about the use of supportive strategies to implement homework assignments in psychotherapy and about patients' attitudes towards regular assignments. To fill this gap, we assessed the attitudes towards homework assignments of 80 outpatients. In addition, those who had received a task during the past session (75%) were asked to report characteristics of their task as well as therapists' behaviour strategies during the assignment of the task. One week later, therapists rated the extent of completion of the task. Results showed that the patients generally had a positive attitude towards homework and that they accomplished most of the tasks. With regard to the therapists' behaviour during the assignment of the task, there seems to be room for improvement. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Correlating apparent diffusion coefficients with histopathologic findings on meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bo, E-mail: yinbo7@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Liu, Li, E-mail: llbbsy@163.com [Department of Radiology, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, 270 Dongan Rd., Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Bi Yun, E-mail: bianka0830@126.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Yu Xin, E-mail: liyuxin76@126.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Yuan, E-mail: ybllfd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Geng, Dao Ying, E-mail: gengdymd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with histopathologic findings and whether ADC values can be used to differentiate benign from atypical/malignant meningiomas. Materials and methods: MR images were reviewed retrospectively in 138 patients with meningiomas treated between September 1997 and July 2003. The ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema, and the normalized ADC (NADC) ratios were calculated using the formula NADC = ADC of the tumor/ADC of the normal white matter. The ADC findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after resection using the World Health Organization criteria (2007). Results: Meningiomas were histologically graded as malignant (9%), atypical (14%) and benign (77%). Of the 138 meningiomas, 32 (23%) were atypical (n = 19) or malignant (n = 13), whereas 106 (77%) were typical. The mean ADC values were statistically different between typical and atypical/malignant meningiomas (0.97 ± 0.21 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s vs 0.85 ± 0.17 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). The mean NADC ratios were also significantly lower in the atypical/malignant group (1.09 ± 0.23) than in the benign group (1.24 ± 0.25; P = 0.002 < 0.05). The mean ADC values and NADC ratios did not differ significantly among fibrous, meningothelial, transitional and atypical tumors (P > 0.05). The mean ADC values and NADC ratios were higher in the angiomatous and secretory subgroups than in the fibrous, meningothelial, transitional, atypical and malignant subgroups (P < 0.05). The ADC values and NADC ratios were the lowest in the malignant subgroup, and the difference between atypical and malignant meningiomas was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Meningioma subgroups displayed different ADC values from each other. Thus, ADC values may provide a useful supplement to the information obtained from conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging, enhancing the ability of medical professionals to

  4. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21228 (United States); Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: pcampbel@pop900.gsfc.nasa.gov; Middleton, E.M. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corp, L.A. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Kim, M.S. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  5. A Bayesian Assignment Method for Ambiguous Bisulfite Short Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification critical for normal development and diseases. The determination of genome-wide DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution is made possible by sequencing bisulfite treated DNA with next generation high-throughput sequencing. However, aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome remains challenging as only a limited proportion of them (around 50-70% can be aligned uniquely; a significant proportion, known as multireads, are mapped to multiple locations and thus discarded from downstream analyses, causing financial waste and biased methylation inference. To address this issue, we develop a Bayesian model that assigns multireads to their most likely locations based on the posterior probability derived from information hidden in uniquely aligned reads. Analyses of both simulated data and real hairpin bisulfite sequencing data show that our method can effectively assign approximately 70% of the multireads to their best locations with up to 90% accuracy, leading to a significant increase in the overall mapping efficiency. Moreover, the assignment model shows robust performance with low coverage depth, making it particularly attractive considering the prohibitive cost of bisulfite sequencing. Additionally, results show that longer reads help improve the performance of the assignment model. The assignment model is also robust to varying degrees of methylation and varying sequencing error rates. Finally, incorporating prior knowledge on mutation rate and context specific methylation level into the assignment model increases inference accuracy. The assignment model is implemented in the BAM-ABS package and freely available at https://github.com/zhanglabvt/BAM_ABS.

  6. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  7. Obesogenic environmental influences on young adults: evidence from college dormitory assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study utilizes a natural experiment-conditionally random dormitory assignments of first-year US college students-to investigate the influence of obesogenic environmental factors in explaining changes in weight and exercise behavior during the 2009-2010 academic year. The design addresses potential selection biases resulting from the likelihood that individuals sort into built environments that match their preferences for exercise and healthy eating. We find some evidence that the food environment, specifically access to campus dining, significantly affected the weight of female students in our study. Females assigned to dormitories where the nearest campus dining hall was closed on the weekends gained about 1lb less over the course of the year than females assigned to dormitories near dining halls that were open 7 days a week. We also find some evidence that female who lived in close proximity to a grocery store gained less weight over the course of the year. Finally, females who lived closer to campus gym reported more frequent exercise over the course of the year. We do not find significant effects of the built environment on weight changes of males in our sample, but we are cautious to draw strong conclusions from this because the male weight change in our sample was quite small. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Multi-Attribute Decision Factors for a Modified All-or-Nothing Traffic Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunSu Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate a realistic traffic assignment scenario, a multi-criterion decision system is essential. A traffic assignment model designed to simulate real-life situation may therefore utilize absolute and/or relative impedance. Ideally, the decision-making process should identify a set of traffic impedances (factors working against the smooth flow of traffic along with pertinent parameters in order for the decision system to select the most optimal or the least-impeded route. In this study, we developed geospatial algorithms that consider multiple impedances. The impedances utilized in this study included, traffic patterns, capacity and congestion. The attributes of the decision-making process also prioritize multi-traffic scenarios by adopting first-in-first-out prioritization method. We also further subdivided classical impedance into either relative impedance or absolute impedance. The main advantage of this innovative multi-attribute, impedance-based trip assignment model is that it can be implemented in a manner of algebraic approach to utilize shortest path algorithm embedded in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS—Graphical User Interface tool. Thus, the GIS package can therefore handle the multi-attribute impedance effectively. Furthermore, the method utilized in this paper displays flexibility and better adaptation to a multi-modal transportation system. Transportation, logistics, and random events, such as terrorism, can be easily analyzed with pertinent impedance.

  9. Effect on injuries of assigning shoes based on foot shape in air force basic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether assigning running shoes based on the shape of the bottom of the foot (plantar surface) influenced injury risk in Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT) and examined risk factors for injury in BMT. Data were collected from BMT recruits during 2007; analysis took place during 2008. After foot examinations, recruits were randomly consigned to either an experimental group (E, n=1042 men, 375 women) or a control group (C, n=913 men, 346 women). Experimental group recruits were assigned motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. Control group recruits received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during BMT were determined from outpatient visits provided from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other injury risk factors (fitness, smoking, physical activity, prior injury, menstrual history, and demographics) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or BMT units. Multivariate Cox regression controlling for other risk factors showed little difference in injury risk between the groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.11, 95% CI=0.89-1.38) or women (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.20, 95% CI= 0.90-1.60). Independent injury risk factors among both men and women included low aerobic fitness and cigarette smoking. This prospective study demonstrated that assigning running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface had little influence on injury risk in BMT even after controlling for other injury risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dietary antioxidant capacity and concentration of adiponectin in apparently healthy adults: the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, P; Panagiotakos, D B; Chrysohoou, C; Fragopoulou, E; Nomikos, T; Antonopoulou, S; Pitsavos, C; Stefanadis, C

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the relationship of adiponectin concentration with total dietary antioxidant capacity in free-living, apparently healthy adults from the ATTICA study. A random subsample from the ATTICA study, consisting of 310 men (40+/-11 years) and 222 women (38+/-12 years), was selected. Adiponectin, along with other inflammatory markers, was measured in fasting participants. Dietary habits were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire and the dietary antioxidant capacity was based on published values of Italian foods measured by three different assays: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP) and trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Positive associations were observed between dietary antioxidant capacity and adiponectin concentration, as assessed with FRAP (b+/-s.e.=0.012+/-0.005, P=0.018 per 1 mmol Fe (II)/day), TRAP (b+/-s.e.=0.030+/-0.013, P=0.017 per 1 mmol trolox equivalent/day) and TEAC (b+/-s.e.=0.025+/-0.012, P=0.042, per 1 mmol trolox equivalent/day) in multiadjusted analysis. Moreover, a negative relation of dietary antioxidant indices with inflammatory markers was revealed. Diets with high antioxidant capacity are related to increased adiponectin levels. An adiponectin-mediated route through which antioxidant-rich foods exert beneficial effects against inflammation and cardiovascular diseases can be thus hypothesized.

  11. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  12. A potential risk of overestimating apparent diffusion coefficient in parotid glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jui Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate transient signal loss on diffusion weighted images (DWI and overestimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in parotid glands using single shot echoplanar DWI (EPDWI.This study enrolled 6 healthy subjects and 7 patients receiving radiotherapy. All participants received dynamic EPDWI with a total of 8 repetitions. Imaging quality of DWI was evaluated. Probability of severe overestimation of ADC (soADC, defined by an ADC ratio more than 1.2, was calculated. Error on T2WI, DWI, and ADC was computed. Statistical analysis included paired Student t testing and Mann-Whitney U test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Transient signal loss was visually detected on some excitations of DWI but not on T2WI or mean DWI. soADC occurred randomly among 8 excitations and 3 directions of diffusion encoding gradients. Probability of soADC was significantly higher in radiotherapy group (42.86% than in healthy group (24.39%. The mean error percentage decreased as the number of excitations increased on all images, and, it was smallest on T2WI, followed by DWI and ADC in an increasing order.Transient signal loss on DWI was successfully detected by dynamic EPDWI. The signal loss on DWI and overestimation of ADC could be partially remedied by increasing the number of excitations.

  13. MSOAR 2.0: Incorporating tandem duplications into ortholog assignment based on genome rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liqing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ortholog assignment is a critical and fundamental problem in comparative genomics, since orthologs are considered to be functional counterparts in different species and can be used to infer molecular functions of one species from those of other species. MSOAR is a recently developed high-throughput system for assigning one-to-one orthologs between closely related species on a genome scale. It attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of input genomes in terms of genome rearrangement and gene duplication events. It assumes that a gene duplication event inserts a duplicated gene into the genome of interest at a random location (i.e., the random duplication model. However, in practice, biologists believe that genes are often duplicated by tandem duplications, where a duplicated gene is located next to the original copy (i.e., the tandem duplication model. Results In this paper, we develop MSOAR 2.0, an improved system for one-to-one ortholog assignment. For a pair of input genomes, the system first focuses on the tandemly duplicated genes of each genome and tries to identify among them those that were duplicated after the speciation (i.e., the so-called inparalogs, using a simple phylogenetic tree reconciliation method. For each such set of tandemly duplicated inparalogs, all but one gene will be deleted from the concerned genome (because they cannot possibly appear in any one-to-one ortholog pairs, and MSOAR is invoked. Using both simulated and real data experiments, we show that MSOAR 2.0 is able to achieve a better sensitivity and specificity than MSOAR. In comparison with the well-known genome-scale ortholog assignment tool InParanoid, Ensembl ortholog database, and the orthology information extracted from the well-known whole-genome multiple alignment program MultiZ, MSOAR 2.0 shows the highest sensitivity. Although the specificity of MSOAR 2.0 is slightly worse than that of InParanoid in the real data experiments

  14. RNA-PAIRS: RNA probabilistic assignment of imino resonance shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Arash; Clos, Lawrence J.; Markley, John L.; Butcher, Samuel E. [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (United States); Eghbalnia, Hamid R., E-mail: eghbalhd@uc.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The significant biological role of RNA has further highlighted the need for improving the accuracy, efficiency and the reach of methods for investigating RNA structure and function. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is vital to furthering the goals of RNA structural biology because of its distinctive capabilities. However, the dispersion pattern in the NMR spectra of RNA makes automated resonance assignment, a key step in NMR investigation of biomolecules, remarkably challenging. Herein we present RNA Probabilistic Assignment of Imino Resonance Shifts (RNA-PAIRS), a method for the automated assignment of RNA imino resonances with synchronized verification and correction of predicted secondary structure. RNA-PAIRS represents an advance in modeling the assignment paradigm because it seeds the probabilistic network for assignment with experimental NMR data, and predicted RNA secondary structure, simultaneously and from the start. Subsequently, RNA-PAIRS sets in motion a dynamic network that reverberates between predictions and experimental evidence in order to reconcile and rectify resonance assignments and secondary structure information. The procedure is halted when assignments and base-parings are deemed to be most consistent with observed crosspeaks. The current implementation of RNA-PAIRS uses an initial peak list derived from proton-nitrogen heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation ({sup 1}H-{sup 15}N 2D HMQC) and proton-proton nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H 2D NOESY) experiments. We have evaluated the performance of RNA-PAIRS by using it to analyze NMR datasets from 26 previously studied RNAs, including a 111-nucleotide complex. For moderately sized RNA molecules, and over a range of comparatively complex structural motifs, the average assignment accuracy exceeds 90%, while the average base pair prediction accuracy exceeded 93%. RNA-PAIRS yielded accurate assignments and base pairings consistent with imino

  15. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  16. Analyzing Walksat on random formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Frieze, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. We prove that the Walksat algorithm from Papadimitriou (FOCS 1991)/Schoning (FOCS 1999) finds a satisfying assignment of F in polynomial time w.h.p. if m/n0. This is an improvement by a factor of $\\Theta(k)$ over the best previous analysis of Walksat from Coja-Oghlan, Feige, Frieze, Krivelevich, Vilenchik (SODA 2009).

  17. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  18. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Bi-Level Optimization Model for Grouping Constrained Storage Location Assignment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Mei, Yi; Ernst, Andreas T; Li, Xiaodong; Song, Andy

    2016-12-23

    In this paper, a novel bi-level grouping optimization (BIGO) model is proposed for solving the storage location assignment problem with grouping constraint (SLAP-GC). A major challenge in this problem is the grouping constraint which restricts the number of groups each product can have and the locations of items in the same group. In SLAP-GC, the problem consists of two subproblems, one is how to group the items, and the other one is how to assign the groups to locations. It is an arduous task to solve the two subproblems simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a BIGO. BIGO optimizes item grouping in the upper level, and uses the lower-level optimization to evaluate each item grouping. Sophisticated fitness evaluation and search operators are designed for both upper and lower level optimization so that the feasibility of solutions can be guaranteed, and the search can focus on promising areas in the search space. Based on the BIGO model, a multistart random search method and a tabu algorithm are proposed. The experimental results on the real-world dataset validate the efficacy of the BIGO model and the advantage of the tabu method over the random search method.

  20. Adding a motivational interviewing pretreatment to cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A; Arkowitz, Hal; Dozois, David J A

    2009-12-01

    Seventy-six individuals with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were randomly assigned to receive either an MI pretreatment or no pretreatment (NPT), prior to receiving CBT. Significant group differences favoring the MI-CBT group were observed on the hallmark GAD symptom of worry and on therapist-rated homework compliance, which mediated the impact of treatment group on worry reduction. Adding MI pretreatment to CBT was specifically and substantively beneficial for individuals with high worry severity at baseline. There was evidence of relapse at 6-month follow-up for high severity individuals who received MI-CBT, but significant moderator effects favoring the high severity MI-CBT group were again apparent at 12-months post-treatment. Pending replication in a more controlled test, these findings suggest that MI may be a promising adjunct to CBT for GAD for those of high severity, a group which has been less responsive to CBT in past research.

  1. The Utility of Writing Assignments in Undergraduate Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie; Ording, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that engagement in a few, brief writing assignments in a nonmajors science course can improve student ability to convey critical thought about science. A sample of three papers written by students (n = 30) was coded for presence and accuracy of elements related to scientific writing. Scores for different aspects of scientific writing were significantly correlated, suggesting that students recognized relationships between components of scientific thought. We found that students' ability to write about science topics and state conclusions based on data improved over the course of three writing assignments, while the abilities to state a hypothesis and draw clear connections between human activities and environmental impacts did not improve. Three writing assignments generated significant change in student ability to write scientifically, although our results suggest that three is an insufficient number to generate complete development of scientific writing skills. PMID:22383616

  2. The utility of writing assignments in undergraduate bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie; Ording, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that engagement in a few, brief writing assignments in a nonmajors science course can improve student ability to convey critical thought about science. A sample of three papers written by students (n = 30) was coded for presence and accuracy of elements related to scientific writing. Scores for different aspects of scientific writing were significantly correlated, suggesting that students recognized relationships between components of scientific thought. We found that students' ability to write about science topics and state conclusions based on data improved over the course of three writing assignments, while the abilities to state a hypothesis and draw clear connections between human activities and environmental impacts did not improve. Three writing assignments generated significant change in student ability to write scientifically, although our results suggest that three is an insufficient number to generate complete development of scientific writing skills.

  3. Neural reactivations during sleep determine network credit assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Tanuj; Guo, Ling; Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Bodepudi, Anitha; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2017-09-01

    A fundamental goal of motor learning is to establish the neural patterns that produce a desired behavioral outcome. It remains unclear how and when the nervous system solves this 'credit assignment' problem. Using neuroprosthetic learning, in which we could control the causal relationship between neurons and behavior, we found that sleep-dependent processing was required for credit assignment and the establishment of task-related functional connectivity reflecting the casual neuron-behavior relationship. Notably, we observed a strong link between the microstructure of sleep reactivations and credit assignment, with downscaling of non-causal activity. Decoupling of spiking to slow oscillations using optogenetic methods eliminated rescaling. Thus, our results suggest that coordinated firing during sleep is essential for establishing sparse activation patterns that reflect the causal neuron-behavior relationship.

  4. Lexical stress assignment as a problem of probabilistic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    A new conceptualization of the process of stress assignment, couched in the principles of (Bayesian) probabilistic inference, is introduced in this paper. According to this approach, in deciding where to place stress in a polysyllabic word, a reader estimates the posterior probabilities of alternative stress patterns. This estimation is accomplished by adjusting a prior belief about the likelihoods of alternative stress patterns (derived from experience with the distribution of stress patterns in the language) by using lexical and non-lexical sources of evidence for stress derived from the orthographic input. The proposed theoretical framework was used to compute probabilities of stress patterns for Russian disyllabic words and nonwords which were then compared with the performance of readers. The results showed that the estimated probabilities of stress patterns were reflective of actual stress assignment performance and of naming latencies, suggesting that the mechanisms that are involved in the process of stress assignment might indeed be inferentially-based.

  5. Task Assignment Heuristics for Parallel and Distributed CFD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Benitez, Noe; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a task graph (TG) model to represent a single discrete step of multi-block overset grid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The TG model is then used to not only balance the computational workload across the overset grids but also to reduce inter-grid communication costs. We have developed a set of task assignment heuristics based on the constraints inherent in this class of CFD problems. Two basic assignments, the smallest task first (STF) and the largest task first (LTF), are first presented. They are then systematically costs. To predict the performance of the proposed task assignment heuristics, extensive performance evaluations are conducted on a synthetic TG with tasks defined in terms of the number of grid points in predetermined overlapping grids. A TG derived from a realistic problem with eight million grid points is also used as a test case.

  6. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yao

    2012-01-01

    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  7. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur...... during operations. We introduce a basic static model that can be adapted to the layout of different airports. Afterwards we show how a decision support system based on a MIP-model can be designed in a dynamic real world environment. The system supports the decisions of the dispatcher during daily...... operations. Computational results for a real world problem at Frankfurt Airport are presented. At Frankfurt Airport the suggested solution method was successfully implemented and is running now for over half an year. The experiences show that the system increases the quality of the dispatching process...

  8. Robustness and Optimal Design Issues for Cluster Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korendijk, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072035463

    2012-01-01

    Cluster randomized trials (CRT), in which whole clusters instead of individuals are assigned to conditions, are not uncommon in the social, behavioral, educational, medical and organizational sciences. Though the assignment of individuals to treatment conditions is more efficient, this may not

  9. USER S GUIDE FOR THE RANDOM DRUG SCREENING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeany, Karen I [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The Random Drug Screening System (RDSS) is a desktop computing application designed to assign nongameable drug testing dates to each member in a population of employees, within a specific time line. The program includes reporting capabilities, test form generation, unique test ID number assignment, and the ability to flag high-risk employees for a higher frequency of drug testing than the general population.

  10. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  11. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. PMID:26610512

  12. Intermodulation interference-minimum frequency assignment for satellite SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Hirata, Y.

    1984-04-01

    This paper addresses frequency assignment for single-level and multilevel SCPC systems. In order to obtain the optimum channel allocation, where the influence of intermodulation noise on carriers is minimized, a practical and effective method is proposed. The quasi-optimum solutions obtained with the proposed method are presented for single-level SCPC systems, showing their advantage in intermodulation noise reduction. Concerning frequency assignment for multilevel SCPC systems, two strategies to realize the quasi-optimum channel allocation are compared with regard to the improvement in carrier-to-intermodulation noise power ratio. The performance of the obtained channel allocation indicates the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  13. The use of meta-heuristics for airport gate assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chun-Hung; Ho, Sin C.; Kwan, Cheuk-Lam

    2012-01-01

    Improper assignment of gates may result in flight delays, inefficient use of the resource, customer’s dissatisfaction. A typical metropolitan airport handles hundreds of flights a day. Solving the gate assignment problem (GAP) to optimality is often impractical. Meta-heuristics have recently been...... proposed to generate good solutions within a reasonable timeframe. In this work, we attempt to assess the performance of three meta-heuristics, namely, genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search (TS), simulated annealing (SA) and a hybrid approach based on SA and TS. Flight data from Incheon International Airport...

  14. Evoked Feelings, Assigned Meanings and Constructed Knowledge Based on Mistakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Guimarães Batistella Bianchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of Piaget's critical clinical method, the study investigated the meanings assigned to mistakes by four students in different activities and interactive situations. The research also analyzed the results of using self-regulatory situations in understanding mistakes initially committed by the students. Data collection instruments consisted of games, video recordings, diaries and interviews. Following intervention, the students were able to recognize their competence, establish positive interactions within the group, and avoid viewing mistakes as obstacles to learning. We concluded that the meanings assigned to mistakes depend on certain variables, among them feelings nurtured by the individuals about themselves, the other, and the object of knowledge.

  15. Energy flow in a bound electromagnetic field: resolution of apparent paradoxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholmetskii, A L [Department of Physics, Belarusian State University, 4, Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Yarman, T [Department of Engineering, Okan University Istanbul, Turkey and Savronik, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: kholm@bsu.by

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we present a resolution of apparent paradoxes formulated in (Kholmetskii A L 2006 Apparent paradoxes in classical electrodynamics: the energy-momentum conservation law for a bound electromagnetic field Eur. J. Phys. 27 825-38; Kholmetskii A L and Yarman T 2008 Apparent paradoxes in classical electrodynamics: a fluid medium in an electromagnetic field Eur. J. Phys. 29 1127) and dealing with the energy flux in a bound electromagnetic field.

  16. TSAR: a program for automatic resonance assignment using 2D cross-sections of high dimensionality, high-resolution spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Billeter, Martin, E-mail: martin.billeter@chem.gu.se [University of Gothenburg, Biophysics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    While NMR studies of proteins typically aim at structure, dynamics or interactions, resonance assignments represent in almost all cases the initial step of the analysis. With increasing complexity of the NMR spectra, for example due to decreasing extent of ordered structure, this task often becomes both difficult and time-consuming, and the recording of high-dimensional data with high-resolution may be essential. Random sampling of the evolution time space, combined with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform (SMFT), allows for efficient recording of very high dimensional spectra ({>=}4 dimensions) while maintaining high resolution. However, the nature of this data demands for automation of the assignment process. Here we present the program TSAR (Tool for SMFT-based Assignment of Resonances), which exploits all advantages of SMFT input. Moreover, its flexibility allows to process data from any type of experiments that provide sequential connectivities. The algorithm was tested on several protein samples, including a disordered 81-residue fragment of the {delta} subunit of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis containing various repetitive sequences. For our test examples, TSAR achieves a high percentage of assigned residues without any erroneous assignments.

  17. A United Framework for Solving Multiagent Task Assignment Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cousin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... Problems using the CMTS representation are solvable by a suite of algorithms ranging from simple random scheduling to state-of-the-art biologically inspired approaches incorporating evolutionary...

  18. Concept Maps as Cognitive Visualizations of Writing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Jorge; Calvo, Rafael A.

    2011-01-01

    Writing assignments are ubiquitous in higher education. Writing develops not only communication skills, but also higher-level cognitive processes that facilitate deep learning. Cognitive visualizations, such as concept maps, can also be used as part of learning activities including as a form of scaffolding, or to trigger reflection by making…

  19. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solved in the context of a simulated, but realistic, GBAD environment by means of an existing multiobjective solution technique called the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II. Key words: Multicriteria decision making, threat evaluation and weapon assignment, NSGA II. ∗Corresponding author: Department of Logistics ...

  20. Clustered Self Organising Migrating Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman

    2009-08-01

    An approach of population dynamics and clustering for permutative problems is presented in this paper. Diversity indicators are created from solution ordering and its mapping is shown as an advantage for population control in metaheuristics. Self Organising Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) is modified using this approach and vetted with the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Extensive experimentation is conducted on benchmark problems in this area.

  1. Designing Effective Classroom Assignments: Intellectual Work Worth Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Pat; Jankowski, Natasha A.; Schultz, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment's (NILOA's) online library of faculty-created assignments that both produce and demonstrate learning makes pedagogical work visible and available for colleagues to learn from, build on, and reward. This online library allows faculty to collaborate in sharing, critiquing, and improving…

  2. 24 CFR 236.535 - Effect of assignment of mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of assignment of mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Interest Reduction Payments...

  3. Evaluating an Earlybird Scheme: Encouraging Early Assignment Writing and Revising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Kauter, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    It is widely suggested that feedback on assignments is useful to students' learning, however, little research has examined how this feedback may be provided in large classes or the actual effects of such a scheme. We designed and implemented a voluntary "earlybird scheme" that provided detailed feedback to undergraduate Business students on a…

  4. Robust flight-to-gate assignment using flight presence probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaijk, Oscar R.P.; Visser, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to improve the robustness of solutions to the Flight-to-Gate Assignment Problem (FGAP), with the aim to reduce the need for gate re-planning due to unpredicted flight schedule disturbances in the daily operations at an airport. We propose an approach in

  5. Nursing Distance Learning Course Comparison of Assignments and Examination Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundine, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Nursing programs have embraced distance learning in their curricula, but discussion is ongoing about course assignments and grading criteria to increase examination scores in nursing distance learning courses. Because course examinations are a predictor of success on the postgraduate licensing examination (NCLEX-RN), the purpose of this study was…

  6. Using Clouds for MapReduce Measurement Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Ariel; Reiss, Charles; Katz, Randy; Patterson, David

    2013-01-01

    We describe our experiences teaching MapReduce in a large undergraduate lecture course using public cloud services and the standard Hadoop API. Using the standard API, students directly experienced the quality of industrial big-data tools. Using the cloud, every student could carry out scalability benchmarking assignments on realistic hardware,…

  7. Comparing Organic vs. Assigned UAV Support to the Maneuver Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    hovering or perching capability. Overall, no advantage. d Survivability: likelihood of avoiding destruction by enemy action Even Against small arms... Gerald J. Lieberman. Introduction to Operations Research, 7th ed. 2001. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Comparing Organic vs. Assigned UAV Support

  8. Python Source Code Plagiarism Attacks on Introductory Programming Course Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnalim, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically enlists Python plagiarism attacks that have been found on Introductory Programming course assignments for undergraduate students. According to our observation toward 400 plagiarism-suspected cases, there are 35 plagiarism attacks that have been conducted by students. It starts with comment & whitespace modification as…

  9. 48 CFR 1511.011-74 - Work assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insert the contract clause at 1552.211-74, Work Assignments, in cost-reimbursement type term form...), and Sample Management Office (SMO) contracts), the Contracting Officer shall use the clause with... of records that may be searched for certification purposes. Alternate II shall be used for...

  10. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in assigning sex in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three years old child with ambiguous genitalia since birth had been referred to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH),a tertiary referral hospital, in order to be evaluated and assigned sex correctly. Due to periphery location of the referring center, social and economic constraints, the child was not presented earlier. Physical ...

  11. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  12. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply...

  13. 48 CFR 3042.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 3042.202 Section 3042.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration...

  14. SKU assignment to unidirectional picking lines using correlations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once all the orders for a wave are completed a new mutually exclusive set of SKUs are brought to the picking line for a new wave. SKUs which dier only in size classication, for example small, medium and large shirts, are grouped together into distributions (DBNs) and must be picked in the same wave. The assignment of ...

  15. 47 CFR 22.567 - Technical channel assignment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.567 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... assignments to be made in a manner such that BETRS communications are protected from interference caused by... meters p is the radial ERP in Watts (1) Whenever the actual HAAT is less than 30 meters (98 feet), 30...

  16. Assignment of circadian function for the Neurospora clock gene frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrow, Martha; Brunner, Michael; Roenneberg, Till

    1999-01-01

    Circadian clocks consist of three elements: entrainment pathways (inputs), the mechanism generating the rhythmicity (oscillator), and the output pathways that control the circadian rhythms. It is difficult to assign molecular clock components to any one of these elements. Experiments show that

  17. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  18. A new heuristic for the quadratic assignment problem

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Drezner

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new heuristic for the solution of the quadratic assignment problem. The heuristic combines ideas from tabu search and genetic algorithms. Run times are very short compared with other heuristic procedures. The heuristic performed very well on a set of test problems.

  19. Towards Next Generation Rubrics: An Automated Assignment Feedback System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilupulee Nathawitharana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the use of blended learning environments and digital technologies become integrated into the higher education sector, rich technologies such as analytics have shown promise in facilitating teaching and learning. One popular application of analytics is Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE systems. Such systems can be used in a formative way; for example, by providing students with feedback on digitally submitted assignments. This paper presents work on the development of an AWE software tool for an Australian university using advanced text analytics techniques. The tool was designed to provide students with timely feedback on their initial assignment drafts, for revision and further improvement. Moreover, it could also assist academics in better understanding students’ assignment performance so as to inform future teaching activities. The paper provides details on the methodology used for development of the software, and presents the results obtained from the analysis of text-based assignments submitted in two subjects. The results are discussed, highlighting how the tool can provide practical value, followed by insights into existing challenges and possible future directions.

  20. Mining Staff Assignment Rules from Event-Based Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, L.T.; Rinderle, S.B.; Dadam, P.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    Process mining offers methods and techniques for capturing process behaviour from log data of past process executions. Although many promising approaches on mining the control flow have been published, no attempt has been made to mine the staff assignment situation of business processes. In this

  1. 28 CFR 544.74 - Work assignment limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appointment and promotion apply to all inmates, including those exempted from required participation in the... incentive pay position. (3) If labor force needs require, an inmate who does not meet the literacy requirement may be assigned to an industrial non-graded incentive pay position if the inmate is simultaneously...

  2. Error treatment in students' written assignments in Discourse Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is generally no consensus on how lecturers should treat students' errors in written assignments, observations in this study enabled the researcher to provide certain strategies that lecturers can adopt. Key words: Error treatment; error handling; corrective feedback, positive cognitive feedback; negative cognitive feedback; ...

  3. Augmenting superpopulation capture-recapture models with population assignment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Pollock, Kenneth; Nichols, James; Waser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists applying capture-recapture models to animal populations sometimes have access to additional information about individuals' populations of origin (e.g., information about genetics, stable isotopes, etc.). Tests that assign an individual's genotype to its most likely source population are increasingly used. Here we show how to augment a superpopulation capture-recapture model with such information. We consider a single superpopulation model without age structure, and split each entry probability into separate components due to births in situ and immigration. We show that it is possible to estimate these two probabilities separately. We first consider the case of perfect information about population of origin, where we can distinguish individuals born in situ from immigrants with certainty. Then we consider the more realistic case of imperfect information, where we use genetic or other information to assign probabilities to each individual's origin as in situ or outside the population. We use a resampling approach to impute the true population of origin from imperfect assignment information. The integration of data on population of origin with capture-recapture data allows us to determine the contributions of immigration and in situ reproduction to the growth of the population, an issue of importance to ecologists. We illustrate our new models with capture-recapture and genetic assignment data from a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats Dipodomys spectabilis in Arizona.

  4. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  5. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions under which human operators have to propose assignments of weapon systems to engage these aircraft are severely stressful since time is a critical factor and there is no room for error. Some progress has already been made with respect to the design of computerised threat evaluation and weapon ...

  6. The Quadratic Assignment Problem is Easy for Robinsonian Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Seminaroti, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new polynomially solvable case of the Quadratic Assignment Problem in Koopmans-Beckman form QAP(A;B), by showing that the identity permutation is optimal when A and B are respectively a Robinson similarity and dissimilarity matrix and one of A or B is a Toeplitz matrix. A Robinson

  7. A bilinear programming solution to the quadratic assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Kaashoek (Johan); J.H.P. Paelinck (Jean)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe quadratic assignment problem (QAP) or maximum acyclical graph problem is well documented (see e.g. Pardalos and Wolkowicz, 1994). One of the authors has published some material, in which it was tried, by structuring the problem additionally, to bring it as closely as possible in the

  8. The quadratic assignment problem is easy for robinsonian matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Seminaroti, M.

    We present a new polynomially solvable case of the Quadratic Assignment Problem in Koopmans–Beckman form QAP(A,B), by showing that the identity permutation is optimal when AA and BB are respectively a Robinson similarity and dissimilarity matrix and one of AA or BB is a Toeplitz matrix. A Robinson

  9. Bandit-Inspired Memetic Algorithms for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puglierin, Francesco; Drugan, Madalina M.; Wiering, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel algorithm called the Bandit-Inspired Memetic Algorithm (BIMA) and we have applied it to solve different large instances of the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Like other memetic algorithms, BIMA makes use of local search and a population of solutions. The novelty

  10. More Districts Factoring Poverty into Student-Assignment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are trying to break up concentrations of poverty on their campuses by taking students' family income into consideration in school assignments. Some of the districts replaced race with socioeconomic status as a determining indicator after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2007 that using race as the primary factor…

  11. 42 CFR 436.610 - Assignment of rights to benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Assign rights to the Medicaid agency to medical support and to payment for medical care from any third party; (2) Cooperate with the agency in establishing paternity and in obtaining medical support and... cooperating in establishing paternity and obtaining medical support and payments from, or derived from, the...

  12. Privacy-Preserving Task Assignment in Spatial Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, An

    2017-09-20

    With the progress of mobile devices and wireless networks, spatial crowdsourcing (SC) is emerging as a promising approach for problem solving. In SC, spatial tasks are assigned to and performed by a set of human workers. To enable effective task assignment, however, both workers and task requesters are required to disclose their locations to untrusted SC systems. In this paper, we study the problem of assigning workers to tasks in a way that location privacy for both workers and task requesters is preserved. We first combine the Paillier cryptosystem with Yao’s garbled circuits to construct a secure protocol that assigns the nearest worker to a task. Considering that this protocol cannot scale to a large number of workers, we then make use of Geohash, a hierarchical spatial index to design a more efficient protocol that can securely find approximate nearest workers. We theoretically show that these two protocols are secure against semi-honest adversaries. Through extensive experiments on two real-world datasets, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our protocols.

  13. A Competitive and Experiential Assignment in Search Engine Optimization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Theresa B.; Clarke, Irvine, III

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in ad spending and demand for employees with expertise in search engine optimization (SEO), methods for teaching this important marketing strategy have received little coverage in the literature. Using Bloom's cognitive goals hierarchy as a framework, this experiential assignment provides a process for educators who may be new…

  14. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  15. Optimal Weight Assignment for a Chinese Signature File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tyne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the performance of a character-based Chinese text retrieval scheme in which monogram keys and bigram keys are encoded into document signatures. Tests and verifies the theoretical predictions of the optimal weight assignments and the minimal false hit rate in experiments using a real Chinese corpus for disyllabic queries of different…

  16. College Textbook Reading Assignments and Class Time Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lola; Conner, Timothy W., II; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported (Lei, Barlett, Gorney, & Herschbach, 2010; Sikorski et al., 2002) that only a minority of college students actually read the course textbook or other assigned readings in preparation for examinations. Suggested strategies to remedy this situation include quizzes (Ruscio, 2001; Ryan, 2006), study worksheets (Aagaard &…

  17. Effective Schools: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Beteille, Tara

    2012-01-01

    The literature on effective schools emphasizes the importance of a quality teaching force in improving educational outcomes for students. In this article we use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school's effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development, and retention of its teachers. Our results reveal four key…

  18. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a military environment an operator is typically required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect defended assets against enemy threats by assigning available weapon systems to engage enemy craft. This environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making under severe stress conditions ...

  19. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool: A SQUIRE Compliant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Magd A; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is delivered through a didactic, blended learning, and mixed models. Students are supposed to construct an answerable question in PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework, acquire evidence through search of literature, appraise evidence, apply it to the clinical case scenario, and assess the evidence in relation to clinical context. Yet these teaching models have limitations especially those related to group work, for example, handling uncooperative students, students who fail to contribute, students who domineer, students who have personal conflict, their impact upon progress of their groups, and inconsistent individual acquisition of required skills. At Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, we designed a novel undergraduate pediatric EBM assignment online system to overcome shortcomings of previous didactic method and aimed to assess its effectiveness by prospective follow-up during academic years 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. The novel web-based online interactive system was tailored to provide sequential single and group assignments for each student. Single assignment addressed a specific case scenario question, while group assignment was teamwork that addressed different questions of same case scenario. Assignment comprised scholar content and skills. We objectively analyzed students' performance by criterion-based assessment and subjectively by anonymous student questionnaire. A total of 2879 were enrolled in 5th year Pediatrics Course consecutively, of them 2779 (96.5%) logged in and 2554 (88.7%) submitted their work. They were randomly assigned to 292 groups. A total of 2277 (89.15%) achieved ≥ 80% of total mark (4/5), of them 717 (28.1%) achieved a full mark. A total of 2178 (85.27%) and 2359 (92.36%) made evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in single and group assignment, respectively (P < 0.001). A total of 1102 (43.1%) answered student questionnaire, of them 898

  20. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  1. Learning, memorizing and apparent forgetting of chemical cues from new predators by Iberian green frog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Adega; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2009-09-01

    Many antipredator adaptations are induced by the prey's ability to recognize chemical cues from predators. However, predator recognition often requires learning by prey individuals. Iberian green frog tadpoles (Pelophylax perezi) have the ability to learn new potential predators. Here, we tested the memory capabilities of Iberian green frog tadpoles. We conditioned tadpoles with chemicals cues from a non-predatory fish in conjunction with conspecific alarm cues, and examined whether tadpoles retained their conditioned response (reduction of activity level). We found that conditioned tadpoles reduced their activity levels in subsequent exposures to the non-predatory fish cues alone. Tadpoles were able to remember this association and reduced movement rate at least for 9 days after. The ability to learn and memorize potential predators may be especially important for the survivorship of prey species that are likely to find a high variety of predators. However, after those 9 days, there was a lack of response to the non-predatory fish cues alone in the absence of reinforcement. This could be explained if tadpoles behave according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, and the perceived risk to the learning cue diminished over time, or it could be due to an apparent forgetting process to avoid non-adaptative responses to chemical cues of non-dangerous species that were randomly paired with alarm cues. Thus, this study demonstrates that green frog tadpoles in the absence of reinforcement remember the chemical cues of a learned predator only for a limited time that may be adaptative in a threat-sensitive context.

  2. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three apparently healthy adults were purposively recruited to participate in the study. An electronic blood pressure monitor was ...

  3. Equipartition of energy and the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Fu-Wen; Gong, Yungui

    2010-01-01

    We apply the holographic principle and the equipartition law of energy to the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and derive the Friedmann equation describing the dynamics of the universe. We also show that the equipartition law of energy can be interpreted as the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon.

  4. Financial Barriers for Students with Non-Apparent Disabilities within Canadian Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Tony; Bolton, Melissa; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the education-related debt, sources of debt, and the process of acquiring accommodations for students with non-apparent (such as learning disabilities and mental health disabilities) and apparent disabilities in Canadian postsecondary education. A third group emerged during analyses, students with medical disabilities, which…

  5. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. (a) Disqualification from participating in a particular matter or category of matters...

  6. Origin of the flax cultivar 'Appar' and its position within the Linum perenne complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton; Stanley G. Kitchen; Joann Mudge; E. Durant McArthur

    2008-01-01

    The 'Appar' flax germplasm was originally released by the USDA Soil Conservation Service as a cultivar of Linum lewisii. The observation that 'Appar' is heterostylic, a key taxonomic character distinguishing Lewis flax from other members of the Linum perenne complex, created a need for further study in order to...

  7. Solar apparent radius variability: a new statistical approach to astrolabe multisite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache-Damiani, C.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2006-06-01

    The results of the analysis of solar diameter measurements obtained by means of the astrolabe have been inconclusive so far. Temporal variations are found, but they differ in amplitude and phase. This paper presents the results of a new statistical approach to compare and analyse the astrolabe data obtained during the period 1998-2003 in Brazil, Chile, France and Turkey. We show that different time series can be considered as extracted from the same statistical population following the Gaussian law. As following on a variographic analysis, the series do not seem to be autocorrelated at small scale (40 d) and present the characteristics of a highly disorganized phenomenon. At medium scale (6 yr), a 1-yr periodicity can be seen. It could be the residual trace of a temporal latitudinal variability. At large scale (up to 30 yr, using only French and Chilean data available, respectively, from 1975 and 1990), a faint 11-yr component in the signal can be pointed out. As an 11-yr periodicity has been found in the stratospheric data, we have explored the possibility of a relationship between the measured radii and stratospheric phenomena. This would explain the discrepancy in amplitudes, the sign of the crossed correlation coefficients, and the apparent disorganized behaviour of the data. Therefore, a complementary non-determinist analysis has been done in order to distinguish a chaotic signal from a random noise. The Hurst exponent establishes the persistence of the series. It can be concluded that the solar measurements from astrolabes are not purely randomly distributed, but show the character of a deterministic series for which (i) the observations need to be far more accurate, as it is only possible if obtained from space or in real-time together with a seeing monitor; (ii) supposing that it is indeed possible to extract a solar component, data must be studied considering their heliographic latitude and (iii) data show the variability of the upper atmospheric

  8. Detection of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R A; Ballenger, J; Berry, D T; Wetter, M W

    1997-02-01

    We examined random responding on the MMPI-A in 106 adolescents from the general population. Participants were asked to report on the frequency, location, and reasons for any random responses occurring during a standard administration of the MMPI-A. Relationships between self-reported random responding and validity indices (F1, F2, F, and Variable Response Inconsistency [VRIN] scale) were examined. In addition, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups, with each group completing an assigned portion (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) of an MMPI-A answer sheet without access to the test booklet, and the utility of the validity scales in discriminating standard protocols from all or partially random protocols was investigated. Most adolescents acknowledged one or more random responses correlated significantly with F but not VRIN. Validity scales were sensitive to all or partially random protocols, and produced high classification rates when discriminating among groups.

  9. The utility of serum CA-125 in predicting extra-uterine disease in apparent early-stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, James; Janda, Monika; Gebski, Val; Jobling, Thomas; Land, Russell; Manolitsas, Tom; McCartney, Anthony; Nascimento, Marcelo; Perrin, Lewis; Baker, Jannah F; Obermair, Andreas

    2012-08-15

    Surgical staging in early-stage uterine cancer is controversial. Preoperative serum CA-125 may be of clinical value in predicting the presence of extra-uterine disease in patients with apparent early-stage endometrial cancer. Between October 6, 2005, and June 17, 2010, 760 patients were enrolled in an international, multicentre, prospective randomized trial (LACE) comparing laparotomy with laparoscopy in the management of endometrial cancer apparently confined to the uterus. Of these, 657 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma had a preoperative serum CA-125 value recorded. Multiple cross-validation analysis was undertaken to correlate preoperative serum CA-125 with stage of disease (Stage I vs. Stage II+) after surgery. Patients' median preoperative serum CA-125 was 14 U/ml. A cutoff point of 30 U/ml was associated with the smallest misclassification error, and using this cutoff, 98 patients (14.9%) had elevated CA-125 levels. Of those, 36 (36.7%) had evidence of extra-uterine disease. Of the 116 patients (17.7%) with evidence of extra-uterine disease, 31.0% had an elevated CA-125 level. On univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, only preoperative CA-125 level, but no other preoperative clinical characteristics were found to be associated with extra-uterine spread of disease. Utilizing a cutoff point of 30 U/ml achieved a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 31.0, 88.5, 36.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Elevated CA-125 above 30 U/ml in patients with apparent early-stage disease is a risk factor for the presence of extra-uterine disease and may assist clinicians in the management of patients with clinical Stage I endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  10. GPON system with user controlled port-ID assignment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    2008-11-01

    Passive Optical Network (PON) system with characters of low-cost and high-efficiency has become a promising solution for access network in relieving the bandwidth bottleneck problem. PON system can provide high-speed optical subscriber networks with broad bandwidth and long distance transmission. In current telecommunication carriers' PON system, different service has its given priority which is configured by carriers based on common requirements. However, different users have their own requirement and inflexibility of the given default service priority causes users' inconvenience and frustration. In this paper, we propose a novel method of user controlled Port-IDentifier (Port-ID) assignment in a Gigabit-capable PON (GPON) system. This method provides users a more individualized priority determination mechanism for end users through assigning a multi-level Port-ID to different service. Then users can manage their own bandwidth based on their requirements for different service and carriers can provide a flexible service management mechanism.

  11. Using a digital storytelling assignment to teach public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Levesque, Salem

    2017-10-29

    The need and expectation for advocacy is central to public health nursing practice. Advocacy efforts that effectively call attention to population health threats and promote the well-being of communities rely on strategies that deliver influential messaging. The digital story is a lay method to capture meaningful, impactful stories that can be used to advocate for public health concerns. Readily available, user-friendly digital technologies allow engagement in digital media production to create digital stories. This paper describes how digital story making can be utilized as an academic assignment to teach public health advocacy within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Providing nursing students this artistic outlet can facilitate meeting academic learning goals, while also equipping them with creative skills that can be applied in future professional practice. Nursing educators can take advantage of institutional resources and campus culture to support the use of novel digital media assignments that facilitate application of advocacy concepts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A neural network approach to dynamic task assignment of multirobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anmin; Yang, Simon X

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, a neural network approach to task assignment, based on a self-organizing map (SOM), is proposed for a multirobot system in dynamic environments subject to uncertainties. It is capable of dynamically controlling a group of mobile robots to achieve multiple tasks at different locations, so that the desired number of robots will arrive at every target location from arbitrary initial locations. In the proposed approach, the robot motion planning is integrated with the task assignment, thus the robots start to move once the overall task is given. The robot navigation can be dynamically adjusted to guarantee that each target location has the desired number of robots, even under uncertainties such as when some robots break down. The proposed approach is capable of dealing with changing environments. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulation studies.

  13. Optimal assignment of workers to supporting services in a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawik, Bartosz; Mikulik, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Supporting services play an important role in health care institutions such as hospitals. This paper presents an application of operations research model for optimal allocation of workers among supporting services in a public hospital. The services include logistics, inventory management, financial management, operations management, medical analysis, etc. The optimality criterion of the problem is to minimize operations costs of supporting services subject to some specific constraints. The constraints represent specific conditions for resource allocation in a hospital. The overall problem is formulated as an integer program in the literature known as the assignment problem, where the decision variables represent the assignment of people to various jobs. The results of some computational experiments modeled on a real data from a selected Polish hospital are reported.

  14. ERROR ANALYSIS ON INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ SENTENCE WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rentauli Mariah Silalahi

    2015-01-01

    Students’ error analysis is very important for helping EFL teachers to develop their teaching materials, assessments and methods. However, it takes much time and effort from the teachers to do such an error analysis towards their students’ language. This study seeks to identify the common errors made by 1 class of 28 freshmen students studying English in their first semester in an IT university. The data is collected from their writing assignments for eight consecutive weeks. The errors found...

  15. Impact of a health literacy assignment on student pharmacist learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aleda M H; Noureldin, Marwa; Plake, Kimberly S

    2013-01-01

    The average American adult reads at the 8th grade level while most written health information materials, including medication guides, are written at the 12th grade level. To assist students with health literacy-sensitive communication, pharmacy schools should incorporate educational activities addressing health literacy competencies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of a health literacy assignment on student pharmacists' perceptions of: 1) learning about health literacy; 2) ability to write health literacy level-appropriate patient education material; and 3) the use of these skills in future pharmacy practice. Third professional year student pharmacists were asked to rewrite a patient medication information sheet at the 5th grade reading level, altering it from the 12th grade level. Following assignment completion, students responded to a 4-item open-ended questionnaire on what they learned from the activity, what information components were the most difficult to rewrite and reason for the difficulty, key strategies to accomplish the assignment, and their perception of the impact this assignment had on their future practice. Content analysis of the reflections was performed using QSR NVivo to identify themes grounded in the students' responses. Reflections were completed in 2009 (n = 159) and 2010 (n = 144), for a total of 303 completed reflections. Predominant themes included greater understanding about the challenges, importance, and methods of health literacy level-appropriate communication and greater awareness of the role of pharmacists in presenting information clearly to patients. Students indicated the activity increased their understanding of the complexity of patient information, the educational needs of patients, and the importance of providing information that is understandable. Student pharmacists learned methods of effective communication with patients and should be better prepared to communicate in a health literacy

  16. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    responsible for its safe custody. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment...the technique used. As a precaution , such techniques are generally referred to as suboptimal. As mentioned above, an exact solution can only be...Skovde, Sweden, 2010. [5] K. C. Jha, “Very Large-Scale Neighborhood Search Heuristics for Combinatorial Optimization Problems,” University of Florida

  17. Linear Optimization of Frequency Spectrum Assignments Across System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    selection tools, frequency allocation, transmission optimization , electromagnetic maneuver warfare, electronic protection, assignment model 15. NUMBER...bound of start time, upper bound of end time, and duration of transmission . The system capabilities are presented to the optimization model using...made that overlap in frequency, as shown in line 2 of Table 1. Do Not Transmit frequencies will be unavailable for any transmissions and these will

  18. Evoked Feelings, Assigned Meanings and Constructed Knowledge Based on Mistakes

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Guimarães Batistella Bianchini; Mario Sergio Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    By means of Piaget's critical clinical method, the study investigated the meanings assigned to mistakes by four students in different activities and interactive situations. The research also analyzed the results of using self-regulatory situations in understanding mistakes initially committed by the students. Data collection instruments consisted of games, video recordings, diaries and interviews. Following intervention, the students were able to recognize their competence, establish positive...

  19. Reparation demands and collective guilt assignment of black South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, K; Waldzus, S.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000390584400002 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The present research studied reparation demands of born-free Black South African adolescents as members of a former victimized group from a social psychological perspective. Two cross-sectional studies tested whether identification indirectly predicts reparation demands via assignment of collective guilt to White South Africans; and whether this indirect relation is moderated by cross-group friendship. The results support both hypotheses an...

  20. Project Assignments When Budget Padding Taints Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Arya; Brian Mittendorf

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that rotation programs can be an effective response to concerns of employee budget padding. Rotation programs naturally create a "portfolio" of assignments for each manager, and the resulting diversification can reduce the downside of resource rationing. In particular, the production versus rents trade-off linked with adverse selection problems can be more efficiently carried out when the firm faces two managers with average information advantages, rather than one with a larg...

  1. A new genetic representation for quadratic assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new genetic encoding for well known Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP. The new encoding schemes are implemented with appropriate objective function and modified genetic operators. The numerical experiments were carried out on the standard QAPLIB data sets known from the literature. The presented results show that in all cases proposed genetic algorithm reached known optimal solutions in reasonable time.

  2. A Fourier space algorithm for solving quadratic assignment problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kondor, Risi

    2010-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is a central problem in combinatorial optimization. Several famous computationally hard tasks, such as graph matching, partitioning, and the traveling salesman all reduce to special cases of the QAP. In this paper we propose a new approach to the QAP based on the theory of non–commutative Fourier analysis on the symmetric group. Specifically, we present a branch–and–bound algorithm that performs both the branching and the bound...

  3. Molecular cloning and chromosome assignment of murine N-ras.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, J.; Hart, C.P.; Ruddle, F H

    1984-01-01

    The murine N-ras gene was cloned by screening an EMBL-3 recombinant phage library with a human N-ras specific probe. Hybridization of two separate unique sequence N-ras probes, isolated from the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the murine gene, to a mouse-Chinese hamster hybrid mapping panel assigns the N-ras locus to mouse chromosome three.

  4. Planning German Army helicopter maitenance and mission assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Sgaslik, Achim

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. German Army light helicopter transportation regiments operate 45 Bell UH-1D helicopters to support demanding missions throughout Europe. Maintenance period scheduling, major exercise and regular mission assignment decisions directly influence the readiness of the helicopter fleet. Currently, all planning is done manually, which is unstructured and time consuming. This thesis describes a decision support system designed to assist with mai...

  5. Assigning ethical weights to clinical signs observed during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Joakim; Törnqvist, Elin; Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina; Öberg, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of laboratory animals used and refining experimental procedures to enhance animal welfare are fundamental questions to be considered in connection with animal experimentation. Here, we explored the use of cardinal ethical weights for clinical signs and symptoms in rodents by conducting trade-off interviews with members of Swedish Animal Ethics Committees in order to derive such weights for nine typical clinical signs of toxicity. The participants interviewed represent researchers, politically nominated political nominees and representatives of animal welfare organizations. We observed no statistically significant differences between these groups with respect to the magnitude of the ethical weights assigned, though the political nominees tended to assign lower weights. Overall, hunched posture was considered the most severe clinical sign and body weight loss the least severe. The ethical weights assigned varied considerably between individuals, from zero to infinite value, indicating discrepancies in prioritization of reduction and refinement. Cardinal ethical weights may be utilized to include both animal welfare refinement and reduction of animal use in designing as well as in retrospective assessment of animal experiments. Such weights may also be used to estimate ethical costs of animal experiments.

  6. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  7. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  9. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  10. Complete NMR Assignment of Succinimide and Its Detection and Quantification in Peptides and Intact Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Regl, Christof; Wildner, Sabrina; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Huber, Christian G; Cabrele, Chiara; Schubert, Mario

    2017-11-21

    Detecting and quantifying post-translational modifications (PTMs) in full-length proteins is a challenge, especially in the case of spontaneously occurring, nonenzymatic PTMs. Such a PTM is the formation of succinimide (Snn) in a protein that occurs spontaneously in prone primary sequences and leads typically to an equilibrium between Snn and its hydrolysis products isoaspartate (isoAsp) and aspartate. In order to detect these modifications in proteins by NMR spectroscopy, chemical shift assignments of reference compounds are required. We used peptide synthesis and 2D NMR spectroscopy to assign all 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts of Snn and isoAsp and found characteristic chemical shift correlations. To provide chemical shift reference data suitable for comparison with data of denatured proteins, we repeated the assignment in 7 M urea (pH 2.3) and in DMSO. Most characteristic of Snn are the two downfield shifted carbonyl chemical shifts, the chemical shift correlations of Cβ-Hβ of Snn and Cα-Hα of the succeeding residue which are clearly distinct from random coil chemical shift correlations. The characteristic 2D NMR fingerprints of Snn were used to detect and quantify this PTM in the model protein lysozyme, the biotherapeutic filgrastim, and the Fc part of immunoglobulin G1. Mass spectrometry (MS) was applied as an additional independent method. The orthogonality of the NMR and MS techniques allows cross-validation, which is especially important to search for subtle PTMs in proteins. Studying PTMs by NMR spectroscopy is a promising method to analyze proteins and peptides from natural sources, recombinant expression, or chemical synthesis.

  11. Automatic assignment of prokaryotic genes to functional categories using literature profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Torrieri

    Full Text Available In the last years, there was an exponential increase in the number of publicly available genomes. Once finished, most genome projects lack financial support to review annotations. A few of these gene annotations are based on a combination of bioinformatics evidence, however, in most cases, annotations are based solely on sequence similarity to a previously known gene, which was most probably annotated in the same way. As a result, a large number of predicted genes remain unassigned to any functional category despite the fact that there is enough evidence in the literature to predict their function. We developed a classifier trained with term-frequency vectors automatically disclosed from text corpora of an ensemble of genes representative of each functional category of the J. Craig Venter Institute Comprehensive Microbial Resource (JCVI-CMR ontology. The classifier achieved up to 84% precision with 68% recall (for confidence≥0.4, F-measure 0.76 (recall and precision equally weighted in an independent set of 2,220 genes, from 13 bacterial species, previously classified by JCVI-CMR into unambiguous categories of its ontology. Finally, the classifier assigned (confidence≥0.7 to functional categories a total of 5,235 out of the ∼24 thousand genes previously in categories "Unknown function" or "Unclassified" for which there is literature in MEDLINE. Two biologists reviewed the literature of 100 of these genes, randomly picket, and assigned them to the same functional categories predicted by the automatic classifier. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to confidently assign genes of a real world repository to functional categories, based exclusively on the automatic profiling of its associated literature. The LitProf--Gene Classifier web server is accessible at: www.cebio.org/litprofGC.

  12. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Karin; Uddling, Jonas; Hursti, Timo

    2017-01-26

    Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02895308 . Retrospectively registered 30 August 2016.

  13. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal O. Olusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  15. ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF EXISTING SOLUTION METHODS OF QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza KARAMI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP is known as one of the most difficult combinatorial optimization problems that is classified in the category of NP-hard problems. Quadratic Assignment Problem Library (QAPLIB is a full database of QAPs which contains several problems from different authors and different sizes. Many exact and meta-heuristic solution methods have been introduced to solve QAP. In this study we focus on previously introduced solution methods of QAP e.g. Branch and Bound (B&B, Simulated Annealing (SA Algorithm, Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP for dense and sparse QAPs. The codes of FORTRAN for these methods were downloaded from QAPLIB. All problems of QAPLIB were solved by the abovementioned methods. Several results were obtained from the computational experiments part. The Results show that the Branch and Bound method is able to introduce a feasible solution for all problems while Simulated Annealing Algorithm and GRASP methods are not able to find any solution for some problems. On the other hand, Simulated Annealing and GRASP methods have shorter run time comparing to the Branch and Bound method. In addition, the performance of the methods on the objective function value is discussed.

  16. Adaptive client to mirrored-server assignment for massively multiplayer online games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steven Daniel; Soh, Sieteng

    2008-01-01

    The Mirrored Server (MS) architecture for network games uses multiple mirrored servers across multiple locations to alleviate the bandwidth bottleneck and to reduce the client-to-server delay time. Response time in MS can be reduced by optimally assigning clients to their mirrors. The goal of optimal client-to-mirror-assignment (CMA) is to achieve the minimum average client-to-mirror delay considering player joins (CMA-J) and leaves (CMA-L), and mirrors with limited capacity. The existing heuristic solution considers only CMA-J, and thus the average delay of the remaining players may increase when one or more players leave. Furthermore, the solution ignores mirror capacity, which may overload mirrors. In this paper we present a resource usage model for the MS architecture, and formally state the CMA problem. For both CMA-J and CMA-L we propose a polynomial time optimal solution and a faster heuristic algorithm that obtains near optimal CMA. Our simulations on randomly generated MS topologies show that our algorithms significantly reduce the average delay of the existing solution. We also compare the merits of the solutions in terms of their optimality and running time efficiency.

  17. Unpacking the Treatment Contrast in the Head Start Impact Study: To What Extent Does Assignment to Treatment Affect Quality of Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    Attending high-quality early childhood care and education (ECCE) is associated with higher cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for children growing up in poverty, but access to high-quality ECCE is limited. This study capitalizes on the random assignment design of the Head Start Impact Study to better understand whether the…

  18. Treatment assignment guesses by study participants in a double-blind dose escalation clinical trial of saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320 mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320 mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320 mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto.

  19. Computer-Assisted Delivery of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Addiction: A Randomized Trial of CBT4CBT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Melissa A; Nuro, Kathryn F; Ball, Samuel A; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Portnoy, Galina A

    2008-01-01

    ...) for substance dependence. Method: This was a randomized clinical trial in which 77 individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence at an outpatient community setting were randomly assigned to standard treatment or standard...

  20. Primary visual cortex activity along the apparent-motion trace reflects illusory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Muckli

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The illusion of apparent motion can be induced when visual stimuli are successively presented at different locations. It has been shown in previous studies that motion-sensitive regions in extrastriate cortex are relevant for the processing of apparent motion, but it is unclear whether primary visual cortex (V1 is also involved in the representation of the illusory motion path. We investigated, in human subjects, apparent-motion-related activity in patches of V1 representing locations along the path of illusory stimulus motion using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Here we show that apparent motion caused a blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response along the V1 representations of the apparent-motion path, including regions that were not directly activated by the apparent-motion-inducing stimuli. This response was unaltered when participants had to perform an attention-demanding task that diverted their attention away from the stimulus. With a bistable motion quartet, we confirmed that the activity was related to the conscious perception of movement. Our data suggest that V1 is part of the network that represents the illusory path of apparent motion. The activation in V1 can be explained either by lateral interactions within V1 or by feedback mechanisms from higher visual areas, especially the motion-sensitive human MT/V5 complex.

  1. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  2. Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Program in Obese Infertile Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, Meike A. Q.; van Oers, Anne M.; Groen, Henk; Burggraaff, Jan M.; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Perquin, Denise A. M.; Koks, Carolien A. M.; van Golde, Ron; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Schierbeek, Jaap M.; Oosterhuis, Gerrit J. E.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, Marieke F. G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Klijn, Nicole F.; Mercelina, Patricia E. A. M.; van Kasteren, Yvonne M.; Nap, Annemiek W.; Brinkhuis, Egbert A.; Vogel, Niels E. A.; Mulder, Robert J. A. B.; Gondrie, Ed T. C. M.; de Bruin, Jan P.; Sikkema, J. Marko; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Land, Jolande A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small lifestyle-intervention studies suggest that modest weight loss increases the chance of conception and may improve perinatal outcomes, but large randomized, controlled trials are lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned infertile women with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms

  3. Effectiveness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2014-10-01

    The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men. A total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=20) or a control group (n=20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. ANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (Pfunctional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P=0.031) in the CTG. Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. The effect of additional ankle and midfoot mobilizations on plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashua, Anat; Flechter, Shlomo; Avidan, Liat; Ofir, Dani; Melayev, Alex; Kalichman, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    A single-blind randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the efficacy of ankle and midfoot mobilization on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis (PF). Plantar fasciitis is a degenerative process of the plantar fascia, with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 10%. Limited ankle dorsiflexion is a common finding and apparently acts as a contributing factor to the development of PF. Fifty patients with PF, aged 23 to 73 years, were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Both groups received 8 treatments, twice a week, consisting of stretching exercises and ultrasound. In addition, the intervention group received mobilization of the ankle and midfoot joints. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. The results were evaluated by 3 outcomes: the numeric pain-rating scale, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and algometry. No significant difference was found between groups in any of the outcomes. Both groups showed a significant difference in the numeric pain-rating scale and Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Both groups significantly improved in dorsiflexion range of motion, with no difference between groups. The addition of ankle and foot joint mobilization aimed at improving dorsiflexion range of motion is not more effective than stretching and ultrasound alone in treating PF. The association between limited ankle dorsiflexion and PF is most probably due to soft tissue limitations, not the joints. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number NCT01439932). Therapy, level 1b.

  5. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  6. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Sayre, Peter H; Bahnson, Henry T; Radulovic, Suzana; Santos, Alexandra F; Brough, Helen A; Phippard, Deborah; Basting, Monica; Feeney, Mary; Turcanu, Victor; Sever, Michelle L; Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita; Plaut, Marshall; Lack, Gideon

    2015-02-26

    The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in Western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. We evaluated strategies of peanut consumption and avoidance to determine which strategy is most effective in preventing the development of peanut allergy in infants at high risk for the allergy. We randomly assigned 640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. Participants, who were at least 4 months but younger than 11 months of age at randomization, were assigned to separate study cohorts on the basis of preexisting sensitivity to peanut extract, which was determined with the use of a skin-prick test--one consisting of participants with no measurable wheal after testing and the other consisting of those with a wheal measuring 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The primary outcome, which was assessed independently in each cohort, was the proportion of participants with peanut allergy at 60 months of age. Among the 530 infants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had negative results on the skin-prick test, the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (Pwheal on the skin-prick test and a lower ratio of peanut-specific IgG4:IgE were associated with peanut allergy. The early introduction of peanuts significantly decreased the frequency of the development of peanut allergy among children at high risk for this allergy and modulated immune responses to peanuts. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00329784.).

  7. A note on Harold S. Diehl, randomization, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, L A

    1997-04-01

    Harold S. Diehl and coworkers published results from a remarkable trial on the efficacy of vaccines for the common cold in 1938. The original report states that patients were assigned to treatment and control groups "at random." Diehl's study has been referred to as one of the first instances of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. No description of a formal randomization scheme is given in the 1938 report and an unpublished paper of Diehl's suggests the use of alternate assignment in the study.

  8. Random dynamical systems, entropies and information

    CERN Document Server

    Serva, M

    1999-01-01

    Prediction of events is the challenge in many different disciplines, from meteorology to finance; the more this task is difficult, the more a system is general consensus on what should be the correct indicator for complexity is still not reached. In particular, this characterization is still lacking for systems whose time evolution is influenced by factors which are not under control and appear as random parameters or random noise. We show in this paper how to find the correct indicators for complexity in the information theory context. The crucial point is that the answer is twofold depending on the fact that the random parameters are measurable or not. The content of this apparently trivial observation has been often ignored in literature leading to paradoxical results. Predictability is obviously larger when the random parameters are measurable, nevertheless, in the contrary case, predictability improves when the unknown random parameters are time correlated.

  9. Inspection of Forrestal parking permit allocation and assignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-16

    The purpose of this inspection was to review the process cr allocating and assigning parking permits at the Forrestal building. Specifically, we sought to determine the roles and responsibilities of Department of Energy (DOE) officials involved in the administration of the Forrestal parking permit process during the period June 1, 1991 to February 1, 1992. We also sought to determine if the allocation and assignment of Forrestal building parking spaces was implemented in accordance with Federal and DOE requirements. For our review, we interviewed the Headquarters officials involved in the administration of the parking permit allocation and assignment process. We also reviewed parking permit files and associated documentation for the period June 1, 1991 through February 1, 1992. In addition, we conducted a limited sampling of parking permits that were revoked during July and August 1991 to assess if they were processed in compliance with applicable regulations. We found no evidence that the actions by the Special Assistant to the Secretary (White House Liaison) and the other members of the parking committee regarding the issuance and revocation of parking permits were for any reason other than a desire to ensure that only individuals having a legitimate basis for a parking permit were issued a permit. However, we found that decisions by the parking committee regarding revocation of permits and appeals of revocation decisions were not always documented, nor were there written guidelines or procedures to govern the activities of the committee. In our view, the lack of written guidelines and procedures resulted in the use of invalidated personal knowledge by the parking committee in making decisions involving the revocation of parking permits and led to inconsistencies in the notification of individuals about the associated appeal process.

  10. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Coddington

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%. Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5% occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However

  11. A Survey of the Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    When transmitting data in an all-optical network, data connections must be established in such a way that two or more connections never share a wavelength on the same fi ber. The NP-hard Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem consists of finding paths and wavelengths for a set of data co...... connections. This survey introduces the RWA and gives an overview of heuristic, metaheuristic and exact solution methods from the literature. Running times for the heuristic methods are presented and computational results are discussed....

  12. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect. The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

  13. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction.

  14. Enhanced Broadcasting and Code Assignment in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfang Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A CDMA-based mobile Ad Hoc networks face two main design challenges. One is to periodically update connectivity information, namely, neighboring nodes and the codes used by neighboring nodes. The other is to guarantee that there is no code collision in two hops' distance. This paper proposes an enhanced time-spread broadcasting schedule for connectivity information update. Based on the connectivity information, a code assignment and potential code collision resolution scheme to solve hidden/exposed nodes problem is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  15. Spectrum Assignment Algorithm for Cognitive Machine-to-Machine Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Rostami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel aggregation-based spectrum assignment algorithm for Cognitive Machine-To-Machine (CM2M networks is proposed. The introduced algorithm takes practical constraints including interference to the Licensed Users (LUs, co-channel interference (CCI among CM2M devices, and Maximum Aggregation Span (MAS into consideration. Simulation results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms State-Of-The-Art (SOTA algorithms in terms of spectrum utilisation and network capacity. Furthermore, the convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm verifies its high convergence rate.

  16. Modelling Framework for Dynamic Multiclass Traffic Assignment in ITS Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of flexible traffic control, pre-trip, on-trip,guidance and other ITS services require considerable researchtoward the development of appropriate methodological frameworkand tools. In this paper, adapted modelling framework fordynamic mu/tic/ass traffic assignment (DMTA in ITS environmentis proposed and elaborated. DMTA system uses trafficdata associated with three backdrops: time, space and defined"user classes". The proposed structure of DMTA system includesmodules for 0-D estimation and prediction, real-timenetwork state simulation, consistency checking, updating functions,resetting functions. The methodological tools for solvingDMTA problems include combination of mathematical programming,simulation and heuristic methods.

  17. Spectral assignments of new diterpenes from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2004-12-01

    The structural characterization of two new abietanes and a new spiro-fused tricyclic diterpene isolated from the roots of Hyptis martiusii is described. The first member of a new class of rearranged abietane diterpenoids designated martiusane was characterized by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). Unambiguous 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments for all compounds are reported. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Nieto-Wire

    2011-01-01

    assignment designs for the ICE aircraft, we consider the phugoid mode, thrust vectoring, and stability margins. We show how to simultaneously stabilize the phugoid mode, satisfy MIL-F-8785C mode specifications, and satisfy MIL-F-9490D phase and gain margin specifications. We also use a cstar command system that is preferable to earlier pitch-rate command systems. Finally, we present simulation results of the combined longitudinal/lateral flight control system using a full 6DOF nonlinear simulation with approximately 20,000 values for the aerodynamic coefficients. Our simulation includes limiters on actuator deflections, deflection rates, and control system integrators.

  19. Restart-Based Genetic Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misevicius, Alfonsas

    The power of genetic algorithms (GAs) has been demonstrated for various domains of the computer science, including combinatorial optimization. In this paper, we propose a new conceptual modification of the genetic algorithm entitled a "restart-based genetic algorithm" (RGA). An effective implementation of RGA for a well-known combinatorial optimization problem, the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), is discussed. The results obtained from the computational experiments on the QAP instances from the publicly available library QAPLIB show excellent performance of RGA. This is especially true for the real-life like QAPs.

  20. Some insights on hard quadratic assignment problem instances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Mohamed Saifullah

    2017-11-01

    Since the formal introduction of metaheuristics, a huge number Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) instances have been introduced. Those instances however are loosely-structured, and therefore made it difficult to perform any systematic analysis. The QAPLIB for example, is a library that contains a huge number of QAP benchmark instances that consists of instances with different size and structure, but with a very limited availability for every instance type. This prevents researchers from performing organized study on those instances, such as parameter tuning and testing. In this paper, we will discuss several hard instances that have been introduced over the years, and algorithms that have been used for solving them.