Castro, Cynthia M.; Pruitt, Leslie A.; Buman, Matthew P.; King, Abby C.
Background Older adults have low rates of physical activity participation but respond positively to telephone-mediated support programs. Programs are often limited by reliance on professional staff. This study tested telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff versus trained volunteer peer mentors. Design A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was executed from 2003–2008. Setting/participants: Twelve volunteer peer mentors and 181 initially inactive adults ages 50 years and older were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Intervention Participants were randomized to: (1) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff, (2) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by trained volunteer peers, or (3) an attention-control arm of staff-delivered telephone support for nutrition. Main Outcome Measures: Moderate-intensity or more vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months with the CHAMPS Questionnaire, with accelerometry validation (Actigraph) in a randomly selected subsample. Treatment fidelity was examined through analysis of quantity and quality of intervention delivery. Results At 6 and 12 months, both physical activity arms significantly increased MVPA relative to the control arm. Both physical activity arms were comparable in quantity of intervention delivery, but peers demonstrated more versatility and comprehensiveness in quality of intervention content. Conclusions This study demonstrates that trained peer volunteers can effectively promote physical activity increases through telephone-based advice. The results support a program delivery model with good dissemination potential for a variety of community settings. PMID:21553972
Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika
Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.
Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Newton, Robert U; Warburton, Jeni; Jackson, Ben
A growing evidence base demonstrates that interventions that focus on participation in physical and social activities can assist in preventing and treating both physical and mental health problems. In addition, there is some evidence that engaging in volunteering activities can provide beneficial social, physical, psychological, and cognitive outcomes for older people. This study will use a randomized controlled trial approach to investigate the potential for interventions involving volunteer activities to produce positive physical and psychological outcomes for older people, thereby contributing to the limited evidence relating to the potential for volunteering to provide multiple health effects. This randomized controlled trial will involve 400 retired/non-employed individuals in good health aged 60+ years living in the metropolitan area in Perth, Western Australia. Participants will be recruited from the Perth metropolitan area using a variety of recruitment methods to achieve a diverse sample in terms of age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Consenting and eligible participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 200) or control group (n = 200). Those in the intervention group will be asked to engage in a minimum 60 min of volunteer activities per week for a period of 6 months, while those in the control group will be asked to maintain their existing lifestyle or take on new activities as they see fit. Physical and psychological outcomes will be assessed. Primary physical outcomes will include physical activity and sedentary time (measured using pedometers and Actigraph monitors) and physical health (measured using a battery of physical functioning tests, resting heart rate, blood pressure, BMI, and girth). Primary psychological outcomes will include psychological well-being, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life (measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the
Dhonneur, Gilles; Combes, Xavier; Chassard, Didier; Merle, Jean Claude
Prick tests are frequently used for the authentication of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) as causative drugs for anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. Unfortunately, the actual threshold concentration for skin testing remains debatable for most NMBDs. We studied the flare and wheal responses to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium. Thirty healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers (14 men and 16 women) from 18 to 40 yr of age were assigned randomly to receive a total of 10 prick tests-4 ascending dilutions (1:1000, 1:100, 1:10, and 1) of rocuronium and vecuronium and 2 controls-on both forearms. An assessor blinded to the assignment monitored systemic and skin responses to NMBDs and measured wheal and flare surfaces immediately after and 15 min after prick tests. None of the volunteers experienced any immediate systemic or cutaneous responses to rocuronium or vecuronium. Although a dilution of 1:1000 of both NMBDs failed to promote any skin response at 15 min, 50% and 40% of the subjects had a positive skin reaction to undiluted rocuronium and vecuronium, respectively. We demonstrated a sex effect related to smaller threshold concentration-induced cutaneous reactions in female volunteers to both muscle relaxants. Our observation questions the reliability of prick testing with undiluted solutions of rocuronium and vecuronium for the diagnosis of allergy. Building concentration-skin response curves to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium in healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers demonstrated that the nonreactive concentration for both muscle relaxants is the 1:1000 dilution of the stock solutions. Our observation calls into question the past practice of prick-testing skin for sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs by using undiluted solutions.
Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Adrian Kastler,4 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Bruno Pereira,5 Romain Valabrègue,6 Stéphane Lehericy,6 Louis Boyer,4,7 Claude Dubray,1–3 Betty Jean4 1CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Centre d’Investigation Clinique – Inserm 1405, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, Service d’Imagerie Ostéo-articulaire thoracique et neurologique, 5CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique et à l’Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 6Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere – ICM, Centre de NeuroImagerie de Recherche CENIR, Inserm U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris, Paris, France, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; 7UMR CNRS UdA 6284, Clemont-Ferrand, France Background: Paracetamol’s (APAP mechanism of action suggests the implication of supraspinal structures but no neuroimaging study has been performed in humans.Methods and results: This randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 17 healthy volunteers (NCT01562704 aimed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. We used behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli with APAP or placebo administration. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that activity in response to noxious stimulation diminished with APAP compared to placebo in prefrontal cortices, insula, thalami, anterior cingulate cortex, and periaqueductal gray matter.Conclusion: These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of APAP on spinothalamic tracts leading to a decreased activation of higher structures, and a top-down influence on descending inhibition. Further binding and connectivity studies are needed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain, especially in the context of repeated
Grubben, M J; Boers, G H; Blom, H J; Broekhuizen, R; de Jong, R; van Rijt, L; de Ruijter, E; Swinkels, D W; Nagengast, F M; Katan, M B
An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover trial. We used unfiltered coffee so as to include the possible effects of coffee diterpenes, which are removed by filtering. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (31 men and 33 women) with a mean (+/-SD) age of 43 +/- 11 y were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One group (n = 30) drank 1 L unfiltered cafetière (French press) coffee daily for 2 wk. Such coffee is rich in the cholesterol-raising diterpenes kahweol and cafestol. The other group (n = 34) received water, milk, broth, tea, and chocolate drinks instead of coffee. After a washout period of 8 wk, both groups received the alternate intervention for another 2 wk. Consumption of 1 L unfiltered coffee/d for 2 wk significantly raised fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations by 10%, from 12.8 to 14.0 micromol/L. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in volunteers with normal initial concentrations. It is unclear whether the effect is caused by the cholesterol-raising diterpenes present exclusively in unfiltered coffee or by factors that are also present in filtered coffee.
Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.
This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834
Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance
Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith
Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric t...
Jovanović, Dusan; Kilibarda, Vesna; Cirić, Biljana; Vucinić, Slavica; Srnić, Danica; Vehabović, Midhad; Potogija, Nermina
Because of its systemic action, fluconazole is prescribed for a variety of fungal infections. However, therapeutic failure might result when a patient is switched between an innovator drug and a nonbioequivalent generic formulation. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies investigating the bioequivalence of generic and innovator drugs can minimize such risks. The aim of this study was to compare the PK profiles and relative bioavailabilities of 2 oral formulations of fluconazole: Diflucan (reference; Pfizer Corporation Austria GmbH, Wien, Austria) and Funzol (test; Bosnalijek d.d., Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industry, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), both prepared as capsules containing 150 mg of active drug. A single oral dose of fluconazole was given under fasting conditions to healthy, white volunteers aged 18 to 55 years in this open-label, randomized, crossover study. A 3-week washout period was applied between each of the 2 doses. Serum samples were obtained before dosing and at various time points after dosing up to 144 hours and were analyzed for fluconazole concentration using a high-performance liquid chromatography-UV method. PK parameters representing the extent (AUC(0-infinity)) and rate (CmaX and T(max)) of absorption of fluconazole were obtained. An analysis of variance, a power analysis, 90% CI, and two 1-sided tests were used for statistical analysis of relative differences between the 2 drugs. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were between 0.80 and 1.25. A study investigator monitored the volunteers for adverse effects at 5 defined time points during the clinical part of the investigation. Thirteen men and 11 women (mean age, 33.3 years; mean weight, 73.6 kg) completed the study. The respective point estimates of the ratios of geometric means of log-transformed C(max) and AUC0(0-infinity) of fluconazole (test vs reference) were 0.985 and 1.047, with 90% CIs of 0.894 to 1.085 and 0
Chan, Aileen Wk; Yu, Doris Sf; Choi, K C
To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. "Hidden elderly" is a term used to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. This pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 48 older adults aged 60 or above who did not engage in any social activity. They were randomized into tai chi qigong (n=24) and standard care control (n=24) groups. The former group underwent a three-month program of two 60-minute sessions each week, with the socially active volunteers paired up with them during practice. Standard care included regular home visits by social workers. Primary outcomes were assessed by means of the Lubben social network and De Jong Gieveld loneliness scales, and by a revised social support questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were covered by a mental health inventory and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and quality of life by using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data was collected at baseline, and at three and six months thereafter. The generalized estimating equations model revealed general improvement in outcomes among participants on the tai chi qigong program. In particular, participants reported a significantly greater improvement on the loneliness scale (B=-1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.54 to -0.11, P=0.033) and the satisfaction component of the social support questionnaire (B=3.43, 95% CI 0.10-6.76, P=0.044) than the control group. The pilot study confirmed that tai chi qigong with elderly neighborhood volunteers is a safe and feasible social intervention for hidden elderly. Its potential benefits in improving social and psychological health suggest the need for a full-scale randomized controlled trial to reveal its empirical effects.
Koene, Saskia; Spaans, Edwin; Van Bortel, Luc; Van Lancker, Griet; Delafontaine, Brant; Badilini, Fabio; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan
Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of multi-system diseases, with an unmet medical need for treatment. KH176 is an orally bio-available small molecule under development for the treatment of mitochondrial(-related) diseases. The compound is a member of a new class of drugs, acting as a potent intracellular redox-modulating agent essential for the control of oxidative and redox pathologies. The aim of this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded phase 1 study was to test safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of KH176 in healthy male volunteers. Putative effects on redox related biomarkers were explored. KH176 was well tolerated up to and including a single dose of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. for 7 Days. However, when the QT interval was corrected for heart rate, administration of single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and at a multiple dose of 400 mg KH176 had marked effects. Post-hoc analysis of the ECGs showed clear changes in cardiac electrophysiology at single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d.. At lower doses, detailed ECG analysis showed no changes in electrophysiology compared to placebo. Exposure-response modelling of the cardiac intervals revealed an exposure range of KH176 without effects on cardiac conduction and provided a threshold of 1000 ng/mL above which changes in intervals could occur. After single- and multiple-dose administration, the pharmacokinetics of KH176 was more than dose proportional. KH176 accumulated to a small extent and food only slightly affected the pharmacokinetics of KH176, which was considered clinically irrelevant. Renal excretion of unchanged KH176 and its metabolite represents a minor pathway in the elimination of KH176. As expected in healthy volunteers no effects on redox biomarkers were observed. The study deemed that KH176 is well tolerated up to single doses of 800 mg and multiple
Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica
This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
Full Text Available This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i 15 mL VCO or (ii 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC solution (as control, twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females, daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p=0.001 compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H J; Broekhuizen, R; Jong, de, JJA Joost; Rijt, van, L.; Katan, M. B.
Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover trial. We used unfiltered coffee so as to include the possible effects of coffee diterpenes, which are removed by filtering. Design: Sixty-four healthy volunteers (31 men and...
Mondal, Shankar; Varma, Saurabh; Bamola, Vishwa Deepak; Naik, Satya Narayan; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra
Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tulsi leaves through a double-blinded randomized controlled cross-over trial on healthy volunteers. Three hundred milligrams capsules of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tulsi or placebo were administered to 24 healthy volunteers on empty stomach and the results of 22 subjects who completed the study were analyzed. The primary objective was to study the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-4) during both pre and post intervention period in blood culture supernatants following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and phytohaemagglutinin. Other immunological parameters such as T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells also were analyzed using Flowcytometry. Statistically significant increase in the levels of IFN-γ (p=0.039), IL-4 (p=0.001) and percentages of T-helper cells (p=0.001) and NK-cells (p=0.017) were observed after 4 weeks in the Tulsi extract intervention group in contrast to the placebo group. These observations clearly ascertain the immunomodulatory role of Tulsi leaves extract on healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR Purpose: To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. Patients and methods: “Hidden elderly” is a term used to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. This pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 48 older adults aged 60 or above who did not engage in any social activity. They were randomized into tai chi qigong (n=24 and standard care control (n=24 groups. The former group underwent a three-month program of two 60-minute sessions each week, with the socially active volunteers paired up with them during practice. Standard care included regular home visits by social workers. Primary outcomes were assessed by means of the Lubben social network and De Jong Gieveld loneliness scales, and by a revised social support questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were covered by a mental health inventory and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and quality of life by using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data was collected at baseline, and at three and six months thereafter. Results: The generalized estimating equations model revealed general improvement in outcomes among participants on the tai chi qigong program. In particular, participants reported a significantly greater improvement on the loneliness scale (B=-1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.54 to -0.11, P=0.033 and the satisfaction component of the social support questionnaire (B=3.43, 95% CI 0.10–6.76, P=0.044 than the control group. Conclusion: The pilot study confirmed that tai chi qigong with elderly neighborhood volunteers is a safe and feasible social intervention for hidden elderly. Its potential benefits in
Danilo Maciel Carneiro
Full Text Available In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12 that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day, placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day, or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day, separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups’ results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers’ water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.
Chiam, Elizabeth; Weinberg, Laurence; Bailey, Michael; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo
The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol have not been systematically investigated. We compared the physiological effects of intravenous mannitol-containing paracetamol, and an equivalent dosage of mannitol, and normal saline 0.9% in healthy volunteers. We performed a blinded, triple crossover, randomized trial of 24 adult healthy volunteers. Participants received i.v. paracetamol (1 g paracetamol +3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ), i.v. mannitol (3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ) and i.v. normal saline (100 ml). Composite primary end points were changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured pre-infusion, during a 15 min infusion period and over a 45 min observation period. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index were measured at the same time points. Infusion of paracetamol induced a transient yet significant decrease in blood pressures from pre-infusion values (MAP -1.85 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.1, SBP -0.54 mmHg, 95% CI -1.7, 0.6 and DBP -1.92 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.2, P paracetamol caused a transient decrease in blood pressure immediately after infusion. These effects were not seen with mannitol or normal saline. The physiological mechanism was consistent with vasodilatation. This study provides plausible physiological data in a healthy volunteer setting, supporting transient changes in haemodynamic variables with i.v. paracetamol and justifies controlled studies in the peri-operative and critical care setting. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.
Chiam, Elizabeth; Bailey, Michael; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo
Aim The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol have not been systematically investigated. We compared the physiological effects of intravenous mannitol‐containing paracetamol, and an equivalent dosage of mannitol, and normal saline 0.9% in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a blinded, triple crossover, randomized trial of 24 adult healthy volunteers. Participants received i.v. paracetamol (1 g paracetamol +3.91 g mannitol 100 ml–1), i.v. mannitol (3.91 g mannitol 100 ml–1) and i.v. normal saline (100 ml). Composite primary end points were changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured pre‐infusion, during a 15 min infusion period and over a 45 min observation period. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index were measured at the same time points. Results Infusion of paracetamol induced a transient yet significant decrease in blood pressures from pre‐infusion values (MAP –1.85 mmHg, 95% CI –2.6, –1.1, SBP –0.54 mmHg, 95% CI –1.7, 0.6 and DBP −1.92 mmHg, 95% CI –2.6, –1.2, P paracetamol caused a transient decrease in blood pressure immediately after infusion. These effects were not seen with mannitol or normal saline. The physiological mechanism was consistent with vasodilatation. This study provides plausible physiological data in a healthy volunteer setting, supporting transient changes in haemodynamic variables with i.v. paracetamol and justifies controlled studies in the peri‐operative and critical care setting. PMID:26606263
Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T
To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce an information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. We use the probability flow of random walks on a network as a proxy for information flows in the real system and decompose the network into modules by compressing a description of the probability flow. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of >6,000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network-including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine-information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.
In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in
del Pino, Noemí; Oubiña, José Raúl; Rodríguez-Frías, Francisco; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Buti, María; Otero, Teresa; Gregori, Josep; García-Cehic, Damir; Camos, Silvia; Cubero, María; Casillas, Rosario; Guàrdia, Jaume; Esteban, Rafael; Quer, Josep
To study the subtype prevalence and the phylogenetic relatedness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences obtained from the Argentine general population, a large cohort of individuals was analyzed. Healthy Argentinian volunteers (n = 6251) from 12 provinces representing all geographical regions of the country were studied. All parents or legal guardians of individuals younger than 18 years provided informed written consent for participation. The corresponding written permission from all municipal authorities was obtained from each city or town where subjects were to be included. HCV RNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) was used for RNA detection and initial genotype classification. The NS5B polymerase region, encompassing nt 8262-8610, was used for subtyping. An unexpectedly low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population (0.32%) was observed. Our data contrasted with previous studies that reported rates ranging from 1.5% to 2.5%, mainly performed in selected populations of blood donors or vulnerable groups. The latter values are in keeping with the prevalence reported by the 2007 Argentinian HCV Consensus (approximately 2%). HCV subtypes were distributed as follows: 1a (25%), 1b (25%), 2c (25%), 3a (5%), and 2j (5%). Two isolates ascribed either to genotype 1 (5%) or to genotype 3 (5%) by 5'UTR phylogenetic analysis could not be subtyped. Subtype 1a sequences comprised a highly homogeneous population and clustered with United States sequences. Genotype 1b sequences represented a heterogeneous population, suggesting that this genotype might have been introduced from different sources. Most subtype 2c sequences clustered close to the 2c reported from Italy and Southern France. HCV has a low prevalence of 0.32% in the studied general population of Argentina. The pattern of HCV introduction and transmission in Argentina appears to be a consequence of multiple
Barry, James D; Hennessy, Robert; McManus, John G
Several topical therapies have been proposed to treat acute pain from exposure to oleoresin capsaicin (OC). The purpose of this study was to determine the most beneficial topical treatment for relieving contact dermatitis pain caused by OC exposure. We performed a single-blind, randomized human experiment evaluating the effectiveness of five different regimens for the treatment of topical facial OC exposure. Forty-nine volunteer, adult law enforcement trainees were exposed to OC during a routine training exercise and were randomized to one of five treatment groups (aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide [Maalox], 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water). After initial self-decontamination with water, subjects rated their pain using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and then every 10 minutes, for a total of 60 minutes. Subjects were blinded to previous VAS recordings. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) (treatment, time) with repeated measures on one factor (time) was performed using a 1.3-cm difference as clinically significant. Forty-four men and five women, with an average age of 24 years, participated in the study. There was a significant difference in pain with respect to time (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in pain between treatment groups (p > 0.05). In this study, there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared to be the best predictor for decrease in pain.
Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne
BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human....... DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low...
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects of both sexes who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. These 226 subjects were between the ages of 17 and 62 years and 173/226 completed the eight weeks of intervention. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Verbal Aggressiveness was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Verbal Aggressive Scale. Results : The baseline score of the two groups did not differ significantly ( P = 0.66. There was a significant decrease in verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group ( P = 0.01 paired samples t-test with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. ANCOVA using pre- values as covariates showed a significant difference between the groups ( P = 0.013. RMANOVA for interaction between the sexes or age groups in change scores were not significant. Conclusions : This study has demonstrated that an eight week intervention of an integrated yoga module decreased verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (in males and those below 25 years of age, with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group.
Gupta, Samir K; Slaven, James E; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Liu, Ziyue
The HIV NNRTI rilpivirine is being evaluated as a possible agent for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. We have recently shown that the NNRTI efavirenz may impair endothelial function assessed as flow-mediated dilation (FMD), but whether this impairment is also found with rilpivirine is unknown. We sought to compare cardiovascular risk profiles between efavirenz and rilpivirine in healthy volunteers. We performed a prospective, randomized, open-label trial in 40 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers who were randomized 1: 1 to either efavirenz or rilpivirine. Vascular indices, metabolic parameters, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress were measured before and after 4 weeks of treatment. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01585038). There were no significant differences in 4 week mean (SD) changes in FMD between efavirenz and rilpivirine [0.089 (3.65)% versus 0.63 (2.42)%; P = 0.77]. There were also no significant differences in 4 week changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides or homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. However, efavirenz led to significant increases in total cholesterol [19.39 (23.9) versus -5.78 (16.5) mg/dL; P LDL-cholesterol [13.29 (19.5) versus -2.24 (13.4) mg/dL; P = 0.009] and F2-isoprostanes [92.7 (178.6) versus -101.4 (215.7) pg/mL; P = 0.019] compared with rilpivirine. Two participants from each study group discontinued prematurely for adverse events. There were no significant differences in the changes in endothelial function over 1 month between the efavirenz and rilpivirine groups, although efavirenz had worse lipid changes compared with rilpivirine. Longer-term studies are required for confirmation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576
Grubben, M J; Van Den Braak, C C; Broekhuizen, R; De Jong, R; Van Rijt, L; De Ruijter, E; Peters, W H; Katan, M B; Nagengast, F M
Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee use might protect against colorectal cancer. Inconsistencies as to the effect of coffee use and colorectal cancer between epidemiologic studies might be related to the type of coffee brew. We studied the effect of unfiltered coffee consumption on putative biomarkers for colonic cancer risk. A total of 64 healthy volunteers (31 men and 33 women), with a mean age of 43 +/- 11 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design, with two intervention periods of 2 weeks separated by a washout period of 8 weeks. Treatments were 1 L of cafetière (French press) coffee daily or no coffee. At the end of each intervention period, fasting blood samples, colorectal biopsies and 48 h faeces were collected. No effect of coffee on colorectal cell proliferation, assayed by estimating the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen labelling index, was seen. Additionally, no effects were seen on the concentrations of faecal soluble bile acids and colorectal mucosal glutathione S-transferase activity. However, unfiltered coffee significantly increased the glutathione content in the colorectal mucosa by 8% and in plasma by 15%. Other aminothiols in plasma also increased on coffee. Unfiltered coffee does not influence the colorectal mucosal proliferation rate, but might increase the detoxification capacity and anti-mutagenic properties in the colorectal mucosa through an increase in glutathione concentration. Whether this effect indeed contributes to a lower colon cancer risk remains to be established.
Hiroshi M. Ueno
Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress.
Ueno, Hiroshi M; Yoshise, Ran Emilie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kajimoto, Osami; Kobayashi, Toshiya
Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow's milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day) or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress.
Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith
To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80-125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and ARC124910XX at early timepoints.
Background The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks. The aim of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter. Methods In this randomized study 8 male volunteers received a bilateral TAP block (20 mLs 0.5% ropivacaine) and were allocated to receive active infusion (ropivacaine 0.2% 5 mL/hr) via a TAP catheter on one side and placebo infusion on the other side. Primary outcome: Dermatomal sensory block involvement after 24 hours evaluated with pinprick. Secondary outcomes: Sensory block involvement evaluated with cold test and heat-pain detection thresholds (HPDT) on the abdominal wall. Assessment points: 15 min before block performance and 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after block performance. Results The TAP block primarily involved sensory changes in the Th10 to Th12 dermatomes. On the placebo side there was a decrease in extension beginning at 4–8 hours after block performance and with no detectable effect beyond 12 hours. Median number of dermatomes anesthetized (pinprick) at 24 hours after block performance was 1.5 (0–3) on the active side compared with 0 (0–0) on the placebo side (P = 0.039). There were no statistical significant between-side differences in HPDT measurements at 24 hours after block performance. Conclusions The spread of sensory block following ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block is partly maintained by a continuous 24 hour ropivacaine infusion through a TAP catheter. Trial registration The study was registered at NCT01577940 PMID:24106815
Cawello, Willi; Mueller-Voessing, Christa; Fichtner, Andreas
The antiepileptic drug lacosamide has a low potential for drug-drug interactions, but is a substrate and moderate inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C19. This phase I, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic effects of lacosamide and omeprazole coadministration. Healthy, White, male volunteers (n = 36) who were not poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 were randomized to treatment A (single-dose 40 mg omeprazole on days 1 and 8 together with 6 days of multiple-dose lacosamide [200-600 mg/day] on days 3-8) and treatment B (single doses of 300 mg lacosamide on days 1 and 8 with 7 days of 40 mg/day omeprazole on days 3-9) in pseudorandom order, separated by a ≥ 7-day washout period. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (C(max)) were the primary pharmacokinetic parameters measured for lacosamide or omeprazole administered alone (reference) or in combination (test). Bioequivalence was determined if the 90 % confidence interval (CI) of the ratio (test/reference) fell within the acceptance range of 0.8-1.25. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of omeprazole + lacosamide coadministered versus omeprazole alone for AUC (1.098 [0.996-1.209]) and C(max) (1.105 [0.979-1.247]) fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of lacosamide + omeprazole coadministration versus lacosamide alone also fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (AUC 1.133 [1.102-1.165]); C(max) 0.996 (0.947-1.047). Steady-state lacosamide did not influence omeprazole single-dose pharmacokinetics, and multiple-dose omeprazole did not influence lacosamide single-dose pharmacokinetics.
Full Text Available A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA on human natural killer (NK cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL containing 0 mg (placebo, 250 mg (low dosage, or 500 mg (high dosage of γ-PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ-PGA group were significantly higher (P<0.05 for all comparisons compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production. These results suggest that the oral administration of γ-PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans.
Full Text Available Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids.On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet, morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9% at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2% at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001. No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6% at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9% at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60.Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadol's main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls
Martini, Chris; van Velzen, Monique; Drewes, Asbjørn; Aarts, Leon; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke
Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids. On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet), morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet) or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus) but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001). No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60). Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadol's main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls. Netherlands
Solans, Anna; Carbó, Marcel Lí; Peña, Juana; Nadal, Teresa; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Merlos, Manuel
Rupatadine is an oral active antihistamine for the management of diseases with allergic inflammatory conditions, such as perennial and seasonal rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Oral rupatadine has been approved for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in adults and adolescents in several European countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of the concomitant intake of food on the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of a single dose of rupatadine. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study in which healthy male and female volunteers received a single, 20-mg oral dose of rupatadine under fed and fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of rupatadine and its active metabolites desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tolerability was based on the recording of adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tolerability tests immediately before each treatment period and at the final visit of the study. Twenty-four volunteers (12 males; mean [SD] age, 25.4 [5.3] years [range, 18-34 years]; mean [SD] weight, 71.2 [4.3] kg [range, 64-77 kg]; 12 females; mean [SD] age, 26.8 [6.5] years [range, 18-38 years]; mean [SD] weight, 58.4 [6.8] kg, [range 50-69 kg]) were enrolled and randomized with equal distribution of sex. A significant increase in AUC from drug administration to the final quantifiable sample (AUC(0-t)) and AUC from drug administration to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) values of rupatadine was seen under fed conditions without affecting C(max). The ratios (90% CI) of the mean log-transformed AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity) for rupatadine revealed a significant increase in AUC(0-t) (ratio 131%; 90% CI, 111%-154%) and AUC(0-infinity) (ratio 133%; 90% CI, 113%-156%), whereas C(max) remained unaltered (ratio 97%; 90% CI, 80%-116%). Plasma concentration
Thaptimthong, Thitiporn; Kasemsuk, Thitima; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun
The purpose of this study is to investigate cardiovascular benefits of juices obtained from two commonly consumed fruits in Thailand, Pachyrhizus erosus, L. (yam bean) and Psidium guajava, L. (guava), by examining their acute cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Possible involvements of the dietary nitrate on their effects were investigated as well. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups of 10 subjects per group and each group was allocated to drink 500 ml of freshly prepared yam bean root juice, guava fruit juice, or water. Systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum K(+) concentrations, ex vivo platelet aggregation, and plasma cGMP concentrations were monitored at the baseline and at various time points after the intake of juices or water. Data were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. Following the ingestion of both yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice, collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation was attenuated. Ingestion of yam bean root juice increased systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations whereby elevated nitrite concentrations correlated with the extent of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, positive correlation between systemic nitrite and plasma cGMP concentrations and negative correlation between plasma cGMP concentrations and the extent of collagen-induced platelet aggregation were revealed. Nevertheless, yam bean root juice reduced only diastolic blood pressure while guava fruit juice reduced heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The present study has illustrated, for the first time, acute inhibitory effects of yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice on ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Dietary nitrate was shown to underlie the effect of yam bean root juice but not that of guava fruit juice. Following yam bean root juice ingestion, systemic nitrate apparently
Full Text Available Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l, epinephrine (20 μmol/l, collagen(0.19 mg/ ml and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding. No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion: In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method.
Pallav, Kumar; Dowd, Scot E; Villafuerte, Javier; Yang, Xiaotong; Kabbani, Toufic; Hansen, Joshua; Dennis, Melinda; Leffler, Daniel A; Newburg, David S; Kelly, Ciarán P
Interactions between the microbial flora of the intestine and the human host play a critical role inmaintaining intestinal health and in the pathophysiology of a wide variety of disorders such as antibiotic associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics can confer health benefits by beneficial effects on the intestinal microbiome, whereas antibiotics can disrupt the microbiome leading to diarrhea andother side effects. To compare the effects of the prebiotic, polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor, to those of the antibiotic,amoxicillin, on the human gut microbiome Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized to receive PSP, amoxicillin, or no treatment (control).Stool specimens were analyzed using bTEFAP microbial ecology methods on seven occasions over 8 weeks from each participant in the active treatment groups and on three occasions for the controls. Twenty-two of 24 participants completed the protocol. PSP led to clear and consistent microbiome changes consistent with its activity as a prebiotic. Despite the diversity of the human microbiome we noted strong microbiome clustering among subjects. Baseline microbiomes tended to remain stable and to overshadow the treatment effects.Amoxicillin treatment caused substantial microbiome changes most notably an increase in Escherichia/Shigella. Antibiotic associated changes persisted to the end of the study, 42 days after antibiotic therapy ended. The microbiomes of healthy individuals show substantial diversity but remain stable over time.The antibiotic amoxicillin alters the microbiome and recovery from this disruption can take several weeks. PSP from T. versicolor acts as a prebiotic to modulate human intestinal microbiome composition.
Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N
Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith
Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 – 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486
Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that although 20 minutes of needling at CV-12 without stimulation produced a mild reduction in RBG levels in healthy volunteers, it did not produce a statistically significant result.
Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the development of volunteer activity in relation to the Olympic Games. Material & Methods: theoretical scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists on the development of volunteer activities regarding their participation in the Olympic Games are analyzed, considered the main legal documents relating to the Olympic sport. Results: Statistical indicators of participation of volunteers in the Winter and Summer Olympics Games are analyzed and presented. The role and significance of volunteers' activity in the organization and holding of the Olympic Games are revealed. Conclusion: evolution of the volunteer movement, with reference to the Olympic Games, originates from the first games that took place in 1896 in Athens. To date, volunteers are an integral part of the organization and holding of the Olympic Games, their activities help to solve a number of organizational issues, the creation of a corresponding atmosphere and image at a sporting event, largely determine the success of games.
The present study evaluated genetic variability of superior bael genotypes collected from different parts of Andaman Islands, India using fruit characters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genomic DNA extracted from leaf material using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was ...
Marquand, Andre F; De Simoni, Sara; O'Daly, Owen G; Williams, Steven C R; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Mehta, Mitul A
Stimulant and non-stimulant drugs can reduce symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) and the non-stimulant drug atomoxetine (ATX) are both widely used for ADHD treatment, but their differential effects on human brain function remain unclear. We combined event-related fMRI with multivariate pattern recognition to characterize the effects of MPH and ATX in healthy volunteers performing a rewarded working memory (WM) task. The effects of MPH and ATX on WM were strongly dependent on their behavioral context. During non-rewarded trials, only MPH could be discriminated from placebo (PLC), with MPH producing a similar activation pattern to reward. During rewarded trials both drugs produced the opposite effect to reward, that is, attenuating WM networks and enhancing task-related deactivations (TRDs) in regions consistent with the default mode network (DMN). The drugs could be directly discriminated during the delay component of rewarded trials: MPH produced greater activity in WM networks and ATX produced greater activity in the DMN. Our data provide evidence that: (1) MPH and ATX have prominent effects during rewarded WM in task-activated and -deactivated networks; (2) during the delay component of rewarded trials, MPH and ATX have opposing effects on activated and deactivated networks: MPH enhances TRDs more than ATX, whereas ATX attenuates WM networks more than MPH; and (3) MPH mimics reward during encoding. Thus, interactions between drug effects and motivational state are crucial in defining the effects of MPH and ATX.
Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khammash, Mustafa [UCSB
The cellular environment is abuzz with noise. The origin of this noise is attributed to the inherent random motion of reacting molecules that take part in gene expression and post expression interactions. In this noisy environment, clonal populations of cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability that frequently manifests as significant phenotypic differences within the cellular population. The stochastic fluctuations in cellular constituents induced by noise can be measured and their statistics quantified. We show that these random fluctuations carry within them valuable information about the underlying genetic network. Far from being a nuisance, the ever-present cellular noise acts as a rich source of excitation that, when processed through a gene network, carries its distinctive fingerprint that encodes a wealth of information about that network. We demonstrate that in some cases the analysis of these random fluctuations enables the full identification of network parameters, including those that may otherwise be difficult to measure. This establishes a potentially powerful approach for the identification of gene networks and offers a new window into the workings of these networks.
Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real…
Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna
To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health
Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than
Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in
Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V; Aasvang, Eske K; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Lange, Kai H W
The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6.9-15.7 mm) during a maximal contraction. Sensory block and muscle-relaxing effect duration were 570 minutes (512-716 minutes) and 609 minutes (490-724 minutes), respectively. Cutaneous sensory block area of the TAP block is predominantly located lateral to a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. The distribution is nondermatomal and does not cross the midline. The muscle-relaxing effect is significant and consistent. The block duration is approximately 10 hours with large variation.
Full Text Available We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice.Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation.This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086.
Yang Won Min
Full Text Available Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal. Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV, proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal.Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively. However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034. In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures.Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.
Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Seonwoo; Choi, Dongil; Rhee, Poong-Lyul
Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal). Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV), proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal. Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively). However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034). In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures). Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.
Milenkovic, Dragan; Deval, Christiane; Dubray, Claude; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine
Background We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation. Conclusions This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086 PMID:22110589
Joshi, Anjali; Gbadero, Daniel; Esseku, Fredrick; Adesanya, Olufikayo J; Adeyeye, Moji C
The bioequivalence study was conducted to compare the developed paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (60/30/50 mg) tablet - the test formulation - with the combined mixture of single-entity innovator products (reference product). A single-dose open-label randomized two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adult African volunteers after an informed consent was obtained. The 24 volunteers, divided into two groups, were administered the products after an overnight fast on two treatment days with 14 days of washout period. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and analysed using a validated RP-HPLC-UV assay method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters (non-compartmental model) were assessed with WinNonlin® software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and FDA bioequivalence statistical criterion of 90% CI or 80% to 125% range (set at P 0.05). The 90% CIs for all the drugs were within the 80% to 125% range. The developed FDC tablet is bioequivalent to the reference product. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Full Text Available Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia.
Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L
This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy-drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy-drinking volunteers up to 1 year postintervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; M age = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months postintervention. At 4 weeks postintervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer), BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months postintervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared with controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to 1 year postintervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove
Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were analyzed. The CGA and caffeine contents in the coffees were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. No differences in glucose area under the curve (AUC) were found between treatments. Glucose concentrations were higher at 60 min after ingestion of DAR compared with water, while ingestion of LIR showed similar glucose concentrations as ingestion of water. Insulin AUC was higher after ingestion of DAR compared with water, and both coffees raised insulin concentrations and reduced ISI compared with water, with no difference between the two coffees. Two coffees with different CGA contents did not differentially affect glucose or insulin responses during an OGTT, but both increased the insulin response compared with water.
Kechagias, Stergios; Dernroth, Dženeta Nezirević; Blomgren, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Kronstrand, Robert; Kågedal, Bertil; Nystrom, Fredrik H
AIM: It is generally agreed that traditional alcohol biomarkers lack in sensitivity to detect hazardous alcohol consumption. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and traditional alcohol markers to detect moderate alcohol consumption and to distinguish between moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence. METHODS: Forty-four subjects, 32 females and 12 males, were included in the study. They were randomized to alcohol abstention or to alcohol co...
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.
Olesen, Anne Estrup; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam
: The study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in healthy males. Esophageal electrical, thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimulations were performed, pain perception was rated, and referred pain areas were drawn. Sensitization was induced by intraluminal esophageal acid.......58-26.47, p = 0.04), but there was no effects on thermal-, electrical-, and chemical-induced pain (all p > 0.05). PPC-5650 did not affect referred pain areas to any stimulation (all p > 0.05). Ten participants reported adverse events during the placebo treatment period, and nine participants reported adverse...
Kechagias, Stergios; Dernroth, Dženeta Nezirević; Blomgren, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Kronstrand, Robert; Kågedal, Bertil; Nystrom, Fredrik H
It is generally agreed that traditional alcohol biomarkers lack in sensitivity to detect hazardous alcohol consumption. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and traditional alcohol markers to detect moderate alcohol consumption and to distinguish between moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence. Forty-four subjects, 32 females and 12 males, were included in the study. They were randomized to alcohol abstention or to alcohol consumption. Female participants consumed 150 ml of red wine (equivalent to 16 g of alcohol) per 24 h and the male participants double the amount. The study lasted for 3 months. Blood samples were drawn at the start and at the end of the study period. Blood samples were analysed for PEth, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ROC curves for the various biochemical markers were plotted in order to assess their ability to discriminate between abstention and moderate daily consumption of alcohol. PEth and CDT were the only markers with AUROCs significantly higher than 0.5, and PEth was detected in all participants randomized to alcohol consumption. PEth was the only marker that could detect moderate intake and the present results also indicate that PEth probably can distinguish moderate alcohol consumption from abstinence. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Choung, R S; Talley, N J; Peterson, J; Camilleri, M; Burton, D; Harmsen, W S; Zinsmeister, A R
Itopride, a dopamine D2 antagonist and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly improved symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia in one phase II randomized trial. However, the mechanisms by which itopride may improve symptoms are unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of two doses of itopride and placebo on gastric volumes, gastric emptying, small bowel transit and satiation in female and male healthy volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated gastric function before and after 7 days of itopride 100 mg (n = 16) or 200 mg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) t.i.d. Validated methods were used to study gastric accommodation (single photon emission computed tomography), gastric emptying and orocecal transit and satiation postnutrient challenge. The three arms were comparable with regard to age, gender and body mass index. There were no statistically significant effects of itopride on gastric emptying, orocecal transit, fasting gastric volume, maximum tolerated volume or aggregate symptom score with nutrient drink challenge. Postprandial (PP) change in gastric volume differed in the three groups (P = 0.019): 625[+/-28 (SEM)], 555(+/-26) and 512(+/-33) in placebo, itopride 100 and 200 mg groups, respectively. In healthy subjects, itopride reduced total PP gastric volume without accelerating gastric emptying or significantly altering gastric motor and sensory function in healthy individuals.
Usharani, Pingali; Naidu, Maddireddi U R; Reddy, B S Parthasarathy; Reddy, Mohan
Rupatadine is a histamine receptor type 1 antagonist that has been used to treat allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 rupatadine tablet formulations on the inhibition of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare cutaneous responses. In this single-blind, single oral dose, crossover study, healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive 10 mg of either a rupatadine reference or test formulation after an overnight fast. After a 10-day washout period, the subjects were crossed over to receive the other formulation. Subjects were asked to sit with their arm resting on the table while histamine was injected intradermally. The skin prick test was performed on the upper half of the volunteers' forearms before administration and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after study drug administration. Fifteen minutes after each skin prick test, the wheal-and-flare responses were visualized under a bright lamp. AUC0-24 was the primary end point.The 90% CI of least squares mean ratio (%) of the test: reference formulations for maximum inhibition of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare response (Imax%), Tmax, AUC0-24 mm(2)/h, and AUC0-24%/hr were expected to be within 80% to 125% of untransformed data and 80% to 120% of log-transformed data for the 2 formulations to be considered pharmacodynamically equivalent. Subjects were monitored for any spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) throughout the study. In addition, they were specifically asked about the occurrence of any AEs on a checklist (ie, drowsiness, dizziness, dryness of mouth, itching sensation, headache, nausea) throughout the study. Of the 15 subjects assessed for inclusion, 12 healthy male volunteers (mean [SD] age, 30  years; height, 162  cm; weight, 58  kg) participated in the study. Administration of reference and test formulations of rupatadine significantly inhibited the histamine-induced cutaneous responses in all subjects (P Wheal Imax% with the reference and test
Di Girolamo, Guillermo; Czerniuk, Paola; Bertuola, Roberto; Keller, Guillermo A
Platelet activation is a major component in the pathogenesis of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Thienopyridines, particularly clopidogrel, are highly effective in reducing in-stent thrombosis and functional inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a new generic formulation of clopidogrel 75-mg tablets (test) and the available branded formulation (reference) to meet regulatory criteria for marketing the test product in Argentina. This was a randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy white volunteers in the fasted state. A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 7-day washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Clopidogrel concentrations were determined using an LC-MS/MS method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CI of the geometric mean ratios (test:reference) for C(max) and AUC(0-last) were within the range from 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study based on clinical parameters and patient reports. Twenty-four volunteers (13 male, 11 female; mean [SD] age, 33.7 [5.2] years [range, 21-42 years]; weight, 72.4 [6.83] kg [range, 59-82 kg]) were enrolled in and completed the study. The geometric mean C(max) for the test and reference formulations was 877.76 and 913.49 pg/mL, respectively. The geometric mean AUC(0-t) was 1911.53 and 2053.09 pg . h/mL, and the geometric mean AUC(0-infinity)) was 2021.33 and 2188.25 pg . h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (test:reference) for C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)) were 96.09% (90% CI, 90.71-101.78), 93.10% (90% CI, 85.57-101.3), and 92.37% (90% CI, 85.06-100.31), respectively. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between groups
van der Wielen Reggy PJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y received one of the following treatments: (1 bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins, (2 micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3 combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4 placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses (p Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of home visits with physical training and nutritional support on inflammatory parameters to home visits with social support alone within a randomized controlled trial. Prefrail and frail persons received home visits from lay volunteers twice a week for 12 weeks. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 35 conducted two sets of six strength exercises and received nutritional support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 23 received visits only. TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and total leukocyte count were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes over time within groups were analyzed with paired t-tests; differences between groups were analyzed with ANCOVA for repeated measurements. In the PTN group, IL-6 and CRP remained stable, whereas in the SoSu group, IL-6 increased significantly from a median value of 2.6 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-10.2 to 3.0 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-20.8, and CRP rose from 0.2 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-0.9 to 0.3 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-3.0 after 12 weeks. In CRP, a significant difference between groups was found. TNF-α and total leukocyte count did not change in either the PTN group or the SoSu group. Persons showing an increase in physical performance (OR 4.54; 95% CI = 1.33-15.45 were more likely to have constant or decreased IL-6 values than persons who showed no improvement. In conclusion, in non-robust older adults, a physical training and nutritional support program provided by lay volunteers can delay a further increase in some inflammatory parameters.
Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang
The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jin-Liang; Lou, Hong-Gang; Yu, Ling-Yan; Shen, Hua-Hao; Ruan, Zou-Rong
To compare the pharmacokinetic properties of two newly developed generic ambroxol formulations with a branded innovator product in healthy Chinese male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study in healthy volunteers aged 18 - 45 years under fasting conditions. Subjects were assigned to receive 1 of 2 test formulations or a reference tablet of ambroxol 30 mg. Each study period was separated by a 1-week washout phase. Blood samples were collected at pre-specified times. A non-compartmental method was employed to determine pharmacokinetic properties (C(max), t(max), AUC(0-tlast), AUC(0-∞)) to test for bioequivalence. The predetermined regulatory range of 90% CI for bioequivalence was 80 - 125%. 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. The geometric mean C(max) values for the test tablet, test capsule, and reference product were 82.73, 85.36, 84.56 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC(0-tlast) (AUC(0-∞)) were 660.87 (753.49), 678.98 (756.79), and 639.41 (712.14) ng x h/mL, respectively. For test tablet vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of C(max), AUC(0-tlast), and AUC(0-∞) were 91.2% to 104.9%, 96.5% to 110.7%, and 98.8% to 113.4%, respectively. For test capsule, the corresponding values were 94.1% to 108.3%, 99.2% to 113.7%, and 99.2% to 113.9%, respectively. No adverse events occurred during the study. The ambroxol 30 mg tablets and capsules were considered bioequivalent to the reference formulation in accordance with predetermined regulatory criteria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low- and middle-income countries, community health volunteers (CHVs are employed as a key element of the public health system in rural areas with poor accessibility. However, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of CHVs in improving child health in sub-Saharan Africa through randomized controlled trials. The present study aims to measure the impact of health promotion and case management implemented by CHVs on the health of under-5 children in Ghana. Methods/Design This study presents the protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial assessing the impacts of CHVs, in which the community was used as the randomization unit. A phase-in design will be adopted, and the intervention arm will be implemented in the intervention arm during the first phase and in the control arm during the second phase. The key intervention is the deployment of CHVs, who provide health education, provide oral rehydration solutions and zinc tablets to children with diarrhea, and diagnose malaria using a thermometer and a rapid diagnostic test kit during home visits. The primary endpoints of the study are the prevalence of diarrhea and fever/malaria in children under 5 years of age, as well as the proportion of affected children receiving case management for diarrhea and malaria. The first and second rounds of household surveys to collect data will be conducted in the first phase, and the final round will be conducted during the second phase. Discussion With growing attention paid to the roles of CHVs as an essential part of the community health system in low-income countries, this study will contribute valuable information to the body of knowledge on the effects of CHVs. Trial registration ISRCTN49236178 . (June 16th, 2015
Ma, Yeonji; Kim, Heunghee; Cho, Yinseo; Lee, Jaeeun; Degley, Joseph Kwami; Adam, Abdul-Ghaffa; Lee, Gyuhong; Lee, Hoonsang; Cha, Seungman
In many low- and middle-income countries, community health volunteers (CHVs) are employed as a key element of the public health system in rural areas with poor accessibility. However, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of CHVs in improving child health in sub-Saharan Africa through randomized controlled trials. The present study aims to measure the impact of health promotion and case management implemented by CHVs on the health of under-5 children in Ghana. This study presents the protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial assessing the impacts of CHVs, in which the community was used as the randomization unit. A phase-in design will be adopted, and the intervention arm will be implemented in the intervention arm during the first phase and in the control arm during the second phase. The key intervention is the deployment of CHVs, who provide health education, provide oral rehydration solutions and zinc tablets to children with diarrhea, and diagnose malaria using a thermometer and a rapid diagnostic test kit during home visits. The primary endpoints of the study are the prevalence of diarrhea and fever/malaria in children under 5 years of age, as well as the proportion of affected children receiving case management for diarrhea and malaria. The first and second rounds of household surveys to collect data will be conducted in the first phase, and the final round will be conducted during the second phase. With growing attention paid to the roles of CHVs as an essential part of the community health system in low-income countries, this study will contribute valuable information to the body of knowledge on the effects of CHVs. ISRCTN49236178 . (June 16th, 2015).
Full Text Available To determine bioequivalence of a generic 10 mg montelukast tablet formulation. A 2-period, 2- sequence crossover study was designed. It included 28 healthy subjects, each subject received a single dose of the randomly assigned formulation with 240 ml water after 10-hr fasting, and 14 blood samples (6 mL each were drawn at predose, and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 24 hr post-dose. The procedure was repeated after a 7-day washout period. Plasma samples were stored at -20°C until analysed using LC-MS/MS, LLOQ 5 ng/mL. The mean ± SD for the test and the reference were: Cmax 568±185 and 570±205 ng/mL; and AUC0-” 3864±1228 and 4022±1331 ng.hr/mL, respectively. The log-transformed ratios (90% CI were: Cmax : 99.64% (92.80% - 109.66%; and AUC0- : 99.79 (92.25% - 102.37%. The two formulations were bioequivalent as the 90% CI for the log-transformed ratios for the mean Cmax , and AUC0- were within the 80-125%.
Udani Jay K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There
Luger, Eva; Dorner, Thomas Ernst; Haider, Sandra; Kapan, Ali; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a home-based and volunteer-administered physical training and nutritional intervention program compared with social support intervention on nutritional and frailty status in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older persons. This was a randomized controlled trial in which community-dwelling persons (mean age = 83 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 39) and the social support group (SoSu, n = 41). The study was conducted by trained lay nonprofessionals. The community-dwelling older persons in both groups were visited twice a week by trained nonprofessional volunteers (buddies) in Vienna, Austria. Eighty prefrail and frail adults aged 65 years or older. In the PTN group, both the buddies and older persons performed 6 strength exercises within a circuit training session and discussed nutrition-related aspects. The active control group (SoSu) had the opportunity to perform cognitive training in addition to the social contact. Outcome measures as nutritional (Mini Nutritional Assessment long form [MNA-LF]) and frailty status (Frailty Instrument for Primary Care of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe [SHARE-FI]) were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. Significant improvements in the MNA-LF score (1.54 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-2.56; P = .004) and the SHARE-FI score (-0.71 discrete factor score values, 95% CI -1.07, -0.35; P home-based physical training, nutritional, and social support intervention conducted by nonprofessionals is feasible and can help to tackle malnutrition and frailty in older persons living at home. Furthermore, social support alone also can result in improvement. In particular, older adults with impaired nutritional status at baseline can benefit more from the intervention. Such a home visit program might also have the potential to prevent future health risks and could
subordinates in decision making and helps them set high goals for achievement. The controversy between situational leadership theorists and those who believe...three behaviors typical of each of Hersey and Blanchard’s four Situational Leadership styles. Finally, * open-ended questions were used to solicit...meshes with Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership theory, * because volunteers are by definition not at the lowest maturity level (unable and
Cosgrove, Catherine A; Lacey, Charles J; Cope, Alethea V; Bartolf, Angela; Morris, Georgina; Yan, Celine; Baden, Susan; Cole, Tom; Carter, Darrick; Brodnicki, Elizabeth; Shen, Xiaoying; Joseph, Sarah; DeRosa, Stephen C; Peng, Lili; Yu, Xuesong; Ferrari, Guido; Seaman, Mike; Montefiori, David C; Frahm, Nicole; Tomaras, Georgia D; Stöhr, Wolfgang; McCormack, Sheena; Shattock, Robin J
Defining optimal routes for induction of mucosal immunity represents an important research priority for the HIV-1 vaccine field. In particular, it remains unclear whether mucosal routes of immunization can improve mucosal immune responses. In this randomized two center phase I clinical trial we evaluated the systemic and mucosal immune response to a candidate HIV-1 Clade C CN54gp140 envelope glycoprotein vaccine administered by intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN) and intravaginal (IVAG) routes of administration in HIV negative female volunteers. IM immunizations were co-administered with Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), IN immunizations with 0.5% chitosan and IVAG immunizations were administered in an aqueous gel. Three IM immunizations of CN54 gp140 at either 20 or 100 μg elicited significantly greater systemic and mucosal antibodies than either IN or IVAG immunizations. Following additional intramuscular boosting we observed an anamnestic antibody response in nasally primed subjects. Modest neutralizing responses were detected against closely matched tier 1 clade C virus in the IM groups. Interestingly, the strongest CD4 T-cell responses were detected after IN and not IM immunization. These data show that parenteral immunization elicits systemic and mucosal antibodies in women. Interestingly IN immunization was an effective prime for IM boost, while IVAG administration had no detectable impact on systemic or mucosal responses despite IM priming. EudraCT 2010-019103-27 and the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Number 11679.
Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Sasse, Birgitta; Shinnawi, Samir; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara
Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before, during, directly, 2, 4 and 24h after exposure. We performed multiple mixed linear regression analyses of different particle metrics and BP. BP significantly increased with increasing PMC, PSC and PNC resulting from toasting bread. For example, an increase per 10µg/m(3) PM10 and PM2.5, systolic BP increased at all time points with largest changes 1h after exposure initiation of 1.5mmHg (95%-CI: 1.1; 1.9) and of 2.2mmHg (95%-CI: 1.3; 3.1), respectively. Our study suggests an association of short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles emitted from toasting bread with increases in BP. Particles emitted from frying sausages and candle burning did not consistently affect BP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun
Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%-75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%-75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of -19 mL (95%-confidence interval:-43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults.
Eunice Kazue Kano
Full Text Available Average bioequivalence of two 500 mg levofloxacin formulations available in Brazil, Tavanic(c (Sanofi-Aventis Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, reference product and Levaquin(c (Janssen-Cilag Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, test product was evaluated by means of a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study performed in 26 healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin tablets was orally administered, and blood samples were collected over a period of 48 hours. Levofloxacin plasmatic concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Kel, T1/2el, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory analysis results, by subject interviews and by spontaneous report of adverse events. 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were 92.1% - 108.2%, 90.7% - 98.0%, and 94.8% - 100.0%, respectively. Observed adverse events were nausea and headache. It was concluded that Tavanic(c and Levaquin(c are bioequivalent, since 90% CIs are within the 80% - 125% interval proposed by regulatory agencies.
Catherine A Cosgrove
Full Text Available Defining optimal routes for induction of mucosal immunity represents an important research priority for the HIV-1 vaccine field. In particular, it remains unclear whether mucosal routes of immunization can improve mucosal immune responses.In this randomized two center phase I clinical trial we evaluated the systemic and mucosal immune response to a candidate HIV-1 Clade C CN54gp140 envelope glycoprotein vaccine administered by intramuscular (IM, intranasal (IN and intravaginal (IVAG routes of administration in HIV negative female volunteers. IM immunizations were co-administered with Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA, IN immunizations with 0.5% chitosan and IVAG immunizations were administered in an aqueous gel.Three IM immunizations of CN54 gp140 at either 20 or 100 μg elicited significantly greater systemic and mucosal antibodies than either IN or IVAG immunizations. Following additional intramuscular boosting we observed an anamnestic antibody response in nasally primed subjects. Modest neutralizing responses were detected against closely matched tier 1 clade C virus in the IM groups. Interestingly, the strongest CD4 T-cell responses were detected after IN and not IM immunization.These data show that parenteral immunization elicits systemic and mucosal antibodies in women. Interestingly IN immunization was an effective prime for IM boost, while IVAG administration had no detectable impact on systemic or mucosal responses despite IM priming.EudraCT 2010-019103-27 and the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN Number 11679.
Soppa, Vanessa J.; Schins, Roel P. F.; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun
Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of −19 mL (95%-confidence interval:−43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149
Vanessa J. Soppa
Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB, toasting bread (TB, frying sausages (FS and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC, size-specific particle number concentration (PNC up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h. FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of −19 mL (95%-confidence interval:−43; 5 after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults.
Residual gastric volume evaluation with ultrasonography after ingestion of carbohydrate- or carbohydrate plus glutamine-enriched beverages: a randomized, crossover clinical trial with healthy volunteers
Paulo Cesar GOMES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 hours with maltodextrin (CHO-enriched beverage is a safe procedure and may enhance postoperative recovery. Addition of glutamine (GLN to CHO beverages may include potential benefits to the metabolism. However, by adding a nitrogenous source to CHO beverages, gastric emptying may be delayed and increase the risk of bronchoaspiration during anesthesia. OBJECTIVE In this study of safety, we aimed at investigating the residual gastric volume (RGV 2 hours after the intake of either CHO beverage alone or CHO beverage combined with GLN. METHODS We performed a randomized, crossover clinical trial. We assessed RGV by means of abdominal ultrasonography (US in 20 healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females after an overnight fast of 8 hours. Then, they were randomized to receive 600 mL (400 mL immediately after US followed by another 200 mL 2 hours afterwards of either CHO (12.5% maltodextrin or CHO-GLN (12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g GLN. Two sequential US evaluations were done at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of the second dose. The interval of time between ingestion of the two types of beverages was 2 weeks. RESULTS The mean (SD RGV observed after 8 hours fasting (13.56±13.25 mL did not statistically differ (P>0.05 from the RGV observed after ingesting CHO beverage at both 120 (16.32±11.78 mL and 180 minutes (14.60±10.39 mL. The RGV obtained at 120 (15.63±18.83 mL and 180 (13.65±10.27 mL minutes after CHO-GLN beverage also was not significantly different from the fasting condition. CONCLUSION The RGV at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of CHO beverage combined with GLN is similar to that observed after an overnight fast.
Residual gastric volume evaluation with ultrasonography after ingestion of carbohydrate- or carbohydrate plus glutamine-enriched beverages: a randomized, crossover clinical trial with healthy volunteers.
Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Caporossi, Cervantes; Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Eduardo; Silva, Ageo Mario Candido da; Araujo, Viviane Maeve Tavares de
- Abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 hours with maltodextrin (CHO)-enriched beverage is a safe procedure and may enhance postoperative recovery. Addition of glutamine (GLN) to CHO beverages may include potential benefits to the metabolism. However, by adding a nitrogenous source to CHO beverages, gastric emptying may be delayed and increase the risk of bronchoaspiration during anesthesia. - In this study of safety, we aimed at investigating the residual gastric volume (RGV) 2 hours after the intake of either CHO beverage alone or CHO beverage combined with GLN. - We performed a randomized, crossover clinical trial. We assessed RGV by means of abdominal ultrasonography (US) in 20 healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females) after an overnight fast of 8 hours. Then, they were randomized to receive 600 mL (400 mL immediately after US followed by another 200 mL 2 hours afterwards) of either CHO (12.5% maltodextrin) or CHO-GLN (12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g GLN). Two sequential US evaluations were done at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of the second dose. The interval of time between ingestion of the two types of beverages was 2 weeks. - The mean (SD) RGV observed after 8 hours fasting (13.56±13.25 mL) did not statistically differ (P>0.05) from the RGV observed after ingesting CHO beverage at both 120 (16.32±11.78 mL) and 180 minutes (14.60±10.39 mL). The RGV obtained at 120 (15.63±18.83 mL) and 180 (13.65±10.27 mL) minutes after CHO-GLN beverage also was not significantly different from the fasting condition. - The RGV at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of CHO beverage combined with GLN is similar to that observed after an overnight fast.
Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud
Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of
Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena; Mori Koono, Eunice Emiko; Kano, Eunice Kazue; Schramm, Simone Grigoleto; Armando, Yara Popst; Porta, Valentina
Zidovudine is a thymidine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity against HIV type 1. Some (approximately 8) generic formulations of zidovudine are available in Brazil; however, based on a literature search, information concerning their bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties in the Brazilian population has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 capsule formulations of zidovudine 100 mg in healthy Brazilian volunteers. This open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover study utilized a 1-week washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected for 8 hours after a single dose of zidovudine 100-mg test (Zidovudina, Fundação para o Remédio Popular, São Paulo, Brazil) or reference formulation (Retrovir, GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Plasma zidovudine concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection at 265 nm. C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), t(1/2), and the elimination constant (k(e)) were determined using noncompartmental analysis. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) fell within the interval of 80% to 125%,the regulatory definition set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Twenty-four healthy volunteers (12 males, 12 females; mean age, 27 years; weight, 60 kg; height, 167 cm) were enrolled and completed the study. The 90% CIs of the treatment ratios for the logarithmic transformed values of C(max), AUC(max)0-t, and AUC(0-infinity) were 80.0% to 113.6%, 93.9% to 109.7%, and 93.6% to 110.1%, respectively. The values for the test and reference formulations were within the FDA bioequivalence definition intervals of 80% to 125%. In this small study in healthy subjects, no statistically significant differences in C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were found between the test and reference
Ullah, Ashik; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Sultana, Rebeka; Akbor, Maruf Mohammad; Hasan, Ahasanul; Latif, Mahbub; Hasnat, Abul
Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic, is widely prescribed in Bangladesh due to its extended spectrum and its rapid and extensive oral absorption with good tolerability. Although a number of generic oral formulations of amoxicillin are available in Bangladesh, a study of the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations has not yet been conducted in a Bangladeshi population. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of amoxicillin 500-mg capsules (test, SK-mox(®); reference, Amoxil-Bencard(®)) using serum data. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Subjects were assigned to receive the test or the reference drug as a single-dose, 500-mg capsule under fasting conditions after a 1-week washout period. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amoxicillin concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log-transformed ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirement. Twenty-four healthy adult male Bangladeshi volunteers (mean [SD] age, 26.92 [3.37] years; age range, 23-34 years; mean [SD] body mass index, 23.O9 [1.58] kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Using serum data, the values obtained for the test and reference formulations, respectively, were as follows: Cmax, 9.85 (2.73) and 10.63 (2.12) μg/mL; Tmax, 1.29 (0.58) and 1.33 (0.49) hours; and AUC0-12, 27.09 (7.62) and 28.56 (6.30) μg/mL · h(-1). No period, sequence, or formulation effects were observed; however, significant
Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Anderloni, Andrea; Andorno, Silvano; Ballarè, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Montino, Franco; Orsello, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Sartori, Massimo; Tari, Roberto; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio
Evacuation disorders and hard stools are common in industrialized countries, affecting on average 12% to 17% of the adult healthy population at any age. Dietary supplementation with probiotic microorganisms may be useful in reducing the disorder. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 different probiotic blends, either mixed Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) or Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384), in the management of evacuation disorders and intestinal discomfort. In a period of 5 years (2003 to 2008), the study involved 300 healthy volunteers (151 males and 149 females; age 24 to 71 y) with evacuation disorders and hard stools. In particular, subjects were divided into 3 groups: 80 subjects in the group A received placebo, 110 subjects in the group B received mixed L. plantarum LP01 and B. breve BR03 (2.5 x 10 colony-forming units/d of each strain), and 110 subjects in the group C received B. animalis subsp. lactis BS01 (5 x 10 colony-forming units/d) for 30 days. At the beginning of the observational study, the healthy status of volunteers was evaluated by a complete, laboratory and ultrasound study of the abdomen. The physical examination was repeated after 15 and 30 days. In particular, the main troubles typically associated with evacuation disorders and hard stools as well as abdominal bloating were considered as parameters of interest. Exclusion criteria were items of gastrointestinal diseases and antibiotics intake. Subjects treated with the mixed probiotic strains L. plantarum LP01 and B. breve BR03 or B. animalis subsp. lactis BS01 reported a significant improvement in the number of weekly bowel movements and in the main troubles associated with evacuations, particularly consistency of feces and ease of expulsion. Discomfort items such as abdominal bloating and anal itching, burning, or pain also registered a relevant
Luzurier, Quentin; Damm, Cédric; Lion, Fabien; Daniel, Carine; Pellerin, Lucille; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre
The aim was to describe a strategy for recruitment of healthy volunteers (HV) to a randomized trial that assessed the efficacy of different telephone techniques to assist HV in performing cardiac massage for vital emergency. Participation in the randomized trial was not financially compensated, however HV were offered emergency first-aid training. We also studied factors associated with HV motivation and satisfaction regarding participation in the trial. Strategy for recruitment of 210 HV aged 18 to 60 years was based on: (1) the updated records of all telephone number since January 2000 of HV registered in the Rouen Clinical Investigation Centre HV database, (2) a communication campaign for the general public focussing on posters and media advertisements. Data on the recruitment, socio-demographics, motivation and satisfaction of the 210 HV were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Of the 210 HV included, 63.3% (n = 133) were recruited from the HV database and 36.7% (n = 77) by the communication campaign. On the one hand, the HV database enabled screening of 1315 HV, 54.8% (n = 721) of whom were reached by phone, 55.2% (n = 398) of these latter accepted to participate in the study and 10.1% of the initial screening (n = 133) were finally included. One the other hand, for the 77 HV not recruited from the HV database, word-of-mouth (56.1%) was the main means of recruitment. The male/female ratio of the 210 HV was 0.5 and mean age 43.5 years (Standard Deviation = 12.4). The main motivations given for participating in the trial were to support research (87.6%) and receive emergency first-aid training (85.7%). Overall satisfaction with the welcome process was significantly higher for older HV (46-60 years) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.44; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.48-7.99), and for HV in management jobs (AOR: 4.26; 95% CI: 1.22-14.87). Satisfaction with protocol management was higher for women (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1
Srichaiya, Arunee; Longchoopol, Chaowanee; Oo-Puthinan, Sarawut; Sayasathid, Jarun; Sripalakit, Pattana; Viyoch, Jarupa
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug which has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A search of the literature did not find previously published bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluations of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 brands of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. A randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Thai males. Subjects were randomized to receive either the test or reference formulation in the first period. All subjects were required to be nonsmokers and without a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Plasma samples were collected over a 120-hour period after 100-mg lamotrigine administration in each period. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was used to analyze lamotrigine concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is determined when the ratio for the 90% CIs of the difference in the means of the log-transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max) of the 2 products are within 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were determined by measuring vital signs after dosing. Subjects were also asked if they suffered from undesirable effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. This bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy Thai males (mean [SD] age, 20.5 [1.3] years; range, 19-24 years; weight, 62.5 [7.4] kg; height, 172.8 [6.9] cm; body mass index, 20.9 [2.0] kg/m(2)). The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the test formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.2 (0.9) hours, respectively. The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the reference formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.4 (1.0) hours, respectively. The mean
Rhim, Si-Youn; Park, Jin-Hee; Park, Yoo-Sin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Dong-Sun; Shaw, Leslie M; Yang, Seok-Chul; Kang, Ju-Seop
Alendronate sodium is a Bisphosphonate drug used to treat and prevent osteoporosis and several other bone diseases. A new formulation has been developed and is currently awaiting regulatory approval, pending findings on bioequivalence. The aims of the present study were to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and to determine the bioequivalence, of a test and reference formulation of alendronate sodium 70 mg in a healthy Korean adult male population. This open-label, randomized, 2-sequence, 2-period crossover study was carried out at Hanyang University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Healthy Korean adult male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single 70-mg dose of the test or reference formulation of alendronate sodium, administered with 240 mL of water, followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Serial blood samples were collected and adverse events were monitored by a clinical investigator via observation, personal interview, and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) over a 7-hour period (at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 hours) after drug administration. Plasma alendronate sodium concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic-postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method, with visible detection in the range of 2 to 100 ng/mL and lower limit of quantification set at 2 ng/mL. PK properties, including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), C(max), T(max), t(1/2), and the elimination constant (k(e)), were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined interval of 80% to 125%, the regulatory definition set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Twenty-three healthy male volunteers (mean [SD] age, 23.5 [2.0] years [range, 19
Kim, Ji-Eon; Ki, Min-Hyo; Yoon, In-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Ree-Sun; Tae Kim, Geun; Kim, Dae-Duk
The solubility of valsartan is dependent on pH and thus may cause patient variability in drug absorption and failure in bioequivalence studies; thus, increasing the solubility and release of valsartan at low pH has been suggested for a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile. However, due to this pH dependence, the change in the formulation process could alter the disintegration and/or dissolution profile of the drug, possibly making the results of bioequivalence studies misleading. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and tolerability of a newly developed oral formulation of valsartan 160 mg (wet-granulation tablet) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This study was performed with the subjects under fasted conditions, using a randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover design. Subjects were assigned to receive, in randomized order, a single dose of the test formulation and a reference formulation (valsartan 160-mg dry-granulation tablet), with a washout period of 7 days between the administrations. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after the plasma valsartan concentration was analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. The dissolution studies of both formulations were conducted using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm with 1000 mL of phosphate buffer solution (pH, 6.8) at 37°C ± 0.5°C. Bioequivalence was defined per Korean Food and Drug Administration's regulatory criteria as 90% CIs of the geometric mean test/reference ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax within the range of 0.8 to 1.25. Tolerability was assessed using physical examination and subject interviews. Sixty subjects were enrolled (mean [SD] age [range], 23.6 [2.4] years [21-31]; height, 173.7 [6.6] cm [161-190]; and weight, 68.0 [8.7] kg [54-85]). The mean AUC0-∞ values with the test and reference tablets were 31,784 (13,844) and 32,714 (14,512) ng · h/mL, respectively; Cmax, 5094 (2061) and 5064 (1864) ng/mL; Tmax, 2.92 (1.04) and 3.08 (1
Sophia E Airhart
Full Text Available The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ levels.Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR, improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials.In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed.Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss were observed for both NR (p = 0.03 and NAD+ (p = 0.001; the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008.Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.
Airhart, Sophia E; Shireman, Laura M; Risler, Linda J; Anderson, Gail D; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Tian, Rong; Shen, Danny D; O'Brien, Kevin D
The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR), improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials. In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed. Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss) were observed for both NR (p = 0.03) and NAD+ (p = 0.001); the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008). Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.
Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Akpinar, M.; Polat, S.; Yildiz, A.; Oral, A.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensors muscle strength in healthy young volunteers. Twenty-two eligible healthy untrained young women aged 22-31 years were allocated randomly to the 30-Hz (n=11) and 50-Hz (n=11) groups. They participated in a supervised WBV training program that consisted of 24 sessions on a synchronous vertical vibration platform (peak-to-peak displacement: 2-4 mm; type of exercises: semi-squat, one-legged squat, and lunge positions on right leg; set numbers: 2-24) three times per week for 8 weeks. Isometric and dynamic strength of the knee extensors were measured prior to and at the end of the 8-week training. In the 30-Hz group, there was a significant increase in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (p=0.039) and the concentric peak torque (p=0.018) of knee extensors and these changes were significant (p<0.05) compared with the 50-Hz group. In addition, the eccentric peak torque of knee extensors was increased significantly in both groups (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.873). We concluded that 8 weeks WBV training in 30 Hz was more effective than 50 Hz to increase the isometric contraction and dynamic strength of knee extensors as measured using peak concentric torque and equally effective with 50 Hz in improving eccentric torque of knee extensors in healthy young untrained women. PMID:26636279
Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi-Jo; Sung, Hyeryoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Sung Jae; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok
To date, no definitive treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) has been proven to be effective and reasonably well-tolerated. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) combined with prokinetic agents are considered an effective option. Revaprazan is a selective potassium-competitive acid blocker that reversibly inhibits gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and shows effective acid suppression comparable to PPIs. Itopride is a prokinetic agent that has anticholinesterase activity as well as dopamine D(2) receptor antagonistic activity. For this reason, revaprazan and itopride have been prescribed for FD; however, no available studies have reported the pharmacokinetic interactions of these 2 drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of revaprazan and itopride combination therapy to those of equally dosed monotherapies to acquire basic drug-drug interaction information about revaprazan. This multiple-dose, randomized crossover study was conducted in healthy male Korean subjects. Subjects received, in randomized sequence, a 7-day oral dose of revaprazan 200 mg once daily, itopride 50 mg TID, or both. Each treatment period was separated by a 7-day washout period. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 hours following the last dose at steady state, and drug concentrations were determined using validated LC/MS-MS. Pharmacokinetic properties were obtained using noncompartmental analysis. Drug tolerability was assessed throughout the study, using measurements of vital signs, clinical chemistry testing, and interviews. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among them, 28 subjects completed revaprazan treatment, and 27 completed the study (3 subjects were withdrawn). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CI) of C(max,ss), and AUC(τ,ss) with revaprazan were 0.92 (0.84-1.00) and 0.96 (0.89-1.03), respectively. The GMRs of C(max,ss) and AUC(τ,ss) with itopride were 1.07 (0.96-1.20) and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively. A total of 15 adverse
Darwish, Mona; Hellriegel, Edward T
The single-dose pharmacokinetic profile of cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER) has been previously characterized and compared with the pharmacokinetics of cyclobenzaprine immediate-release (CIR) administered 3 times daily for 3 doses. The objective of this study was to characterize the multiple-dose pharmacokinetic properties of once-daily CER 30 mg and CIR 10 mg TID formulations in healthy volunteers. In this double-blind, single-center, 2-period crossover study, healthy subjects were randomized to dosing sequences with once-daily CER 30 mg or CIR 10 mg TID for 7 days. Subjects crossed over to the alternative regimen following a 14-day washout period. Pharmacokinetic assessments at steady state included area under the plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC(0-τ,ss)), peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (C(max,ss)), time to observed C(max) (T(max,ss)), observed minimum cyclobenzaprine concentration (C(min,ss)), average cyclobenzaprine concentration (C(avg,ss)), accumulation ratio (R(ac)), and terminal elimination half-life (t(½)). Tolerability and safety assessments were conducted. A total of 36 subjects were randomized; 34 completed both dosing periods (1 subject was lost to follow-up, 1 withdrew consent). Steady state was reached for CER 30 mg on day 7. Mean C(max,ss), C(min,ss), and C(avg,ss) were 41.1, 21.4, and 31.4 ng/mL, respectively. The median T(max,ss) for CER 30 mg was 7.0 hours, with a mean t(½) of 34.8 hours. At steady state, CER produced a sustained plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration with a single peak in plasma concentration during the 24-hour dose interval. The R(ac) for CER was 2.65. Because of a protocol violation (insufficient data), no steady-state pharmacokinetic assessments could be performed for CIR. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity. Somnolence was the most frequently reported adverse event (100% of subjects) in those receiving CER, followed by dry mouth (58
Petrovan, Silviu O; Schmidt, Benedikt R
Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. "Toads on Roads" schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species.
Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi
In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.
Jang, Jae-Won; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Jo, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Yim, Sung-Vin; Lee, Kyung-Tae
Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-∞) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-∞) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference
Full Text Available Influenza virosomes represent an innovative human-compatible antigen delivery system that has already proven its suitability for subunit vaccine design. The aim of the study was to proof the concept that virosomes can also be used to elicit high titers of antibodies against synthetic peptides. The specific objective was to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of two virosome-formulated P. falciparum protein derived synthetic peptide antigens given in two different doses alone or in combination.The design was a single blind, randomized, placebo controlled, dose-escalating study involving 46 healthy Caucasian volunteers aged 18-45 years. Five groups of 8 subjects received virosomal formulations containing 10 microg or 50 microg of AMA 49-CPE, an apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 derived synthetic phospatidylethanolamine (PE-peptide conjugate or 10 ug or 50 ug of UK39, a circumsporozoite protein (CSP derived synthetic PE-peptide conjugate or 50 ug of both antigens each. A control group of 6 subjects received unmodified virosomes. Virosomal formulations of the antigens (designated PEV301 and PEV302 for the AMA-1 and the CSP virosomal vaccine, respectively or unmodified virosomes were injected i. m. on days 0, 60 and 180. In terms of safety, no serious or severe adverse events (AEs related to the vaccine were observed. 11/46 study participants reported 16 vaccine related local AEs. Of these 16 events, all being pain, 4 occurred after the 1(st, 7 after the 2(nd and 5 after the 3(rd vaccination. 6 systemic AEs probably related to the study vaccine were reported after the 1(st injection, 10 after the 2(nd and 6 after the 3(rd. Generally, no difference in the distribution of the systemic AEs between either the doses applied (10 respectively 50 microg or the synthetic antigen vaccines (PEV301 and PEV302 used for immunization was found. In terms of immunogenicity, both PEV301 and PEV302 elicited already after two injections a synthetic peptide
The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…
Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.
Sandborn, W J; Hanauer, S B; Buch, A
Existing pharmacokinetic data are insufficient to determine whether a delayed-release formulation of mesalamine (Asacol) results in greater systemic exposure to 5-aminosalicylic acid and its major metabolite N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid than a prodrug (balsalazide). To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid from equimolar doses of 5-aminosalicylic acid administered as Asacol and balsalazide. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed an open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover study comparing the pharmacokinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid from equimolar doses of 5-aminosalicylic acid (800 mg) administered as Asacol (800 mg) and balsalazide (2250 mg). Plasma and urine samples were analysed for 5-aminosalicylic acid, N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid, and balsalazide (urine only) using high-performance liquid chromatography methods with mass spectrometric detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters assessed for 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid included: percentage of dose excreted in urine (A(e)%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCt(last)); and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)). The geometric mean total (5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid) urinary excretion values (A(e)%) of Asacol and balsalazide were 19.26 and 19.31% (P = 0.98). The geometric mean A(e)% values of 5-aminosalicylic acid for Asacol and balsalazide were 0.39 and 0.37% (P = 0.78); the geometric mean A(e)% values of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid for Asacol and balsalazide were 18.78 and 18.83% (P = 0.98). The geometric mean 5-aminosalicylic acid AUC(t(last)) values for Asacol and balsalazide were 3295 and 3449 ng h/mL (P = 0.85); the geometric mean N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid AUC(t(last)) values for Asacol and balsalazide were 15 364 and 16 050 ng h/mL (P = 0.69). The geometric mean 5-5-aminosalicylic acid C(max) values for Asacol and
Beejmohun, Vickram; Peytavy-Izard, Marie; Mignon, Cyril; Muscente-Paque, Delphine; Deplanque, Xavier; Ripoll, Christophe; Chapal, Nicolas
Postprandial hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for the development of several health disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. One encouraging approach for a better control of postprandial glycemia is to reduce carbohydrate digestion. Cinnamon extracts have been known for managing blood glucose. However, their effects on inhibiting digestion of carbohydrate have been poorly analyzed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a specific Ceylon cinnamon hydro-alcoholic extract (CCE) on carbohydrate digestion and post-meal blood glucose reduction. In vitro enzymatic assays and in vivo starch tolerance tests in rats were designed as preclinical assays. Then, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was conducted in 18 healthy female and male volunteers. Following the intake of 1 g of CCE, the subjects ate a standardized meal. Blood samples were collected during the 2 hours following the meal to measure glucose and insulin concentrations. Areas under the curves were calculated and statistical differences between the CCE and placebo groups were analyzed using the Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test. CCE has demonstrated in the in vitro study that it inhibited pancreatic alpha-amylase activity with an IC50 of 25 μg/mL. In the in vivo study, CCE was shown to acutely reduce the glycemic response to starch in a dose-dependent manner in rats. This effect was significant from the dose of 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. In both, the in vitro and in vivo studies, the hydro-alcoholic extract has shown to be more efficacious than the aqueous extract. In the human clinical trial, 1 g of CCE lowered the area under the curve of glycemia between 0 and 120 min by 14.8% (P = 0.15) and between 0 and 60 min by 21.2% (P postprandial hyperglycemia and therefore help to reduce the risks of developing metabolic disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02074423 (26/02/2014).
Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of ruprintrivir nasal spray 2-percent suspension for prevention and treatment of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds in healthy volunteers.
Hayden, Frederick G; Turner, Ronald B; Gwaltney, Jack M; Chi-Burris, Kathy; Gersten, Merril; Hsyu, Poe; Patick, Amy K; Smith, George J; Zalman, Leora S
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are usually self-limited but may be associated with serious consequences, particularly in those with asthma and chronic respiratory disease. Effective antiviral agents are needed for preventing and treating HRV illnesses. Ruprintrivir (Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) selectively inhibits HRV 3C protease and shows potent, broad-spectrum anti-HRV activity in vitro. We conducted three double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in 202 healthy volunteers to assess the activity of ruprintrivir in experimental HRV infection. Subjects were randomized to receive intranasal ruprintrivir (8 mg) or placebo sprays as prophylaxis (two or five times daily [2x/day or 5x/day] for 5 days) starting 6 h before infection or as treatment (5x/day for 4 days) starting 24 h after infection. Ruprintrivir prophylaxis reduced the proportion of subjects with positive viral cultures (for 5x/day dosing groups, 44% for ruprintrivir treatment group versus 70% for placebo treatment group [P=0.03]; for 2x/day dosing groups, 60% for ruprintrivir group versus 92% for placebo group [P=0.004]) and viral titers but did not decrease the frequency of colds. Ruprintrivir treatment reduced the mean total daily symptom score (2.2 for ruprintrivir treatment group and 3.3 for the placebo treatment group [P=0.014]) by 33%. Secondary endpoints, including viral titers, individual symptom scores, and nasal discharge weights, were also reduced by ruprintrivir treatment. Overall, ruprintrivir was well tolerated; blood-tinged mucus and nasal passage irritation were the most common adverse effects reported. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and nasal ruprintrivir concentrations revealed intranasal drug residence with minimal systemic absorption. Results from these studies in experimental rhinoviral infection support continued investigation of intranasal ruprintrivir in the setting of natural HRV infection.
Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.
Full Text Available With the prevalence of smartphones, new ways of engaging citizens and stakeholders in urban planning and governance are emerging. The technologies in smartphones allow citizens to act as sensors of their environment, producing and sharing rich spatial data useful for new types of collaborative governance set-ups. Data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI can support accessible, transparent, democratic, inclusive, and locally-based governance situations of interest to planners, citizens, politicians, and scientists. However, there are still uncertainties about how to actually conduct this in practice. This study explores how social media VGI can be used to document spatial tendencies regarding citizens’ uses and perceptions of urban nature with relevance for urban green space governance. Via the hashtag #sharingcph, created by the City of Copenhagen in 2014, VGI data consisting of geo-referenced images were collected from Instagram, categorised according to their content and analysed according to their spatial distribution patterns. The results show specific spatial distributions of the images and main hotspots. Many possibilities and much potential of using VGI for generating, sharing, visualising and communicating knowledge about citizens’ spatial uses and preferences exist, but as a tool to support scientific and democratic interaction, VGI data is challenged by practical, technical and ethical concerns. More research is needed in order to better understand the usefulness and application of this rich data source to governance.
Devalia, J L; De Vos, C; Hanotte, F; Baltes, E
Cetirizine is a highly efficacious and long-acting second-generation H1-receptor antagonist for the treatment of allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, in adults and children. Pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that cetirizine, a racemate mixture composed of equal amounts of two enantiomers, does not undergo hepatic metabolism to any significant level. The enantiomers are excreted mainly unchanged, predominantly in the urine and to a lesser extent in the faeces. The pharmacologic activity and potency of the two enantiomers of cetirizine in the management of allergic skin conditions were investigated by studying the effect of treatment with 5.0 mg cetirizine; 2.5 mg levocetirizine, the (R)-enantiomer; and 2.5 mg ucb 28557, the (S)-enantiomer, on histamine-induced wheal and flare response in 18 healthy volunteers. Each treatment was administered as a single oral dose in randomized, double-blind, and crossover manner, and the efficacy of treatment was assessed over a period of 32 h, as per cent inhibition of the histamine-induced wheal and flare areas before treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected in a time-dependent manner and analyzed for the total amounts of each study drug, to elucidate their pharmacokinetic profiles. Both cetirizine and levocetirizine caused a marked inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare, whereas ucb 28557 was inactive in this model. Inhibition of the wheal response observed for cetirizine and levocetirizine was apparent by 1 h after dosage and lasted for mean durations of 24.4 and 28.4 h, respectively. In addition, the response for cetirizine and levocetirizine became maximal by 6 h after treatment, rising to 79.5% and 83.8%. Similarly, cetirizine and levocetirizine also markedly inhibited the histamine-induced flare response. This effect was evident for both drugs by 1 h after dosage and lasted over a mean period of 28.4 and 26.0 h, respectively, for cetirizine and levocetirizine
Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.
Sugisawa, Ryota; Unno, Naoki; Saito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sano, Masaki; Katahashi, Kazuto; Uranaka, Hironori; Marumo, Tomohiko; Konno, Hiroyuki
Abstract Background: Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15?29?mmHg compre...
Chan AW; Yu DS; Choi KC
Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR Purpose: To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. Patients and methods: “Hidden elderly” is a term used to describe older adults w...
Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.
Mooney, Catherine; Raoof, Rana; El-Naggar, Hany; Sanz-Rodriguez, Amaya; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Henshall, David C
MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been identified in various body fluids under normal conditions and their stability as well as their dysregulation in disease opens up a new field for biomarker study. However, diurnal and day-to-day variation in plasma microRNA levels, and differential regulation between males and females, may affect biomarker stability. A QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System was used to profile plasma microRNA levels using OpenArray in male and female healthy volunteers, in the morning and afternoon, and at four time points over a one month period. Using this system we were able to run four OpenArray plates in a single run, the equivalent of 32 traditional 384-well qPCR plates or 12,000 data points. Up to 754 microRNAs can be identified in a single plasma sample in under two hours. 108 individual microRNAs were identified in at least 80% of all our samples which compares favourably with other reports of microRNA profiles in serum or plasma in healthy adults. Many of these microRNAs, including miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-451a are highly expressed and consistent with previous studies using other platforms. Overall, microRNA levels were very consistent between individuals, males and females, and time points and we did not detect significant differences in levels of microRNAs. These results suggest the suitability of this platform for microRNA profiling and biomarker discovery and suggest minimal confounding influence of sex or sample timing. However, the platform has not been subjected to rigorous validation which must be demonstrated in future biomarker studies where large differences may exist between disease and control samples.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been identified in various body fluids under normal conditions and their stability as well as their dysregulation in disease opens up a new field for biomarker study. However, diurnal and day-to-day variation in plasma microRNA levels, and differential regulation between males and females, may affect biomarker stability. A QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System was used to profile plasma microRNA levels using OpenArray in male and female healthy volunteers, in the morning and afternoon, and at four time points over a one month period. Using this system we were able to run four OpenArray plates in a single run, the equivalent of 32 traditional 384-well qPCR plates or 12,000 data points. Up to 754 microRNAs can be identified in a single plasma sample in under two hours. 108 individual microRNAs were identified in at least 80% of all our samples which compares favourably with other reports of microRNA profiles in serum or plasma in healthy adults. Many of these microRNAs, including miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-451a are highly expressed and consistent with previous studies using other platforms. Overall, microRNA levels were very consistent between individuals, males and females, and time points and we did not detect significant differences in levels of microRNAs. These results suggest the suitability of this platform for microRNA profiling and biomarker discovery and suggest minimal confounding influence of sex or sample timing. However, the platform has not been subjected to rigorous validation which must be demonstrated in future biomarker studies where large differences may exist between disease and control samples.
Effects of Upper and Lower Cervical Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Volunteers and Patients With Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-Over, Preliminary Study.
Win, Ni Ni; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S; Chen, Yu Sui; Haneline, Michael T
The aims of this study were to examine autonomic nervous system responses by using heart rate variability analysis (HRV), hemodynamic parameters and numeric pain scale (NPS) when either upper (C1 and C2) or lower (C6 and C7) cervical segments were manipulated in volunteers, and whether such response would be altered in acute mechanical neck pain patients after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). A randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study was conducted on 10 asymptomatic normotensive volunteers and 10 normotensive patients complaining of acute neck pain. HRV, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and NPS were recorded after upper cervical and lower cervical segments SMT in volunteer and patient groups. The standard deviation of average normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN) increased (83.54 ± 22 vs. 105.41 ± 20; P = .02) after upper cervical SMT. The normalized unit of high frequency (nuHF), which shows parasympathetic activity, was predominant (40.18 ± 9 vs. 46.08 ± 14) after upper cervical SMT (P = .03) with a significant decrease (109 ± 10 vs. 98 ± 5) in systolic BP (P = .002). Low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which shows predominance of sympathetic activity increased (1.05 ± 0.7 vs. 1.51 ± 0.5; P = .02) after lower cervical SMT in the healthy volunteers group. However, there was an increase in SDNN (70.48 ± 18 vs. 90.23 ± 20; P = .02 and 75.19 ± 16 vs 97.52 ± 22; P = .01), a decrease in LF/HF ratio (1.33 ± 0.3 vs. 0.81 ± 0.2; P = .001 and 1.22 ± 0.4 vs. 0.86 ± 0.3; P = .02), which was associated with decreased systolic BP (105 ± 10 vs. 95 ± 9; P = .01 and 102 ± 9 vs. 91 ± 10; P = .02) and NPS scores (3 ± 1 vs. 0; P = .01 and 3 ± 1 vs. 1 ± 1; P = .03) following both upper and lower cervical SMT in the patient's group. The baseline HR was 67 ± 9 vs 64 ± 5 (upper cervical) and 65 ± 7 vs 69 ± 11 (lower cervical) in both the healthy volunteer' and patient' groups. Upper cervical SMT enhances dominance of
Full Text Available Self-assessment measures of competency are blends of an authentic self-assessment signal that researchers seek to measure and random disorder or "noise" that accompanies that signal. In this study, we use random number simulations to explore how random noise affects critical aspects of self-assessment investigations: reliability, correlation, critical sample size, and the graphical representations of self-assessment data. We show that graphical conventions common in the self-assessment literature introduce artifacts that invite misinterpretation. Troublesome conventions include: (y minus x vs. (x scatterplots; (y minus x vs. (x column graphs aggregated as quantiles; line charts that display data aggregated as quantiles; and some histograms. Graphical conventions that generate minimal artifacts include scatterplots with a best-fit line that depict (y vs. (x measures (self-assessed competence vs. measured competence plotted by individual participant scores, and (y vs. (x scatterplots of collective average measures of all participants plotted item-by-item. This last graphic convention attenuates noise and improves the definition of the signal. To provide relevant comparisons across varied graphical conventions, we use a single dataset derived from paired measures of 1154 participants' self-assessed competence and demonstrated competence in science literacy. Our results show that different numerical approaches employed in investigating and describing self-assessment accuracy are not equally valid. By modeling this dataset with random numbers, we show how recognizing the varied expressions of randomness in self-assessment data can improve the validity of numeracy-based descriptions of self-assessment.
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
In expanding a 4-H volunteer program, a systematic way of recruiting, training, utilizing, recognizing, and evaluating the program is needed. There is no one right answer to volunteer leadership problems, but it is important to believe that volunteers are available. They have to see the need and be convinced it is worth their attention, so the…
Castellucci, Arthur, Ed.
Five members of a school library administration class developed guidelines for a Volunteer Mother Program in public school libraries. Guidelines were stated for the following aspects of volunteer programs: (1) reasons for using volunteers; (2) introduction to the program; (3) recruitment; (4) qualifications; (5) amount of help needed; (6)…
Sugisawa, Ryota; Unno, Naoki; Saito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sano, Masaki; Katahashi, Kazuto; Uranaka, Hironori; Marumo, Tomohiko; Konno, Hiroyuki
Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15-29 mmHg compression stocking (Stocking A) and a 8-16 mmHg stocking (Stocking B) on elevating Plp. Among 219 healthy female volunteers who underwent measurement of leg Plp, 80 participants (36.5%) had unilateral or bilateral legs with Plp measured using indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and an occlusion cuff technique while sitting. At 16 weeks, both Stockings A and B resulted in significantly elevated leg Plp, with the effect on elevating Plp being superior for Stocking A. Only Stocking A resulted in decreased prevalence of leg edema and improved Short Form-36 scores. Compression stockings may represent a therapeutic option to elevate leg Plp and ameliorate leg edema, thereby leading to improved quality of life in healthy females with low leg Plp.
Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David
at the same time as it is empirically sensitive in the Danish (and Scandinavian) context. We distinguish between the following three types of volunteering: ‘Activity oriented volunteering' includes volunteering within the fields where we find most of the voluntary organizations and associations in Denmark...... (and Scandinavia), that is, sports, hobbies and other culture and leisure activities. Characteristic of this type of volunteering is the focus on the activity and that the membership itself is the prime beneficiary of the collective good being produced. ‘Welfare oriented volunteering' includes...... to be more important for ‘welfare oriented volunteering' since this type aims at improving the welfare of others. References Gronbjerg, Kirsten A. And Brent Never (2004): The Role of Religious Networks and Other Factors in Types of Volunteer Work. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, Vol. 14, No. 3...
Effect of volume loading with 1 liter intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatine (Gelofusine) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) on blood volume and endocrine responses: a randomized, three-way crossover study in healthy volunteers.
Lobo, Dileep N; Stanga, Zeno; Aloysius, Mark M; Wicks, Catherine; Nunes, Quentin M; Ingram, Katharine L; Risch, Lorenz; Allison, Simon P
To study the changes in blood volume and hormones controlling sodium and water homeostasis after infusions of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine (4% succinylated gelatin in 0.7% saline, weight-average molecular weight 30 kD), and Voluven (6% hydroxyethyl starch in 0.9% saline, weight-average molecular weight 130 kD) in healthy volunteers. Randomized, three-way crossover study. University teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult male volunteers. Volunteers received 1-L infusions of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine, and Voluven over 1 hr on three occasions. Body weight, hematocrit, serum biochemistry, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, and total renin were measured before infusion and hourly thereafter for 6 hrs. Changes in body water, blood volume, and extravascular fluid volume were calculated. Although changes in body weight (total body water) after the infusions were similar, blood volume expansion by the two colloids was significantly greater than that produced by 0.9% saline (p < .01). At the end of infusions, 68%, 21%, and 16% of the infused volumes of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine, and Voluven, respectively, had escaped from the intravascular space to the extravascular space. Over the 6 hrs, the magnitude and duration of blood volume expansion by the two colloids were similar (p = .70). There were no significant differences in urinary volume, osmolality, and sodium content after the three infusions. Hormonal changes were similar after the three infusions, with the increase in natriuretic peptide being transient. The reduction in aldosterone and total renin concentrations was more sustained. The effects of Gelofusine and Voluven were similar despite the 100 kD difference in weight-average molecular weight. Excretion of an acute fluid load containing sodium and chloride may be dependent on a sustained suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system rather than on natriuretic peptides.
Adam Mcmahon; Victor Milenkovic
While both volunteer computing and social networks have proved successful, the merging of these two models is a new field: Social Volunteer Computing. A Social Volunteer Computing system utilizes the relationships within a social network to determine how computational resources flow towards tasks that need to be completed, and the results of these computations are added back into the social network as content. Such a system will provide scientists and artists a new facility to obtain computat...
Andersen, H H; Marker, J B; Hoeck, E A; Elberling, J; Arendt-Nielsen, L
Chronic itch is difficult to treat. Low-concentration topical capsaicin (0·006-0·05%) has previously been applied in itch therapy but evidence on its efficacy is contradictory. This vehicle-controlled, double-blinded study investigated the effect of topical capsaicin 8% after 1- and 24-h application on evoked itch, neurogenic inflammation and itch-associated dysaesthesia. Sixteen healthy volunteers (aged 22 ± 0·5 years, nine female) were treated with capsaicin for 1 h and 24 h, and vehicle for 24 h on each volar forearm. Subsequently, histamine (1%, administered prick test lancets) and cowhage (40-45 spicules) were applied to the pretreated areas. Evoked itch and pain intensities were recorded for 10 min using a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm), while sensitivity to touch-evoked itch was evaluated using von Frey filaments before and after itch provocations. Neurogenic inflammation was assessed using perfusion imaging. In the vehicle areas peak itch responses to histamine and cowhage were 4·67 ± 0·58 and 5·15 ± 0·71, respectively. Capsaicin pretreatment reduced peak itch responses to histamine and cowhage after 24-h pretreatment to 1·41 ± 0·58 (P = 0·003) and 0·81 ± 0·18, (P standard 1-h treatment. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the clinical potential of high-concentration capsaicin as an antipruritic. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the level of communicative competence of sport volunteers. Material & Methods: students of Kharkov state academy of physical culture (2–4 courses who are engaged in sports volunteering. The theoretic-methodological analysis of problem is carried out; the technique "Need for communication and achievements", "Self-checking assessment in communication", "Machiavellianism level" is used for studying of indicators of self-assessment. Results: the high level of communicative competence on three indicators is revealed at sport volunteers: need for communication (60,71%, communicative control (57%, Machiavellianism (91% that gives them the chance to come into contacts with people around quickly, to correlate the reactions to behavior of surrounding people and to operate the emotions, at the same time they are inclined to manipulations and demonstration of the strengths at communication with people. Conclusions: the purposeful psychology and pedagogical preparation, which program has to include the communicative block and the block of personal development, is necessary for sport volunteers.
Single-dose bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of polysaccharide iron complex capsules in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers: A sequence-randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study.
Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Hong; Su, Feng; Lui, Ying-Tao; Li, Jun-Feng
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common nutritional disease worldwide. Iron supplementation is an efficient method for treating patients with IDA. Polysaccharide iron complex is an oral iron supplement that is associated with generally good tolerability and good bioavailability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of 2 branded formulations of polysaccharide iron complex in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers by determining the pharmacokinetic parameters after single-dose oral admi ni strati on. This sequence-randomized, double-blind, 2-way crossover study was carried out in the Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Healthy adult male Chinese volunteers were enrolled and evenly randomized to receive 1 of 2 formulations on day 1. Subjects received an oral dose of 150 mg (1 capsule) of polysaccharide iron complex with 150 mL of warm water in the morning. Capsules were of similar size, shape, and color to ensure blinding. Four hours after administration, the subjects were given standardized meals. After a 1-week washout period, the subjects were crossed over to receive the other formulation in a similar manner. The serum iron concentration 12 hours after study drug administration was determined using atomic-absorption spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were obtained and analyzed using the Schuir mann 2 one-sided t test. The 2 formulations were considered bioequi valent if the test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and their 90% CIs were within the range of 70% to 143% for Cmax and within 80% to 125% for AUC0-t. Tolerability was monitored by inquiring whether the subjects had experienced adverse events (AEs), with a focus on gastrointestinal AEs, during the clinic visits during the 24-hour period after drag administration and subsequently via telephone throughout the study. Thirty adult male Chinese volunteers were assessed for inclusion. Twenty healthy
Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.
Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen
Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and
Bioequivalence and comparison of pharmacokinetic properties of 4-mg tablet formulations of rosiglitazone hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers.
Yu, Jia; Ma, Ke; Qi, Jinwen; Jin, Ge; Wang, Yan; Fang, Shungan; Li, Gonghua
Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing oral thiazolidinedione used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are 9 oral generic and branded formulations of rosiglitazone available in the People's Republic of China (PRC); however, a literature search did not identify any published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Chinese population. The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and determine the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of rosiglitazone 4-mg tablets-rosiglitazone hydrochloride (test) and rosiglitazone maleate (reference)-in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, PRC. Healthy adult male Chinese volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single 4-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a >or=12-hour (overnight) fast. Plasma was analyzed for rosiglitazone concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity), blood samples were drawn before (0 hour; baseline) and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the logarithm-normal (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80% to 125%, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was assessed using physical examination, including monitoring of vital signs, laboratory testing (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, renal function, and urinalysis), and questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty subjects were enrolled and completed the study (mean [SD] age, 21.1 [1.4] years
Zhu, YuBing; Zou, JianJun; Xiao, DaWei; Fan, HongWei; Yu, CuiXia; Zhang, JingJing; Yang, Jing; Guo, DaQing
Glucosamine sulfate is used for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The available evidence suggests differences in its pharmacokinetics in Chinese subjects compared with non-Chinese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of glucosamine sulfate 500 mg after single oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-way crossover study was performed at the First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 500-mg dose of the test or reference capsule formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Glucosamine sulfate was assayed using a liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were obtained at intervals over a 14-hour period after study drug administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (70%-143% for C(max) and 80%-125% for AUC) as established by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis), and by questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty-two healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled (mean [range] age, 24 [22-26] years; weight, 63.9 [58.5-69.3] kg; height, 172 [167-177] cm); all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)) were 93.4 to 127.3, 92.4 to 114
Kato, Takayuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kurita, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Kessoku, Takaomi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ogawa, Yuji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Usuda, Haruki; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi
The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome." As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose. Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day) for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR) after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points. The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group). The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, -0.022--0.0001; p = 0.049). Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination. This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate "leaky gut syndrome". However, a pivotal trial is needed to confirm
Full Text Available The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome." As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose.Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points.The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group. The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, -0.022--0.0001; p = 0.049. Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination.This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate "leaky gut syndrome". However, a pivotal trial is needed
Full Text Available SRT2104 has been developed as a selective small molecule activator of SIRT1, a NAD(+-dependent deacetylase involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and the modulation of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. SIRT1 has been suggested as putative therapeutic target in multiple age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemias. We report the first clinical trial of SRT2104 in elderly volunteers.Oral doses of 0.5 or 2.0 g SRT2104 or matching placebo were administered once daily for 28 days. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected through 24 hours post-dose on days 1 and 28. Multiple pharmacodynamic endpoints were explored with oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, serum lipid profiles, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for assessment of whole body visceral and subcutaneous fat, maximal aerobic capacity test and muscle 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS for estimation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity.SRT2104 was generally safe and well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic exposure increased less than dose-proportionally. Mean Tmax was 2-4 hours with elimination half-life of 15-20 hours. Serum cholesterol, LDL levels and triglycerides decreased with treatment. No significant changes in OGTT responses were observed. 31P MRS showed trends for more rapid calculated adenosine diphosphate (ADP and phosphocreatine (PCr recoveries after exercise, consistent with increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.SRT2104 can be safely administered in elderly individuals and has biological effects in humans that are consistent with SIRT1 activation. The results of this study support further development of SRT2104 and may be useful in dose selection for future clinical trials in patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00964340.
Hoffman, Hillary Elizabeth; Jirásková, Jana; Zvelebil, M.; Konvalinka, Jan
Roč. 75, č. 1 (2010), s. 59-79 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : D-serine * serine racemase * random mutagenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010
Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…
Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen
Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…
Brennan, Barbara J; Xu, Zhi-Xin; Grippo, Joseph F
Interferon (IFN)-based therapy is the recommended treatment for hepatitis C virus. Because pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a is administered subcutaneously, it is of interest to determine the proportion of the dose that is absorbed from the subcutaneous (SC) tissue and ultimately reaches systemic circulation. The goal of this study was to characterize the absolute bioavailability of PEG-IFN alfa-2a (40 kDa) after SC dosing (180 μg) and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of PEG-IFN alfa-2a after intravenous (IV) and SC administration. In this parallel-group study, 18 participants were given a single IV dose of PEG-IFN alfa-2a 90 μg and 18 participants received PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg SC. Serum concentrations of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were measured predose and serially until 312 hours after the first dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters (CL/F, volume of distribution, C(max), and T(max)) were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Bioavailability was calculated by using the following formula: (AUC(SC)/AUC(IV)) · (dose(IV)/dose(SC)). Eighteen healthy males received IV PEG-IFN alfa-2a, and an additional 18 healthy males received SC PEG-IFN alfa-2a. Subjects in each group had comparable mean weight, height, and body mass index. After IV administration of PEG-IFN alfa-2a (90 μg), there was a slow decline in serum concentration, the mean rate of systemic clearance was low at 126 mL/h, and the estimated mean volume of distribution at steady state was 9 L. After SC administration of PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg, absorption was sustained, with mean T(max) occurring 102 hours after administration. The mean absolute bioavailability was 84%. A higher rate of influenza-like symptoms was observed after IV administration, along with decreased neutrophil counts, compared with subjects who underwent SC dosing. Approximately 84% of a SC-administered dose of PEG-IFN alfa-2a reached the systemic circulation in these male healthy volunteers. The slow absorption, restricted distribution, and slow
Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Holik, Alexander; Spindelegger, Christoph; Stein, Patrycja; Moser, Ulrike; Gerstl, Florian; Fink, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Kasper, Siegfried
Area-specific and stimulation-dependent changes of human brain activation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are an important issue for improved understanding of treatment mechanisms, given the frequent prescription of these drugs in depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to investigate differences in BOLD-signal caused by administration of the SSRIs escitalopram and citalopram using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI). Eighteen healthy subjects participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study in cross-over repeated measures design. Each volunteer performed facial emotional discrimination and a sensorimotor control paradigm during three scanning sessions. Citalopram (20 mg/d), escitalopram (10 mg/d) and placebo were administered for 10 days each with a drug-free period of at least 21 days. Significant pharmacological effects on BOLD-signal were found in the amygdala, medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal, fusiform and middle temporal gyri. Post-hoc t-tests revealed decreased BOLD-signal in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus in both pharmacological conditions, compared to placebo. Escitalopram, compared to citalopram, induced a decrease of BOLD-signal in the medial frontal gyrus and an increase in the right fusiform and left parahippocampal gyri. Drug effects were concentrated in brain regions with dense serotonergic projections. Both escitalopram and citalopram attenuated BOLD-signal in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex to emotionally significant stimuli compared to control stimuli. We believe that reduced reactivity in the medial frontal gyrus found for escitalopram compared to citalopram administration might explain the response differences between study drugs as demonstrated in previous clinical trials.
Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of avanafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor: a single- and multiple-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in healthy Korean male volunteers.
Jung, Jinah; Choi, Sangmin; Cho, Sang Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Hwang, Aekyung; Kim, Unjib; Kim, Bong Sik; Koguchi, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Shinji; Okabe, Hirotaka; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok
Avanafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This study was conducted to meet Korean regulatory requirements for the marketing of avanafil. To this end, tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of single and multiple oral doses of avanafil in healthy Korean male volunteers were assessed. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-escalation study was conducted at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Subjects were randomized to receive either drug or placebo in blocks according to each dose. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive 50-, 100-, or 200-mg tablets of avanafil or placebo once daily for 7 days (avanafil:placebo, 8:2 in each dose group). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and results of laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, and color discrimination tests. Blood samples of approximately 6 mL were collected in heparinized tubes before and 0.1, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration on days 1 and 7. Plasma concentrations of avanafil were measured using LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of avanafil on days 1 and 7 were determined by noncompartmental analysis and compared among the 3 dose groups. Of the 32 healthy male subjects initially enrolled, 30 completed the study. The mean (SD) age, height, and weight of the participants were 23.4 (1.7) years, 175.0 (5.4) cm, and 70.3 (8.9) kg, respectively. Adverse events were reported by 20 of 25 subjects (80%) taking avanafil and by 4 of 6 (67%) taking placebo. No serious adverse events were reported, and there were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs, ECG recordings, physical examination findings, or color discrimination test results. All the adverse events resolved spontaneously. Avanafil reached a mean T(max) at 0.33 to 0.52 hour after dosing and then declined, with a mean apparent t1/2 of 5.36 to 10.66 hours. AUC and C(max) were proportional
Full Text Available Objective & Background: To determine the effect of the dynamic platform lateral step-up and stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in strengthening of hip abductor. Many researchers have reported that strengthening of hip muscles as important component especially hip abductors in lower extremity rehabilitation program. Study Design: Single blinded randomized comparative clinical trial. Methodology: Sixty five healthy college going male subjects (Age group of 18 – 24 years volunteered for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups. One group received the dynamic platform lateral step-up and the other received stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise. The strength measurements were recorded using hand held dynamometer. Results: The results indicate that both groups had a positive effect on the outcome measures. The strength of hip abductors in dynamic platform group improved from a mean value (SD of 19.47(3.59 to 26.93(3.19 and in stable platform group from 19.07(2.32 to 22.67(2.46. Significant difference is also observed between the two groups at p value .05. Conclusion: The study shows that dynamic platform lateral step-up exercise is more beneficial than stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in improving hip abductor muscle strength.
Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans MPS1 is a single transmembrane helical auxiliary subunit that co-localizes with the voltage-gated potassium channel KVS1 in the nematode nervous system. MPS-1 shares high homology with KCNE (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member auxiliary subunits, and its cytosolic domain was reported to have a serine/threonine kinase activity that modulates KVS1 channel function via phosphorylation. In this study, NMR spectroscopy indicated that the full length and truncated MPS-1 cytosolic domain (134-256 in the presence or absence of n-dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles adopted a highly flexible random coil secondary structure. In contrast, protein kinases usually adopt a stable folded conformation in order to implement substrate recognition and phosphoryl transfer. The highly flexible random coil secondary structure suggests that MPS-1 in the free state is unstructured but may require a substrate or binding partner to adopt stable structure required for serine/threonine kinase activity.
Boyle, Yvonne; Fernando, Disala; Kurz, Hazel; Miller, Sam R; Zucchetto, Mauro; Storey, James
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period cross-over, 4-treatment option, incomplete block study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01485185), with an adaptive design for sample size re-estimation, was designed to evaluate gabapentin plus donepezil in an established experimental model of electrical hyperalgesia. Thirty healthy male subjects aged 18-55 years were randomized to receive gabapentin 900 mg or gabapentin 900 mg+donepezil 5mg for 2 of the 3 treatment periods, with 50% of subjects randomized to receive placebo (negative control) and 50% to gabapentin 1800 mg (positive control) for the remaining period. Each treatment period was 14 days. Gabapentin or corresponding placebo was administered on Day 13 and the morning of Day 14. Donepezil or corresponding placebo was administered nocturnally from Day 1-13 and the morning of Day 14. Co-primary endpoints were the area of pinprick hyperalgesia (260 mN von Frey filament) and allodynia (stroking by cotton bud) evoked by electrical hyperalgesia on Day 14. Gabapentin 1800 mg (n=14) significantly reduced the area of allodynia vs placebo (n=14; -12.83 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI] -23.14 to -2.53; P=0.015) with supportive results for hyperalgesia (-14.04 cm(2); 95% CI -28.49-0.41; P=0.057), validating the electrical hyperalgesia model. Gabapentin+donepezil (n=30) significantly reduced the area of hyperalgesia vs gabapentin 900 mg (n=30; -11.73 cm(2); 95% CI -21.04 to -2.42; P=0.014), with supportive results for allodynia (-6.62 cm(2); 95% CI -13.29-0.04; P=0.052). The adverse event profile for gabapentin+donepezil was similar to the same dose of gabapentin. Data are supportive of further clinical investigation of a gabapentin-and-donepezil combination in patients with an inadequate response to gabapentin. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fedashchin, Andrij; Cernota, William H; Gonzalez, Melissa C; Leach, Benjamin I; Kwan, Noelle; Wesley, Roy K; Weber, J Mark
A single cycle of strain improvement was performed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB and 15 genotypes influencing erythromycin production were found. Genotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis appeared in the screen at a frequency of ~3%. Mutations affecting central metabolism and regulatory genes were found, as well as hydrolases, peptidases, glycosyl transferases and unknown genes. Only one mutant retained high erythromycin production when scaled-up from micro-agar plug fermentations to shake flasks. This mutant had a knockout of the cwh1 gene (SACE_1598), encoding a cell-wall-associated hydrolase. The cwh1 knockout produced visible growth and morphological defects on solid medium. This study demonstrated that random transposon mutagenesis uncovers strain improvement-related genes potentially useful for strain engineering. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.
Tay, Tuan Leng; Mai, Dominic; Dautzenberg, Jana; Fernández-Klett, Francisco; Lin, Gen; Sagar; Datta, Moumita; Drougard, Anne; Stempfl, Thomas; Ardura-Fabregat, Alberto; Staszewski, Ori; Margineanu, Anca; Sporbert, Anje; Steinmetz, Lars M; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Jung, Steffen; Priller, Josef; Grün, Dominic; Ronneberger, Olaf; Prinz, Marco
Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease. Our findings suggest that microglia establish a dense network with regional differences, and the high regional turnover rates found challenge the universal concept of microglial longevity. Microglial self-renewal under steady state conditions constitutes a stochastic process. During pathology this randomness shifts to selected clonal microglial expansion. In the resolution phase, excess disease-associated microglia are removed by a dual mechanism of cell egress and apoptosis to re-establish the stable microglial network. This study unravels the dynamic yet discrete self-organization of mature microglia in the healthy and diseased CNS.
Department of Transportation — Allows users to add themselves to a Service Area wide ?volunteer for emergency duty? list (was created after Gulf Coast Hurricanes). Approval and email by managers,...
Full Text Available A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST. Visual Analog Mood Scale and Self-Statements during Public Speaking scale were used to measure the mood state at different phases of the SPST. The psychometric scores of both groups were comparable at baseline. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of phase (p<0.05, but group and gender did not have statistically significant influence on the mean anxiety scores. However, the test group showed a trend towards lower mean scores for the anxiety factor when compared with the control group. Considering the limitations of this pilot study and the trend seen towards lower anxiety in the test group, alternate nostril breathing may have potential anxiolytic effect in acute stressful situations. A study with larger sample size is therefore warranted. This trial is registered with CTRI/2014/03/004460.
Pflanz, C Patrick; Pringle, Abbie; Filippini, Nicola; Warren, Matthew; Gottwald, Julia; Cowen, Phil J; Harmer, Catherine J
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, are anxiolytic-sedative drugs, used for the treatment of several different disorders. The pharmacological mechanism of action of benzodiazepines is well understood; however, it remains unclear which neural networks and systems are involved in translating these neurochemical actions into their therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 7-day diazepam administration compared to placebo on resting-state functional connectivity in healthy adults independent of any task. Thirty-four healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either diazepam (N = 17) or placebo (15 mg daily for 7 days) and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance acquisition. Model-free data analysis was performed using independent component analysis and dual regression. Consistent with previous research, 11 resting-state networks were identified. Increased connectivity in response to diazepam administration was found in the medial visual network and middle/inferior temporal network. Diazepam did not cause any decreases in functional connectivity. Diazepam administration increases functional connectivity in areas of emotional processing independent of any task. Diazepam also enhanced functional connectivity in the medial visual system, which is a brain region rich in GABAA receptors, and shows high binding of GABAergic drugs. These increases in functional connectivity are characteristic of CNS depressants.
Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia
Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison of a single 100-mg dose of cefteram pivoxil powder suspension and tablet formulations: a randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.
Zou, Jianjun; Di, Bin; Wu, Chun Yong; Hu, Qin; Li, Jian Hua; Zhu, Yubing; Fan, Hongwei; Xiao, DaWei; Wang, Guang Ji
Cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI) is an oral antibiotic available in powder suspension and tablet formulations indicated in China for the treatment of bacterial infections. Although these 2 formulations are marketed in China, published information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in the Chinese population is not available. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the powder suspension (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of CFTM-PI 100 mg available in China. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 100-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Plasma was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to 6 hours (AUC(0-6)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were obtained at intervals over the 6-hour period after study drug administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis), and by questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty-four Chinese male subjects (mean [range] age,24.2 [23-32] years;weight,64.3 [58-67] kg; height, 172 [167-185] cm) enrolled; all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max), AUC(0-6;), and
Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses
Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Liu, Dongzhou J
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a first-line treatment for mild and moderate pain. A twice-daily sustained-release (SR) formulation may be more convenient for chronic users than standard immediate-release (IR) acetaminophen. This randomized, 3-way crossover study evaluated pharmacokinetics and safety of single-dose 1500- and 2000-mg SR acetaminophen formulations and 2 doses of IR acetaminophen 1000 mg given 6 hours apart in healthy adults (n = 14). Primary outcome was time that plasma acetaminophen concentration was ≥4 μg/mL (T C≥4μg/mL ). Key secondary outcomes were area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to time t, when plasma acetaminophen was detectable (AUC 0-t ), AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-inf ), and maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (C max ). T C≥4μg/mL from 2000-mg SR acetaminophen was similar to that from 2 doses of IR acetaminophen, whereas T C≥4μg/mL for 1500-mg SR acetaminophen was significantly shorter than that for IR acetaminophen (P = .004). The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 2000-mg SR and 2 doses of the IR formulation was similar and within bioequivalence limits with regard to AUC 0-12 , AUC 0-t , and AUC 0-inf . The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 1500-mg SR was significantly lower than that from IR acetaminophen. The 2000-mg SR represents a potential candidate formulation for 12-hour dosing with acetaminophen. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Konagai, Chizuru; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Koga, Yoshihiko
Krill oil, rich in n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) incorporated in phosphatidylcholine, has been reported to have many effects on physiological function. However, there are few studies using psychophysiological methods published that describe the effects of krill oil on brain function. We investigated the influence of ingestion of krill oil on cognitive function in elderly subjects by using near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study design was adopted. Forty-five healthy elderly males aged 61-72 years were assigned to receive 12 weeks of treatment with: medium-chain triglycerides as placebo; krill oil, which is rich in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in phosphatidylcholine; or sardine oil, which is abundant in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in triglycerides. Changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the cerebral cortex during memory and calculation tasks were measured. The P300 component of event-related potentials was also measured during a working memory task. During the working memory task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil and sardine oil groups were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. The differential value for P300 latency in the krill oil group was significantly lower than that in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. With regard to the calculation task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil group were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. This study provides evidence that n-3 PUFAs activate cognitive function in the elderly. This is especially the case with krill oil, in which the majority of n-3 PUFAs are incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, causing it to be more effective than sardine oil, in which n-3 PUFAs are present as triglycerides.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A33 is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (VACV. Passive transfer of A33-directed monoclonal antibodies or vaccination with an A33 subunit vaccine confers protection against lethal poxvirus challenge in animal models. Homologs of A33 are highly conserved among members of the Orthopoxvirus genus and are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines or assays targeting extracellular enveloped virus activity. One monoclonal antibody directed against VACV A33, MAb-1G10, has been shown to target a conformation-dependent epitope. Interestingly, while it recognizes VACV A33 as well as the corresponding variola homolog, it does not bind to the monkeypox homolog. In this study, we utilized a random phage display library to investigate the epitope recognized by MAb-1G10 that is critical for facilitating cell-to-cell spread of the vaccinia virus. Results By screening with linear or conformational random phage libraries, we found that phages binding to MAb-1G10 display the consensus motif CEPLC, with a disulfide bond formed between two cysteine residues required for MAb-1G10 binding. Although the phage motif contained no linear sequences homologous to VACV A33, structure modeling and analysis suggested that residue D115 is important to form the minimal epitope core. A panel of point mutants expressing the ectodomain of A33 protein was generated and analyzed by either binding assays such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation or a functional assessment by blocking MAb-1G10 mediated comet inhibition in cell culture. Conclusions These results confirm L118 as a component of the MAb-1G10 binding epitope, and further identify D115 as an essential residue. By defining the minimum conformational structure, as well as the conformational arrangement of a short peptide sequence recognized by MAb-1G10, these results introduce the possibility of designing small molecule mimetics that may
Full Text Available Chizuru Konagai,1,2 Kenichi Yanagimoto,3 Kohsuke Hayamizu,3 Li Han,3 Tomoko Tsuji,3 Yoshihiko Koga2 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women's University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan; 3Human Life Science R&D Center, Nippon Suisan Kaisha Ltd, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Krill oil, rich in n-3 (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs incorporated in phosphatidylcholine, has been reported to have many effects on physiological function. However, there are few studies using psychophysiological methods published that describe the effects of krill oil on brain function. We investigated the influence of ingestion of krill oil on cognitive function in elderly subjects by using near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study design was adopted. Forty-five healthy elderly males aged 61–72 years were assigned to receive 12 weeks of treatment with: medium-chain triglycerides as placebo; krill oil, which is rich in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in phosphatidylcholine; or sardine oil, which is abundant in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in triglycerides. Changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the cerebral cortex during memory and calculation tasks were measured. The P300 component of event-related potentials was also measured during a working memory task. Results: During the working memory task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil and sardine oil groups were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. The differential value for P300 latency in the krill oil group was significantly lower than that in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. With regard to the calculation task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil group were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12
Full Text Available Objective To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 hours, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 minutes. A single oral dose (100 mg of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0- were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80%-125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference, AUC0-t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL and AUC0- was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL. The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference were 93.0-102.0% for Cmax, 96.7-103.2% for AUC0-t and 96.1-103.5% for AUC0-. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of Trazodone under fed condition.
Michael R Marit
Full Text Available The non-receptor tyrosine kinase JAK2 is implicated in a group of myeloproliferative neoplasms including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. JAK2-selective inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Data from drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia patients demonstrate that treatment with a small-molecule inhibitor generates resistance via mutation or amplification of BCR-ABL. We hypothesize that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 will similarly generate inhibitor-resistant mutants in JAK2.In order to identify inhibitor-resistant JAK2 mutations a priori, we utilized TEL-JAK2 to conduct an in vitro random mutagenesis screen for JAK2 alleles resistant to JAK Inhibitor-I. Isolated mutations were evaluated for their ability to sustain cellular growth, stimulate downstream signaling pathways, and phosphorylate a novel JAK2 substrate in the presence of inhibitor.Mutations were found exclusively in the kinase domain of JAK2. The panel of mutations conferred resistance to high concentrations of inhibitor accompanied by sustained activation of the Stat5, Erk1/2, and Akt pathways. Using a JAK2 substrate, enhanced catalytic activity of the mutant JAK2 kinase was observed in inhibitor concentrations 200-fold higher than is inhibitory to the wild-type protein. When testing the panel of mutations in the context of the Jak2 V617F allele, we observed that a subset of mutations conferred resistance to inhibitor, validating the use of TEL-JAK2 in the initial screen. These results demonstrate that small-molecule inhibitors select for JAK2 inhibitor-resistant alleles, and the design of next-generation JAK2 inhibitors should consider the location of mutations arising in inhibitor-resistant screens.
Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic comparison of a single 200-mg dose of meclofenoxate hydrochloride capsule and tablet formulations in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers: a randomized sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study.
Zou, Jian-Jun; Ji, Hong-Jian; Wu, Ding-Wei; Yao, Jing; Hu, Qin; Xiao, Da-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ji
Meclofenoxate hydrochloride is a psychostimulant in the nootropic agent group available in capsule and tablet formulations approved for traumatic cataphora, alcoholic poisoning, anoxia neonatorum, and children's enuresis in China. Although these 2 generic formulations are marketed in China, information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in humans has not been published. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of the capsule (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of meclofenoxate hydrochloride 200 mg in healthy Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. As a prodrug, meclofenoxate is hydrolyzed into 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and is not detected in plasma. The active metabolite of meclofenoxate, chlorophenoxyacetic acid, was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-infinity, blood samples were obtained at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, and 24 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Subjects were interviewed concerning the occurrence of adverse events including excitement, insomnia, lassitude, and headache. Tolerability was assessed at baseline (before administration) and at 1, 2, 6, and 12 hours after administration by monitoring vital signs
Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.
Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Yong-Oh; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang
Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine. Regulatory authorities requested evaluation of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between these entities, according to the drug-development guidance for fixed-dose combination formulations in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, single-dose crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. All volunteers were randomly assigned to a sequence group for the 2 treatments, which consisted of ticlopidine 250 mg alone and ticlopidine 250 mg with Ginkgo biloba extract 80 mg, separated by a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Bleeding time was determined just before dosing and at 5, 12, and 48 hours after dosing. Platelet aggregation was evaluated before dosing and at 4, 8, 26, and 48 hours after dosing. Blood samples (8 mL) from each of the volunteers were collected from an indwelling intravenous cannula inserted into a forearm vein before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after dosing. Ticlopidine concentrations were determined by a validated method using HPLC and ultraviolet detection. Adverse events were identified using general health-related questions, vital signs, physical examinations, ECGs, and laboratory tests. A total of 24 healthy men participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.3] years; weight, 66.6 [7.4] kg; height, 174.7 [5.0] cm). The baseline corrected bleeding times were not significantly different between the ticlopidine-alone and ticlopidine/ Ginkgo biloba groups, and changes in platelet aggregation were not significantly different between the groups. Likewise, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine were not significantly different
Liu, Ming-Yan; Wang, Shuang; Yao, Wei-Fan; Wu, Hui-zhe; Meng, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Min-Jie
Arbidol is an antiviral drug indicated for the prevention and treatment of all types of influenza infection and some other kinds of acute respiratory infections, specifically against influenza groups A and B, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. It is used to help prevent influenza infection as long as necessary with little risk for influenza mutation rendering it less effective. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability, and to determine bioequivalence, of a newly developed generic dispersible tablet formulation (test) and a branded capsule formulation (reference) of arbidol 200 mg in healthy Chinese fasted male volunteers. This open-label, single-dose, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy native Chinese male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. After the study drug administration, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours after administration. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Several pharmacokinetic pararameters, including C(max), T(max), t((1/2)), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity), were determined from the plasma concentrations of the 2 formulations of arbidol using noncompartmental analysis. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125% established by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of the People's Republic of China. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiography), laboratory analysis (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and
Haider, Sandra; Dorner, Thomas E; Luger, Eva; Kapan, Ali; Titze, Sylvia; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin E
A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the effects of a home-based physical and nutritional intervention program carried out by lay-volunteers to home visits with social support alone. Buddies visited 80 prefrail or frail older persons at home twice a week for 12 weeks. The physical training and nutrition group (PTN, n = 39) performed two sets of six strength exercises, discussed nutritional topics and received social support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 41) received home visits with social support only. In the PTN group, handgrip strength increased significantly by 2.4 kg (95% CI: 1.0-3.8). In the SoSu group we did not see a significant improvement. However, no significant between-group difference was found. Physical performance increased in both groups, although with a higher increase of 1.0 point (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) in the PTN group. In none of the groups muscle mass changed. Further results showed that frail individuals benefit more from the intervention than prefrail individuals (OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01-7.66). Handgrip strength in the intervention group increased by a clinically relevant value and this effect is comparable to that obtained by health-care professionals. Therefore, home visits with a physical training and nutritional program could offer a new perspective in the care of community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons.
A randomized, crossover study to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of inhaled fluticasone furoate and umeclidinium, administered separately and in combination via dry powder inhaler in healthy adult volunteers.
Yang, Shuying; Lee, Laurie; Mallett, Stephen; Ayer, Jonathan; Wolstenholme, Allen; Pascoe, Steven
A combination of fluticasone furoate (FF) and umeclidinium (UMEC) has been considered for development for the treatment of asthma. The primary objectives were to investigate the plasma and urine pharmacokinetics (PK) of FF/UMEC in combination compared with FF and UMEC monotherapies. This randomized, double-blind, three-period crossover, single-center study in healthy volunteers assessed the PK of FF 400 mcg and UMEC 500 mcg administered separately and in combination (four inhalations of FF/UMEC 100/125 mcg, FF 100 mcg, or UMEC 125 mcg) via dual-strip dry powder inhaler. Subjects were randomized based on codes generated using a validated computerized system (Randall, GlaxoSmithKline). Eighteen subjects were enrolled; 17 received all three scheduled doses of study medication. Plasma FF and UMEC concentrations peaked at 0.5 and 0.08 h post-dose, respectively, for FF/UMEC and the monotherapies. FF and UMEC co-administration resulted in slightly lower or similar systemic exposure for both drugs versus the monotherapies. In post hoc sensitivity analyses (performed because two subjects administered inhalations incorrectly), the ratio of adjusted geometric means (maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve) was closer to unity than in the planned analyses. Cumulative urinary UMEC excretion (Ae) was similar for FF/UMEC and UMEC. Post hoc sensitivity analyses on Ae(0-24) suggested a small carryover effect but results were similar to those of the population as a whole. Urinary UMEC excretion following FF/UMEC was low (~1.5% over 24 h) and unlikely to have impacted upon PK comparisons. Three adverse events were reported; none were severe or led to withdrawal. There were no clinically significant effects on electrocardiogram, vital sign, or laboratory parameters. Fluticasone furoate and umeclidinium co-administration was well tolerated and was not associated with meaningful changes in systemic or urinary PK versus the monotherapies. GlaxoSmithKline.
Continuous Transversus Abdominis Plane Nerve Blocks: Does Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method-Automatic Repeated Bolus Versus Continuous Basal Infusion-Influence the Extent of Sensation to Cold?: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Crossover Study in Volunteers.
Khatibi, Bahareh; Said, Engy T; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Monahan, Amanda M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Furnish, Timothy J; Tran, Johnathan T; Donohue, Michael C; Ilfeld, Brian M
It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours. The right side was randomly assigned to either a basal infusion (8 mL/h) or bolus doses (24 mL administered every 3 hours for a total of 2 bolus doses) in a double-masked manner. The left side received the alternate treatment. The primary end point was the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller along the axillary line at hour 6 (6 hours after the local anesthetic administration was initiated). Secondary end points included the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller and Von Frey filaments along the axillary line and along a transverse line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine at hours 0 to 6. Although there were statistically significant differences between treatments within the earlier part of the administration period, by hour 6 the difference in extent of sensory deficit to cold failed to reach statistical significance along the axillary line (mean = 0.9 cm; SD = 6.8; 95% confidence interval -2.0 to 3.8; P = .515) and transverse line (mean = 2.5 cm; SD = 10.1; 95% confidence interval -1.8 to 6.8; P = .244). Although the difference between treatments was statistically significant at various early time points for the horizontal, vertical, and estimated area measurements of both cold and mechanical pressure sensory deficits, no comparison remained statistically significant by hour 6. No evidence was found in this study involving healthy volunteers to support the hypothesis that changing the local anesthetic
Bioequivalence of two levothyroxine tablet formulations without and with mathematical adjustment for basal thyroxine levels in healthy Argentinian volunteers: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, crossover study.
Di Girolamo, Guillermo; Keller, Guillermo A; de Los Santos, Antonio R; Schere, Daniel; Gonzalez, Claudio D
Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic index; therefore, precise and accurate assessment of the bioequivalence of different levothyroxine products is critical. Bioavailability estimates of levothyroxine formulations might be affected by baseline concentrations of the hormone. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 100 microg of a test (T4 Montpellier 100, Química Montpellier S.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina) and reference (Synthroid, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois) formulation of levothyroxine. We also compared 2 methods of levothyroxine measurements: without and with baseline correction for endogenous levothyroxine. This randomized, open-label, 2-sequence, crossover study with a 65-day washout period was carried out in healthy, white, euthyroid volunteers following a single dose of sodium levothyroxine 600 microg. Blood samples were collected at 30 and 15 minutes prior to administration, and 0 (baseline), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours to determine thyroxine; serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were determined 30 minutes before administration and 48 hours after administration. Serum concentrations of thyroxine were determined through radioimmunoassay and serum TSH concentrations were determined by a validated 2-site immunoradiometric assay. The formulations are considered to be equivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) and AUC(0-last) are within 80% to 125%, per the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Adverse event monitoring was performed throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (eg, blood pressure, electrocardiogram) and patient reports. A total of 24 volunteers (16 male, 8 female; mean [SD] age, 30.2 [4.6] years [range, 21-40 years]; mean [SD] weight, 71.71 [7.52] kg [range, 58-83 kg]) were included in the study. Without adjustment for baseline levels of endogenous levothyroxine, geometric mean C(max) for the test and reference formulations were 8.92 and 9.39 microg/dL, respectively
Rhodesia, the effect of these conflicts on the Afrikaners and their participation in. Rhodesian military forces is ... belonging to the Ulster Volunteer Force proved their loyalty to the British crown.3. Although it can be argued at ..... Brand fought back determinedly with the Afrikaner Corps on the right-hand side of Tuli Road, while ...
Additional volunteer middle managers to work with extension agents in Four-H Clubs are needed for effective organizational structure and quality programs. The article discusses the value of these middle managers and their recruitment, selection, training, use, recognition, and evaluation. (MF)
Partly because of continuing disillusionment over stringent policy regarding native livestock, hostilities between ... native blacks as collaborators in maintaining white military and political power in. Rhodesia. Consequently ... of necessity, is the Irish paramilitary unit, known as the Ulster Volunteer Force. Before and during the ...
CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...
Zhang, Qian; Tao, Yifu; Zhu, Yubing; Zhu, Dingchun
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), so clinical studies measure the circulating plasma MPA concentration instead of MMF. MPA is extensively glucuronidated by several uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases into an inactive 7-O-glucuronide and a pharmacologically active acylglucuronide. Considering the effect of racial differences and genetic factors on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of drugs, it is necessary to study them in Chinese populations. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical bioequivalence and PK properties of a test (dispersible tablets) and reference (capsules) formulation of MMF 1.0 g in healthy Chinese volunteers. We also established a validated HPLC method for the determination and quantification of MPA in human plasma. The study was required to obtain Chinese regulatory approval for the test formulation. This open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-way crossover study was conducted at the First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 1.0-g dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The plasma concentration of MPA, which is the active metabolite of MMF, was determined using a validated HPLC method. For analysis of PK properties, blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 minutes, and 1, 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 11, 18, 36, and 48 hour(s). The PK parameters, including C(max), T(max), t((1/2)), AUC(0-48), and AUC(0-infinity), were determined from the plasma concentrations of the 2 formulations by noncompartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed at baseline (be- fore administration) and at 30 minutes and 1, 5, 18, and 48 hours after administration by monitoring vital signs. Laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis) were performed for the
Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two compound formulations of 1500 mg ampicillin (1167 mg)/probenecid (333 mg): a randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.
Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Mingyan; Wang, Shuang; Feng, Wanyu; Yao, Weifan; Zhao, Haishan; Wei, Minjie
Ampicillin/probenecid is an antimicrobial formulation indicated for the treatment of respiratory, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. Ampicillin sodium is the active antimicrobial ingredient that can act on the phase of bacterial breeding and inhibit the biosynthesis of bacterial mucopeptide in the cell wall. Probenecid acts synergistically by competitively inhibiting an organic anion transporter in renal tubules, increasing the plasma concentrations, and thus extending the plasma elimination t(1/2). The aim of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of ampicillin/ probenecid with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese male volunteers. A randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy Chinese male volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 6 dispersible tablets (test) or branded capsules (reference) (1500 mg total; 250 mg each containing ampicillin 194.5 mg and probenecid 55.5 mg), followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Plasma samples were collected over a 24-hour period following administration and analyzed for ampicillin and probenecid content by HPLC. PK parameters such as C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were also determined. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of the log-transformed C(max) and AUC values were within the equivalence range (80%-125%) predetermined by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of the People's Republic of China. Tolerability was based on the observation of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, electrocardiography) and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, urinalysis), and subject
Edwards, Clinton B.; Eynaud, Yoan; Williams, Gareth J.; Pedersen, Nicole E.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Gleason, Arthur C. R.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Sandin, Stuart A.
For sessile organisms such as reef-building corals, differences in the degree of dispersion of individuals across a landscape may result from important differences in life-history strategies or may reflect patterns of habitat availability. Descriptions of spatial patterns can thus be useful not only for the identification of key biological and physical mechanisms structuring an ecosystem, but also by providing the data necessary to generate and test ecological theory. Here, we used an in situ imaging technique to create large-area photomosaics of 16 plots at Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific, each covering 100 m2 of benthic habitat. We mapped the location of 44,008 coral colonies and identified each to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Using metrics of spatial dispersion, we tested for departures from spatial randomness. We also used targeted model fitting to explore candidate processes leading to differences in spatial patterns among taxa. Most taxa were clustered and the degree of clustering varied by taxon. A small number of taxa did not significantly depart from randomness and none revealed evidence of spatial uniformity. Importantly, taxa that readily fragment or tolerate stress through partial mortality were more clustered. With little exception, clustering patterns were consistent with models of fragmentation and dispersal limitation. In some taxa, dispersion was linearly related to abundance, suggesting density dependence of spatial patterning. The spatial patterns of stony corals are non-random and reflect fundamental life-history characteristics of the taxa, suggesting that the reef landscape may, in many cases, have important elements of spatial predictability.
Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U
We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...
Moreira, Sebastian A; Liu, D Jeffery
Evaluate systemic exposure with repeated topical application of a fixed-combination topical gel product containing 1% diclofenac sodium and 3% menthol in either of 2 formulation packages relative to oral administration. In this phase 1, single-center, 4-way crossover study, healthy volunteers aged 18 - 50 years underwent consecutive 3-day treatment regimens in a randomly assigned sequence with each of 4 treatment groups: 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel administered via an aluminum tube or roll-on device applied 4 times daily; 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac sodium gel (Voltaren Gel) applied 4 times daily; and oral diclofenac sodium tablets 50 mg 3 times daily. Treatment regimens were separated by 2-day washout periods. A total of 18 subjects enrolled and completed the study. Relative to oral administration, area under the concentration time curve from 48 to 72 hours (AUC48-72) with topical administration of 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel from a tube or roll-on device was 16.1% (90% CI: 12.2 - 21.1%) and 14.4% (90% CI: 11.0 - 19.0%), respectively. The diclofenac/menthol combination delivered significantly higher exposures of diclofenac compared with Voltaren Gel. A higher number of adverse events (AEs) occurred with the topical diclofenac/menthol combination (61%) vs. Voltaren Gel (22%) or oral diclofenac (6%); most were local skin reactions. No difference in systemic AEs was observed among the groups. As expected, systemic exposure was significantly lower with the topical diclofenac/menthol treatment regimens compared with oral diclofenac. Local skin AEs were increased with the topical combination product, but the risk of systemic AEs was low. .
Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C
Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Green, Susan K.; And Others
To examine the relationship between two types of motivation (altruistic and non-altruistic) and perception of the volunteer experience, 43 volunteer workers at St. Elizabeth's, a mental hospital, were surveyed. These student volunteers from Washington, D.C. area universities completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of their 10-week…
Volunteers form an integral part of the sport industry. The operational and financial success of many major sports events is highly dependent on the benevolent contribution of volunteers. Although several studies have been conducted internationally regarding volunteers, comparatively few empirical studies exist within
In August 2004, three undergraduate nursing students from the University of Toronto's faculty of nursing travelled to Cambodia to volunteer as student nurses. Being immersed in another culture helped to develop the students' cultural competence, enhance their understanding of primary health care and strengthen clinical skills. Given the growing cultural diversity in Canada, developing s kills in these areas is particularly important. In this article, the author reflects on her experiences in Cambodia and explores the unique value that international placements offer.
Van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W
This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age. = 15.19; SD= 1.43), revealed that
van Goethem, A.A.J.; van Hoof, A.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.
This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age = 15.19; SD = 1.43), revealed that
Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry
This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…
Full Text Available Yifan Zhang,1 Xiaoyan Chen,1 Yunbiao Tang,2 Youming Lu,1 Lixia Guo,1 Dafang Zhong1 1State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmacy, The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a generic product 70 mg alendronate sodium tablets with the reference product Fosamax® 70 mg tablet. Materials and methods: A single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period, three-sequence, reference-replicated crossover study was performed in 36 healthy Chinese male volunteers under fasting conditions. In each study period, the volunteers received a single oral dose of the generic or reference product (70 mg. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and up to 8 h after administration. The bioequivalence of the generic product to the reference product was assessed using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE methods. Results: The average maximum concentrations (Cmax of alendronic acid were 64.78±43.76, 56.62±31.95, and 60.15±37.12 ng/mL after the single dose of the generic product and the first and second doses of the reference product, respectively. The areas under the plasma concentration–time curves from time 0 to the last timepoint (AUC0–t were 150.36±82.90, 148.15±85.97, and 167.11±110.87 h·ng/mL, respectively. Reference scaling was used because the within-subject standard deviations of the reference product (sWR for Cmax and AUC0–t were all higher than the cutoff value of 0.294. The 95% upper confidence bounds were -0.16 and -0.17 for Cmax and AUC0–t, respectively, and the point estimates for the generic/reference product ratio were 1.08 and 1.00, which satisfied the RSABE acceptance criteria of the FDA. The 90% CIs for Cmax and AUC0–t were 90.35%–129
The phototoxic and photoallergy potential of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/ tretinoin 0.025% gel for facial acne: results of two single-center, evaluator-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers.
Murray, John; Potts, Aaron
A fixed-dose combination of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% gel (VELTIN® (clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin) 1.2%/0.025% Gel [VELTIN]) (clindamycin/tretinoin gel) is currently available for the once-daily topical treatment of acne. Two-phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the phototoxic and photoallergic potential of clindamycin/tretinoin gel. Study 1 (phototoxic) (n=37) and Study 2 (photoallergic) (n=58) were single-center, evaluator-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, phase 1 studies conducted in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, clindamycin/tretinoin gel patches, vehicle gel patches and blank patches (no gel) were applied concurrently for 24 hours to naïve sites. After patch removal, sites were irradiated with 16 joules/cm2 of ultraviolet A light (UVA) then 0.75 minimal erythema dose (MED) of UVA/ultraviolet B light (UVB), the same irradiation protocol followed by 15 joules/cm2 of visible light (VIS), or served as non-irradiated controls. Study 2 examined the effect of repeated drug exposure and involved an induction period (6 repeat phases at the same body sites during which clindamycin/tretinoin gel and vehicle gel patches were applied for 24 hours, removed and sites irradiated with UVB +/- VIS), followed by a rest period (10 to 17 days), then a challenge period that used the protocol described for Study 1. In both studies, inflammatory responses and other cutaneous effects were evaluated at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after patch removal. No subject experienced any adverse events in Study 1 (phototoxic). One subject in Study 2 (photoallergic) experienced AEs (diffuse erythema; mild application site irritation at one each of UV/VIS-irradiated clindamycin/tretinoin gel and vehicle gel patch sites) considered definitely related to study product that resulted in discontinuation from the study. Data from Study 1 and the challenge phase from Study 2 showed most subjects had no visible inflammatory reaction to clindamycin/tretinoin gel after
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....
Middleton, Beth A.
Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a perennial plant native to Eurasia where it grows along streams, rivers, and wet seepage areas (fig. 1). Seeds were inadvertently brought to North American territories in the ballast water of ships. Purple loosestrife was also intentionally planted throughout North America for its ornamental flowers but has since escaped cultivation to spread to wetlands.Some purple loosestrife plants release millions of seeds during the summer season, and these seeds readily disperse to new wetlands via water, animals, and even on people’s shoes. In addition, both its roots and stem fragments can sprout and begin new plants.When purple loosestrife invades a wetland, the species sometimes becomes more dominant than the original native wetland species, such as cattails and sedges. While many people think that purple loosestrife reduces the value of wetlands for wildlife, these claims are disputed. Most people agree, however, that purple loosestrife grows more prolifically in North America than elsewhere, probably because the species has left its native enemies behind in Eurasia and Australia. Although we do not understand how well the species grows in various climates, there is some thought that purple loosetrife may never fully invade the southern United States. Studies looking at the species’ response to temperature and analyses of its growth patterns across latitudes can help us determine its future threat to uninvaded portions of the United States. This is where volunteers come in.Volunteers in North America, Eurasia, and Australia are helping assess purple loosestrife growth in their regions (fig. 2). The program is part of Dr. Beth Middleton’s project to compare the role of purple loosestrife in its native and invasive habitats. Anyone can participate, and volunteers currently include high school and college students, retirees, professionals from all disciplines, agency personnel, and university faculty. Volunteers collect data
Wright, Clinton W; Aikman, Mark S; Werts, Erica; Seabolt, Julia; Haeusler, Jean-Marc C
Venlafaxine extended-release (ER) tablets use osmotic pressure to deliver venlafaxine hydrochloride at a controlled rate over approximately 24 hours. These studies were conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of venlafaxine ER tablets and capsules based on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) definition. Four pharmacokinetic studies of the capsule (reference) and tablet (test) formulations were conducted in healthy adult volunteers. The first 2 were randomized, single-dose, 4-way crossover studies of either a 37.5-mg dose (study A) or a 75-mg dose (study B) of the reference and test products under fasting and fed conditions. The other 2 were randomized, 2-way crossover studies of either a single dose (study C) or multiple doses (study D) of venlafaxine ER 225 mg, delivered as one venlafaxine ER 225-mg tablet or one 150-mg + one 75-mg venlafaxine ER capsules under fed conditions. The primary outcome measures were the log-transformed C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity). If the 90% CIs for the ratios of the least squares means of the primary outcome measures between the reference and test formulations fell within the regulatory range (80%-125%), the 2 formulations would be considered bioequivalent according to the FDA definition. Thirty-six subjects (21 men, 15 women; mean [SD] age, 28.0 [8.7] years; mean weight, 161.0 [26.0] lb) were enrolled in study A and completed all treatment periods. Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in study B, of whom 30 (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 33.5 [9.6] years; mean weight, 172.7 [23.9] lb) completed all treatment periods. Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in study C, of whom 28 (16 men, 12 women; mean age, 33.1 [12.9] years; mean weight, 160.6 [29.6] lb) completed the study. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled in study D, of whom 33 (29 men, 4 women; mean age, 26.0 [8.1] years; mean weight, 178.0 [30.3] lb) completed the study. In study A, the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratio (test vs reference) of C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC
Moazzami Ali A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that whole grain (WG cereals can protect against the development of chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Among WG products, WG rye is considered even more potent because of its unique discrepancy in postprandial insulin and glucose responses known as the rye factor. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to study the metabolic effects of WG rye as a tool to determine the beneficial effects of WG rye on human health. Methods Thirty-three postmenopausal Finnish women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L and BMI of 20–33 kg/m2 consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB or refined wheat bread (WB in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods separated by an 8-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, fasting serum was collected for NMR-based metabolomics and the analysis of cholesterol fractions. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. Results The metabolomics analysis of serum showed lower leucine and isoleucine and higher betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine levels after RB than WB intake. To further investigate the metabolic effects of RB, the serum cholesterol fractions were measured. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher after RB intake than after WB (p Conclusions This study revealed favorable shifts in branched amino acid and single carbon metabolism and an unfavorable shift in serum cholesterol levels after RB intake in postmenopausal women, which should be considered for evaluating health beneficial effects of rye products.
Title: The motivational aspects of sport volunteerism. Objectives: The main aim of this bachelor work is to find out motivational aspects of sport volunteers, who have taken part in sport event. Methods: In this thesis was used quality method to get informations - specifically it was a structure interview with associated questions. Results: It was find out that it is appropriate to get those volunteers with inner motivation. These volunteers do not need to be so much motivated by external mot...
Samukawa, Yoshishige; Omiya, Hirohisa; Watase, Hirotaka; Nozaki, Kazunari; Sakai, Soichi; Nishimura, Rimei
In our previous study investigating effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glycemic variability by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), luseogliflozin elicited parallel downward shifts in fasting and postprandial glucose levels. However, further review of individual patients' data revealed that postprandial hyperglycemia was not reduced in some patients, while preprandial glucose was ameliorated in most patients. Therefore, we divided patients into two groups according to their postprandial glucose responses and conducted a post hoc subanalyses to elucidate which factors contributed to the differential effects of luseogliflozin. Thirty-four Japanese type 2 diabetic patients in our previous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with 7-day luseogliflozin administration were divided into postprandial glucose responders (PGR, n = 23, ameliorated peak glucose) and postprandial glucose non-responders (PGNR; n = 11, non-ameliorated peak glucose). Baseline characteristics, variations in CGM-measured 24-h glucose levels, and other pharmacodynamic variabilities were compared. Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Placebo-subtracted peak glucose was significantly lowered in PGR and significantly increased in PGNR (-43.8 and 17.9 mg/dL; both p < 0.05). Luseogliflozin significantly lowered "lowest glucose" (defined as the lowest level measured throughout a 24-h period) similarly in PGR and PGNR (-19.2 and -24.0 mg/dL; both p < 0.05), significantly reduced the mean amplitude of glucose excursions in PGR (-15.50 mg/dL; p < 0.05), and increased the area under the curve for plasma glucagon over 24 h in PGNR (median difference vs. placebo: 240 pg/mL h; p < 0.05). Luseogliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and decreased serum insulin by similar magnitudes in both groups. Luseogliflozin diminished glucose fluctuations in most patients by lowering peak glucose
Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012
Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…
Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen
Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.
This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.
Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik
Dose regimens in perioperative fluid management are rarely evidence based. Therefore, we investigated responses to an IV fluid infusion in healthy volunteers to assess basic physiologic effects of a fluid infusion per se. In a prospective, double-blinded, cross-randomized study, 12 healthy...... volunteers with a median age of 63 yr (range, 59-67 yr) received an infusion of lactated Ringer's solution 40 mL/kg (median, 2820 mL) or 5 mL/kg (median, 353 mL; background infusion) in random order on two separate occasions. The study was designed to mimic the perioperative course with preoperative fasting...
This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…
PALEXPO, GENEVA, from 4 - 13 December Are you concerned by the digital divide between the North and the South? Would you like to contribute personally to the success of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), in particular the activities of civil society? Join the team of volunteers and/or offer accommodation to an international volunteer! Contact: Charlotte (Project Coordinator WSIS) Kathy (Volunteer Coordinator) ICVolunteers PO Box 755 - CH-1211 Genève 4 Phone: +41 22 800 1436 - Fax: +41 22 800 14 37 E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org For further information, please consult the website: http://www.icvolunteers.org
Gudiksen, Sune Klok
The use of volunteers is becoming more visible and important in the experience economy also in the light of the financial crisis. From a management perspective within both public and private organizations the use of volunteers is an important element partly because they strengthen the brand...... economy volunteers create a new set of dimensions, because they shift between being part of the experience producer and being one of the experience consumers. Volunteers are becoming increasingly more important in the experience economy as they contribute to the overall experience for users or customers...... theories from psychology about motivational factors, game theories about rewards, business model theory about crowdsourcing and crowdfunding, user and customer experience theory with 25 interviews with experienced industry experts limited to the cultural sector and with relation to experience economy...
The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.
We evaluated the change in diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by the instillation of single dose travoprost 0.004% and placebo into the eyes of 20 healthy African volunteers in a randomized double masked, placebo controlled, crossover, single centre study. Pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ...
Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich
Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28 item Special Event Volunteer Motivation Scale. The top motivations related to the purposive incentives of wanting to help make the event a success and to do something good for the community. Factor analysis revealed a five-factor model, with the altruistic factor (purposive) being the most important. A MANCOVA was also used to compare subjects using both gender and experience as independent variables. Small but significant differences in motivation were observed.
Morrison, Carley Calico
Volunteer leaders are an underutilized resource in nonprofit organizations. However, as volunteer directors are stretched to their capacity, others in the organization must provide leadership to volunteers. One way for nonprofit organizations to increase their capacity is to develop the leadership skills of identified volunteer leaders. Because…
Paul R Armsworth
Full Text Available Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.
Jenkinson, Caroline E; Dickens, Andy P; Jones, Kerry; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Taylor, Rod S; Rogers, Morwenna; Bambra, Clare L; Lang, Iain; Richards, Suzanne H
Volunteering has been advocated by the United Nations, and American and European governments as a way to engage people in their local communities and improve social capital, with the potential for public health benefits such as improving wellbeing and decreasing health inequalities. Furthermore, the US Corporation for National and Community Service Strategic Plan for 2011-2015 focused on increasing the impact of national service on community needs, supporting volunteers' wellbeing, and prioritising recruitment and engagement of underrepresented populations. The aims of this review were to examine the effect of formal volunteering on volunteers' physical and mental health and survival, and to explore the influence of volunteering type and intensity on health outcomes. Experimental and cohort studies comparing the physical and mental health outcomes and mortality of a volunteering group to a non-volunteering group were identified from twelve electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, HMIC, SSCI, ASSIA, Social Care Online, Social Policy and Practice) and citation tracking in January 2013. No language, country or date restrictions were applied. Data synthesis was based on vote counting and random effects meta-analysis of mortality risk ratios. Forty papers were selected: five randomised controlled trials (RCTs, seven papers); four non-RCTs; and 17 cohort studies (29 papers). Cohort studies showed volunteering had favourable effects on depression, life satisfaction, wellbeing but not on physical health. These findings were not confirmed by experimental studies. Meta-analysis of five cohort studies found volunteers to be at lower risk of mortality (risk ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.90). There was insufficient evidence to demonstrate a consistent influence of volunteering type or intensity on outcomes. Observational evidence suggested that volunteering may benefit mental health and survival although the causal mechanisms remain
Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt Holm; Ekeløf, Sara; Kokotovic, Dunja
It has been suggested that high inspiratory oxygen concentrations during anesthesia may be associated with higher postoperative mortality due to endothelial dysfunction. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted with 25 healthy male volunteers. They inhaled an oxygen concentration of ...... unaffected. Inhalation of a high oxygen fraction in healthy volunteers did not result in a significant reduction of endothelial function....
Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese
The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...
McBride, Amanda Moore; Greenfield, Jennifer C.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey
Volunteer-based programs are increasingly designed as interventions to affect the volunteers and the beneficiaries of the volunteers' activities. To achieve the intended impacts for both, programs need to leverage the volunteers' engagement by meeting their expectations, retaining them, and maximizing their perceptions of benefits. Programmatic…
Ramos, Romualdo; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
To understand the relationship between volunteering and health in the overlooked yet highly engaged working population, adopting a contextualizing balance approach. We hypothesize that volunteering may function as a psychosocial resource, contributing to work-life balance and, ultimately, health. A total of 746 Swiss workers participated in an online survey; 35% (N = 264) were additionally volunteers in a nonprofit organization. We assessed volunteering, work-life balance perceptions, paid job demands, and resources and health outcomes. After controlling for job characteristics, volunteering was associated with less work-life conflict, burnout and stress, and better positive mental health. Results further revealed that balance perceptions partly explained the relationship between volunteering and health. Volunteering, albeit energy and time-consuming, may contribute to a greater sense of balance for people in the workforce, which might, in turn, positively influence health.
Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Bhatt, Anamika
A survey was conducted to examine the frequency, acceptability, and functions of humor between hospice palliative care volunteers and their patients, from the volunteers' perspective. Thirty-two volunteers completed the survey, which was developed for this study. The results revealed that most patients and volunteers initiated humor either "often" or "sometimes" in their interactions. Over half of the volunteers considered humor to be either "very important" or "extremely important" in their interactions with patients (42% and 13%, respectively), with the patient being the determining factor as to whether and when it is appropriate or not (ie, volunteers take their lead from their patients). Volunteers mentioned a number of functions that humor serves within their patient interactions (eg, to relieve tension, to foster relationships/connections, and to distract). Laughter and humor fulfills one of the main goals of hospice palliative care, namely, improving patients' overall quality of life.
Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains are important agents of infantile diarrhea all over the world, gaining even greater importance in developing countries. EPEC have also been isolated from various animal species, but most isolates belong to serotypes that differ from those recovered from humans. However, it has been demonstrated that several isolates from non-human primates belong to the serogroups and/or serotypes related to those implicated in human disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic differences between thirteen strains isolated from non-human primates and the same number of strains isolated from human infections. Human isolates belonged to the same serogroup/serotype as the monkey strains and the evaluation was done by analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Dendrogram analysis showed that there was no clustering between human and monkey strains. Human and non-human isolates of the EPEC serotypes O127:H40 and O128:H2 shared 90 and 87% of their bands, respectively, indicating strong genomic similarity between the strains, leading to the speculation that they may have arisen from the same pathogenic clone. To our knowledge, this study is the first one comparing genomic similarity between human and non-human primate strains and the results provide further evidence that monkey EPEC strains correlate with human EPEC, as suggested in a previous investigation.
Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Houmard, Joseph A; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H
This study investigated the associations of both physical activity time (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) with weight and fat mass (FM) loss in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Ninety-six nondiabetic patients were included in this analysis. Post-RYGB patients were randomized in one of two treatments: A 6-month exercise training program (RYBG+EX) or lifestyle educational classes (RYGB). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Components of PA and EE were quantified by a multisensory device. Dose-response relationships of both PA and EE with weight loss and body composition were explored according to quartiles of change in steps per day. Patients in the highest quartiles of steps per day change lost more FM (3rd = -19.5 kg and 4th = -22.7 kg, P muscle mass (3rd = -3.1 cm2 and 4th = -4.5 cm2 , P weight and FM, while maintaining higher skeletal muscle mass. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Launay, Odile; Sadorge, Christine; Jolly, Nathalie; Poirier, Béatrice; Béchet, Stéphane; van der Vliet, Diane; Seffer, Valérie; Fenner, Nicola; Dowling, Kelly; Giemza, Raphaela; Johnson, Julie; Ndiaye, Anna; Vray, Muriel; Sansonetti, Philippe; Morand, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Lewis, David; Gougeon, Marie-Lise
SC599 vaccine is a live Shigella dysenteriae 1 strain attenuated by deletion of invasion [icsA], iron chelation [ent, fep] and shiga toxin A subunit [stxA] genes. In a preliminary Phase 1 single dose prospective study, we showed that SC599 vaccine was well tolerated, and the maximum tolerable dose was greater than 10(8) CFU [Sadorge C, Ndiaye A, Beveridge N, Frazer S, Giemza R, Jolly N, et al. Phase 1 clinical trial of live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type-1 DeltaicsA Deltaent Deltafep DeltastxA:HgR oral vaccine SC599 in healthy human adult volunteers. Vaccine 2008; 26(7):978-8]. In this Phase 2 trial, three groups of volunteers ingested a single dose of SC599 [10(5) CFU, n=38; 10(7) CFU, n=36] or placebo [n=37]. Both 10(5) and 10(7) CFU doses were immunogenic, inducing significant IgA and IgG LPS-specific ASCs and antibody responses, comparable in magnitude to those of other strains that prevented illness following experimental challenge. In the intention to treat analysis, 34.2% and 44.4% IgA ASC responders were detected in the 10(5) and 10(7) CFU groups respectively (p<0001 vs placebo for both groups), as well as 31.6% and 33.3% serum IgA responders (p<001 and p<0.001 vs placebo for 10(5) and 10(7) CFU groups, respectively). No difference between the two vaccine groups was observed. No stxB-specific antibody response was detected in the vaccines. SC599 excretion occurred in 23.7 and 30.6% of subjects in the 10(5) and 10(7) CFU groups, respectively. SC599 vaccine was well tolerated, and the reported adverse events were mainly digestive. These results indicate that a single oral immunization of SC599 vaccine elicits a significant circulating IgA ASC and serum antibody response that may confer protection against the most severe symptoms of Shigellosis in responders to the vaccine.
However, there are various other role-players (e.g., volunteers, journalists, spectators) that contribute to the success of such a mega-sport event. The purpose of this research was to study the ... The data were analysed by means of the Duquesne Phenomenological Research Method (DPRM). The findings indicated that ...
Assessment of the bioequivalence of two formulations of clarithromycin extended-release 500-mg tablets under fasting and fed conditions: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, two-way crossover study in healthy Jordanian male volunteers.
Alkhalidi, Bashar A; Tamimi, Jaafar J; Salem, Isam I; Ibrahim, Husain; Sallam, Alsayed Alarabi I
Clarithromycin extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of adults with acute maxillary sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae; acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis due to H influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, M catarrhalis, or S pneumoniae; or community acquired pneumonia due to H influenzae, H parainfluenzae, M catarrhalis, S pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This study was conducted to assess the bioequivalence of test and reference formulations of clarithromycin extended-release 500-mg tablets under fasting and fed conditions. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-way crossover study with a 1-week washout period between doses. Separate bioequivalence studies (fasting and fed) were performed in 2 groups of healthy male Jordanian volunteers. Eighteen blood samples were obtained from each volunteer over 38 hours after drug administration. Clarithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters of clarithromycin (C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), lambda(z) [first-order elimination rate constant], and t((1/2))) were calculated and analyzed statistically. Tolerability was assessed based on changes in vital signs and laboratory tests, and by questioning subjects about adverse events. Thirty-eight volunteers each participated in the fasting and fed studies. The mean ages of participants in the fasting and fed studies were 26.7 and 27.6 years, respectively; their mean weight was 71.2 and 70.9 kg and mean height was 171.3 and 179.0 cm. Under fasting conditions, the arithmetic mean (SD) C(max) was 569.4 (189.3) ng/mL for the test formulation and 641.2 (202.0) ng/mL for the reference formulation, with a geometric mean ratio of 0.88. The arithmetic mean AUC(0-t) was 8602.9 (4105.1) and 8245.3 (4122.4) ng . h
Lun, Zhao-Rong; Li, An-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Lu, Li-Xin; Zhu, Xing-Quan
A total of 20 random primers (10-mers) were used to amplify RAPD markers from the genomic DNA of four Trypanosoma brucei stocks from East and West Africa, four T. evansi stocks from Africa, Asia and South America and one T. equiperdum stock from Asia. Between 65 and 88 reproducible fragments ranging from 0.25 to 2.15 kb were generated from these stocks depending on the stock/primer combination. The similarity coefficient (SC) among the stocks of T. brucei from Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia ranged from 62.9% to 74.0% (average: 67.6%). The SC among the stocks of T. evansi from Kenya, China and Brazil was 76.4%-95.5% (average: 86.4%), while the SC between T. evansi stock from China and Brazil was 95.5%. For T. evansi and T. equiperdum, the SC among the stocks ranged from 81.2% to 94.4% (average: 87.6%). As for the SC among the stocks of T. brucei and T. evansi, it was found to be from 54.7% to 80.3% (average: 68.0%) and the SC among stocks of T. brucei and T. equiperdum was from 59.4% to 76.9% (average: 68.1%). Our results indicate that the stocks of T. evansi from China and from Brazil are more closely related to the stock of T. equiperdum from China than to the stocks of T. evansi isolated from Kenya and to the stocks of T. brucei. In addition, our results further support the hypothesis that T. evansi stocks from China and Brazil could have arisen from a single lineage. The possible evolution of T. evansi and T. equiperdum is also discussed.
Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…
Joesten, Melvin D.; Tellinghuisen, Patricia C.
Introduces a program that brings inquiry-based, hands-on activities to middle school science students through the participation of volunteer college students. Explains fall and spring activities for 5th and 6th grade students. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)
Hamilton, Mary Jane
Described is an art appreciation program made possible through the use of parent volunteers. The collection includes 70 laminated prints and biographical packets, and boxes of artifacts and props which make the prints come alive for 400 elementary school children. (Author/KC) Student Teacher Relationship; *Summer Programs; Talent;
not be turned away.20 20 Michita Champathes Rodsutti and Piyarat Makayathorn, "Organizational Diagnostic Factors in Family Business : Case Studies... Family Business : Case Studies in Thailand.” Development and Learning in Organizations 19, no.2 (2005). Savoye, Craig. “Volunteers rally to defend
Höflich, Anna; Hahn, Andreas; Küblböck, Martin; Kranz, Georg S; Vanicek, Thomas; Ganger, Sebastian; Spies, Marie; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Winkler, Dietmar; Lanzenberger, Rupert
Over the last years, a number of studies have been conducted to clarify the neurobiological correlates of ketamine application. However, comprehensive information regarding the influence of ketamine on cortical activity is still lacking. Using resting-state functional MRI and integrating pharmacokinetic information, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed to determine the effects of ketamine on neuronal activation. During a 55 min resting-state fMRI scan, esketamine (Ketanest S ® ) was administered intravenously to 35 healthy volunteers. Neural activation as indicated by the BOLD signal using the pharmacokinetic curve of ketamine plasma levels as a regressor was computed. Compared with placebo, ketamine-dependent increases of neural activation were observed in the midcingulate cortex, the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula bilaterally, and the thalamus (t values ranging between 5.95-9.78, p ketamine condition compared to placebo was found in a cluster within the subgenual/subcallosal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the gyrus rectus (t = 7.81, p ketamine could be revealed.
Birk, S; Kruuse, Christina; Petersen, K.A.
healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Placebo or cilostazol (200 mg p.o.) was administered on two separate study days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale (0-10) and mechanical pain thresholds were measured with von Frey hairs. The median peak headache...... in migraine patients, but CGRP receptor activation causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In order to investigate the role of cAMP in vascular headache pathogenesis, we studied the effect of cilostazol, an inhibitor of cAMP degradation, in our human experimental headache model. Twelve...... score 0-16 h postdose was 0 (range 0-2) after placebo and 3.5 (range 0-7) after cilostazol (P = 0.003). The median headache curve peaked at 6-9 h postdose. The headaches induced were usually bilateral and pulsating. Nausea occurred in two volunteers, photo- and phonophobia were not seen. Two volunteers...
Relative bioavailability of griseofulvin lyophilized dry emulsion tablet vs. immediate release tablet: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, six-period, crossover study in healthy adult volunteers in the fasted and fed states.
Ahmed, Iman Saad; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Osama Hussein; Farid, Samar Farghali
The oral bioavailability of griseofulvin (GF) formulated as a fast disintegrating lyophilized dry emulsion (LDE) tablet was studied and compared to the commercially available immediate release (IR) tablet, as a reference, in both the fasted and fed states in nine healthy volunteers after a single oral dose (125 mg) in a crossover design. Furthermore the LDE tablets were ingested with and without water under both the fasted and fed states. In the fasted state, the rate of absorption was found to be significantly faster from LDE tablets, in the presence and absence of water, as shown by a higher C(max) (more than two times higher, p=0.0001) and a shorter t(max) (by more than 3h, p=0.0001) compared to IR tablets. The extent of absorption, expressed as AUC, from LDE tablets in the presence and absence of water was 65% and 77% larger and statistically significantly different relative to the mean AUC from IR tablets (p=0.006). In the fed state, C(max) from LDE tablets ingested with and without water was found to be about 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than the immediate release tablets. A shorter t(max) was also shown whether LDE tablets were ingested with or without water in the fed state as compared to immediate release tablets. The mean AUC from LDE tablets under fed conditions in the presence of water was about 21% larger and was not statistically significantly different from AUC from immediate release tablets (p=0.517). When ingested without water, AUC from LDE tablets was about 43% larger and statistically significantly different relative to AUC from IR tablets (p=0.033). The mean AUC from the LDE tablet ingested with water under fed conditions relative to AUC from LDE tablet ingested without water was not statistically significantly different (p=0.454). Results show that the food effect of the high fat meal is very pronounced in case of the immediate release tablets, Fulvin, than in case of LDE tablets whether given with or without water.
A first-in-human randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-ascending oral dose study of novel Imidazolopiperazine KAF156 to assess its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.
Leong, F Joel; Zhao, Rong; Zeng, Shuqi; Magnusson, Baldur; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter
KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial, the imidazolopiperazines, and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This first-in-human, single- and multiple-ascending-dose study in 70 healthy male volunteers determined the maximum oral dose of KAF156 tolerated by healthy adults and derived pharmacokinetic data (including preliminary food effect) to enable dose calculations for malaria patients. KAF156 was studied in single-dose cohorts (10 to 1,200 mg, including one 400-mg food effect cohort (4 to 10 subjects/cohort), and in multiple-dose cohorts (60 to 600 mg once daily for 3 days; 8 subjects/cohort). The follow-up period was 6 to 14 days after the last dose. KAF156 was tolerated, with self-limited mild to moderate gastrointestinal and neurological adverse events. In treated subjects after single doses, headache (n = 4; 11.1%), diarrhea (n = 3; 8.3%), dizziness (n = 3; 8.3%), and abdominal pain (n = 2; 5.6%) were the most common adverse events. Headache (n = 4; 16.7%), nausea (n = 3; 12.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 3; 12.5%), and dizziness (n = 2; 8.3%) were the most common adverse events following multiple doses. KAF156 time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was between 1.0 and 6.0 h. Both the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) increased more than dose-proportionally in both single- and multiple-ascending-dose cohorts (terminal half-life, 42.5 to 70.7 h). There was no significant accumulation over 3-day repeated administration. The extent of absorption was not significantly affected by food at a single dose of 400 mg, while mean Cmax decreased from 778 ng/ml to 627 ng/ml and Tmax was delayed from a median of 3.0 h under fasting conditions to 6.0 h under fed conditions. Renal elimination is a minor route. Copyright © 2014 Leong et al.
Effects of AMG 145 on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: results from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers and hypercholesterolemic subjects on statins.
Dias, Clapton S; Shaywitz, Adam J; Wasserman, Scott M; Smith, Brian P; Gao, Bing; Stolman, Dina S; Crispino, Caroline P; Smirnakis, Karen V; Emery, Maurice G; Colbert, Alexander; Gibbs, John P; Retter, Marc W; Cooke, Blaire P; Uy, Stephen T; Matson, Mark; Stein, Evan A
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effects of AMG 145 on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects on statin therapy. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) down-regulates surface expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), increasing serum LDL-C. AMG 145, a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, prevents PCSK9/LDL-R interaction, restoring LDL-R recycling. Healthy adults (phase 1a) were randomized to 1 dose of AMG 145: 7, 21, 70, 210, or 420 mg SC; 21 or 420 mg IV; or matching placebo. Hypercholesterolemic adults (phase 1b) receiving low- to moderate-dose statins were randomized to multiple SC doses of AMG 145: 14 or 35 mg once weekly (QW) ×6, 140 or 280 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) ×3, 420 mg every 4 weeks ×2, or matching placebo. Eleven subjects receiving high-dose statins and 6 subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to SC AMG 145 140 mg or placebo Q2W ×3. In the trials (AMG 145 n = 85, placebo n = 28), AMG 145 reduced LDL-C up to 64% (p AMG 145 versus placebo groups: 69% versus 71% (phase 1a); 65% versus 64% (phase 1b). In phase 1 studies, AMG 145 significantly reduced serum LDL-C in healthy and hypercholesterolemic statin-treated subjects, including those with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or taking the highest doses of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin, with an overall AE profile similar to placebo. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lipton, Jack P.; Garza, Raymond T.
By using multivariate statistical techniques, various demographic and descriptive variables were related to a behavioral measure and an attitudinal measure of volunteer behavior among college students. The findings reveal some significant differences in the antecedents and motivations of Chicano and Anglo college student volunteer workers. (Author)
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.
... national challenges. We are also investing in social innovation and volunteer management to give community... ordinary citizens who lifted up struggling communities. All were volunteers, and their work changed our... natural disaster, volunteers are touching lives every day. Social entrepreneurs are pioneering innovative...
Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale
Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…
Volunteerism is increasing today and helps to fill in the gaps created by funding and staff cutbacks in service-oriented agencies. It is critical not only to recruit new volunteers but to retain volunteers. This study examines hospice volunteers for motivation and rewards. Previous studies have found motivations to include altruism and…
Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.
Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.
Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte; Morberg, Cathrine Melsaether; Michelsen, Birgit; Bügel, Susanne; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Rijkers, Ger T; Calder, Philip C
Probiotics can modulate the immune system in healthy individuals and may help reduce symptoms related to respiratory infections. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 (Chr. Hansen A/S) (hereafter, L. casei 431) on immune response to influenza vaccination and respiratory symptoms in healthy adults. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 1104 healthy subjects aged 18-60 y at 2 centers in Germany and Denmark. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an acidified milk drink containing ≥10(9) colony-forming units of L. casei 431 (n = 553) or placebo (n = 551) for 42 d. After 21 d, subjects received the seasonal influenza vaccination. The primary outcome was seroprotection rate (anti-influenza antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition) 21 d after vaccination. Other outcomes were seroconversion rate and mean titers, influenza A-specific antibodies and incidence, and duration and severity of upper respiratory symptoms. Antibiotic use and use of health care resources were recorded. There was no effect of L. casei 431 on immune responses to influenza vaccination. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed a shorter duration of upper respiratory symptoms in the probiotic group than in the placebo group (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 6.1 vs. 7.3 ± 9.7 d, P = 0.0059) in the last 3 wk of the intervention period. No statistically significant differences were found for incidence or severity. Daily consumption of L. casei 431 resulted in no observable effect on the components of the immune response to influenza vaccination but reduced the duration of upper respiratory symptoms. The trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08280229. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Griffiths, Megan E.; McLean, Steven G.; Miller, Mark R.; Luo, Rosa; Lang, Ninian N.; Newby, David E.
Background Urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 are endogenous peptides with an emerging role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. We assessed their pharmacodynamic profile and examined the role of the endothelium in mediating their vasomotor effects in vivo in man. Methods and Results Eighteen healthy male volunteers (23?4 years) were recruited into a series of double?blind, randomized crossover studies using bilateral forearm venous occlusion plethysmography during intra?arterial urocortin 2 (3.6 to 1...
Rogers, John D; Sanders, Prashanthan; Piorkowski, Christopher; Sohail, M Rizwan; Anand, Rishi; Crossen, Karl; Khairallah, Farhat S; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Stromberg, Kurt; Kowal, Robert C
Recent miniaturization of an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) may make it possible to move device insertion from a hospital to office setting. However, the safety of this strategy is unknown. The primary objective was to compare the safety of inserting the Reveal LINQ ICM in an office vs a hospital environment. Ancillary objectives included summarizing device- and procedure-related adverse events and responses to a physician questionnaire. Five hundred twenty-one patients indicated for an ICM were randomized (1:1 ratio) to undergo ICM insertion in a hospital or office environment at 26 centers in the United States in the Reveal LINQ In-Office 2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02395536). Patients were followed for 90 days. ICM insertion was successful in all 482 attempted patients (office: 251; hospital: 231). The untoward event rate (composite of unsuccessful insertion and ICM- or insertion-related complications) was 0.8% (2 of 244) in the office and 0.9% (2 of 227) in the hospital (95% confidence interval, -3.0% to 2.9%; 5% noninferiority: P office and 4.4% (10 of 227) of hospital insertions (95% confidence interval [office minus inhospital rates], -5.8% to 1.9%; 5% noninferiority: P office vs a hospital, there were fewer delays >15 minutes (16% vs 35%; P office location "very convenient" more frequently than the hospital location (85% vs 27%; P < .001). The safety profile for the insertion of the Reveal LINQ ICM is excellent irrespective of insertion environment. These results may expand site of service options for LINQ insertion. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Darwish, Mona; Chang, Steven; Hellriegel, Edward T
The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of single oral doses of cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER) 15- and 30-mg capsules. This was a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover study in healthy adults aged 18 to 40 years. Subjects were assigned to receive a single dose of either CER 15 mg or 30 mg on days 1 and 15, separated by a 14-day washout. Study comparisons included the plasma cyclobenzaprine AUC to 168 hours after dosing (AUC(0-168)), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max). Plasma cyclobenzaprine T(max), terminal elimination t(1/2), and adverse events (AEs) were also assessed. Sixteen subjects (9 women, 7 men) were randomized to receive cyclobenzaprine 15 mg or 30 mg; 13 (81.3%) were white and 3 (18.8%) were black. Mean age and weight were 30.2 years and 70.7 kg, respectively. The shapes of the pharmacokinetic profiles for CER 15 and 30 mg were parallel. Mean observed values for dose-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters of CER 15 and 30 mg were as follows: AUC(0-168), 318.3 and 736.6 ng . h/mL, respectively; AUC(0-infinity)), 354.1 and 779.9 ng . h/mL; and C(max), 8.3 and 19.9 ng/mL. Dose-independent parameters were comparable across doses. Median observed Tmax was 6.0 hours for both CER doses; mean t(1/2) was 33.4 hours for CER 15 mg and 32.0 hours for CER 30 mg. The bioavailability of the 2 doses, as indicated by the least squares mean AUC(0-infinity), was 330.3 ng . h/mL for CER 15 mg and 755.1 ng . h/mL for CER 30 mg. During the CER 15-mg treatment sequence, 5 subjects experienced 5 AEs (headache, dizziness, musculoskeletal pain, dermatitis, and glossodynia); during the CER 30-mg treatment sequence, 2 subjects experienced 2 AEs (somnolence and dysmenorrhea). All AEs were mild in intensity. No serious AEs occurred during the study. Once-daily CER 15 and 30 mg exhibited similarly shaped pharmacokinetic profiles. AUC(0-168), AUC(0-infinity)), and C(max) values for the 30-mg dose were approximately double those for the 15-mg
Relative bioavailability of the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) 1,080 pg versus oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate 1,600 pg and dose proportionality of FEBT 270 to 1,300 microg: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period study in healthy adult volunteers.
Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Kirby, Mary; Thompson, Jeffrey
The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) was designed to enhance the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FEBT is being investigated for the management of breakthrough pain. The primary objective of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of FEBT 1,080 microg with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) 1,600 microg, and the secondary objective was to assess the dose proportionality of FEBT 270 to 1,300 microg in healthy adult volunteers. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period study was conducted by MDS Pharma Services, Lincoln, Nebraska. Non-opioid-tolerant healthy adult volunteers were included. In periods 1 and 2 (relative-bioavailability analysis), subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 administration sequences: single-dose FEBT 1,080 microg followed by single-dose OTFC 1,600 microg, or vice versa; in period 3 (dose-proportionality analysis), they were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of FEBT 270, 810, or 1,300 microg. Subjects were instructed to place FEBT between the gum and cheek above an upper molar tooth and allow it to disintegrate for 10 minutes. Subjects were instructed to place the OTFC lozenge between the cheek and lower gum and move the unit from side to side using the handle and allow the unit to dissolve for 15 minutes. All subjects received naltrexone 50 mg PO at 15 and 3 hours before and 12 hours after fentanyl administration, except those receiving FEBT 270 microg, who were not given naltrexone at 12 hours. For the measurement of serum concentrations of fentanyl, venous blood samples were collected before and up to 36 hours after study drug administration. For tolerability analysis, continuous pulse oximetry, 12-lead electrocardiography, clinical laboratory analysis, and physical examination, including vital-sign measurements, were performed; the oral mucosa was inspected; and spontaneous reporting was employed. A total of 42 subjects were enrolled (25 women
Full Text Available Abstract Background The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12% in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Results Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046 and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009 in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1α, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-α2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Conclusions Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.
Eccles, Ron; Meier, Christiane; Jawad, Martez; Weinmüllner, Regina; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva
The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1alpha, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-alpha2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.
Changes in body composition, hematologic parameters, and serum biochemistry after rapid intravenous infusion or oral intake of 2 liters of 0.9% saline solution in young healthy volunteers: randomized crossover study.
de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; Valente, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio S; Hartmann, Arthur; Slhessarenko, Natasha
The perioperative infusion of 2 L of saline is associated with weight gain and decreased serum albumin and hematocrit. We hypothesized that these parameters would respond differently to oral administration and intravenous infusion of saline solution. This was a crossover study that included 10 healthy young men (ages 18-26 years). At two times, 8 weeks apart, the participants were randomized to receive 2 L of 0.9% saline over 1 h by intravenous (IV) administration to a forearm vein or by oral intake. The participants were weighed and body masses were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed with a single-frequency device using tetrapolar distal limb electrodes. Blood samples were collected 1 h after the administration period for laboratory assays: hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum electrolytes, albumin, creatinine, osmolality. There was an increase in body weight (p<0.01), total body water (p<0.01), and lean body mass (p<0.01) after the experiment in both groups, with no difference between them. The volume of urine output was similar in the two experiments. The hemoglobin (oral group from 14.4±0.8 g/dl to 13.8±0.8 g/dl; IV group from 14.4±0.6 g/dl to 12.6±0.6 g/dl) and hematocrit (oral group from 43.2±1.8% to 43.2±2.8%; IV group from 43.6±2.2% to 40.0±2.6%) significantly decreased (p<0.01) with IV saline. Serum albumin remained stable after oral intake but significantly decreased (p=0.04) after IV infusion. Oral intake of 2 L of 0.9% saline results in minimal variations in serum albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit when compared to IV infusion of the same volume.
A randomized, 2-period, crossover design study to assess the effects of dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, and omeprazole on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in healthy volunteers.
Frelinger, Andrew L; Lee, Ronald D; Mulford, Darcy J; Wu, Jingtao; Nudurupati, Sai; Nigam, Anu; Brooks, Julie K; Bhatt, Deepak L; Michelson, Alan D
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel. Metabolism of clopidogrel requires cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP2C19. However, PPIs may inhibit CYP2C19, potentially reducing the effectiveness of clopidogrel. A randomized, open-label, 2-period, crossover study of healthy subjects (n = 160, age 18 to 55 years, homozygous for CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype, confined, standardized diet) was conducted. Clopidogrel 75 mg with or without a PPI (dexlansoprazole 60 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg, or, as a positive control to maximize potential interaction and demonstrate assay sensitivity, omeprazole 80 mg) was given daily for 9 days. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed on days 9 and 10. Pharmacodynamic end-points were vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein P2Y(12) platelet reactivity index, maximal platelet aggregation to 5 and 20 μmol/l adenosine diphosphate, and VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet response units. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses with omeprazole demonstrated assay sensitivity. The area under the curve for clopidogrel active metabolite decreased significantly with esomeprazole but not with dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole. Similarly, esomeprazole but not dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole significantly reduced the effect of clopidogrel on vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein platelet reactivity index. All PPIs decreased the peak plasma concentration of clopidogrel active metabolite (omeprazole > esomeprazole > lansoprazole > dexlansoprazole) and showed a corresponding order of potency for effects on maximal platelet aggregation and platelet response units. Generation of clopidogrel active metabolite and inhibition of platelet function were reduced less by the coadministration of dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole with clopidogrel than by the coadministration of esomeprazole or omeprazole. These
Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig
This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p motivation and volunteering (p motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J
Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.
YILMAZ, İdris; İbrahim YILDIRAN,; Gamze BEYAZOĞLU,; Fatih BEKTAŞ,
This research stemmed from the need to determine the volunteers’ points of view on the Olympics before Trabzon 2011 European Youth Olympics. The overall objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of volunteers who participated in the Olympic Games, by studying the metaphors they used. 480 participants randomly selected among volunteers of the European Youth Olympics held in Trabzon in 2011 took part in this study. Metaphors, used in relation to the concept of Olympics, were examine...
Full Text Available Experimental manipulation of serotonin (5-HT availability has been shown to modulate social behavior. For instance, serotonin depletion increased the rejection rates of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG, whereas a single dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (citalopram decreased rejection rates. These effects were observed immediately after the manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged Tryptophan (TRP supplementation on UG performance in healthy individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design was used. Healthy volunteers (N=47 completed the UG before and after a 6-day intervention of TRP (2.8 g/day or placebo. Impulsivity was measured with a Go-Stop task. The overall analyses showed that TRP supplementation had no significant effect on UG scores, but the direction of the effect was opposite from expectations. Because repeated performance of the UG may lead to unwanted learning effects or strategical changes, additional analyses were conducted in which participants (N=7 who accepted all offers on the second measurement were excluded. These analyses revealed that the TRP-group rejected very unfair offers more often than the placebo group. The groups did not differ on impulsivity. Increasing serotonin through TRP supplements increased the rejection of very unfair offers. The direction of our findings is inconsistent with earlier studies that showed that increasing 5-HT availability results in less rejection of unfair offers. The current findings thus importantly suggest that effects of acute vs. prolonged enhancement of 5-HT availability may differ. Also, the outcomes show that the UG is a complex task and participants’ decisions may depend on context, e.g., prior experience with the task.
Dittus, Martin Sebastian
Organisers of large crowdsourcing initiatives need to consider how to produce outcomes, but also how to build volunteer capacity. Central concerns include the impact of the first-time contributor experience, and the interplay of different modes of participation in larger organisations that host multiple strands of activity. How can volunteer capacity be built proactively, so that trained volunteers are available when needed? How important are opportunities for social encounter, either online ...
Weil, Peter A; Kimball, Peter A
The role requirements of healthcare executives have received considerable attention from researchers; however, the volunteer efforts of executives have not been examined. This study investigates the relationship between an executive's position in the organizational hierarchy and his or her propensity to volunteer in general and to volunteer for the executive's professional society in particular. The study found that nearly all executives volunteered for some organization, but the type of work they performed was associated with their position level. For example, more than 90 percent of chief executive officers (CEOs) served on a board or a committee compared with less than half of mid-level executives. Also, more CEOs than lower-level executives were involved in fund-raising, setting professional standards, and testifying to legislatures. In general, we suggest that CEOs commit to volunteering, which facilitates their ability to achieve and retain their high-level position, recognition, and rewards. Fewer than half of the executives surveyed had volunteered for the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE), their professional society; the most common reasons given for not volunteering were lack of awareness of volunteer opportunities or not being asked to volunteer. Those that had volunteered for ACHE were primarily motivated by altruistic motives, such as the desire to help others, feelings of compassion for people in need, or the desire to do something for the profession. Career advancement was deemed to be a less important motivator in volunteering for ACHE. However, mid-level executives rated these motives more highly than did senior-level executives and CEOs. Because of the creation of local ACHE chapters, many more opportunities will become available for healthcare executives to volunteer for their professional society in the future.
Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.
Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik
volunteers with a median age of 63 yr (range, 59-67 yr) received an infusion of lactated Ringer's solution 40 mL/kg (median, 2820 mL) or 5 mL/kg (median, 353 mL; background infusion) in random order on two separate occasions. The study was designed to mimic the perioperative course with preoperative fasting...... by fluid administration. These findings may serve as a basis for clinical studies applying the same type of fluid in different amounts to determine the optimal amount of perioperative fluid in various surgical procedures. IMPLICATIONS: Infusion of 40 mL/kg of lactated Ringer's solution in volunteers led......, infusion of the fluid over 3 h in the morning, and additionally 24-h hospitalization under standardized conditions. Primary outcome assessments were pulmonary function (spirometry), exercise capacity (submaximal treadmill test), balance function (BalanceMaster), and weight. Infusion of 40 mL/kg of lactated...
Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane
Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.
Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young
One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.
Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H
A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P 0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P Motivations to Volunteer Scale were requirement, career improvement, social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...
Splinter, Mariëlle; Egli, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried
An increasing number of clubs experience difficulties in recruiting and retaining sufficient numbers of volunteers to manage and staff their clubs (Lamprecht, Fischer, & Stamm, 2012). In order to facilitate volunteer recruitment, sport clubs need a specific strategy to recruit and retain volunteers for both formal positions and ad hoc tasks. Therefore, the intervention “More Volunteers in Football Clubs” was designed and its impact was evaluated in detail. The question this evaluation researc...
Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and…
Full Text Available Micro-volunteering has been defined as convenient, bite-sized, crowdsourced, and network-managed. Micro-volunteers donate their time and energy for organisations which they may not have previously encountered (crowd-sourced), at a time which...
Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…
Koehler, C. Russell
Designed for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors at Olympic College, this handbook provides information on the college's efforts to train volunteers as classroom assistants in ABE/ESL education, as well as guidelines for working with volunteers. The first section of the handbook provides background on the…
Marcelo, Karlo Barrios
College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…
Ray, Garrett W.
Community service organizations face a dilemma resulting from hard economic times, inflation, fewer traditional volunteers, and changes in volunteer motivation. There is a need to enlist the help of corporations and local colleges. The experiences of the Littleton, Colorado community are described. (MLW)
Winniford, Janet C.; Carpenter, D. Stanley; Grider, Clint
Examines the literature on volunteer motivation to provide a conceptual framework for future studies on traits and motivations of college student volunteers. Focuses on the relationship between egoistic and altruistic motivational components, as well as situational factors. Explores motivation constructs, mixed motivation, and results'…
... their personal lives by changing other peoples' lives. For parents, the programme enabled them to see the capabilities of their children. The study recommended the use of volunteer support groups to enhance motor and social skills of youth enrolled in inclusive programmes. Keywords: Participation, volunteer coaches, ...
Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.
This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…
Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success. From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...
Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.
Wang, Ji-Wei; Wei, Chang-Nian; Harada, Koichi; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Kimiyo; Cui, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Cui, Zhi-Ting; Ueda, Atsushi
When predicting volunteer intention, much attention is paid to the volunteer organization environment (VOE). Given that self-efficacy and motivation have emerged as important predictors of volunteer intention, we adopted a combination of ideas of Bandura's social cognitive theory and Ajzen's theory of planned behavior integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation to examine their effects on volunteer intention and to determine whether self-efficacy and motivation mediate the relationship between VOE and volunteer intention. The subjects of this study consisted of 198 community health volunteers in Shanghai city, China. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure using standard principal component analysis. Six new factors were revealed, including two VOE factors, relation with organization and support from government; two motivation factors, personal attitude and social recognition; self-efficacy and volunteer intention. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that relation with organization accounted for 14.8% of the variance in volunteer intention, and support from government failed to add significantly to variance in volunteer intention; self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation partially mediated the effects of relation with organization on volunteer intention; social recognition motivation did not mediate the relationship between relation with organization and volunteer intention; and relation with organization, self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation accounted for 33.7% of the variance in volunteer intention. These results provide support for self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation as mediators and provide preliminary insight into the potential mechanisms for predicting volunteer intention and improving volunteering by integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation factors.
Scott, Jean Pearson; Reifman, Alan; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du
Elderly volunteers in the Young at Heart child care program (n=14), Meals on Wheels (n=14), other volunteer activities (n=24), and nonvolunteers (n=49) were compared. Although child-care volunteers were expected to score highest in generativity, volunteers in other activities did, followed by Young at Heart volunteers. (Contains 10 references.)…
A. V. Matiychyk
Another prerequisite of volunteerism was the surge of Advantages Revolution in 2013-2014, and after it – the anti-terrorist operation in eastern Ukraine. In 2015 the aid organization in terms of ATO and internally displaced persons has increased directions volunteering. Important indicators of volunteering were high levels of involvement of Ukrainian philanthropy and consequently public confidence in voluntary organizations, qualitative growth of volunteerism, the founders of which were gradually included among the managerial elite Ukraine. At the same time, there are number of problems that discredit the work of volunteers and the idea of volunteering in general, for example, fraud volunteers and fake organizations. Moreover, the increased activity of the volunteer movement was caused by the internal crisis that led to the imbalance of public administration, lack of high-quality management decisions, lack of resource capabilities. Also it was caused by external factors, such as the need to participate in the organization of international events and conduct military operations against separatist groups in eastern Ukraine. So, volunteer activity gradually becomes an effective mechanism of self-organization of citizens.
Wu, HaiTao; Lu, XiaoChun; Zou, DeCai; Han, Tao
Navigation augmentation technology is one of the most common methods to increase the continuity, reliability and integrity of the global satellite navigation system. The concept of volunteer augmentation navigation (VNA) is proposed and the elements and topological structure of VNA are also analyzed in this paper. The study focuses on the neural network model that volunteers and ordinary users use modern communication information network to exchange self-organizing information. The neural cell model of Volunteer Augmentation Navigation using shared information is built. Thus interactive general relative positioning is realized. Then basic theories and methods of volunteer augmentation navigation are formed on the basis of the above-mentioned study. This study of realization mechanism of volunteer augmentation technology helps to form a relatively integral architecture of volunteer augmentation navigation. A user self-service satellite navigation augmentation which combines information exchange and navigation services may strengthen the continuity, reliability and integrity of the navigation system. The volunteer augmentation navigation theory proposed in this paper improves the traditional satellite navigation application model and expands the connotation and denotation of satellite navigation augmentation methods.
Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders
sample of 1,867 individuals of working age. The survey data are linked to administrative registers containing individual-level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used to determine cause and effect. Our findings......In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized causal link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys... organizations on the new information collection, the Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. DATES: Comments... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. OMB Number: 0596-New...
Witucki Brown, Janet; Chen, Shu-li; Mefford, Linda; Brown, Allie; Callen, Bonnie; McArthur, Polly
This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category) for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers. PMID:21994824
Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen
The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andow, David A.; Borgida, Eugene; Hurley, Terrance M.; Williams, Allison L.
Volunteer citizen monitoring is an increasingly important source of scientific data. We developed a volunteer program for early detection of new invasive species by private landowners on their own land. Early detection of an invasive species, however, subjects the landowner to the potentially costly risk of government intervention to control the invasive species. We hypothesized that an adult experiential learning module could increase recruitment and retention because private landowners could learn more about and understand the social benefits of early detection and more accurately gauge the level of personal risk. The experiential learning module emphasized group discussion and individual reflection of risks and benefits of volunteering and included interactions with experts and regulatory personnel. A population of woodland owners with >2 ha of managed oak woodland in central Minnesota were randomly assigned to recruitment treatments: (a) the experiential learning module or (b) a letter inviting their participation. The recruitment and retention rates and data quality were similar for the two methods. However, volunteers who experienced the learning module were more likely to recruit new volunteers than those who merely received an invitation letter. Thus the module may indirectly affect recruitment of new volunteers. The data collection was complex and required the volunteers to complete timely activities, yet the volunteers provided sufficiently high quality data that was useful to the organizers. Volunteers can collect complex data and are willing to assume personal risk to contribute to early detection of invasive species.
浦野, 正樹; 大矢根, 淳; 菅, 磨志保; Masaki, URANO; Jun, OYANE; Mashiho, SUGA; 早稲田大・文・社会学; 江戸川大・社会学; 東京ボランティア・市民活動センター; Department of Sociology, Waseda University; Tokyo Voluntary Action Center; Department of Sociology, Edogawa University
This paper deals with the problems of volunteer networking and introduces the challenge of volunteer network coordination in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. First, investigating volunteer activities after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, problems of volunteer networking and volunteer coordination awaiting solution are reviewed. Secondary, challenges of NPO's activities of volunteer coordination for metropolitan- or national-level networking and policy-making efforts of the support systems by ...
Lineback, Donald J.
Good computer files can help colleges find, manage, and solicit alumni volunteers. In 1978 Rhodes College began creating detailed records on alumni and friends, entering gift and biographical data, mostly in coded form, into computerized personal files. (MLW)
Holm, Marie-Louise Keck; Lopez, Kristina Halberg; Arildsen, Marie Otte; Kauppi, Suvi; Jacobsen, Nana Toft; Houmann, Amalie
This project aims to investigate in the profiles of volunteers and their motivations. It further intends to create an ethical discussion about said motivations to generate a broader understanding of motivational factors and the ethical perspectives of them. In order to find the profiles and motivation, an interview and questionnaire were conducted of respectively an employee of MellemFolkeligt Samvirke and volunteers about to go abroad with the organisation. With the use of Abraham H. Maslow,...
Levy, J H; Moore, K T; Neal, M D; Schneider, D; Marcsisin, V S; Ariyawansa, J; Weitz, J I
Essentials Specific reversal agents for managing severe factor Xa inhibitor-associated bleeding are lacking. We assessed 4-factor-prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) and tranexamic acid (TXA). 4F-PCC, but not TXA, reduced the prothrombin time and increased endogenous thrombin potential. These agents may be viable options for reversal of therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. Background Oral activated factor X inhibitors such as rivaroxaban are widely used, but specific reversal agents are lacking. Although four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) and tranexamic acid (TXA) are sometimes used to manage serious bleeding, their efficacy is unknown. Prior studies in healthy subjects taking rivaroxaban revealed that 4F-PCC partially reverses the prolonged prothrombin time (PT), and fully restores the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). The effect of TXA has not been evaluated. Methods In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 147 healthy volunteers given rivaroxaban 20 mg twice daily for 3 days were randomized after their morning dose on day 4 to receive intravenous 4F-PCC (50 IU kg-1 ), TXA (1.0 g), or saline. Standardized punch biopsies were performed at baseline and after 4F-PCC, TXA or saline administration. Reversal was assessed by measuring bleeding duration and bleeding volume at biopsy sites, and by determining the PT and ETP. Results As compared with saline, 4F-PCC partially reversed the PT and completely reversed the ETP, whereas TXA had no effect. Neither 4F-PCC nor TXA reduced bleeding duration or volume. All treatments were well tolerated, with no recorded adverse events. Conclusions Although 4F-PCC reduced the PT and increased the ETP in volunteers given supratherapeutic doses of rivaroxaban, neither 4F-PCC nor TXA influenced punch biopsy bleeding. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Wolf, J; Friberg, L; Jensen, J
The influence of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in ten healthy, alert volunteers. The design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. rCBF was measured by 133-Xe inhalation and single photon emission...
Full Text Available Seamus Byrne's Design for a Headstone (1950 and Brian Friel's Volunteers (1975 are some of the most controversial plays in the canon of Irish drama, exceptional in their explicit political implications. Loosely based on the role of the IRA in the Republic, they achieve a high degree of universality in their discussion of such provocative issues as political radicalism, internment, hunger strike, the role of the Church in society, passive resistance vs. active rebellion, justice vs. humanity, and loyalty vs. betrayal. In their tragic endings, both plays reveal a deep pessimism on the part of their authors.
Dyson, S E; Liu, L; van den Akker, O; O'Driscoll, Mike
In the aftermath of the Francis Report nurses are being called to account for an apparent lack of care and compassion, leading to debate around pedagogy in nurse education. Absent from this debate is a consideration of student volunteering within undergraduate nursing programmes and its potential to promote student nurses self-esteem and to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the extent of and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students. A mixed methods approach using a specifically developed questionnaire, followed by in-depth interviews to ascertain extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering revealed low levels of volunteering among nursing students. Limited time, limited access, and lack of academic support were cited as reasons. Nevertheless, students displayed positive attitudes towards volunteering. While volunteering has been shown to impact upon students abilities to think critically, to develop personal values and respond to the needs of others, volunteering within the UK undergraduate nursing programme considered here is neither structured nor formalized. Nurse educators should pay attention to the positive benefits of volunteering for nursing students and consider ways in which volunteering might be incorporated into the curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in § 1226.3...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it incurs...
The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?
Many have had difficulty attracting and retaining volunteers because of failure to understand volunteer motivation. The study explores volunteerism and emphasizes that volunteers derive personal satisfactions from voluntary activities other than monetary compensation. Volunteers “expect a return on their investment”.
Katz, Douglas S.
This report describes the benefits to vocational educators of involving volunteers in vocational programs and presents a model for planning and implementing a volunteer program. Outlined first are programmatic and nonprogrammatic approaches to designing volunteer programs. Next, in a discussion of the benefits of vocational volunteer programs, the…
Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.
Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…
Motivation of volunteers at disability sports events: A comparative study of volunteers in Malaysia, South Africa and the United States. ... The results indicated that volunteers were generally motivated by altruistic motives. However, while the main reason for volunteering in South Africa and the USA was to make a contribution ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service projects. (a) A volunteer community service project is a project sponsored and developed by local government or...
Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George
This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…
Yan-yan Jia; Song Ying; Chen-tao Lu; Jing Yang; Li-kun Ding; Ai-dong Wen; Yan-rong Zhu
An extended-release (ER) niacin and lovastatin fixed-dose combination has been developed for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. The purpose of the present study was to examine the drug interaction between niacin and lovastatin after multi-dose oral administration of lovastatin/niacin ER combination in healthy Chinese volunteers. A single-center, randomized, open-label, 5-period crossover study was conducted in thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 45 years wi...
Wolff, N; Weisbrod, B A; Bird, E J
Little is known about the labor market for volunteers, but even less is known about the supply of volunteers to particular industries. This article examines the supply of volunteer labor to one industry, hospitals, and the choices that volunteers make among hospitals with different ownership attributes. Survey data of volunteers at four hospitals located in Madison, Wisconsin, are used to estimate the importance of a number of factors influencing people's willingness to volunteer at hospitals. We found that job opportunities in the labor market and tax rates affect the supply of volunteers. We also found that volunteers are not indifferent to the type of hospital at which they volunteer; a federal government hospital, a nonprofit state-owned teaching hospital, and other nonprofit hospitals were not perfect substitutes in the eyes of individual volunteers in our study.
Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Lan\\c con, Eric
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers' resources make up a sizable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one job to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.
Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects
Sebastio, Stefano; Amoretti, Michele; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto
application, intelligent agents constitute a feasible technology to add autonomic features to cloud operations. Furthermore, the volunteer computing paradigm—one of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) trends of the last decade—can be pulled alongside traditional cloud approaches......, with the purpose to ‘green’ them. Indeed, the combination of data center and volunteer resources, managed by agents, allows one to obtain a more robust and scalable cloud computing platform. The increased challenges in designing such a complex system can benefit from a simulation-based approach, to test autonomic...
Kagan, A; Black, S E; Duchan, F J; Simmons-Mackie, N; Square, P
This article reports the development and evaluation of a new intervention termed "Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia" (SCA). The approach is based on the idea that the inherent competence of people with aphasia can be revealed through the skill of a conversation partner. The intervention approach was developed at a community-based aphasia center where volunteers interact with individuals with chronic aphasia and their families. The experimental study was designed to test whether training improves the conversational skills of volunteers, and, if so, whether the improvements affect the communication of their conversation partners with aphasia. Twenty volunteers received SCA training, and 20 control volunteers were merely exposed to people with aphasia. Comparisons between the groups' scores on a Measure of Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia provide support for the efficacy of SCA. Trained volunteers scored significantly higher than untrained volunteers on ratings of acknowledging competence [F(1, 36) = 19. 1, p aphasia. The training also produced a positive change in ratings of social [F(1, 36) = 5.7, p aphasia, even though these individuals did not participate in the training. Implications for the treatment of aphasia and an argument for a social model of intervention are discussed.
Yang, Jing; Youssef, Mostafa; Yildiz, Bilge
In this work, we quantify oxygen self-diffusion in monoclinic-phase zirconium oxide as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A migration barrier of each type of oxygen defect was obtained by first-principles calculations. Random walk theory was used to quantify the diffusivities of oxygen interstitials by using the calculated migration barriers. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate diffusivities of oxygen vacancies by distinguishing the threefold- and fourfold-coordinated lattice oxygen. By combining the equilibrium defect concentrations obtained in our previous work together with the herein calculated diffusivity of each defect species, we present the resulting oxygen self-diffusion coefficients and the corresponding atomistically resolved transport mechanisms. The predicted effective migration barriers and diffusion prefactors are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally reported values. This work provides insights into oxygen diffusion engineering in Zr O2 -related devices and parametrization for continuum transport modeling.
Immediate effects of TENS and cryotherapy in the reflex excitability and voluntary activity in hemiparetic subjects: a randomized crossover trial Efeitos imediatos da TENS e crioterapia na excitabilidade reflexa e atividade voluntária de sujeitos hemiparéticos: um estudo controlado aleatorizado cruzado
Fábio L. Martins
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The disorder of reflex and motor function in patients affected by stroke causes negative impact on the performance of movement patterns and affects the functional activities. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and cryotherapy interventions on the spinal reflex excitability and in the voluntary electromyography (EMG activity in people with chronic stroke. METHOD: Randomized crossover trial. The maximum H-reflex (Hmax, the H-reflex latency and the maximum motor response (Mmax of the soleus muscle and also the EMG of the tibialis muscle where evaluated before and after the application of TENS, cryotherapy and control conditions. RESULTS: The Hmax/Mmax ratio was statistically significant higher (p=0.0245 and the H-reflex latency was statistically significant lower (p=0.0375 in the soleus muscle of the affected limb. The EMG amplitude of the tibialis anterior was reduced in the compromised limb (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O distúrbio da função motora e reflexa em pacientes acometidos por acidente vascular encefálico (AVE causa impactos negativos na realização de padrões motores, comprometendo as atividades funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Investigar os efeitos imediatos da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS e da crioterapia na excitabilidade reflexa e na atividade voluntária de sujeitos vítimas de AVE. MÉTODO: Estudo Crossover. O reflexo H máximo (Hmáx, a latência do reflexo H e a resposta motora máxima (Mmáx do músculo solear e a eletromiografia (EMG do músculo tibial anterior foram avaliados antes e após a aplicação de TENS, crioterapia e em condições de controle. RESULTADOS: A razão Hmáx/Mmáx estava significativamente aumentada (p=0,0245 e a latência do reflexo H significativamente diminuída (p=0,0375 no músculo solear do membro afetado. A amplitude do sinal EMG do músculo estava significativamente reduzida no membro comprometido (p<0
... April 12, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former Prisoner of War... achieving our highest ambitions--from a world-class education for every child to an economy built to last...
Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…
Lorentzen, Håkon; Henriksen, Lars Skov
This article presents and explains differences in governmental implementation strategies of volunteer centers in Norway and Denmark. In the first part, we describe the emergence of centers, focusing on shifting policies and governmental initiatives. The second part aims at explaining the observed...
Ahmed, Stephanie; McNanley, Anna; Perevich, Maryann; Glantz, John Christopher; Buchsbaum, Gunhilde
: There is not currently a standard definition of "normal" for uroflowmetry parameters, particularly with respect to spontaneous voids or multiple repeated measurements within an individual. Our study aimed to describe uroflow parameters for "normal" in a group of healthy women based on repeated measurements. : Spontaneous voids of twelve healthy women were recorded over two weeks. Additionally, one prompted void per subject was recorded. Prompted voids were compared to the subjects' spontaneous voids. These voids were also compared to those of patients evaluated for urinary incontinence. Groups were compared using paired t tests. : The mean voided volume was 306 ml and the mean maximum flow rate was 49 ml/s. The prompted voids were lower in volume, maximum flow, and duration than spontaneous voids. When corrected for volume, these differences were not significant. Maximum flow rates in patients evaluated for urinary incontinence were lower than those of volunteers. : Uroflowmetry parameters vary widely between and within healthy volunteers. Prompted voids are representative of spontaneous voids. Maximum flow rates of patients evaluated for urinary incontinence were lower than those of volunteers. In a group of healthy volunteers voiding in a private, spontaneous setting, a maximum flow rate of lower than 17 ml/s (2 SDs below the mean) might be considered abnormally low.
Høimyr, N.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Giovannozzi, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Jones, P. L.; Karneyeu, A.; Marquina, M. A.; Mcintosh, E.; Segal, B.; Skands, P.; Grey, F.; Lombraña González, D.; Zacharov, I.
Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC@home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.
Mar 18, 2015 ... of children <5 years of age, with an evaluation of its outcome on their knowledge and practice of malaria prevention and case management among the experimental group compared with the control group. The study made use of eight. Community volunteers (six females and two males) who were trained to ...
Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay
Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…
Mar 18, 2015 ... study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid .... to life‑saving treatment and improved the health system efficiency while .... home management of malaria community daily case register adapted from the ...
Ross, Linda; Kabidi, Sophia
Paramedics require a wide range of skills that are beyond clinical or technical skills in order to meet the demands of the role and provide quality and compassionate care to patients. Non-technical or "soft" skills and attributes are generally challenging to teach and develop in the classroom setting. Volunteerism provides an opportunity for students to gain exposure to different communities and develop interpersonal skills. This cross-sectional study used one-on-one interviews with 12 third-year Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) students from Monash University, Australia, who completed a community volunteering program. Results suggest that paramedic students see volunteering as a highly valuable means of developing a number of skills crucial to their future roles and paramedic practice. Volunteering also provided students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and the broader community, develop confidence, and improve overall job-readiness and employability. This study demonstrates that embedding volunteering into paramedic education is an effective way to develop the broad range of paramedic attributes required for the role. These experiences allow students to make the important transition to a job-ready graduate paramedic who can provide holistic patient-centred care.
Hardy, James M.
A national survey was conducted as part of a project on Developing and Utilizing New Techniques for Recruiting and Training Volunteers in the 70's. A presented questionnaire was mailed to 4132 professional directors in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and 1219 were returned. Of the respondents, 52% had been professional directors for…
... served each other and our Nation, each person dedicated to making tomorrow better than today. They... when we work together. Volunteers are the lifeblood of our schools and shelters, hospitals and hotlines... capacity of organizations and communities to tackle their own problems by investing in social innovation...
Introduction: Malaria accounts for 70% of illnesses and 30% of deaths among children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality among under 5 children ...
Filep, Robert T.; And Others
This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children who view the television program, "Sesame Street". The suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the "Sesame Mother Pilot Project," conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main parts:…
Derakhshandeh, K.; Mohebbi, M.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of a selective histamine (H1)-receptor antagonist, cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), following administration of a single oral dose of the drug. The properties of a test compound were compared with those of a reference product in a randomized cross-over study in 12 volunteers. Blood samples were collected at selected time intervals up to 24 h and plasma concentrations of CTZ were determined using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters including T1/2, T1/2(abs), K, Ka, Tmax, Cmax, Vd/F, Cl/F, AUC0-24, AUC 0-∞ and MRT were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for tested products and found to be in good agreement with previous reports. The analysis of variance did not show any significant differences between the test and reference products. The confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax (95-110%), AUC0-24 (91-112%) and AUC0-∞ (92-109%) for the test and reference products were within the acceptable interval of 80-125%. ANOVA assessment of logarithmically transformed data did not reveal any significant subject, period or sequence effects. It was, therefore, concluded that the two products were bioequivalent and could be used interchangeably. PMID:21589806
Daugaard, D.; Thomsen, L. L.; Iversen, H. K.
of the middle cerebral artery was measured (transcranial Doppler). Our hypothesis was disproved, as Az did not decrease GTN-induced headache. Unexpectedly but interestingly, GTN combined with Az induced more delayed headache than GTN alone. Furthermore, a migraine-like headache was observed in three volunteers......Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is a pro-drug dissociating nitric oxide throughout the body. It dilates cephalic arteries without increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). GTN induces headache in healthy volunteers and migraine attacks in migraineurs. Acetazolamide (Az) increases CBF but does not dilate...... healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, they were pretreated with Az or placebo followed on both study days by a GTN infusion of 0.5 mu g kg-1 min-1 for 20 min. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale and a headache diary was kept for 12 h. Mean blood velocity...
Gerstein, Lawrence H; Wilkeson, David A; Anderson, Heather
143 AmeriCorps volunteers (30 men; 113 women) and 127 college student volunteers (43 men; 84 women) completed the Volunteer Functions Inventory to assess whether monetary compensation was associated with choice to volunteer to provide educational services, e.g., tutoring, mentoring. Based on Snyder's 1993 theory of functionalism, motives of paid (AmeriCorps participants) and nonpaid (college students) volunteers were expected to differ. It was also predicted that the motives of female and male volunteers would differ. Multivariate analysis of variance confirmed these assumptions. In general, paid male participants reported perceiving numerous benefits associated with volunteering and reported stronger beliefs about such benefits. Female participants reported motives for volunteering, in contrast, which were not linked with monetary compensation. The women reported recognizing the benefits of volunteering and engaging in this activity for egoistic reasons. Their reported motives had little relation to compensation.
Trépanier, Eric F.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Amsden, Guy W.
Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident. PMID:9517954
Shemesh, Noam; Ozarslan, Evren; Adiri, Tal; Basser, Peter J; Cohen, Yoram
Noninvasive characterization of pore size and shape in opaque porous media is a formidable challenge. NMR diffusion-diffraction patterns were found to be exceptionally useful for obtaining such morphological features, but only when pores are monodisperse and coherently placed. When locally anisotropic pores are randomly oriented, conventional diffusion NMR methods fail. Here, we present a simple, direct, and general approach to obtain both compartment size and shape even in such settings and even when pores are characterized by internal field gradients. Using controlled porous media, we show that the bipolar-double-pulsed-field-gradient (bp-d-PFG) methodology yields diffusion-diffraction patterns from which pore size can be directly obtained. Moreover, we show that pore shape, which cannot be obtained by conventional methods, can be directly inferred from the modulation of the signal in angular bp-d-PFG experiments. This new methodology significantly broadens the types of porous media that can be studied using noninvasive diffusion-diffraction NMR.
Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L
To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boudreau, Stephanie A; Yan, Norman D
We tested the sampling methods of a volunteer-based monitoring program designed to detect the non-indigenous spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, and found that the program could detect the majority of Bythotrephes invasions. Volunteers take two vertical hauls with a 30 cm diameter net at each of three pelagic stations. To determine if the volunteers were using a large enough net at their three stations, we performed a 17-lake comparison of the volunteer's net with a 75 cm diameter, research-grade net. We found no difference in the number of stations at which Bythotrephes was detected (paired t-test, p = 0.155) with the two nets, because Bythotrephes densities were above the detection limits for both nets. To determine if three stations were sufficient to detect the invader with the volunteer's net, we deployed it at 30 stations in two lakes with average (Harp Lake, 4.17 Bythotrephes m(-3)) vs. low Bythotrephes densities (Sugar Lake, 0.92 m(-3)). In Harp Lake, repeated randomized sampling of the 30 sets of data indicated that only three stations were needed for 100% capture success. In Sugar Lake, seven stations were needed for 100% capture success, but three stations, the current program design, failed to detect the invasion only 14% of the time.
Henderson, Susan J.; Newman, Jeannette; Ferguson, Rennie W.; Jung, Paul
Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. ...
Full Text Available Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae, and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.
Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Siqueira, Siomara Roberta
To analyze the profile of volunteers and their work process in hospital humanization. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, applied to 26 volunteer coordinators and 26 volunteers, who belong to 25 hospitals in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis principles. Five main themes were identified: volunteer profile (age, sex, level of income); volunteer work organization (volunteer agreement, training); volunteer-hospital relationship (relationship with hospital management and employees); motivation (solidarity, previous experience with family members' or one's own diseases, personal satisfaction, conflict resolution) and benefits (individual, dual, collective); and humanization and volunteer activities (patient care, logistic support, emotional support, development of patients' abilities, leisure, organization of commemorative events). In the activity developed by volunteers, there are positive aspects (such as the contribution to hospital humanization) and negative aspects (such as volunteers performing activities assigned to employees). Attention should be paid to the regulation of volunteer activities, especially patient care, and actions that value volunteer work in hospitals and volunteer integration into humanization work groups.
Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee
Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.
Nomar Espinosa Waminal
Full Text Available Monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.
Murthy, Megha N; Veerappa, Avinash M; Seshachalam, Keshava B; Ramachandra, Nallur B
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurological disease responsible for a considerable rate of mortality and morbidity in the society. Since the symptoms of the disease appear much later than the actual onset of neuron degeneration, a majority of cases remain undiagnosed until the manifestation of the symptoms. In order to investigate the existence of such susceptibility in the population, we analyzed Copy Number Variation (CNV) influences on PD genes in 1715 individuals from 12 different populations. Overall, 16 CNV-PD genes, 3 known to be causal and 13 associated, were found to be significantly enriched. PARK2, was under heavy burden with ~1% of the population containing CNV in the exonic region. The impact of these genes on the genome and disease pathway was analyzed using several genome analysis tools. Protein interaction network of CNV-PD genes revealed a complex interaction of molecules forming a major hub by the α-Synuclein, whose direct interactors, LRRK2, PARK2 and ATP13A2 are under CNV influence. We hypothesize that CNVs may not be the initiating event in the pathogenesis of PD and remain latent until additional secondary hits are acquired and also propose novel genes that may fall under the PD pathway which contribute in pathogenesis.
Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Bendix Kleif, Helle; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
are based on a longitudinal data set containing socio-demographic information on all 585 postcode districts in Denmark and quarterly records of six different categories of reported crimes in the years 2001–2010.We apply a difference-in-difference design and compare development in crime rates in districts......The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...
Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal
The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...... in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... and critical management studies, this conceptual paper reviews the literature, presenting an analytical framework aimed at improving the quality of monitoring and evaluation. The paper is positioned within the adaptancy platform and focuses on qualitative, critical approaches to evaluation. The framework...
The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact: mailto:Catherine.Brandt@cern.ch
Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Bianchi, R.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.; Isacchini, G.; Lançon, E.; Wu, W.; ATLAS Collaboration
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Cameron, David; Filipčič, Andrej; Lançon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
Offers tips for cultivating volunteers for community college organizations: begin retention efforts early, "talk up" the organization, identify goals to determine what you can offer volunteers, and stay connected. (EV)
AD-A271 892 1 April 1993 Reprint Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni Army Project Order 90PP0820 Robert E. Black, Daniel Perlman, Mary...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited NTxxeISfl RFor...C. jejuni results in diarrhea cosa visualized on a microscopic study of rectal with fecal leukocytes and blood, similar to nat- biopsy specimens
Tett, S E; Cutler, D J; Day, R O; Brown, K F
1. Five healthy volunteers received, in a randomised crossover design study, a 155 mg oral tablet and an intravenous infusion of 155 mg racemic hydroxychloroquine (200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulphate) to assess the bioavailability of the commercially available tablet (Plaquenil, Winthrop Laboratories, Australia). 2. The terminal elimination half-life of hydroxychloroquine is more than 40 days, thus blood and urine samples were collected for 5 months following each dose to characterise adequate...
times of extreme need.10 Even today, the heritage of the American police-force volunteer continues with renewed vigor. Aligned under the DOJ...guidance, the mission statement should consider the current capabilities and limitations of the LE air division thereby allowing the pilots to make smart ...allow the pilots to make smart and safe tactical decisions while flying.127 In step with PSAAC, MCAS’s operations manual provides its pilots with the
ATLAS@Home is a CERN volunteer computing project that runs simulated ATLAS events. As the project ramps up, the project team is looking for CERN volunteers to test the system before planning a bigger promotion for the public. The ATLAS@home outreach website. ATLAS@Home is a large-scale research project that runs ATLAS experiment simulation software inside virtual machines hosted by volunteer computers. “People from all over the world offer up their computers’ idle time to run simulation programmes to help physicists extract information from the large amount of data collected by the detector,” explains Claire Adam Bourdarios of the ATLAS@Home project. “The ATLAS@Home project aims to extrapolate the Standard Model at a higher energy and explore what new physics may look like. Everything we’re currently running is preparation for next year's run.” ATLAS@Home became an official BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.3-2 Section 1220.3-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Civil and Administrative Proceedings § 1220.3-2 Part-time volunteers. ACTION will reimburse sponsors for the reasonable expenses incidental to the defense of part-time...
There has been little research attention in the South African context on volunteer motivation for special events for people with disabilities. This study explored the key factors that motivated volunteers to volunteer their services at three major sport events for people with disabilities in South Africa. A 28-item questionnaire was ...
Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of hospice palliative care work on volunteers' lives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 direct-patient care volunteers. More than half of the volunteers became involved in hospice palliative care because of their own experiences with family members and/or friends who have died. Most of the volunteers reported that they were different now or had changed in some way since they have been volunteering (e.g., they had grown in some way, have learned how to keep things in perspective). In addition, most of the volunteers felt that their outlook on life had changed since they started volunteering (e.g., they were more accepting of death, and they learned the importance of living one day at a time). Volunteers reported doing a number of different things to prevent compassion fatigue or burnout (e.g., reading a book, listening to music, talking to others, and taking time off from volunteering). Most of the volunteers said that they would tell anyone who might be thinking of volunteering in hospice palliative care that it is a very rewarding activity and/or that they should try it. Finally, many of the volunteers offered suggestions for doing things differently in their programs.
A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…
Volunteer motivations vary from altruism, to volunteering as a means to be recognised and increasing the chances of self-improvement. We propose that home-based-care volunteering may be viewed as a form of agency in response to a lack of recognition, support and acknowledgement for AIDS caregivers and their ...
Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen
The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…
Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.
Face-to-face training for Extension volunteers is no longer the only viable delivery mode. In times of rapid technological advances, we are faced with a plethora of options for offering volunteers the training and support they need. Zoom, an online videoconferencing platform, can easily be used to engage volunteers in professional development.…
Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.
A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…
Volunteers are affected by organizational change, though with a different focus and priority. There may be tension between volunteers and paid staff. Volunteers may pass through stages of resistance, confusion, integration and recommitment; they may have different change styles: resisters, adapters, or seekers. (SK)
Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.
Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…
Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit
The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…
García, Luis; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; García, Hilda; Rodríguez, Boris L.; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Suzarte, Edith; Ramírez, Margarita; Pino, Yadira; Campos, Javier; Menéndez, Jorge; Valera, Rodrigo; González, Daniel; González, Irma; Pérez, Oliver; Serrano, Teresita; Lastre, Miriam; Miralles, Fernando; del Campo, Judith; Maestre, Jorge Luis; Pérez, José Luis; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Antonio; Marrero, Karen; Ledón, Talena; Fando, Rafael
Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXΦ prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 109 CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3, while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 109 CFU of ΔCTXΦ attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 × 105 CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3. Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (109 CFU) of strain
Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya
To demonstrate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablet and evaluate the effect of ethnicity on pharmacokinetics properties of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide on healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. Randomized, open-label, crossover, bioavailability studies were conducted separately in healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. One tablet either of test or of reference product was administered after 10 hours of overnight fasting. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 48 hours for both the studies. Plasma samples were analyzed for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide by a validated liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax, and other pharmacokinetics parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for both test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablets. Statistical evaluations were done to evaluate bioequivalence between generic test formulation (EPR0001) and Japanese reference product (Preminent®). Losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide were well tolerated by subjects in all periods of each study under fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of least square means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals were within acceptance range recommended by PMDA. Marginal differences were observed in pharmacokinetic values of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. The results of these bioavailability studies indicate that the test formulation of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg (EPR0001) tablets is bioequivalent to marketed Preminent® reference formulation in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers, when administered under fasting conditions. Both test and reference formulations were well tolerated
Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi
The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.
D. Sreeramulu; Ramalakshmi, B. A.; N Balakrishna; Raghuramulu, N.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and lipid peroxide levels during ageing in human subjects. Random blood samples were collected from a total of 128 apparently normal human volunteers of both sexes, whose age ranged between 21–70 years. The subjects were divided into groups of a decade years of age difference. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), lipid peroxides as malondialdehyde (MDA), and insulin were analysed in...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the pay rate of Peace Corps... COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Special Provisions Peace Corps Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands. We aimed at finding the main environmental drivers of AQT at multiple time-scales, and to devise daily AQT maps at the national level for 2014. Method Tick dynamics is a complex ecological problem driven by biotic (e.g. pathogens, wildlife, humans and abiotic (e.g. weather, landscape factors. We enriched the volunteered AQT collection with six types of weather variables (aggregated at 11 temporal scales, three types of satellite-derived vegetation indices, land cover, and mast years. Then, we applied a feature engineering process to derive a set of 101 features to characterize the conditions that yielded a particular count of AQT on a date and location. To devise models predicting the AQT, we use a time-aware Random Forest regression method, which is suitable to find non-linear relationships in complex ecological problems, and provides an estimation of the most important features to predict the AQT. Results We trained a model capable of fitting AQT with reduced statistical metrics. The multi-temporal study on the feature importance indicates that variables linked to water levels in the atmosphere (i.e. evapotranspiration, relative humidity consistently showed a higher explanatory power than previous works using temperature. As a product of this study, we are able of mapping daily tick dynamics at the national level. Conclusions This study paves the way towards the design of new applications in the fields
Cho, Kyung-Jin; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Park, Junsung; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo
In the present study two different formulations containing 50 mg itopride HCl (N-[4-12-(dimethylamino)ethoxylbenzyl]-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide HCl, CAS 122898-67-3) were compared in 28 healthy male volunteers in order to compare the bioavailability and prove the bioequivalence. The study was performed in an open, single dose randomized, 2-sequence, crossover design in 28 healthy male volunteers with a one-week washout period. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were drawn at selected times during 24 h. The serum concentrations of itopride HCl were determined using a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The detection limit of itopride HCl was 5 ng/ml and no endogenous compounds were found to interfere with analysis. The mean AUC(0-4h), AUC(0 --> infinity), C(max), T(max) and T1/2 were 865.28 ng x h/ml, 873.04 ng x h/ml, 303.72 ng/ml, 0.75 h, and 2.95 h, respectively, for the test formulations, and 833.00 ng x h/ml, 830.97 ng x h/ml, 268.01 ng/ml, 0.78 h, and 2.83 h, respectively, for the reference formulation. Both primary target parameters AUC(0 --> infinity) and C(max) were log-transformed and tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). 90% confidence intervals of AUC(0 --> infinity) and C(max) were 100.57%-109.56% and 105.46%-121.18%, respectively, and were in the range of acceptable limits of bioequivalence (80-125%). Based on these results, the two formulations of itopride HCl are considered to be bioequivalent.
Jones, David A.
An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work
Jones, David A
An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work
Fridberg, Torben; Larsen, Mona
This report maps the composition of a group of volunteer members of the Home Guard, as well as their opinions and expectations of the Home Guard and their own voluntary efforts. The report is a follow-up to two previous surveys completed in 2007 and 2011 and it therefore also highlights changes f......’s tasks and activities both in Denmark and abroad. Finally, the report describes the volunteers’ perception of the Home Guards’ communication and campaigns. The report was commissioned and financed by the Danish Home Guard Command....
Kruuse, C; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Jansen-Olesen, I
calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin plasma levels were measured before and after placebo/sumatriptan injection and during GTN-induced headache. Following a double-blind randomized cross-over design, 10 healthy volunteers...
Feinberg, Lawrence B.; Sundblad, Lloyd
The results of this study indicate that "need for approval" is a significant motivational variable in college student volunteers and is significantly related to volunteer success among female volunteers. Implications for planning rehabilitation volunteer recruitment programs are discussed. (Author)
Jiranek, Patrick; Kals, Elisabeth; Humm, Julia Sophia; Strubel, Isabel Theresia; Wehner, Theo
In the present study, we combined components of the theory of planned behavior and the functional approach to predict the social sector volunteering intention of nonvolunteers (N = 513). Moreover, we added a new other-oriented "social justice function" to the Volunteer Functions Inventory of Clary and colleagues (1998), which contains mainly self-oriented functions. We distinguished the social justice function from the other five measured volunteer functions in confirmatory factor analysis, and showed its incremental validity in predicting intention to volunteer beyond established constructs such as self-efficacy, subjective norm, and the five volunteer functions. This study suggests that emphasizing potential social justice improvements by means of volunteering may attract new volunteers.
Høimyr, N; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name "LHC@home 2.0" and the BOINC project: "Test4Theory". At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the "Sixtrack" beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup i...
Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. The first session will be on Thursday 6 March. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given out at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 6 March - specific theme "How to answer questions about the fears surrounding the LHC" * A different theme will be addressed at each session. The themes of subsequent sessions (13 , 20, 27 March and 3 Ap...
The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.
Loperfido, J.V.; Beyer, P.; Just, C.L.; Schnoor, J.L.
State water quality monitoring has been augmented by volunteer monitoring programs throughout the United States. Although a significant effort has been put forth by volunteers, questions remain as to whether volunteer data are accurate and can be used by regulators. In this study, typical volunteer water quality measurements from laboratory and environmental samples in Iowa were analyzed for error and bias. Volunteer measurements of nitrate+nitrite were significantly lower (about 2-fold) than concentrations determined via standard methods in both laboratory-prepared and environmental samples. Total reactive phosphorus concentrations analyzed by volunteers were similar to measurements determined via standard methods in laboratory-prepared samples and environmental samples, but were statistically lower than the actual concentration in four of the five laboratory-prepared samples. Volunteer water quality measurements were successful in identifying and classifying most of the waters which violate United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria for total nitrogen (66%) and for total phosphorus (52%) with the accuracy improving when accounting for error and biases in the volunteer data. An understanding of the error and bias in volunteer water quality measurements can allow regulators to incorporate volunteer water quality data into total maximum daily load planning or state water quality reporting. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.
Takyar, Varun; Nath, Anand; Beri, Andrea; Gharib, Ahmed M; Rotman, Yaron
Healthy volunteers are crucial for biomedical research. Inadvertent inclusion of subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as controls can compromise study validity and subject safety. Given the rising prevalence of NAFLD in the general population, we sought to identify its prevalence and potential impact in volunteers for clinical trials. We conducted a cross-sectional study of subjects who were classified as healthy volunteers between 2011 and 2015 and had no known liver disease. Subjects were classified as presumed NAFLD (pNF; alanine aminotransferase [ALT] level ≥ 20 for women or ≥ 31 for men and body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2) ), healthy non-NAFLD controls (normal ALT and BMI), or indeterminate. A total of 3160 subjects participated as healthy volunteers in 149 clinical trials (1-29 trials per subject); 1732 of these subjects (55%) had a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and 1382 (44%) had abnormal ALT. pNF was present in 881 subjects (27.9%), and these subjects were older than healthy control subjects and had higher triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P healthy control subjects (4 versus 1). NAFLD is common and often overlooked in volunteers for clinical trials, despite its potential impact on subject safety and validity of study findings. Increased awareness of NAFLD prevalence and stricter ALT cutoffs may ameliorate this problem. (Hepatology 2017;66:825-833). Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
... performed by an individual as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act. 31... or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act. In the case of an individual performing service in his capacity as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps...
Jobe, J B; Holgate, S H; Scrapansky, T A
Army male enlisted personnel were tested in two experiments to assess the psychological correlates of volunteering for a hazardous combat simulation, (Experiment 1) and a riskless, psychological experiment (Experiment 2). Subjects were given a biographical and personal habit questionnaire, the IPAT Anxiety Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and Torrance and Ziller's life experience inventory. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that volunteers were significantly less anxious, and more willing to take risks than were nonvolunteers. Noncommissioned officers, smokers, laterborn children, and children of lower socioeconomic class parents were significantly overrepresented among the volunteers for this hazardous experiment. In Experiment 2, which solicited volunteers for a routine, nonhazardous experiment, the only variable to discriminate the volunteers from the nonvolunteers was mothers' education level. Results are in agreement with findings, using college students, that volunteer samples differ significantly from nonvolunteer samples, and that the characteristics that discriminate these two groups vary as a function of situational factors.
Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Miller, Kathryn
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of hospice palliative care (HPC) volunteers who provide in-home support (n = 47) and members of the community (n = 58) toward the issue of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). On the first part of the survey, participants responded to 15 items designed to assess their attitudes toward PAS. An examination of individual items revealed differences in opinions among members of both the groups. Responses to additional questions revealed that the majority of volunteers and community members (1) support legalizing PAS; (2) would choose HPC over PAS for themselves if they were terminally ill; and (3) think Canadians should place more priority on developing HPC rather than on legalizing PAS. The implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gurer, Burak; ADILOGULLARI, Ilhan
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership behaviors of volunteer leaders in search and rescue field. 118 volunteer leaders attended this study on a volunteer basis. Data were collected through the use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, which was developed by Bass & Avolio (1985) and adapted into Turkish by Demir & Okan. 20 items were used to measure transformational leadership while 16 of them were applied for transactional leadership. One Way Anov...
Burrai, E; Mostafanezhad, M; Hannam, K
In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...
experience, and help a cause they believe in. Victor H. Vroom’s “ expectancy theory ” affirms that individuals are influenced to engage in particular...someone volunteers, and what a volunteer expects from the experience. In her book, Meaning Well is not Enough – Perspectives on Volunteering, Jane M...human dignity, and social justice when those activities are not the source of one’s livelihood, require involvement beyond what is expected of all
Fridberg, Torben; Damgaard, Malene
voluntary work than the population as a whole. The report also shows that one in three active members of the Home Guard would like to be deployed on international operations to support the armed forces. The young members are especially willing – and these members have increased in recent years. This report......This report describes the composition of the Home Guard’s volunteer members and their attitudes to and expectations for the Home Guard. A similar survey was carried out in 2007, and the present report therefore also examines the trends from 2007 to 2011. Among other things, the report shows...... that the voluntary members are a stable resource, as on average they have been members of the Home Guard for more than 24 years. There is a clear majority of men aged 25-50. Relatively many have vocational training, and many are employed in the private sector. Members are also relatively more active in other...
Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.
Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.
Mcgeehan, Laura; Takehara, Michael A; Daroszewski, Ellen
Volunteer physicians are crucial for the operation of safety-net clinics, which provide medical care for uninsured and underinsured populations. Thus, identifying ways to maximize the number of physicians volunteering at such clinics is an important goal. To investigate the perceptions, motivations, functions, and barriers associated with physician volunteering in four safety-net clinics in San Bernardino County, Southern California, a location of great medical need with many barriers to care. The study participants are physicians belonging to the Southern California Permanente Medical Group who use a combination of discretionary time (during regular work hours) and personal time in evening and weekend hours to volunteer their services. The experimental design incorporates a mixed methodology: an online survey of 31 physicians and follow-up interviews with 8 of them. Physicians conveyed uniformly positive perceptions of their volunteer service, and most were motivated by humanitarian or prosocial desires. Volunteering also provided a protective "escape hatch" from the pressures of the physicians' regular jobs. Physicians cited few challenges to volunteering. The most common personal barrier was a lack of time. The most common professional barriers were organizational and supply issues at the clinic, along with the patients' social, transportation, and financial challenges. The results suggest that appealing to physicians' values and faith, and highlighting the burnout-prevention qualities of volunteering, may be key to recruitment and retention of volunteer physicians who serve underserved and underinsured populations in community clinics.
McGeehan, Laura; Takehara, Michael A; Daroszewski, Ellen
Background: Volunteer physicians are crucial for the operation of safety-net clinics, which provide medical care for uninsured and underinsured populations. Thus, identifying ways to maximize the number of physicians volunteering at such clinics is an important goal. Objective: To investigate the perceptions, motivations, functions, and barriers associated with physician volunteering in four safety-net clinics in San Bernardino County, Southern California, a location of great medical need with many barriers to care. Methods: The study participants are physicians belonging to the Southern California Permanente Medical Group who use a combination of discretionary time (during regular work hours) and personal time in evening and weekend hours to volunteer their services. The experimental design incorporates a mixed methodology: an online survey of 31 physicians and follow-up interviews with 8 of them. Results: Physicians conveyed uniformly positive perceptions of their volunteer service, and most were motivated by humanitarian or prosocial desires. Volunteering also provided a protective “escape hatch” from the pressures of the physicians’ regular jobs. Physicians cited few challenges to volunteering. The most common personal barrier was a lack of time. The most common professional barriers were organizational and supply issues at the clinic, along with the patients’ social, transportation, and financial challenges. Conclusion: The results suggest that appealing to physicians’ values and faith, and highlighting the burnout-prevention qualities of volunteering, may be key to recruitment and retention of volunteer physicians who serve underserved and underinsured populations in community clinics. PMID:28241907
Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.
Kimberger, Oliver; Held, Christine; Stadelmann, Karin; Mayer, Nikolaus; Hunkeler, Corinne; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea
Mild perioperative hypothermia increases the risk of several severe complications. Perioperative patient warming to preserve normothermia has thus become routine, with forced-air warming being used most often. In previous studies, various resistive warming systems have shown mixed results in comparison with forced-air. Recently, a polymer-based resistive patient warming system has been developed. We compared the efficacy of a standard forced-air warming system with the resistive polymer system in volunteers. Eight healthy volunteers participated, each on two separate study days. Unanesthetized volunteers were cooled to a core temperature (tympanic membrane) of 34 degrees C by application of forced-air at 10 degrees C and a circulating-water mattress at 4 degrees C. Meperidine and buspirone were administered to prevent shivering. In a randomly designated order, volunteers were then rewarmed (until their core temperatures reached 36 degrees C) with one of the following active warming systems: (1) forced-air warming (Bair Hugger warming cover #300, blower #750, Arizant, Eden Prairie, MN); or (2) polymer fiber resistive warming (HotDog whole body blanket, HotDog standard controller, Augustine Biomedical, Eden Prairie, MN). The alternate system was used on the second study day. Metabolic heat production, cutaneous heat loss, and core temperature were measured. Metabolic heat production and cutaneous heat loss were similar with each system. After a 30-min delay, core temperature increased nearly linearly by 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.04) degrees C/h with forced-air and by 0.92 (0.85-1.00) degrees C/h with resistive heating (P = 0.4). Heating efficacy and core rewarming rates were similar with full-body forced-air and full-body resistive polymer heating in healthy volunteers.
Pereira, R; Fidelis, S; Vanunci, M L P; Oliveira, C H; Mendes, G D; Abib, E; Moreno, R A
To compare the bioavailability of a fluconazole 150 mg capsule formulation from Laboratório Teuto Brasileiro Ltd., Brazil (test formulation), and Zoltec 150 mg capsule from Laboratórios Pfizer Ltd., Brazil (reference formulation), in 24 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted open with randomized 2-period crossover design and a 2-week washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 168-hour interval. Fluconazole concentrations were analyzed by combined reversed-phase liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization using selected ion monitoring method. From the fluconazole plasma concentration vs. time curves the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC(last), AUC(0-inf) and C(max). Geometric mean of fluconazole/Zoltec 150 mg individual percent ratio was 102.6% for AUC(last), 102.2% for AUC(0-inf) and 109.4% for C(max). The 90% confidence intervals were 97.3-108.2%, 97.0-107.8%, and 103.1-116.0%, respectively. Since the 90% CI for both Cmax, AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it was concluded that fluconazole 150 mg capsule was bioequivalent to Zoltec 150 mg, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.
Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J
Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.
Full Text Available Rationale: The error-related negativity (ERN is a negative event-related potential that occurs immediately after an erroneous response and is thought to reflect human performance monitoring. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC administration in healthy volunteers has been linked to impaired performance monitoring in behavioral studies, but to date no studies have examined the effects of cannabinoids on the ERN. Methods: EEG data from 10 healthy volunteers was recorded during execution of a speeded choice reaction time task (Flankers task after administration of THC or placebo vapor in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Results: The findings of this study show that the ERN was significantly reduced after administration of THC. The behavioral outcomes on the Flankers task showed no indications of drug-induced impairments.Discussion: The diminished ERN reflects impairments in the process of performance monitoring. The task design was not optimized to find behavioral effects. The study shows that cannabinoids impair performance monitoring.
Guarnieri, Regina V; Buratto, Luciano G; Gomes, Carlos F A; Ribeiro, Rafaela L; de Souza, Altay A Lino; Stein, Lilian M; Galduróz, José C; Bueno, Orlando F A
Dopamine can modulate long-term episodic memory. Its potential role on the generation of false memories, however, is less well known. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, 24 young healthy volunteers ingested a 4-mg oral dose of haloperidol, a dopamine D2 -receptor antagonist, or placebo, before taking part in a recognition memory task. Haloperidol was active during both study and test phases of the experiment. Participants in the haloperidol group produced more false recognition responses than those in the placebo group, despite similar levels of correct recognition. These findings show that dopamine blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase false recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Laffon, Eric [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33604, Pessac (France); Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM EMI 0356, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Jimenez, Maria; Choussat, Alain [Service de Cardiologie, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33604, Pessac (France); Latrabe, Valerie [Service de Radiologie, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33604, Pessac (France); Ducassou, Dominique [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33604, Pessac (France); Marthan, Roger [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM EMI 0356, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laurent, Francois [Service de Radiologie, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33604, Pessac (France)
The purpose of the present study was to non-invasively compare ascending aortic blood flow and cross-sectional area (CSA) variations vs time in Mustard or Senning repaired (MSR) patients against those of healthy volunteers at rest. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed in 10 male patients (age range 18-24 years, median age 20.5 years) late after a Mustard or Senning correction, and in 10 male healthy volunteers (age range 21-25 years, median age 22.5 years), at the upper part of the ascending aorta. Both aortic cross-sectional area (CSA) and blood-flow variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle, with a 30-ms time of resolution. The body-surface area (BSA), the mean CSA over the systolic phase, and the BSA-normalized systemic ventricle power and work were significantly lower in the patient series compared with those of the volunteer series. The BSA-normalized right ventricle (RV) power and work of MSR patients were equal to 87 and 83% on average of those of the left ventricle (LV) of healthy volunteers. We conclude that, at rest, the mechanical performance of the systemic RV in MSR patients is significantly lower than that of the LV in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the significantly lower aortic CSA found in MSR patients than in healthy volunteers may reveal an increase in the vasomotor tone. (orig.)
Pravdov Mikhail Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available The aim: the studing of the motivation of youth to volunteer activity. During the investigation were used methods of discussion, interviewing, interrogation and mathematical processing of data. In the article the experience of forming of youth voluntary social associations in Ivanovo region are regarded and the forming of a volunteers student group–“Sova” on the base of Ivanovo institute of the public fire service of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters. Was the level of Knowledge of Students about volunteer activity revealed, as well as the role student youth’s participation in volunteer organizations and the influence of the student volunteer associations on the development of pupils’ personalities in boarding school.
Bixler, Robert D.; Joseph, Stephanie L.; Searles, Vicki M.
Zoos embrace docents/volunteers as a means of interpreting the threats to wildlife and biodiversity to visitors. To accomplish this, zoos provide docents' education, training, and work experience. Docents themselves also engage in solitary and social wildlife experiences outside of their volunteer obligations. This study examined what motivates…
Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.
The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated
Papers. Young Canadians learning/volunteering abroad and their perceived impacts on host communities : CASID Conference paper, May 28, 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa. Download PDF. Reports. Creating global citizens? : the impact of learning/volunteer abroad programs; final report, January 2006 - June 2012.
There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…
Fitch, R. Thomas
Designed and administered the Student Community Service Involvement Survey to assess students' reasons for volunteering. College students indicated that their motives for involvement in community service were egoistic and altruistic. Demographically, student volunteers were not too different from the general student population. Volunteerism was…
Bender, Timothy A.
The motivation of students to volunteer to participate in research studies was explored in two studies. The first study explored the motivation of 300 introductory psychology students at a large midwestern university to volunteer for research participation when one exam point was offered for each hour of participation. Study two, which was…
Atkins, Robert; Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.
Using a longitudinal design, we investigated the relation of childhood personality type to volunteering during adolescence. We hypothesized that participants with more adaptive personality functioning during childhood would be more likely to volunteer during adolescence and that membership in social organizations would mediate the relation of…
Van der Zee, K.I.; Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
The present study focused on social comparison processes among volunteer caregivers of terminally ill patients in relation to burnout. First, caregivers' (N = 80) affective reactions to a bogus interview with fellow volunteer workers who were either coping better or worse were considered. Upward
Mahadevan, Renuka; Ren, Carina Bregnholm
This article explores possible factors that influence the willingness of volunteers to reattend as paying visitors. Using the 2016 Arctic Winter Games in Greenland as a case study, it was found that 47% of the volunteers were willing to reattend as paying visitors; some self-related benefits and ...
Ruiter, S.; Graaf, N.D. de
To what extent does the national religious context affect volunteering? Does a religious environment affect the relation between religiosity and volunteering? To answer these questions, this study specifies individual level, contextual level, and cross-level interaction hypotheses. The authors test
Ruiter, Stijn; Graaf, Nan Dirk de
To what extent does the national religious context affect volunteering? Does a religious environment affect the relation between religiosity and volunteering? To answer these questions, this study specifies individual level, contextual level, and cross-level interaction hypotheses. The authors test
Marie Claire Van Hout
Full Text Available Ireland has a longstanding history of diverse volunteer action (Volunteering Ireland, 2010a. Ireland’s current economic recession has impacted on the community and voluntary sector, with frequent contraction in staff numbers and incomes, and increasing reliance on volunteer participation (Harvey, 2012. This study utilised social capital theory to garner a phenomenological understanding of the contribution of volunteering to perceived social capital amongst Irish volunteers and host organisation representatives. A convenience sample of 28 participants (17 volunteers and 11 organisation representatives was interviewed. A shift in personal and social definitions of volunteering were described, with informal volunteering increasingly replaced by structured, formalized and regulated volunteer placements. Volunteers described their experiences as contributing to increased personal well being and sense of purpose, development of friendships and meeting new people. The volunteer participants identified volunteering activity as a specified community need, providing work related experiences, fulfillment in free time and opportunity for up-skilling. Integration of volunteers into the organisation’s workforce was described as dependent on duration, intensity of interaction and scope of volunteer contributions. Power differentials and a lack of trust between volunteers and staff, was described, as was a lack of volunteer recognition staff. Subsequently, some volunteers identified and aligned themselves within the wider social volunteer network rather than their host organisation. The research reflected an emergent consumerist approach to volunteering and underscores the need to preserve informal social networks of community volunteers, alongside the development of more formalized work specific routes for volunteering in Ireland.
Aguado Sanchez, Carlos; Blomer, Jakob; Buncic, Predrag; Chen, Gang; Ellis, John; Garcia Quintas, David; Harutyunyan, Artem; Grey, Francois; Lombrana Gonzalez, Daniel; Marquina, Miguel; Mato, Pere; Rantala, Jarno; Schulz, Holger; Segal, Ben; Sharma, Archana; Skands, Peter; Weir, David; Wu, Jie; Wu, Wenjing; Yadav, Rohit
Computing for the LHC, and for HEP more generally, is traditionally viewed as requiring specialized infrastructure and software environments, and therefore not compatible with the recent trend in "volunteer computing", where volunteers supply free processing time on ordinary PCs and laptops via standard Internet connections. In this paper, we demonstrate that with the use of virtual machine technology, at least some standard LHC computing tasks can be tackled with volunteer computing resources. Specifically, by presenting volunteer computing resources to HEP scientists as a "volunteer cloud", essentially identical to a Grid or dedicated cluster from a job submission perspective, LHC simulations can be processed effectively. This article outlines both the technical steps required for such a solution and the implications for LHC computing as well as for LHC public outreach and for participation by scientists from developing regions in LHC research.
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially
Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X
Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section 10.730 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR...
Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L
The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function). When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.
De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; London, Edythe D; Newton, Thomas F
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant and long-term exposure leads to reductions in dopamine. One therapeutic strategy is to develop and test compounds that normalize dopamine. The primary aim of this study was to determine the safety of modafinil treatment during methamphetamine exposure in a controlled clinical setting. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (N=13), who were not seeking treatment, were randomized to receive either modafinil (200mg, PO) or matching placebo over three days (Days 1-3 or Days 8-10). On Day 1, subjects were randomized to modafinil or placebo in the morning, and then 3 and 6h later received infusions of methamphetamine (0 and 30 mg, i.v.), after which cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. On Day 3, participants completed i.v. self-administration sessions during which they made 10 choices for low doses of methamphetamine (3mg, i.v.) or saline. Days 4-7 were used as a washout period. On Day 8 participants were assigned to the alternate study medication (placebo or modafinil), and the same testing procedures were repeated through Day 10. The data reveal that modafinil treatment was well-tolerated and not associated with increased incidence of adverse events. In general, modafinil reduced by approximately 25% ratings of methamphetamine-induced "Any Drug Effect", "High", and "Want Methamphetamine", and reduced total number of choices for methamphetamine and monetary value of methamphetamine, though none of these measures reached statistical significance. Given these encouraging, though non-significant trends, the primary conclusion is that it appears safe to proceed with modafinil in further clinical evaluations of therapeutic efficacy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article discusses the pilot year of a 4-H Science project in which Mercer County 4-H partnered with content-rich corporate volunteers of a global STEM corporation to plan and implement six Science Saturdays for 4th-7th grade youth from Trenton and surrounding urban neighborhoods. The program was a ground up initiative designed and implemented by a core group (mostly women, which expanded to include 31 corporate volunteers by the end of the pilot year (2013-2014. The Science Saturdays were held once a month with each session focused on a different theme and included demonstrations or experiments along with other supporting activities. While all four program goals were met during the pilot year, results from the 4-H Science Common Measures survey did not reveal significant increases or improvements in youth outcome objectives. Findings and implications are discussed, as well as current and future programming.
Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan; Butler, Kathleen
The results of two independent, randomized, two-period crossover, single-center studies, conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor???aspirin, inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) with ticagrelor/aspirin vs. clopidogrel/aspirin, and safety, tolerability, and bleeding times are reported here. In Study A (open-label), 16 volunteers received ticagrelor (50?mg bid Days 1?5; 200?mg bid Days 6?9; one 200?mg dose on Day 10)???300?mg qd aspirin (Days 1?10). In Study B (double-blind, d...
Nilsson, Matias; Poulsen, Jakob L; Brock, Christina
Twenty-five healthy men were assigned randomly to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a cross-over design. The analgesic effect was assessed with muscle pressure algometry and adverse effects were measured using questionnaires including the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale....../ascending colon by 41% (P =0.005) and in the transverse colon by 20% (P= 0.005). No associations were detected between questionnaire scores and colorectal volumes. Conclusion Experimental OIBD in healthy volunteers was induced during oxycodone treatment. This model has potential for future interventional studies...
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165
Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.
Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
De Innocentiis, Carlo; Caputi, Cristiano Giovannni; Pinto, Filomena; Quintiliani, Stefania; Meccariello, Armando; Renda, Giulia; Di Nicola, Marta; De Caterina, Raffaele; D'Attilio, Michele
Stimulation of trigeminal sensory afferences has been reported to evoke hypotension and bradycardia, a phenomenon known as the trigeminal cardiac reflex. We attempted to evoke such a reflex through cycles of alternate mandibular stretching in healthy volunteers, as previously reported, for its possible therapeutic exploitation. In Phase 1 of the study, 10 healthy volunteers [5 male, 5 female, age (mean ± SD) 27±2 years)] underwent 2 randomized sessions of automated monitoring, every 6 minutes, of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic (D) BP, and heart rate (HR), with a one-week interval, either with mandibular stretching (12 minutes with a spring device fitted in the mouth), or nothing (control). Observation was prolonged for 180 minute after the end of the stretching. In Phase 2, 7 other volunteers (4 male and 3 female, age 24±1.3 years) repeated the protocol with a sampling interval of 2 minutes until the end of stretching. Baseline levels of SBP, DBP and HR were similar in the test and control sessions. There was a progressive fall of BP and HR as a function of time during the test session. With stretching: SBP changed from 119.2±10.1 to 118.1±10.1 to 115.8±10.5 mmHg, at baseline, end of stretching and 180 minutes after, respectively, pmeasurements, we could not detect significant BP or HR effects of repeated mandibular stretching.
Zhang, Yi-Fan; Dai, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ting; Tang, Yun-Biao; Tsai, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Chang, Yu-Ting; Zhong, Da-Fang
To investigate the effects of probenecid and cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin in humans. Two independent, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 (12 per study) healthy Chinese volunteers. In Study 1, each volunteer received a single oral dose of 500 mg of nemonoxacin alone or with 1.5 g of probenecid divided into three doses within 25 hours. In Study 2, each volunteer received a single oral dose of 500 mg of nemonoxacin alone or with multiple doses of cimetidine (400 mg thrice daily for 7 days). The plasma and urine nemonoxacin concentrations were determined using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Coadministration of nemonoxacin with probenecid reduced the renal clearance (CLr) of nemonoxacin by 22.6%, and increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 26.2%. Coadministration of nemonoxacin with cimetidine reduced the CLr of nemonoxacin by 13.3% and increased AUC0-∞ by 9.4%. Coadministration of nemonoxacin with probenecid or cimetidine did not significantly affect the maximum concentration of nemonoxacin or the percentage of the administered dose recovered in the urine. Although probenecid reduced the CLr and increased the plasma exposure of nemonoxacin, these effects are unlikely to be clinically meaningful at therapeutic doses. Cimetidine had weaker, clinically meaningless effects on the pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin.
Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508
Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.
Ferguson, Rennie W; Henderson, Susan J; Jung, Paul
Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Travellers are at risk given unfamiliarity with local road conditions and traffic rules. Peace Corps Volunteers are a unique population of long-term travellers who live and work in-country, often in remote settings, over a period of 27 months and use a range of transportation modes. Data from Peace Corps' Epidemiologic Surveillance System (ESS) and Death In-Service (DIS) database were analysed in 2015 for non-fatal and fatal road traffic injuries among in-service Volunteers from 1996 to 2014. Volunteer-months were used to calculate incidence rates, and rates were compared among countries and regions. A total of 5047 non-fatal and 15 fatal road crash injuries were reported during 1 616 252 Volunteer-months for an overall rate of 3.12 non-fatal injuries and 0.01 fatalities per 1000 Volunteer-months. The total combined rate of nonfatal road traffic injuries among Volunteers generally declined from 4.01 per 1000 Volunteer-months in 1996 to 2.84 in 2014. Pedestrian and bicycle injuries emerged as the most frequent mechanisms of injury during this timeframe. Differences in rates of observed road traffic-related fatalities among Volunteers compared with expected age-matched cohort rates in the US were not statistically significant. Peace Corps transportation policies and training, and changes to road environments worldwide, may have led to a decrease in the rate of road traffic injuries among Peace Corps Volunteers. Pedestrians and bicyclists remain at risk of road traffic injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Klein, Kerenaftali; Aarons, Leon; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Nosten, Francois; White, Nick J; Edstein, Michael D; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya
differences between the healthy volunteer and the patient data analysis results are not entirely due to differences in bioavailability. For the patient data analysis, the Bayesian method was preferred, as the fitting procedure was more stable, allowing random effects to be estimated for all four dispositional parameters. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani
Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of sumatriptan after single-dose administration of a fixed-dose combination tablet of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium 85/500 mg followed two hours later by subcutaneous sumatriptan 4- or 6-mg injection: a randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study in healthy volunteers.
Berges, Alienor; Walls, Christine; Lener, Shelly E; McDonald, Susan A
Rescue medication options that are consistent with the product labeling for sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (S/N) and that have been permitted in >or=1 clinical trial include the use of a second tablet of S/N, sumatriptan tablets (to a total daily dose of 200 mg), and naproxen sodium tablets (within the maximum limits recommended in the labeling). Sumatriptan subcutaneous (SC) injection might be especially useful as rescue medication mostly because of its rapid onset of activity. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of sumatriptan SC used as rescue medication after the administration of oral S/N for the treatment of migraine. This randomized, open-label, 3-period crossover study compared the exposure to sumatriptan (Cmax and AUC to 14 hours after the administration of the second dose [AUC(0-14)]) between 3 treatment regimens: an initial dose of S/N 85/500 mg followed 2 hours later by sumatriptan 4 or 6 mg SC (S/N + S4 and S/N + S6, respectively) (test), or sumatriptan 100 mg PO (2 tablets administered 2 hours apart) (S100 + S100) (reference). Healthy adults aged 18 to 55 years were randomly assigned to receive all 3 regimens in a randomized sequence. On day 1 of each treatment period, continuous cardiovascular monitoring (ECG telemetry), serial 12-lead ECG, and serial blood pressure (BP) measurements were conducted 1 hour before to 10 hours after the administration of the first dose. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic assessment were collected up to 14 hours after the administration of the first dose. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored from the time of consent until study completion. Participants returned to the clinic for pharmacokinetic blood sampling (for S/N + S4 and S/N + S6) and for tolerability assessment at 24, 48, and 72 hours after S/N administration. A total of 30 healthy adults were randomized. Five withdrew prematurely (3, withdrawn consent; 1, AE; and 1, protocol deviation). Half of the subjects were men, the mean age
Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration
The ATLAS collaboration has setup a volunteer computing project called ATLAS@home. Volunteers running Monte-Carlo simulation on their personal computer provide significant computing resources, but also belong to a community potentially interested in HEP. Four types of contributors have been identified, whose questions range from advanced technical details to the reason why simulation is needed, how Computing is organized and how it relates to society. The creation of relevant outreach material for simulation, event visualization and distributed production will be described, as well as lessons learned while interacting with the BOINC volunteers community.
Huang, Han; Li, Rui; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng; Liao, Tianzhi; Yi, Xiaoqian
This first-in-human volunteer phase I clinical trial aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and anesthesia efficacy of emulsified isoflurane (EI), an intravenously injectable formulation of isoflurane. Seventy-eight healthy volunteers were recruited in this open-label, single-bolus, dose-escalation, phase I trial and were allocated into 16 cohorts. Each volunteer received a single bolus injection of EI. The dose started with 0.3 mg/kg (for isoflurane) and was planned to end with 64.6 mg/kg. Postdose vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, chest radiograph, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and development of any adverse event were closely monitored as safety measurements. Effectiveness in producing sedation/anesthesia was assessed by Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation and Bispectral Index. The dose escalation ended as planned. The most common adverse events associated with EI were injection pain (77 of 78, 98.7%) and transient tachycardia (22 of 78, 25.6%). Only at high doses (≥38.3 mg/kg) did EI cause transient hypotension (5 of 78, 6.4%) or apnea (11 of 78, 14.1%), but all the affected volunteers recovered uneventfully. Fast onset of unconsciousness (typically 40 s after injection) was developed in all volunteers receiving doses of 22.6 mg/kg or greater. Waking-up time and depression in Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation correlated well with EI dose. None of the postdose tests revealed any abnormal result. EI is safe for intravenous injection in human volunteers in the dose range of 0.3 to 64.6 mg/kg. At doses of 22.6 mg/kg or higher, EI produced rapid onset of unconsciousness in all volunteers followed by fast, predictable, and complete recovery.
Teng, Renli; Kujacic, Mirjana; Hsia, Judith
Patients with acute coronary syndrome and certain co-morbidities may receive ticagrelor, a reversibly binding P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, and cyclosporine, a commonly used immunosuppressant drug. This study assessed the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between ticagrelor and cyclosporine. In this single-centre, open-label, three-treatment, three-period crossover study (NCT01504906), healthy volunteers (n = 26) randomly received each of three treatments: cyclosporine (600 mg single oral dose) plus ticagrelor (180 mg single oral dose); cyclosporine alone; ticagrelor alone. Treatments were separated by a washout period of ≥14 days. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) and blood concentrations of cyclosporine were analyzed, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Compared with ticagrelor alone, the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (90 % confidence interval [CI]) for the ticagrelor area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) was 2.83 (2.63-3.06), and the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 2.30 (2.06-2.58), in the presence of cyclosporine. Co-administration of cyclosporine with ticagrelor significantly increased AR-C124910XX AUC(∞) (1.33 [1.23-1.42]) and decreased C(max) (0.85 [0.76-0.94]). Ticagrelor had no effect on cyclosporine pharmacokinetic parameters, as the 90 % CIs of the LSM ratios were all within the 0.80-1.25 no-effect range. Co-administration of ticagrelor and cyclosporine was generally well tolerated. Co-administration of cyclosporine with ticagrelor increased exposure to ticagrelor and its active metabolite and had no effect on cyclosporine pharmacokinetic parameters. The magnitude of cyclosporine's effect on ticagrelor pharmacokinetics does not warrant dose adjustment of ticagrelor.
Chintala Kiran Kumar Ch, Bandi Hari Krishna, Mallikarjuna Reddy N
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Regardless of prevailing advances in yoga research, the immediate benefit of chandranadi pranayama (CNP on heart rate variability was not explored. Therefore, in this study, we planned to study the immediate effect of CNP on heart rate, blood pressure and HRV. Methods: One hundred and ten medical students were randomly divided into two groups; control group (n=55 and CNP group (n=55. CNP group participants were individually trained to perform CNP by an experienced yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min for five minutes. CG volunteers didn’t undergo CNP, Pre and post intervention HR, BP measurements and spectral analysis of HRV was done in both the groups. The paired student’s t test was used to determine significant differences. Results: There was a significant decrease in HR (p<0.01, BP (p<0.05, LFnu (p<0.05, LF/HF (p<0.001 and increase in HFnu (p<0.01 followed by five minutes of CNP in CNP group. Further, HR, SBP, DBP was reduced by 9.10%, 4.80%, 7.75 % respectively. HRV results showed 7.59% reduction in LFnu, 17.8% reduction in LF/HF and HF was increased by 12.37%. There were no significant changes in CG. Conclusion: It is concluded that CNP is beneficial in reducing HR, BP and to improve Sympathovagal balance. We advise that this effective method be included with the management protocol of hypertension and utilized when immediate reduction of blood pressure is required in day-to-day as well as clinical situations.
Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X
The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Jo?l; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E
Objective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered ...
... charge(s) is not a minor misdemeanor, such as a minor vehicle violation for which a fine or bail... Claims Act. In such situations, the Justice Department may agree to defend the volunteer. In those cases...
Bekkers, René H.F.P.; Bowman, Woods
Confidence in charitable organizations (charitable confidence) would seem to be an important prerequisite for philanthropic behavior. Previous research relying on cross-sectional data has suggested that volunteering promotes charitable confidence and vice versa. This research note, using new
Meesters, Kenny; van de Walle, B.A.
Emerging technologies provide new opportunities to humanitarian organizations for enhancing their response to crisis situations. Since the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, online volunteer communities have been activated to gather data and generate information products to improve humanitarian organizations'
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Project will initiate a program for the early detection, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on McNary and Umatilla NWR's using Refuge volunteers. The initial...
Sloand, Elizabeth; Ho, Grace; Kub, Joan
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of volunteer nurses after the Haiti earthquake, January 2010. A descriptive qualitative study design using in-depth interviews focuses on experiences of 12 American nurse volunteers who served in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake. Semistructured interviews were conducted in person or by phone using an interview guide. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and checked for accuracy. Data analysis was assisted using NVivo9. Six themes emerged: initial shock, relentless work, substituting and making do, questioning, systems building, and transitioning back. Nurses who are interested in volunteering after a disaster can expect the experience to be overwhelming and will require them to exercise great flexibility, creativity, and strength in their nursing practice. Nurse volunteers can expect a rewarding experience that will likely change their perspective on nursing work and personal life.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False brome...
富田, 恵子; 大山, さく子; 南條, 正人; Keiko, TOMITA; Sakuko, OHYAMA; Masato, NANJO; 仙台大学; 仙台大学; 仙台大学; Sendai College; Sendai College; Sendai College
Sendai College in Miyagi, Japan established the Volunteer Center in April 2003. The purposes for starting this rogram are for university students to enrich their social experiences, to develop their leadership skills and to help deepen their understanding of human experiences. It is the universitys hope that the center serves a role expected by the community as well. The students volunteers acquire curricular units after one year of their participation. One year after opening the center, out ...
This thesis is addressing volunteering for work with refugees. The key theoretical foundations are: concept of integration, Putnam's concept of social capital and social networking, Allport's contact hypothesis and the hypothesis of inter-group cooperation. It also addresses the importance of volunteering in modern society and the benefit of it to the preservation of social solidarity and cohesion. In theoretical part of the thesis I also introduce legislation in the area of integration of re...
Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard
To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected and classified directly by clients installed on machines belonging to volunteers. Our approach combines....... We released the system under The GNU General Public License v3.0 and published as a SourceForge project called Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet....
Intindola, Melissa; Rogers, Sean; Flinchbaugh, Carol; Della Pietra, Doug
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between various characteristics of hospital administration and the utilization of classes of volunteer resource management (VRM) practices. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses original data collected via surveys of volunteer directors in 122 hospitals in five Northeastern and Southern US states. Findings - Structural equation modeling results suggest that number of paid volunteer management staff, scope of responsibility of the primary volunteer administrator, and hospital size are positively associated with increased usage of certain VRM practices. Research limitations/implications - First, the authors begin the exploration of VRM antecedents, and encourage others to continue this line of inquiry; and second, the authors assess dimensionality of practices, allowing future researchers to consider whether specific dimensions have a differential impact on key individual and organizational outcomes. Practical implications - Based on the findings of a relationship between administrative characteristics and the on-the-ground execution of VRM practice, a baseline audit comparing current practices to those VRM practices presented here might be useful in determining what next steps may be taken to focus investments in VRM that can ultimately drive practice utilization. Originality/value - The exploration of the dimensionality of volunteer management adds a novel perspective to both the academic study, and practice, of volunteer management. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical categorization of VRM practices.
van der Schrier, R; Jonkman, K; van Velzen, M
. We hypothesize that tapentadol 100 mg has a lesser effect on the control of breathing than oxycodone 20 mg. Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive oral tapentadol (100 and 150 mg), oxycodone 20 mg or placebo immediate release tablets in a crossover double-blind randomized...... on the hypercapnic ventilatory response: a shift to the right coupled to a decrease of the response slope. Oxycodone 20 mg had a significantly larger respiratory depressant effect than tapentadol 100 mg (mean difference -5.0 L min-1, 95% confidence interval: -7.1 to -2.9 L min-1, P
Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Taste food recognition has an important role in the nutritional conditions and also allows protection of the organism integrity against foods potentially dangerous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of the selective taste regions on the tongue and also the palate participation in the oral taste definition. METHODS: A standard tongue divided in six regions was exposed with the four basic tastes (sweet, salted, sour and bitter, 10 times each. Thirteen volunteers were studied from both side and 34 only from one side, performing 240 tests with opened mouth and 240 with closing mouth, just after tongue sapid stimulation. A second group, with 12 volunteers, had its taste recognition studied, with and without palate isolation, using silicone prosthesis (n = 120. RESULTS: From results, chi-square (3×2 and (2×2, nonparametric independency test with P = 0.05 were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior, medium and posterior regions of the tongue, at both sides, had the same taste discriminative capacity. Nevertheless, closed mouth increased immediate and late recognition capacity by palate participation. It was possible to admit that palate participation increase the sapid perception in the mouth, by recruitment of the palate taste receptors and also by fluid compression and its scattering over tongue surface.CONTEXTO: O reconhecimento dos gostos tem importante papel para as condições nutricionais e também para a proteção da integridade do organismo contra a ingestão de alimentos potencialmente perigosos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença na língua de regiões com capacidade seletiva para percepção dos gostos básicos e também verificar se e como o palato participa da definição dos gostos na cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Uma língua padrão hipotética dividida em 6 regiões teve cada umas destas, exposta 10 vezes a cada um dos quatro sabores básicos (doce, salgado, azedo e amargo. Treze voluntários tiveram sua lingual estudada dos dois
Moore, Tracy M; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David
Studies have suggested that inducing mild hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury, major stroke, traumatic hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest. Although infusion of cold normal saline solution is a simple and inexpensive method for initiating hypothermia, human cold-defense mechanisms potentially make this route stressful or ineffective. We hypothesize that rapid infusion of 30 mL/kg of cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) 0.9% saline solution during 30 minutes to healthy subjects (aged 27 [standard deviation (SD) 4] years) will reduce core body temperature to the therapeutic range of 33 degrees C to 35 degrees C (91.4 degrees F to 95 degrees F). Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to receive either cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) or room temperature (23 degrees C, 73.4 degrees F) normal saline solution. Subjects were not informed of their assignment, but blinding was not possible after initiation of the infusion. Core temperature, skin temperature, and vital signs were recorded every 2 minutes. Subjects indicated global discomfort during the infusion on a 100-mm visual analog scale at 5-minute intervals. Core temperature decreased in both the cold saline solution (1.0 degrees C [SD 0.4 degrees C]/1.8 degrees F [0.7 degrees F]) and room temperature saline solution (0.5 degrees C [SD 0.1 degrees C]/0.9 degrees F [0.2 degrees F]) groups, whereas skin temperature was unchanged. Slopes calculated from the core temperature cooling curves indicate that the majority of cooling occurred during the first half of the infusion. Examination of the core temperature cooling curves revealed a 2-phase temporal pattern in 30-minute cooling curves. The early phase, spanning 0 to 14 minutes, demonstrated rapid cooling in both groups, with a larger effect observed in subjects receiving cold saline solution. In this pilot study of healthy volunteers, rapid administration of cold saline solution to awake normothermic volunteers resulted in 1 degrees C (1
Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Lonergan, Shaun C.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Alexander, Danny C.; Evans, Anne M.; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Caskey, C. Thomas
Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345
Full Text Available Studies three concepts of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leaderships as three independent and individual dimensions. This field study is descriptive and correlative. Statistical population of this study is the volunteer students in universities' sport associations of 10 regions of the country. Among 73 universities, 17 had active sport associations. Based on Morgan table, 231 students were selected as statistical sample (n=231 from which the results of 208 questionnaires were analyzed. Bass and Avolio (1995 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ was used to measure managers' leadership style of the universities' sport administrations. This questionnaire includes 41 questions with 5-value Lickert scale (1=never to 5=always. Choosing satisfaction from experiencing as the most important dimension of satisfaction shows volunteers' high level of satisfaction from experiences they have acquired in universities sport associations. The reason of this fact is that sport activity in the association is long term in nature. Sport association provides the students an opportunity to experience and use their experiences in their sport and work life. This study illustrates that girls are more satisfied than boys in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, commitment, and material in sport associations. Researches show that female students' satisfaction is more than male students' satisfaction and women's job satisfaction is more than men's job satisfaction. Thus, the higher degree of job satisfaction and experiencing in female students seems more justifying. Also, it's been cleared that sport students were more satisfied than other students in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, purposeful, and commitment
Costa, Marisa Boff; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Sander, Guilherme Becker; Cuni, Hugo Nodarse; Silva, Carmen Valenzuela; Meireles, Rolando Páez; Góes, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade; Batoreu, Nadia Maria; Maia, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa; Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; Matos, Denise Cristina de Souza; Saura, Pedro Lopez
Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glycol molecules was developed jointly between Cuba and Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of BIP48 (pegylated interferon alfa-2b from Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, Brazil) to those of PEGASYS® (commercially available pegylated interferon alfa-2a from Roche Pharmaceutical). This phase I, single-centre, randomized, double-blind crossover trial enrolled 31 healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 35 who were allocated to two stages, either side of a 5-week wash-out period, with each arm lasting 14 consecutive days after subcutaneous administration of 180 μg of one formulation or the other (study or comparator). The main outcome variable was serum pegylated interferon concentrations in 15 samples collected during the course of the study and tested using an enzyme immunoassay. There were no differences between formulations in terms of magnitude or absorption parameters. Analysis of time parameters revealed that BIP48 remained in the body significantly longer than PEGASYS® (T max : 73 vs. 54 h [p = 0.0010]; MRT: 133 vs. 115 h [p = 0.0324]; ke: 0.011 vs. 0.013 h(-1) [p = 0.0153]; t 1/2 : 192 vs. 108 h [p = 0.0218]). BIP48 showed the expected pharmacokinetic profile for a pegylated product with a branched molecular structure. Compared to PEGASYS®, the magnitude absorption was similar, but time parameters were consistent with slower elimination. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. A phase II-III repeated-dose clinical trial is ongoing to study these findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This study is registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov platform (accession number NCT01889849 ). This trial was retrospectively registered in June 2013.
Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of the Inlet-to-outlet median nerve area ratio (IOR in patients with clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Forty-six wrists in 46 consecutive patients with clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of CTS and forty-four wrists in 44 healthy volunteers were examined with ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve was measured at the carpal tunnel inlet (the level of scaphoid-pisiform and outlet (the level of the hook of the hamate, and the IOR was calculated for each wrist. Ultrasonography and electrodiagnostic tests were performed under blinded conditions. Electrodiagnostic testing combined with clinical symptoms were considered to be the gold standard test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic value between the inlet CSA and IOR.The study population included 16 men and 30 women (mean age, 45.3 years; range, 18-83 years. The control population included 18 men and 26 women (mean age, 50.4 years; range, 18-79 years. The mean inlet CSA was 8.7 mm2 in healthy controls and 14.6mm2 in CTS group (P<0.001. The mean IOR in healthy volunteers (1.0 was smaller than that in patients (1.6, P<0.001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a diagnostic advantage to using the IOR rather than the inlet CSA (P<0.01. An IOR cutoff value of ≥ 1.3 would yield 93% specificity and 91% sensitivity in the diagnosis of CTS.The IOR of median nerve area promises to be an effective means in the diagnosis of CTS. A large-scale, randomized controlled trial is required to determine how and when this parameter will be used.
Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn1, Bjørg Landmark2,3, Live Aasgaard2, Hilde Eide3, Olle Söderhamn11Center for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Institute of Research and Development for Nursing and Care Services, Municipality of Drammen, Drammen, Norway; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayIntroduction: The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today.Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia.Methods: Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results: Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role.Conclusion: In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual
Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.
Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of
Wasmuth, J.C.; Porte, C.J.L. la; Schneider, K.; Burger, D.M.; Rockstroh, J.K.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of reduced dosages of twice daily indinavir (IDV) boosted by low-dose ritonavir (RTV) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of IDV/RTV twice daily (600/100 mg and 400/100 mg) were assessed in a randomized
Full Text Available We propose that voluntary work, characterized by social, physical and cognitive activity in later life is associated with fewer cognitive problems and lower dementia rates. We test these assumptions using 3-wave, self-reported, and registry data from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register. We had three groups of seniors in our data: 1 no volunteering (N = 531, 2 discontinuous volunteering (N = 220, and 3 continuous volunteering (N = 250. We conducted a path analysis in Mplus to investigate the effect of voluntary work (discontinuously and continuously on self-reported cognitive complaints and the likelihood of being prescribed an anti-dementia treatment after controlling for baseline and relevant background variables. Our results indicated that seniors, who continuously volunteered, reported a decrease in their cognitive complaints over time, whereas no such associations were found for the other groups. In addition, they were 2.44 (95%CI [1.86; 3.21] and 2.46 (95%CI [1,89; 3.24] times less likely to be prescribed an anti-dementia treatment in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Our results largely support the assumptions that voluntary work in later life is associated with lower self-reported cognitive complaints and a lower risk for dementia, relative to those who do not engage, or only engage episodically in voluntary work.
Alam, Khurshid; Oliveras, Elizabeth
Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case-control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Despite the importance of screening for early diagnosis of breast cancer, few women do it. Existence an indigenous educational model to promote health literacy is essential. This study attempted to determine the effect of breast cancer screening education based on SHEP model to Healthy volunteers on women's knowledge covered by Mashhad health centers Methods & Materials: This was a quasi-experimental study with two groups: Trainers and Audients, done in two urban health centers affiliated to Mashhad district health authority, divided randomly to experimental and control centers. Six health volunteers and sixty women with random selected from each center were the sample of the study. An 8-hour workshop conformity SHEP model was conducted over two days for health volunteers in experimental group. In both centers ten women were allocated for each health volunteer, were taken a pre-test with an assessment test evaluating their knowledge about breast cancer screening, a 2-hour educational session was performed for them by health volunteers, immediately and 4 weeks after educational sessions two post-tests were taken. Research data were processed and analyzed, using Mann Whitney, Friedman, Chi Square, Fisher’s exact test in SPSS statistical software, version 20 Results: The post interventional scores of knowledge were significantly higher in the experiment group (p
Full Text Available The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB S. Retowski, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Questionnaire (FCZ-KT B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau, Personality Inventory NEO-PI-Costa Jr. and Mc'Crae Polish Adaptation and Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel – K. Durniat Adaptation. The study revealed a clear positive correlation with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a component of Agreeableness - Trust (A1, with Extraversion (E and its components: Warmth (E1, Excitement Seeking (E5 Activity (E4 and Gregariousness (E2 and the component of Conscientiousness – Self-Discipline (C5, component of Openness to Experience – Actions (O4, and also negative correlations with Neuroticism (N and its components: Vulnerability (N6, Self-Consciousness (N4 and Anxiety (N1. The study also revealed a clear positive correlations Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with Activity (AK, Endurance (WT and Briskness (ŻW and a clear negative correlation with Perseveration (PE, Emotional Reactivity (RE. In the group of volunteers there were also showed positive correlations of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a Career (Assessment and Promotion (OA and the Communication and Information (KI. Regression model developed using multiple regression (stepwise regression method takes into account the following variables: Activity (AK - Temperament, Agreeableness component of the Personality - Straightforwardness (A2, and the component of Neuroticism – Self
Glass, Deborah C; Del Monaco, Anthony; Pircher, Sabine; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Sim, Malcolm R
This study aims to investigate mortality and cancer incidence of Australian male volunteer firefighters and of subgroups of firefighters by duration of service, era of first service and the number and type of incidents attended. Participating fire agencies supplied records of individual volunteer firefighters, including incidents attended. The cohort was linked to the Australian National Death Index and Australian Cancer Database. standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer were calculated. Firefighters were grouped into tertiles by duration of service and by number of incidents attended and relative mortality ratios and relative incidence ratios calculated. Compared with the general population, there were significant decreases in overall cancer incidence and in most major cancer categories. Prostate cancer incidence was increased compared with the general population, but this was not related to the number of incidents attended. Kidney cancer was associated with increased attendance at fires, particularly structural fires.The overall risk of mortality was significantly decreased, and all major causes of death were significantly reduced for volunteer firefighters. There was evidence of an increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease, with increased attendance at fires. Volunteer firefighters have a reduced risk of mortality and cancer incidence compared with the general population, which is likely to be a result of a 'healthy-volunteer' effect and, perhaps, lower smoking rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan
Objective Ticagrelor is a direct-acting, reversibly-binding, oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It demonstrates predictable, linear pharmacokinetics. Two studies were undertaken to further elucidate the absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor and its regional absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Design and methods In two open-label, randomized, cross-over studies, 12 volunteers received a single dose of ticagrelor: oral 90 mg and 15 mg IV (Study 1); or 100 mg oral suspension vs 100 mg immediate release (IR) tablet (Study 2). After the initial cross-over period in Study 2, patients received 100 mg suspension delivered to specific sites in the GI tract using an Enterion capsule. In both studies, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were measured following administration of each formulation. Results The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% (95% confidence interval = 30–42%). Metabolite:parent ratios were higher after oral administration, compared with IV administration (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 0.356 and 0.037; area under the plasma concentration-time curves [AUC] = 0.530 and 0.173, respectively). Following oral administration of the 100 mg IR tablet, the AUC and Cmax of ticagrelor were 78% and 58%, respectively, of those following oral administration of the 100 mg suspension. Exposure to ticagrelor decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: mean Cmax for ticagrelor was 91%, 68%, and 13% that for the oral suspension when released in the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel and ascending colon, respectively; mean AUCs were 89%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Conclusion The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% and the proportion of ticagrelor absorbed decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: the mean AUC for ticagrelor was 89% (proximal small bowel), 73% (distal small bowel), and 32% (ascending colon) that of the mean AUC for the orally
Full Text Available Micro-volunteering is the phenomenon of volunteering one's time and energy for extremely short periods of time. It is often considered a subset of Virtual Volunteering where one can volunteer one's time and energy via the Internet. There are many...
Conclusion: The data presented here suggest that the government should actively advocate for volunteer service for elderly with chronic diseases. Additional support is needed in terms of financial support, incentive measures, professional training for volunteers, and supervision of volunteers. Such developments are needed to improve volunteer service standards.
Brum, Jose M; Gibb, Roger D; Peters, John C; Mattes, Richard D
Controlling hunger between meals is a challenge for many individuals. This manuscript comprises 2 sequential clinical trials investigating the effects of psyllium (Metamucil) on satiety, both using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The first study determined the effects of 3.4 g, 6.8 g, and 10.2 g of psyllium taken before breakfast and lunch for 3 days. The second study determined the effects of 6.8 g (taken before breakfast and lunch on Days 1 and 2 and before breakfast on Day 3) on the satiety of participants receiving an energy restricted meal in the morning (breakfast) for 3 days. Efficacy endpoints were mean inter-meal hunger, desire to eat, and Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude Visual Analog Scale scores. In Study 1, all 3 psyllium doses resulted in directional or statistically significant mean reductions in hunger and desire to eat, and increased fullness between meals compared to placebo, with both higher doses better than placebo or 3.4 g. The 6.8 g dose provided more consistent (p ≤ 0.013) satiety benefits versus placebo. In Study 2, satiety was assessed similarly to Study 1. A significant (p ≤ 0.004) decrease in the 3-day mean hunger and desire to eat, as well as an increase in fullness for psyllium relative to placebo was observed. Most adverse events were mild gastrointestinal symptoms and were similar for psyllium compared to placebo. These results indicate that psyllium supplementation contributes to greater fullness and less hunger between meals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study evaluated whether improvements in nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS, depression and anxiety are greater for body acupuncture than for sham acupuncture. Smoking volunteers from the public were randomized to receive six sessions of either real or sham acupuncture for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was NWS measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Score, and the secondary measures were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Eighty volunteers were randomized into real acupuncture (n = 38 and sham acupuncture (n = 42 groups, of which 46 subjects (22 and 24 in the real and sham acupuncture groups, respectively completed the treatment and the 2-week follow-up. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the NWS did not differ significantly between the real and sham acupuncture groups immediately after the treatment (12.2 ± 9.7 and 12.8 ± 7.7, respectively; mean ± SD and at the 2-week follow-up (11.7 ± 10.2 and 12.6 ± 7.8. Both groups also showed similar improvements in BDI and BAI scores. These results indicate that the real acupuncture treatment tested in this trial was no more effective than sham acupuncture at reducing NWS, depression and anxiety for smoking cessation.
Hee Soun Jang
Full Text Available This study examines the impact of acculturation on Korean Americans’ decisions to volunteer either for secular and religious organizations or informally. The results show that language difficulty and Korean identity lower the likelihood of secular volunteering, but not of informal volunteering. Koreans who are Protestants or Catholics, and those with higher levels of education, are more likely to volunteer formally, but not informally. The findings indicate formal volunteering is strongly associated with acculturation factors, along with personal and social variables but informal volunteering appears to be independent from and not complementary of the other two types of volunteering.
Hospice palliative care volunteer work--being with dying persons and their often distraught family members--has the potential to take an emotional toll on volunteers. The aim of this review article is to examine the types of stressors hospice palliative care volunteers typically experience in their work and how they cope with them. The results of this literature review suggest that hospice palliative care volunteers do not generally perceive their volunteer work as highly stressful. Nonetheless, a number of potential stressors and challenges were identified in the literature, along with some strategies that volunteers commonly employ to cope with them. The implications for volunteers and volunteer training/management are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Werner, Mads Utke; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of oral and iv melatonin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was performed as a cohort crossover study. The volunteers received either 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous melatonin on two separate study days. Blood samples were...... collected at different time points following oral administration and short iv infusion, respectively. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by RIA technique. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed by "the method of residuals" and compartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic variables: k a, t 1....../2 absorption, t max, C max, t 1/2 elimination, AUC 0-∞, and bioavailability were determined for oral melatonin. C max, t 1/2 elimination, V d, CL and AUC 0-∞ were determined for intravenous melatonin. RESULTS: Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Baseline melatonin plasma levels did not differ...
Qvist, Hans-Peter; Munk, Martin David
This article examines the individual economic returns to volunteering over the course of one’s work life. Towards this end, the article uses a unique panel dataset created by combining rich survey data from Denmark with information on wages from administrative registers covering the period from...... 2004 to 2012. Applying a two-way fixed effects regression model that controls for both period-specific and individual-specific effects, the article finds that the economic returns to an additional year of volunteer work experience are a convex function of regular labour market experience. That is......, for people with little regular labour market experience, an additional year of volunteer work experience yields a significant positive return, but for people with substantial regular labour market experience, it yields a significant negative return. On these grounds, the article argues that different...
Bourdarios, Claire; Filipcic, Andrej; Lancon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing
A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte-Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans.
Molsher, Robyn; Townsend, Mardie
Environmental volunteering (EV) can provide a unique way to optimise the wellbeing of participants while fostering environmental stewardship. However, the potential of EV to create human health benefits remains an under-researched area. This study provides evidence for improved wellbeing and mood state for 32 participants from diverse backgrounds undertaking EV activities. Most participants also reported improved environmental stewardship with a greatly improved understanding of the environment and the need to conserve it. Other benefits included: 31% of those seeking work obtained it; and 50% joined a volunteer group at program completion. EV provides a unique mechanism to enhance the wellbeing of the participants, while conserving the environment.
Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Molke Jensen, F
Pressure algometry is a method to estimate pressure pain sensitivity in tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in the abdominal integument and to evaluate the use of pressure algometry as a measure of wound tenderness following...... surgery. PPT was determined in 20 healthy volunteers on two separate examinations, and in 14 patients at the incisional site before and following inguinal herniotomy. In volunteers, PPT was higher for men than for women, and no difference was observed between the first and second day of examination...
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal
Monitoring and evaluation are tools that can facilitate sustainable and responsible tourism planning and management in organisations through encouraging good practice and the continuous improvement of programmes. However, to date, there is limited knowledge and understanding of how, or indeed if......, volunteer tourism organisations actually monitor and evaluate their programmes. The aim of this paper is to identify and critically examine the extent to which volunteer tourism organisations engage with the monitoring and evaluation of their projects. Based on a survey of 80 organisations and qualitative...
Berthet, Aurélie; Bouchard, Michèle; Danuser, Brigitta
The time courses of key biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet was assessed in accessible biological matrices of orally exposed volunteers. Ten volunteers ingested 1 mg kg(-1) body weight of captan or folpet. Blood samples were withdrawn at fixed time periods over the 72 h following ingestion and complete urine voids were collected over 96 h post-dosing. The tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) metabolite of captan along with the phthalimide (PI) and phthalic acid metabolites of folpet were then...
Hansen, M.B.; Arif, F.; Gregersen, H.
-duodeno-jejunal contractility in healthy human volunteers. Manometric recordings were obtained and the effects of either a standard meal, continuous intravenous infusion of serotonin (20 nmol/kg/min) or intraluminal bolus infusions of graded doses of serotonin (2.5, 25 or 250 nmol) were compared. In addition, platelet......-lived adverse effects following intraluminal serotonin stimulations. We conclude that exogenous serotonin in the lumen of the upper part of the small intestine does not seem to change antro-duodeno-jejunal contractility significantly in healthy adult volunteers Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Full Text Available chat protocol that uses Internet technologies over cell phones (instead of SMS or MMS technologies). A superficial search at Google with the keywords ?mxit kidnap? or ?mxit predator? will provide a plethora of articles arguing that MXit is not a... work. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62(5), pp. 694-713.  J. Cravens. (2000, Virtual volunteering: Online volunteers providing assistance to human service agencies. Journal of Technology in Human Services 17(2), pp. 119-136.  B. Stroube. (2003, Literary...
Yatabe, Tomoaki; Tamura, Takahiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka
Preoperative carbohydrate loading enhances insulin action by approximately 50 %. In some Japanese hospitals, preoperative oral rehydration therapy is performed for preventing dehydration during surgery. We hypothesized that preoperative oral rehydration therapy with a 2.5 % carbohydrate beverage that is widely used in Japan can enhance insulin action. Therefore, we investigated the effect of this 2.5 % carbohydrate beverage on insulin action in volunteers. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover randomized study. The participants were segregated into 2 groups: an oral rehydration therapy with 2.5 % carbohydrate beverage group (group A) and a control group (group B). Subjects in group B were allowed to drink only water from 9 pm the day before the test; conversely, group A fasted from 9 pm onward and drank 500 ml of the beverage containing 2.5 % carbohydrate (OS-1; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Tokushima, Japan) between 9 and 12 pm and again at 6.30 am. At 8.30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated using an artificial pancreas STG-22 (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan). Insulin action was evaluated in both groups using the glucose infusion rate. Blood glucose levels at the initiation of the clamp procedure were similar. However, the glucose infusion rate for group A was significantly higher than that of group B (8.6 ± 1.5 vs. 6.8 ± 2.0 mg/kg/min, p = 0.009). In conclusion, the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp using an artificial pancreas showed that the administration of a 2.5 % carbohydrate oral rehydration solution for preoperative oral rehydration therapy improves insulin action in volunteers.
Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not
Santinello, Massimo; Cristini, Francesca; Vieno, Alessio; Scacchi, Luca
This study investigated the effectiveness of a program to promote civic responsibility and prevent antisocial behavior in a sample of Italian adolescents. Participants were 83 Italian male adolescents, attending the second year of high school (Mean age = 15.79; SD = 0.87). In order to test the efficacy of different strategies (in-classroom training and service activity in a voluntary organization) we divided students into two experimental groups--one classroom of students participated in both strategies (training + volunteering group) and another classroom only participated in the training (training only group)--and one control group. Process and efficacy evaluations were completed. Data were collected before and following the intervention. The process evaluation revealed that the program was highly accepted and appreciated by students. The efficacy evaluation revealed no intervention effects on civic responsibility. However, the training + volunteering group reported a significant decrease in antisocial behavior after the program. Thus, the program was effective in preventing antisocial behavior but not in promoting civic responsibility in our sample.
Colin, P J; Hannivoort, L N; Eleveld, D J; Reyntjens, K M E M; Absalom, A R; Vereecke, H E M; Struys, M M R F
Dexmedetomidine, a selective α 2 -adrenoreceptor agonist, has unique characteristics, such as maintained respiratory drive and production of arousable sedation. We describe development of a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of the sedative properties of dexmedetomidine, taking into account the effect of stimulation on its sedative properties. In a two-period, randomized study in 18 healthy volunteers, dexmedetomidine was delivered in a step-up fashion by means of target-controlled infusion using the Dyck model. Volunteers were randomized to a session without background noise and a session with pre-recorded looped operating room background noise. Exploratory pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and covariate analysis were conducted in NONMEM using bispectral index (BIS) monitoring of processed EEG. We found that both stimulation at the time of Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale scoring and the presence or absence of ambient noise had an effect on the sedative properties of dexmedetomidine. The stimuli associated with MOAA/S scoring increased the BIS of sedated volunteers because of a transient 170% increase in the effect-site concentration necessary to reach half of the maximal effect. In contrast, volunteers deprived of ambient noise were more resistant to dexmedetomidine and required, on average, 32% higher effect-site concentrations for the same effect as subjects who were exposed to background operating room noise. The new pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models might be used for effect-site rather than plasma concentration target-controlled infusion for dexmedetomidine in clinical practice, thereby allowing tighter control over the desired level of sedation. NCT01879865.
Jess, Gunnar; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Zahn, Peter K; Meyer-Frießem, Christine H
Pain assessment using a numerical rating scale (NRS) is considered good clinical practice, but objective assessment in noncommunicating patients is still a challenge. A potential solution is to monitor changes in heart rate variability transformed into the analgesia nociception index (ANI), that offers a noninvasive means of pain quantification. The aim was to measure magnitudes, descending slopes and time courses of ANI following expected and unexpected painful, nonpainful and sham experimental stimuli and compare these with pain intensity as assessed by NRS in conscious human volunteers. We expected a negative correlation between ANI and NRS after painful stimuli. Randomised stimuli and placebo-controlled, single-blinded study. Experimental pain simulation laboratory, Bochum, Germany. Twenty healthy male students, (mean ± standard deviation; 24.2 ± 1.9 years) recruited via local advertising, were consecutively included. ANI values were continuously recorded. After resting, four stimuli were applied in a random order on the right forearm (unexpected and expected electrical pain, expected nonpainful and sham stimuli). Blinded volunteers were asked to rate all four stimuli on NRS. ANI means (0-100), amplitudes, maxima, minima and slopes with NRS pain intensity scores (0-10). Resting alert volunteers showed ANI values of 82.05 ± 10.71. ANI decreased after a random stimulus (maximal decrease of 25.0 ± 7.3%), but different kinds of stimuli evoked similar results. NRS scores (median; interquartiles) were significantly (P = 0.008) higher after expected (5.25; 3.5-6.75) compared with unexpected (4.50; 3.0-5.0) pain stimuli. No correlation was found between ANI and NRS. ANI did not allow a differentiation of painful, nonpainful or sham stimuli in alert volunteers. Therefore, ANI does not exclusively detect nociception, but may be modified by stress and emotion. Thus, we conclude that ANI is not a specific, robust measure for assessment of pain
do Nascimento, D F; Silva Leite, A L A e; de Moraes, R A; Camarão, G C; Bezerra, F A F; de Moraes, M O; de Moraes, M E A
To assess the effect of dimeticone and pepsin on the bioavailability of metoclopramide (CAS 7232-21-5) in healthy volunteers. The study was conducted using a randomized, open, 2-period crossover design. The volunteers received single administration of 7-mg conventional metoclopramide capsule and a formulation containing metoclopramide (7 mg) plus dimeticone (40 mg) and pepsin (50 mg), with a 7-day interval between treatments. Serial blood samples were collected before dosing and during 24 h post-treatment. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetics parameters AUC(last) and C(max) were obtained from the metoclopramide plasma concentration vs. time curves. Metoclopramide's association was bioequivalent to conventional capsule; 90% CIs for geometric mean treatment ratios of C(max) [108.0% (90% CI, 100.4-116.3%)], AUC(last) [103.3% (90% CI, 99.5-107.4%)] were within the predefined range. The metoclopramide formulations were well tolerated at the administered doses and no significant adverse reactions were observed. Thus, these results confirm the good bioavailability of metoclopramide in the new formulation and rule out any impaired absorption when the drugs are formulated in combination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp., triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.
Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira
Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers. PMID:23840948
Doerner, Jonas M; Kuetting, Daniel L; Luetkens, Julian A; Naehle, Claas P; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Nadal, Jennifer; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K
To investigate the impact of a caffeine and taurine containing energy drink (ED) on myocardial contractility in healthy volunteers using cardiac MR and cardiac MR based strain analysis. 32 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 years) were investigated before and 1 h after consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED. For assessment of global cardiac functional parameters balanced SSFP-Cine imaging was performed, whereas CSPAMM tagging was used to evaluate global and regional myocardial strain. In addition, ten randomly chosen subjects were investigated once more using a caffeine only protocol to further evaluate the effect of caffeine solely. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded throughout all studies. ED consumption led to a significant increase in peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR) 1 h after consumption (PSS: w/o ED -22.8 ± 2.1%; w ED -24.3 ± 2.4%, P = taurine containing ED results in a subtle, but significant increase of myocardial contractility 1 h after consumption.
Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Min-Gul
This study aimed to determine whether changes occur in fentanyl absorption and disposition when administered in conjunction with modulated electrohyperthermia (mEHT) treatment. A randomized, single-dose, crossover, open-label study was used to investigate the effect of mEHT on the pharmacokinetic properties of fentanyl in 12 healthy volunteers. The 12 healthy volunteers were each administered a single dose of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) or a single dose of OTFC with mEHT. mEHT was performed on the abdomen for 1 hour. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours after dosing. The temperature of the abdominal skin surface was assessed before dosing and at 10, 20, and 60 minutes after dosing. Geometric mean ratios (ratio of fentanyl with mEHT to fentanyl alone) for the Cmax and AUC0-last were 1.20 (90% CI, 1.09-1.32) and 1.15 (90% CI, 0.99-1.33), respectively. The mean temperature of the abdominal skin surface increased by approximately 4°C. There was an increase in the overall exposure to the drug without implications of any clinical significance. OTFC can be administered without limitations in combination with mEHT, and it is not necessary to modify the dosing regimen. cris.nih.go,kr Identifier: KCT0001286. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy volunteers with different numbers of reduced-function alleles in the organic cation transporter 1 gene (OCT1). METHODS: The study was conducted as part of a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty......-four healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotypes (12 with two wild-type alleles, 13 with one and 9 with two reduced-function alleles) were included. In one of the study periods, they were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily. RESULTS: Neither AUC(0-12), C(max) nor Cl(renal) were...... statistically significantly affected by the number of reduced-function alleles (0, 1 or 2) in OCT1: (AUC(0-12): 0, 1, 2: 14, 13 and 14 h ng/L (P = 0.61)); (C(max): 0, 1, 2: 2192, 1934 and 2233 ng/mL, (P = 0.26)) and (Cl(renal): 0, 1, 2: 31, 28 and 30 L/h (P = 0.57)) CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of healthy...
Kuchewar, Vaishali V; Borkar, Mangal A; Nisargandha, Milind A
It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to "oxidative stress" that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Rasayana Chikitsa is a unique branch of Ayurveda. The word Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent Rasadi Dhatus. Several medicinal plants have been described as Rasayanas in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha and Guduchi are the best among the Rasayanas described by Charaka. To study the efficacy of Ashwagandha and Guduchi in oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters. In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups. Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging.
Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B
Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone.
Chung, Melvin Hsien Liang; Hazmi, Helmy; Cheah, Whye Lian
The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group (p = 0.003), education level (p performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required.
Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), a program by Jhpiego global, implemented maternal and newborn health project between 2006 and 2010 in Kano and Zamfara States, Nigeria. This was evaluated with an objective to characterize the effects of volunteer household counselors (VHCs) upon improving ...
Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan
The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers have made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this article, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and…
Sosnowitz, Barbara G.; Appleby, George A.
Communities will need a significant infusion of resources in the future to care for persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The AIDS epidemic has served to confuse the differences between professional and volunteer roles of caregiving and has complicated the original intent of service by each of these groups. Recognition on the…
Jerosch, J; Thorwesten, L; Steinbeck, J; Reer, R
In 27 healthy volunteers (9 females, 18 males) we evaluated the proprioceptive function of the glenohumeral joint. The volunteers were asked to place the arm in different positions with and without visual control. The test was performed for the dominant and for the nondominant extremity. The following joint positions were measured: 50 degrees, 100 degrees, 150 degrees abduction; 50 degrees, 100 degrees, 150 degrees flexion; +45 degrees, 0 degrees, -45 degrees rotation in 90 degrees abduction. Joint position was documented with a motion-analyzing system with passive reflecting markers. The results showed significant differences between the measurements with and without visual control. Proprioception was worse below the shoulder level (50 degrees abduction, flexion). Two volunteers with generally good coordinative capabilities showed better results than the rest of the group. We observed no differences between dominant and nondominant extremities nor between males and females. Our results demonstrated low variance of the proprioceptive function of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers. Our findings serve as a base for further evaluations in different patients' populations.
Balachandran, Katheepan; Broberg, Jacob Honoré; Revsbech, Kasper
An architecture for a traffic data collection system is proposed, which can collect data without having access to a backbone network. Contrary to other monitoring systems it relies on volunteers to install a program on their own computers, which will capture incoming and outgoing packets, group...
Assessment of platelet profile of healthy volunteers in the trimesters of pregnancy in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Thus PDW compensates for these reductions and a lack of this compensatory increase may aggravate the effect of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. Platelet Count, Plateletcrit, Mean Platelet Volume, Platelet ...
identifying the various motivation factors of volunteers and putting in place motivation strategies that match ... employees are punished for the amount of work done, they might place less emphasis on quality and try to ...... Wright, N. D., Larsen, V., & Higgs, R. (1995) 'Consumer Satisfaction and the marketing of volunteerism: ...
cruitment, support and supervision, working conditions, and hours for village health volunteers. There is a sound public health policy established in Malawi although there are not enough trained people (or other resources) to teach, counsel, treat, and motivate the community to good health. It has been shown elsewhere that ...
Bowman, Laura L.; Waite, Bradley M.
Participating in a research activity by volunteering in a research study or by writing a short research paper as part of a course requirement relates to favorable perceptions of psychology and research, greater knowledge of procedures associated with participation, and other demographic and situational variables. College students who volunteered…
Hemmerich, Cecelia A.; And Others
The nutrition instruction guide is designed for volunteer leaders in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), which focuses on youth nutrition education and understanding teenagers. Teaching techniques incorporate the importance of socialization, "discovering" answers, positive reinforcement, and teenager involvement in…
Laird, Shelby Gull; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Stubbs, Harriett S.; James, April L.; Menius, Erika
Complex environmental problems call for unique solutions to monitoring efforts alongside developing a more environmentally literate citizenry. Community-based monitoring (CBM) through the use of volunteer monitoring organizations helps to provide a part of the solution, particularly when CBM groups work with research scientists or government…
Van Vliet, A.A.; Wemer, J.; Wilffert, B.; De Vroedt, J.W.P.; Jonkman, J.H.G.
In the next decade, centres for research on the safety, tolerability or bioequivalence of new molecular entities will be confronted with numerous compounds, a narrowing time frame for performing Phase I research activities, and a growing demand for healthy volunteers for participation in
deliver services in the hope of eventual remuneration; gain work experience; and boost self-esteem (Hardill & Baines 2007;. Klaasen 2002; Omoto, Snyder & Morrino 2000; Thomas, Newell, Baral & Byanjakar 2007). Volunteers are, however, also often driven by altruism, including a desire to show community concern, social ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer led crafts group intervention (VLCG) as an adjunct to antidepressant medication on mild to moderately depressed women. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, control group study was conducted in an urban, psychiatric clinic. Depression was ...
Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others
Researchers conducted focus group interviews with college student peer health educators to determine what factors motivated them to volunteer for a peer health education program. Examination of their life experiences, motivations, and program expectations indicated that life experiences, belief in the effectiveness of peer health education, and…
volunteer force plays an important part in advancing public recognition of Canada’s First Nations and Inuit groups. Currently there are 4,000 Rangers in...traditional skills – which are uniquely defined according to the cultural and historical practices in the local community. Periodic maintenance
Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.
Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…
Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Cappon, H.J.; Ratingen, M.R. van
The development of modern smart restraint systems requires access to human surrogates with a biofidelic performance, which includes details on timing and local deformations. Therefore volunteer head neck responses for oblique impacts from the Naval BioDynamics Laboratory are re-analysed using a
Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of volunteers who remained active in the home-based care project located in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and thereby assist the project leaders to improve the recruitment and quality of the service in the future. Methodology: Structured questionnaires were ...
Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a stock of human and social capital that
Librarians in Stamford, Waterbury, Syracuse, and Southbridge (Massachusetts) are all involved in a program called Literacy Volunteers of America. This private nonprofit agency has one overriding concern, and that is to help adults and teenagers who are inadequate readers, or "functional illiterates." (Author)